1 I D E N T I F I C A T I O N C O D E : P A G. : O F P A G. : MEID (Mediterranean Eco-Industrial Development) D e l i v e r a b l e P A R T N E R : W O R K P A C K A G E : ENEA Component 4 phase 1 E X T E R N A L I D E N T I F I C A T I O N C O D E : C O N T R A C T N U M B E R : 2G-MED T I T L E : LCA streamlined analysis K E Y W O R D S : A N N O T A T I O N S : *Authors ENEA 0 Emission R E V. D A T E D E S C R I P T I O N E D I T I N G V A L I D A T I O N A P P R O V A L P E R I O D C O V E R E D B Y R E P O R T S E C T I O N S I N C L U D E D : C O - O R D I N A T O R N A M E : P R O J E C T H O M E P A G E : N U M E R O : ENEA
2 D STREAMLINED LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF 2 INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS IN ITALY 25/11/2011
3 Summary: 1 PURPOSE AND SUBJECT OF THE INVESTIGATION DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURE STRUCTURE OF THE DOCUMENT PURPOSE AND SCOPE DEFINITION OF THE OBJECTIVE AND SCOPE DEFINITION OF THE FUNCTIONAL UNIT SYSTEM BOUNDARIES Upstream module Core module Downstream module GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE LIFE CYCLE INVENTORY DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM AND UNIT 'PROCESS Upstream module Supply components and assemblies Components transport Exclusions Core module Construction of Shed Transport components Downstream module Exercise End of Life SimaPro Life Cycle Assesment CHOICE OF IMPACT CATEGORY, CLASSIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION RESULTS Building A Resources used for conversion processes of Energy Building A Material Resources Environmental Impacts Other Indicators Building B Resources used for conversion processes of Energy Building B Material Resources Environmental Impacts... 33
4 4.4.4 Other Indicators Conclusions... 36
5 REFERENCE STANDARDS Table Errore. Nel documento non esiste testo dello stile specificato..1 List of reference standards Document UNI EN ISO 14040:2006 Life Cycle Assessment Principles and Framework UNI EN ISO 14044:2006 Life cycle assessment Goal and scope UNI EN ISO 14001:2004 Environmental management systems - Requirements and application guide essential The document. xls Companies with data from plant PURPOSE AND SUBJECT OF THE INVESTIGATION The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the life cycle (LCA) of two industrial buildings produced by two different companies operating in the industrial area of Ragusa: Industrial building A: precast reinforced concrete the surface is 1,500 m 2 Industrial building B: the backbone of the building is frame, with horizontal and vertical elements precast concrete, exterior rear-end collisions are made up of vertical panels, also prefabricated reinforced concrete, the surface is 2,500 m2 Tale valutazione ha consentito di pesare gli impatti ambientali degli edifici campione durante l intero loro ciclo di vita, in conformità alle prescrizioni contenute nelle norme internazionali della serie ISO ,. This assessment has permission to "measure" the environmental impacts of buildings throughout the complete life cycle, in accordance with the requirements contained in the international standard ISO The target can be summarized in the: 1. construction of a model of LCA to assess environmental impacts of the Industrial building 2. construction of a reliable database on the life cycle of the sheds to be used to define the evaluation criteria of an industrial sustainable building To evaluate the impacts associated with the life cycle of the industrial buildings were analyzed three main phases: Upstream module: includes the activity of production of materials and semi-finished goods, from suppliers, to assembly and the transport to the establishments of the components in question. Core module: includes material processing activities and transportation of products to the customer and then the final assembly. Downstream module: 1 International Organization for Standardization - ISO 14040;2006, ISO 14044;2006.
6 Case A: is represented by the use phase, so by the consumption of electricity for the lighting of the industrial building for the life cycle of 50 years, the disassembly phase and transport materials recovery Case B: similar to case A but with the transport of materials and landfill disposal The following is a summary of the materials with which the two sample were made, as is apparent from all the cards received by the Company reference. Table Errore. Nel documento non esiste testo dello stile specificato..2 List of materials in construction of the shed A U.M. Materials used for production: concrete "RCK" ,524 m 3 concrete "RCK" ,850 m 3 concrete "RCK" ,800 m 3 concrete "RCK" ,776 m 3 steel Feb44k/b450C ,000 kg prestressing strand 6.536,000 kg domes of sheet metal roof insulated 996,000 mq Windows glass 1.530,000 kg aluminum 208,463 kg Figure Errore. Nel documento non esiste testo dello stile specificato..1 Distribution of concrete s m 3 Concrete Distribution 11% 26% 50% 13% concrete "RCK" 400 concrete "RCK" 550 concrete "RCK" 550 concrete "RCK" 400
7 Table Errore. Nel documento non esiste testo dello stile specificato..3 List of construction materials of the vehicle reported to the functional unit U.M. Materials used for production: concrete "RCK" m 3 concrete "RCK" 550 0,023 m 3 concrete "RCK" 550 0,054 m 3 concrete "RCK" 400 0,027 m 3 steel Feb44k/b450C 0,107 kg prestressing strand 24,923 kg domes of sheet metal roof insulated 4,357 mq Windows glass - kg aluminum 1,020 kg Table Errore. Nel documento non esiste testo dello stile specificato..4 List of materials of construction of the building B U.M. Materials used for production: concrete "RCK" m 3 concrete "RCK"501 47,2 m 3 concrete "RCK" ,2 m 3 concrete "RCK"503 18,4 m 3 concrete "RCK"504 6,8 m 3 concrete "RCK"505 34,4 m 3 concrete "RCK" ,8 m 3 steel kg Windows glass 504 kg aluminum 68,67 kg Figure Errore. Nel documento non esiste testo dello stile specificato..2 Distribution of concrete s m 3
8 Concrete Distribution 40% 60% concrete "RCK"505 concrete "RCK"400
9 Table Errore. Nel documento non esiste testo dello stile specificato..5 List of construction materials of the vehicle reported to the functional unit The functional unit is reported in Chapter 3.2 U.M. Materials used for production: concrete "RCK"500 0,028 m3 concrete "RCK"501 0,019 m3 concrete "RCK"502 0,052 m3 concrete "RCK"503 0,007 m3 concrete "RCK"504 0,003 m3 concrete "RCK"505 0,014 m3 concrete "RCK"400 0,080 m3 steel 24,284 kg Windows glass 0,202 kg aluminum 0,027 kg DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURE The collection procedure is described briefly below: 1) It 'was analyzed the building involved and have been studied in detail the activities carried out and we proceeded to the collection of data on input and output streams 2) The sheds were divided into assemblies described above in Tables 2.1 and 2.3, were then identified the suppliers of various components 3) The suppliers involved were asked to complete questionnaires in which to specify the weight of different materials in the supply 4) The model described has been implemented on the software SimaPro 7.1.
10 STRUCTURE OF THE DOCUMENT The document follows the structure of rules ISO ISO The figure below shows the method adopted by ISO 14040:2006 Figure Errore. Nel documento non esiste testo dello stile specificato..3 The structure of LCA defined by ISO Goal and scope definition. It represents the preliminary phase in which the goal of the study, the functional unit, system boundaries, categories of information, assumptions and limitations of the study are defined Life Cycle Inventory. Represents the most important phase of the study. It covers the collection of information and calculation procedures. The goal is to provide a model description with consumption of raw materials and energy production and waste discharges. Typically, a software is used to implement the model and to provide a database of information. Life Cycle Impact Assessment. It is the phase in which the inventory results are translated into a form that they can be more directly related to environmental and human health. Life Cycle Interpretation. Represents the final phase of the study. The inventory results and analysis of impacts are combined according to the objectives and scope of the LCA in order to formulate conclusions and recommendations. If a possible improvement on the system analyzed emerge, the inventory should be rerun to verify the changes implemented are able to effectively ensure the expected benefits.
11 PURPOSE AND SCOPE DEFINITION OF THE OBJECTIVE AND SCOPE "The objective and scope of an LCA must be clearly defined and be consistent with the intended application" [UNI EN ISO 14040:2006, Par 5.1]. The main objective of this study is the quantification of resources and energy consumption and emissions of substances potentially harmful to humans and the environment resulting from the analysis of life cycle sheds investigated. This report is strictly confidential DEFINITION OF THE FUNCTIONAL UNIT "A functional unit is a measure of functional performance of the outflow of the product system. The main purpose of the functional unit is to provide a reference to which to link the inflows and outflows. This reference is necessary to ensure the comparability of the results of an LCA " [UNI EN ISO 14040:2006, Par ] The functional unit is represented by 1 m 2 of industrial building SYSTEM BOUNDARIES The system boundaries define the process units to be included in the system. Upstream module Extraction and production of raw materials and basic materials Production of fuels, heat, electricity and gas Production of auxiliary materials for the assembly and processing of the shed Transport of components from suppliers to the Company's interest Production of waste in the upstream phase Data on fuel consumption and emissions of the plant involved refer to the year The production of materials for maintenance, production of materials for plant maintenance and their transport, combined transport of windows has been excluded from the study. Core module Electricity, heat, smoke and auxiliary materials used for the assembly and processing of Building Transport of components from the factory to the customer Downstream module Power consumption for operation of the lighting of the shed for the duration of the life cycle, set equal to 50 years
12 Transport of materials to recovery (Case A) Transport of materials to the landfill and treatment centers (Case B)
13 GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE LIFE CYCLE INVENTORY "The inventory analysis includes data collection and calculation procedures that allow to quantify the inflows and outflows of a product system" [Par UNI EN ISO 14040]. The life cycle inventory is made with the main purpose of defining and reconstructing all flows of inputs and outputs related to different stages of the production system under consideration, through all the processes of transformation and transport. Make an inventory life cycle means, therefore, build the model analogue of the real system to be studied. Through this activity, are then identified and quantified the consumption of natural resources (raw materials, water), energy (thermal and electric) and other materials (auxiliary, recycled products), which together with air emissions, water and soil, come to structure a real environmental balance, organized in four modules provided by the LCA, according to the diagram in Figure 4.1. Upstream module Core module Downstream module Life Cycle Figura Errore. Nel documento non esiste testo dello stile specificato..4 Life Cycle analisis Suppliers Raw Material Input Up-Stream Transport to Plant Components Plant Core Transportation to customer Exercise Down-Stream End of Life
14 DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM AND UNIT 'PROCESS In accordo a quanto previsto nel documento di definizione dell obiettivo e campo di applicazione, sono stati oggetto di valutazione, gli impatti legati alle diverse fasi del ciclo di vita dei Capannoni: In accordance with the document defining the objective and scope, have been evaluated, the impacts related to various phases of the life cycle of Buildings Upstream module Supply components and assemblies The supply to the plant under study consists of the following materials: Building A Aggregates kg Cement kg Steel kg * Glass kg Aluminium 208,46 kg Fluidifying 50 kg Table Errore. Nel documento non esiste testo dello stile specificato..6 Weight distribution of the structural components of the Shed Components of the shed 18% 6% 76% aggregates concrete steel * The weights of glass and aluminum were estimated by the size of the windows in the Shed
15 Building B Aggregates kg Cement kg Iron kg * Glass 504 kg Aluminium 68,67 kg Fluidifying 2618 kg Table Errore. Nel documento non esiste testo dello stile specificato..7 Weight distribution of the structural components of the Shed Components of the shed 5% 16% 79% concrete aggregates iron * The weights of glass and aluminum were estimated by the size of the windows in the Shed
16 Components transport As regards transport for the delivery of components, suppliers were asked to indicate the length of the path from the site of production to the delivery site, and the medium truck used. The data are as follows: Building A Aggregates: 22 trips (30 km) for the transportation of kg Cement: 4,5 trips (100 km) for the transportation of kg Steel: 1,5 trips (200 km) for the transportation of kg Do not have data transport on the remaining raw materials Building B * Cement: 200 ton (30 km) for the transportation Aggregates: 1000 ton (10 km) for the transportation Iron: 59 ton (80 km) for the transportation Fluidifying: 2800 l (80 km) for the transportation Do not have data transport on the remaining raw materials Exclusions In the following form were excluded the following operations: Production of raw materials needed to construct the lighting system Production of materials for maintenance of the lighting External Transportation for the lighting and windows * the distances are average distances, in Shed B there were given the n transport, but for the purposes of the calculations used only the total ton * km
17 Core module Construction of Shed The production process is typical of structural precast plants. Starting from concrete, aggregates, additives and water is produced in the concrete batching plant and transferred production lines, by means of wagons traveling by rail air. Before the concrete is cast in molds, these reports are prepared by spraying the drawer that is on a counter-mold release oils that improves the stripping of the building at the end of the curing stage. Once the formwork has been prepared, they are put on the armor and armor-tensioning lens, as well as built-in special. The fixtures are shaped lens through the use of stirrup, claw and hair nets. These machines are suitable for the production of new steel grades with high ductility, provided by the recent antiseismic regulations. The artifacts after casting and vibration of concrete formwork to remain within the time required, so that the concrete reaches the strength required to be deformed. After stripping, these are transferred to the storage area, which are then loaded onto trucks for transport on construction sites where they are mounted. The cycle is then complete with the phase of transport and assembly of manufactured goods in the shipyards and the construction of a series of complementary works through the use of semi-finished products and services provided by outside companies. The consumption of plant that have been reported for the calendar year 2010 were as follows: Building A Electricity consumption: 104,692 kwh Fuel consumption: 36,000 l Both values were spread over the total volume of goods produced in the same year, that is equal to m3; By the volume of Shed manufactured of m3 are resulted the following values: Electricity consumption: 5, kwh Fuel consumption 1, l distributed as: o o 85% attributed to the phases of Assemply (60%) Transport (10%) e Disassembly (30%) * 1.533,39 l 15% attributed to the phases Production 270,60 litri * Fuel for the disassembly phase is due to step down-stream
18 Building B Electricity consumption: kwh Fuel consumption: 1500 litri Methane cosnumption: 4 m 3 Here the values we have been provided already with the criterion of the allocation made; The breakdown of oils and believed to be the same as a percentage of the previous case, namely: o o 85% attributed to the phases of Assemply (60%) Transport (10%) e Disassembly (30%) * l 15% attributed to the phases Production 225 litri Transport components Core phase also includes the final transport of manufactured goods to the customer, this is accomplished: For the Building A with 26 trips, for the transportation of about 30,000 kg and an average distance from the customer estimated in 200 km For the Building B with One trips of 2,274,000 kg for an average distance of 200 km * Fuel for the disassembly phase is due to step down-stream The distances are average distances; in Shed B there weren t given the n transport, but for the purposes of the calculations used only the total ton * km
19 Downstream module Exercise Once delivered, the Shed comes into operation; it was then estimated, based on its current square footage and UNI EN of March 2008, an electricity consumption for its total life cycle instead of 50 years. The rule that introduces the indicator LENI (Lighting Energy Numeric Indicator) which quantifies the actual energy consumption in kilowatt-hours per square meter/year. The Class (1 to 3) choice for our application is the 1 "fulfillment of basic requirements" for which the indicator LENI is equal to 37.5 kwh/(m2 year) *. Multiplying this value for the 1,500 m2 of floor space and years of life estimated at 50 to get a consumption of 2,812,500 kwh/life cycle of electricity to the shed A and 4,687,500. kwh/life cycle of electricity to the shed B. The country where you will find is the Italian one, so the mix of electric power distribution network used in the study will be the Italian one. In addition to the consumption of electricity consumption, there is no other, having considered the shed not heated and not refrigerated. End of Life The Shed was considered recoverable at 100% in the case R=1 where is considered only the transport component to the rehabilitation center and also the fuel needed for its demolition. If R=0 instead of the materials that make up the shed at the dump are considered in their totality, therefore, we consider the transport to the landfill and their disposal. These data were estimated: Building A 26 trips, for the transport of kg of artefacts for an average distance from the property to recover estimated in 100 km Diesel fuel for the disassembly phase has been estimated at 460 l Building B One trip of kg of artefacts for an average distance from the property to recover estimated in 100 km Diesel fuel for the disassembly phase has been estimated at 321,3 l
20 SimaPro 7.1 Data were analyzed with the software SimaPro 7.1, developed since 1990 from Pré Consulting (NL); It's a professional tool to collect, analyze and monitor the environmental performance of products and services. Easily you can model and analyze complex life cycles in a systematic and transparent way, according to ISO 14040; it is reliable and flexible, tested and used by large industries, consulting firms and universities. With users in over 60 countries, continues to be the most successful LCA software worldwide. In SimaPro Ecoinvent the database is integrated with over 2700 processes, includes the input-output database, containing environmental data for the sector, based on economic flows. In SimaPro data and methods are stored in files called libraries, which you can draw the information needed to compile the inventory. The inventory is the heart of the project, in addition to the inventory, project you can enter all information pertaining to the study, for example, the description of the objectives and processes and the sources from which the data are drawn. The inventory phase is the actual creation of the model of the system under study, according to materials, processes, and to the assemblies. The processes include data input and output, and are called "blocks" that make up the life cycle. The assemblies do not contain actual data but a list of previously defined processes. With an assembly is then possible to model the production phase. The definition of life cycles, that shape the entire product life cycle, from cradle to grave, also include the treatment of waste output from production. A life cycle includes an assembly and, with respect to it, adds processes related to the processing of waste output, energy use, and any additional life cycles, the system under study is particularly complex or have been defined boundaries very large system. The inputs required for the application of the model are: Fuels Energy Raw materials Among the outputs are listed as follows: Waste heat Air emissions Water emissions Solid wastes Products GWP global warming potential AP Acidification Potential
21 EP Eutrophication Potential Indoor air quality
22 LIFE CYCLE ASSESMENT In this phase, the inventory results are assigned to impact categories that is known to environmental effects (greenhouse effect, depletion of the ozone layer, etc..). For each category there is an environmental indicator was chosen with the aim to quantify, using appropriate methods of standardization, the entity with which the production process contributes to the effects considered. CHOICE OF IMPACT CATEGORY, CLASSIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION The impact categories considered for the purposes of this study and the environmental indicators identified in the following table, are: Table Errore. Nel documento non esiste testo dello stile specificato..8 List environmental indicators and impact categories Categoria d'impatto Consumo di risorse naturali Consumo di risorse energetiche Consumo di risorse idriche Produzione di rifiuti Potenziali impatti ambientali Effetto serra Distruzione della fascia d'ozono stratosferico Acidificazione Eutrofizzazione Indicatore ambientale kg risorse naturali MJ risorse energetiche l risorse idriche kg rifiuti prodotti kg CO2 eq. kg CFC-11 eq. kg SO2 eq. kg PO43- eq. Formazione di ossidanti fotochimici kg C2H4 eq. The operations of Classification and Characterization state respectively: the assignment of inventory results to impact categories the calculation of the results of the indicator category As regards the first four impact categories (natural resources, energy, water and waste) environmental indicators are represented by the same units. Indicators of Potential environmental impacts, however, were chosen according to the models of characterization in the following table, which measure the impact on the environment caused by an appropriate indicator.
23 Table Errore. Nel documento non esiste testo dello stile specificato..9 Models and characterization factors used Categoria d impatto Modello di caratterizzazione Fattore di Caratterizzazione Effetto serra Modello IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) (Houghton et al ) Kg di GWP 100 Global Warming Potential su un orizzonte temporale di 100 anni [Kg CO2 eq./kg] Distruzione della fascia di ozono stratosferico Modello WMO (World Meteorological Organisation) (agg. 1999) Kg di ODP Ozone Depletion Potential in condizioni stazionarie [Kg CFC-11 eq./kg] Acidificazione Modello sviluppato dal CML (Centro di Scienze Ambientali) di Leiden NL (Heijungs et al., 1992, agg. 1998) Kg di AP Acidification Potential [Kg SO2 eq./kg] Eutrofizzazione Modello sviluppato dal CML (Centro di Scienze Ambientali) di Leiden NL (Heijungs et al., 1992, agg. 1998) Kg di EP Nitrification Potential PO43- eq./kg] [Kg Formazione di ossidanti fotochimici Modello dell UNECE (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, 1999) Kg di POCP Photochemical Ozone Creation Potential [Kg C2H4 eq./kg] The characterization was performed by multiplying the numerical value of each inventory (relating to emissions to water and air), assigned to the corresponding impact category, by the appropriate characterization factor and summing the resulting data for each category. Figure 4.1 shows a synthetic scheme setting is used for the classification and characterization.
24 Figure Errore. Nel documento non esiste testo dello stile specificato..5 Summary of the classification scheme and characterization INVENTARIO CLASSIFICAZIONE CARATTERIZZAZIONE CO 2 CH 4 N 2O... Effetto serra GWP CFC CH 3Br... HCl SO x NH 3 NO x... NH 4 + PO C 2H 4 + Aldeidi... Distruzione della fascia di ozono stratosferico Acidificazione Eutrofizzazione Formazione di ossidanti fotochimici ODP AP NP POCP RESULTS The results, reported in the following paragraphs, have been achieved through a process of elaboration and subsequent verification of the procedures used. The following tables show the results for the evaluation of the life cycle of industrial sheds taken as reference, according to the same life cycle stage: Upstream Module, Core Module and downstream module. We analyzed the consumption of materials and energy used for conversion processes, divided into renewable and non renewable resources, is also added to water use and waste production. All data is expected functional unit, equal to 1m2 of shed. Will be reported on the results for both the Shed A and B in the two cases considered: Hypothesis 1 - End of life: the material of the structure is recovered (R = 1); Hypothesis 2 - End of life: the material of the structure has sent to landfill (R = 0).
25 BUILDING A Resources used for conversion processes of Energy Building A The tables below show: The phase of Upstream and Core are independent from End of life of the constituent materials of the structure Two phases of Downstream, the first one with R = 1 then all the material goes to recycling, then R = 0 that all the material goes to landfill It takes into account the variation with Δ% share of the downstream impacts only in cases with R = 1 and R = 0 Finally, the total first with R = 1 then R = 0 Resources used for conversion processes of energy Renewable resources [MJ] Typology Downstream R=0 % Downstream Total R=1 Total R=0 Hydroelectric 35,38 5, , , , ,43 Solar 0,03 0,00 0,17 0,17 0,20 0,20 Biomass 8,18 0,61 75,80 75,83 84,58 84,62 Wind Power 1,92 0,23 57,27 57,28 59,41 59,42 Total 45,51 6, , ,92 12% 1.345, ,67 Renewable resources [kg] Typology Downstream R=0 % Downstream Total R=1 Total R=0 Biomass 0,45 0,03 4,19 4,19 0% 4,67 4,67 Non Renewable resources [MJ] Typology Downstream R=0 % Downstream Total R=1 Total R=0 Coal 829,46 34, , , , ,57 Gas 168,15 40, , , , ,47 Oil 312,78 249, , , , ,86 Nuclear 135,67 13,40 202,15 232,42 351,21 381,49 Total 1.446,05 338, , ,19 4% , ,38 Non Renewable resources [kg] Typology Downstream R=0 % Downstream Total R=1 Total R=0 Coal 29,66 1,24 162,30 189,16 193,20 220,06 Gas 3,11 0,76 200,67 201,15 204,54 205,02 Oil 6,94 5,57 86,64 93,60 99,15 106,11 Total 39,71 7,57 449,62 483,91 7% 496,89 531,18 The graphs below show the breakdown in percentages of the impacts of the three phases Upstream Core and Downstream, on the left the case with R = 1 to the right with R = 0
26 Resources used for conversion processes of energy [MJ] R=1 7% 2% 91% Resources used for conversion processes of energy [MJ] R=0 6% 1% 93% Upstream Core Downstream R=0 Resources used for conversion processes of energy [kg] R=1 8% 2% 90% Resources used for conversion processes of energy [kg] R=0 7% 1% 92% Upstream Core Downstream R=0
27 Material Resources Material resources Renewable resources [kg] Typology Downstream R=0 % Downstream Total R=1 Total R=0 Wood 0,26 0,02 2,19 2,57 15% 2,47 2,85 Non Renewable resources [kg] Typology Downstream R=0 % Downstream Total R=1 Total R=0 Gravel 425,88 17,12 44,68 48,70 487,67 491,70 Calcite 94,16 0,48 11,34 11,36 105,98 106,00 Clay 33,04 0,13 1,82 1,83 34,99 35,00 Iron 24,24 0,54 5,83 5,87 30,61 30,65 CO2 0,79 0,07 14,29 14,29 15,15 15,15 Other 2,87 0,13-47,92 2,85-44,92 5,85 Total 578,11 18,34 77,96 82,05 5% 629,49 684,35 The negative data which is found in the "other" downstream is due to lack of use of new substances that have been used in cases where there was complete with recycled materials. 3% 12% Material resources [kg] R=1 85% Risorse materiali [kg] R=0 3% 12% 85% Upstream Core Downstream R=0
200 O I G H T S VI S I Petr Hradil Asko Talja Margareta Wahlström Satu Huuhka Jukka Lahdensivu Jussa Pikkuvirta HL Environmentally efﬁcient recovery of building components G Re-use of structural elements
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