An Examination of the Effect of Website Quality on Satisfaction and Customer Retention; the Case of Iranian Online Book Stores

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1 An Examination of the Effect of Website Quality on Satisfaction and Customer Retention; the Case of Iranian Online Book Stores Mohammad Amirahmadi 1*, Darvish Raeisi 2, Farhad Bavar 3 1 Department of Industrial Engineering, Khatam University, Tehran, Iran 2 Sistan and Baluchestan Telecom, Nikshahr, Iran 3 Department of Industrial Engineering, International University of Chabahar, Chabahar, Iran ABSTRACT With the development of electronic commerce in today's competitive market, in order to retain customers, internet businesses are trying to meet customers s satisfaction. The website quality and e-trust could play an important role in customer satisfaction and retention. Hence, the objectives of this article are to examine the factors affecting the quality of the website (website design, reliability, privacy and customer service) and study the roles of trust and website quality on customer s satisfaction and retention in Iranian e-book retailers. Therefore, the conceptual model was examined by statistical methods based on data collected from 196 customers. The results indicate that among four website quality factors, customer service is the most important criteria and determinant in customer satisfaction. Also customer retention is influenced by customer satisfaction. Since customer satisfaction was the result of the quality and trust, their enhancing has followed customer retention. Key words: Website quality; Customer satisfaction; Customer retention; Online bookstores. INTRODUCTION Nowdays, e-commerce is known as one of the most important applications of computer and communication technology due the increasing number of Internet users and the rapid development of network technology (Jang, Tang, & Chen, 2006; Manvi & Venkataram, 2005). In a business environment, e- commerce has expanded communication and interaction between suppliers and customers and provided virtual environments to exchange easily information and products to each other (Gunasekaran & Ngai, 2005). E- commerce has also redused transaction costs of suppliers and customers, so that people can access to information without loss of content (Evans & Wurster, 1996). As a result, customers can be able to quickly compare prices providing by suppliers and so make the best choices (Gounaris, Dimitriadis, & Stathakopoulos, 2010). On the other hand, competition among online retailers have increased and in such a competitive market, compared to previous years, many companies have more difficulty in distinguishing their own physical products from competitors products (Yang, Peterson, & Cai, 2003). Therefore, to being distinguished and gaining more profit, providing better services is one of the most important strategies (Kotler, 2003). Providing a high quality service can lead to an increase in customer satisfaction and acquisition. (Patterson, O'Malley, & Evans, 1997; Seddon, 1997). In business environment, customer retention is an important competitive criterion, especially in the provision of Internet services. It is due to the fact that customers easily can change their suppliers based on least cost (Liu & Khalifa, 2003). Besides, attracting new customers provide probably higher costs than customer acquisition (Van Riel, Liljander, & Jurriens, 2001). In addition, in the marketplace, online trust is an important factor for success of websites (McKnight & Chervany, 2002). Since clients do not communicate directly with the company, the role of trust in e- commerce is crucial, (Papadopoulou, Andreou, Kanellis, & Martakos, 2001; Urban, Sultan, & Qualls, 2000). Therefore, more research is needed to assess dimensions of e- service quality and these assessments should be done for a variety of electronic services (Zeithaml, Parasuraman, & Malhotra, 2000).

2 Due to the wide variety of factors of website quality in different countries and industries, evaluation of online service quality and the factors influencing the quality of services from the perspective of Iranian customers are needed. Regarding to the key role of trust in attracting and retaining customers and its relation to quality, it is needed to identify relationship between electronic trust and website quality. The purpose of this study is better understanding of factors affecting the website quality and its impact on customer retention and customer satisfaction of Iranian online bookstores. Hence, the main questions of research are as follows: 1. What factors influence the quality of website in Iranian online bookstores? 2. What is the impact of quality and quality factors of website on satisfaction? 3. What is the relationship among quality, satisfaction and e-trust in Iran? 4. What is the relationship between customer satisfaction and customer return? 1. Literature review Research and modeling in online retailers can be investigated from two aspects. One aspect of modelling relates to create a set of dimensions or criteria to predict or assess the quality of variables such as website quality (Yoo & Donthu, 2001), website satisfaction (Tianxiang & Chunlin, 2010), returning customer to website (Rice, 1997), customer loyalty (Seto-Pamies, 2012) and tend to buy products from the website (Loiacono & Director-Watson, 2000). In fact, with respect to the purpose of research and certain situations of problem, different dimensions or criteria have been used in order to measure variables such as quality are satisfaction. For instance, Santos (2003) has offered a comprehensive framework for quality of electronic services and their criteria. In this study, using interviews, questionnaires and gathered information, a conceptual model of e-service quality has been provided. According to this model, the quality of electronic services includes incubative and active dimension. Incubative and active dimensions have 5 and 6 criteria, respectively. Incubative dimensions including ease of use, appearance, linkage is a way of using technology to easily provide contents of a website for customers. Most of the incubative dimensions can be designed before launching the website. Active dimensions include reliability, performance, support, communications, safety and motivation. Active dimensions should be provided continuously throughout the life of website. These dimensions increase customer retention and provide a positive reputation for website. In other research, Wolfinbarger & Gilly (2003) represented four general dimensions including security or privacy, customer service, reliability and website design as signs of website quality of retail stores. The results of the analysis show that the judgment about the quality of the website strongly related to factors of web design, meeting the needs of our customers and the reliability of website. Customer service also has a positive impact on the quality of the website. Interestingly, the role of security in the forecast quality (apart from the fixed buyers) is not significant. It seems that security criterion from other qualitative factors, especially web design, while customers visiting website for the first time can be achieved. In other words, customers firstly judge the security and privacy of website based on factors such as professional appearance of web site, performance of web site and reliability of the company. Their e-tailq scale also comparable with the SERVQUAL scale of Parasuraman et al (1988). According to these authors, the difference between these two scales is that in SERVQUAL scale, customer judge based on staff but in e-tailq scale, customer judge based on company as an institution. They also believe that since the online exchange accompanied by a lot of uncertainty with customers, trust is essential for exchange. In another set of studies, impacts of criteria related to each of these variables (such as quality) on other dependent variables (such as customer satisfaction and return) have been examined. For example, Seto-Pamies (2012) in a research through structural equation modeling has analysed the impact of service quality on satisfaction and trust, and the impact of satisfaction and trust on customer loyalty of a travel agency. The results show that customer loyalty is heavily dependent to the satisfaction and trust of our customers and customer

3 satisfaction as well is affected by the quality of the website. SERVQUAL scale is also used in the travel agency and it acknowledges the five dimensions of this scale in case study. In another study, Javanmard and Mardani (2010) examines the impact of the quality of services and satisfaction on three type of customer behavior including word of mouth, revisit of website and purchase intentions in online shopping of Iran Petrochemical Commercial Company s website. The results show that e-service quality has a positive effect on customer satisfaction. Quality directly and indirectly through electronic satisfaction influences on behaviours of clients including revisit of website, word of mouth and repeating purchase. Common point of all this research is modeling criteria or dimensions and target variables to understand the amount of their influence to each other. This modeling is done through data collection and analysis using statistical techniques such as SEM. The theoretical framework of this study is based on research that Wolfinbarger and Gilly (2003) have done to measure the quality and Garbarino and Johnson (1999) have done to investigate the relationship between customer satisfaction and trust. Model of Wolfinbarger and Gilly (2003) was selected to assess the quality of website because this model in the eyes of researcher is one of the most perfect models that it is used to measure the quality of website for online retail. In this model, quality of Website consists of four factors: 1. Web design: it consists of five sub dimensions, namely navigation, information search, order processing, personalization and product selection. 2. Reliability: it consists of two sub dimensions, namely display and accurate description of the product and delivering the right product at the expected time frame. 3. Security or privacy: it consists of two sub dimensions, namely security pay by credit card and privacy of customers personal information. 4. Customer service: it consists of three sub dimensions, namely responsiveness, usefulness and services that respond quickly to customer needs and requests. The conceptual model which is presented in Figure 1 are displayed the relationship between website quality, customer satisfaction and e-trust. In this model, dimensions of website quality including web design, reliability, security and customer service is also considered in order to assess their impact on quality of website and customer satisfaction. Website reliability Website design Website quality Customer satisfaction Website security E-trust Customer service Figure 1: The conceptual model of research 2. Research Methodology In the present study, since the research objective is to determine causal relationships between variables of website quality, satisfaction, e-trust and their impact on customer return in Iranian online bookstores, this research in terms of purpose is practical

4 and based on the way of collecting the data is descriptive. 4. Data collection method Based on the purpose of the study, a questionnaire was prepared to collect the experiences of customers who had bought book electronically. The questionnaire consists of four sections; the first section provides general information related to age, sex, education, the average number of books purchased through the Internet over a year and the experience of buying books from other websites. The second section consists of 14 questions about the quality of website including website design, reliability, security and customer service questions to assess the quality of a particular website. The third part deals with the level of customer satisfaction of the website and it is done with the 12 questions. Finally, the fourth section measures e-trusted of respondents through three questions. Question of the second, third and fourth parts via 7-point Likert scale were assessed with completely compliant and adverse end points. Questions of the last three sections are related to the prestigious questionnaires of three articles called Wolfinbarger and Gilly (2003) for quality section, Oliver (1980) for satisfaction section and one section of Ribbink et al (2004) for e-trust section. The following questionnaire was also translated to Persia in order to adapt to the Iranian business culture. Afterward, the pilot test was done to assess the questionnaire and remove the possible problems arising from the translation. The initial questionnaire were distributed among a group of students of marketing and e-commerce, five managers of online bookstore and also 5 MBA students. The result of this pilot test led to a change in grammar and usage of questions for Iranian environment. In addition, before handing the questionnaire as the second phase, 20 questionnaires have been distributed among 20 customers and then for their responses appropriate corrections were applied to the questionnaire corresponding to Iranian culture. 3. Reliability and validity of factors To measure the reliability of this study, Cronbach's alpha test is used. Tools that its Cronbach's alpha is at least 0.7, means that it is considered reasonable from the perspective of reliability (Jamal & Naser, 2002). The results of SPSS software reliability test for all elements of quality, customer satisfaction and e-trust as well are presented in Table 1. Table 1: Reliability coefficients of the main factor of questionnaire based on Cronbach's alpha Factor Cronbach's alpha The number of questions Considerations Website design Website reliability Cronbach's alpha reached to by deleting the first question of factor Website security Customer service Customer satisfaction - Customer e-trust These figures show that, except of reliability with Cronbach's alpha, reliability of all questionnaire factors is appropriate. By removing the first question (products and services accurately are shown on the website), the reliability of this factor has increased substantially. It means that this question has no reliability which may indicate a lack of clarity or incomprehensibility of the question for respondents. Thus, further analysis was done by removing the question from the questionnaire. Also in this study to assess the validity of the questionnaires factor, factor analysis is used. In factor analysis of criteria, first the criteria for optimality of factor analysis model are

5 considered. These criteria include KMO test for the adequacy of the sample (sufficient sample size to extract the number of agents) and Bartlett's test of sphericity for significant of percentage of explained variance. For the adequacy of sample, the KMO test value should be greater than 0.6. Besides, for being significant the value of variance, the significant of Bartlett test should be less than 0.05 until explained factors by related questions would be meaningful in 95% confidence level. The results of goodness of fit are presented in Table 2. Table 2: Factor analysis for fit criteria of the questionnaires for assessing the credibility factor The cumulative Bartlett Factor KMO percentage of the total Extracted factors test variance Overall quality factor Website design Website reliability Website security Customer service Customer satisfaction Customer e-trust The KMO and Bartlett tests value show that the number of samples used in this study to analyse all the factors except reliability factor is sufficient. Since the KMO coefficient for all of them (except for the reliability of the site) is above 0.6. But, the coefficient of this criterion for the reliability factor is slightly lower than the acceptable limit (0.5). This indicates that the sample for this factor should be a little more than 196 people. However, after removing the first question of mentioned factor due to lack of reliability the above analysis was done and this factor is made of two questions that affect the fit criteria. Nevertheless, the amount of explanation from two mentioned question of the reliability factor is high and altogether, about 83.7% of the total variance about reliability of website was assessed using these two questions. Besides, significant amount of Bartlett test for all factors is smaller than 0.05, and this shows that extracted factors by factor analysis are all significant. In other words, the questions of each factor totally were able to explain related factor. However, two factors is extracted for customer satisfaction and customer satisfaction factors is made of two sub factors (namely, 12 suggested questions measure two dimension of customer satisfaction instead of one dimension) that if both of these are considered together, they include 66.06% of total information of customer satisfaction. 4. Population and sampling method The study population was all customers of online bookstores. Since there was no any list of online bookstores, thorough search was conducted via the Internet and obtained a list of 91 online bookstores. Then, questionnaires were delivered to customers through coordination with managers of bookstores. Due to the unknown size of potential population, Cochran formula was used to obtain sample size (n) for infinite population (Bazargan & Sarmad, 2001). Equation (1) shows how to calculate the sample size: 2 z. 2 2 p q (1/ 96) (0/ 5) (0/ 5) n d (%7) (1) 210 questionnaires were distributed among the customers and finally 196 questionnaires were collected and analysed.

6 5. Descriptive Statistics In this section, the statistical distribution of sex, age, education, and the average annual purchase of book from the Internet and the experience of buying books from other websites are examined. The results show that almost 70% and 30% of respondents were male and female respectively. In this study, five age groups (under 20 years, 20-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45 years and above) were considered for members of statistical sample. The most frequent random sample of members ranging in age from 20 to 24 years (40% of random sample) and the lowest frequency is in the range of 45 years and older (2.6% of random sample). Most customers also have Diploma (38.3%) and Bachelor (38.8%) degree and nearly 37% of people only one or less per year have bought book from the website, and 63% of people had shopping experience more than one time in a year. Moreover, 59.2 % of respondents had the experience of buying books from the other websites. 6. Hypothesis testing and confirmatory factor analysis of model In this section, the research hypothesis tests and confirmatory factor analysis model using SEM are implemented. Structural equation modeling method is a kind of multiple linear and nonlinear regression methods that a number of relationships in the model simultaneously are considered and tested. When the model is estimated, optimality criteria (measures) or goodness of fit are calculated with related software and based on these criteria, confirmation or service. Table 3: The results of hypothesis testing for website quality rejection of model or each of relationships in the model are decided. The LISREL software is used to run SEM method. Although for structural equation model, so many measures of goodness of fit is developed and sometimes they are not compatible with each other, according to Lavee (1988), Chi-square, p-value, RMSEA and the ratio of chi-square to degrees of freedom are the most important criteria of goodness of fit measures. According to Lavee (1998), when the model is valid and appropriate, the amount of Chi-square should be small enough that it can be determined by the amount of its significant and if the amount of significant would be smaller than 0.05, Chi-square is small. RMSEA value as well if would be smaller than 1.0, the model is appropriate. The ratio of Chi-square to degree of freedom also should not be more than 3. Correlation Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Quality The research assumptions related to quality are as follows; H1: there is a positive and quality and web design. H2: there is a positive and quality and reliability. H3: there is a positive and quality and security. H4: there is a positive and quality and providing customer Type of relationship Correlation T value Sig Quality and Website design Quality and Reliability < Quality and Security < Quality and customer service < RMSEA= 0.04 p-value= d.f= 73 Chi-Square(ℵ )= 101.6

7 According to the Table 3, customer service, reliability, web design and security respectively have the highest amount of correlation among the criteria of quality. Therefore, the quality of online bookstore websites strongly is related to the customer service and reliability in Iran. In addition, all the coefficients and parameters of this part of model are significant. So all this part of the research hypotheses are confirmed. Also, the fit criteria indicate a good fit of the model and the ratio of Chi-square to degrees of freedom equal to 1.39 which is smaller than the allowable value of 3 and the value of RMSEA is 0.04 and smaller than Correlation analysis and confirmatory factor analysis of among the trust, satisfaction and quality The research assumptions related to this part of the model are as follows; H5: there is a positive and quality and e-trust. H6: there is a positive and satisfaction and e-trust. H7: there is a positive and satisfaction and quality. Table 4: Results of hypothesis testing for reliability, quality and satisfaction Type of relationship Correlation T value Sig Customer satisfaction and Website quality < Customer satisfaction and e- trust < e-trust and Website quality < RMSEA=0.023 p-value= 0.00 d.f= 167 Chi-Square(ℵ )= According to the results of Table 4, one can be infer a positive significant correlation among quality, satisfaction and e-trust. This means that any changes in these variables will bring positive changes in 2 other variables in the same direction. Furthermore, all coefficients and parameters of this part of the model are significant. So all this part of the research hypotheses are confirmed. Also, the value of fit criteria indicate a good fit of the model and the ratio of Chi-square to degrees of freedom equal to 0.91 which is smaller than the allowable value of 3 and the value of RMSEA is and smaller than Correlation analysis and confirmatory factor analysis of direct impact of qualitative factors on satisfaction To determine what factors have a direct impact on customer satisfaction, the research assumptions are proposed as follows; H8: web design has a significant positive effect on satisfaction. H9: reliability has significant positive effect on customer satisfaction. H10: security has significant positive effect on customer satisfaction. H11: customer service has significant positive effect on customer satisfaction. Table 5 shows the results of hypotheses testing related to direct effect of quality factor on satisfaction. Table 5: Results of hypothesis testing for direct impact of qualitative factors on satisfaction. Type of relationship Correlation T value Sig Customer satisfaction and website quality <

8 Customer satisfaction and e-trust < Customer satisfaction and website security Customer satisfaction and customer service < < RMSEA=0.043 p-value=0.00 d.f=56 Chi-Square(ℵ )= 98.1 According to Table 5, it is clear that customer service has a significant positive effect on customer satisfaction. This effect is equivalent to Also, there are positive and significant effect between customer satisfaction and security, reliability and web design. As result, all hypotheses are accepted. Furthermore, all coefficients and parameters of this part of the model are significant. So all this part of the research hypotheses are confirmed. Furthermore, the value of fit criteria indicate a good fit of the model and the ratio of Chi-square to degrees of freedom equal to 1.75 which is smaller than the allowable value of 3 and the value of RMSEA is and smaller than Comparison of model factor based on shopping experience In this section, the components of model (web design, reliability, security, customer service, e-trust and satisfaction) according to customer shopping experience (from one or more web sites) are evaluated. As can be seen in Table 6, all factors have an average higher than the mean value (4). Afterward, one-sample student's t-test is used to examine the differences between the groups (purchase of a site and purchase of more than a site). A summary of the results of this test are presented in Table 7. Table 6: Mean and standard deviation of the model's factor based on the experience of purchasing Factor Groups The Mean Standard number of (from 7) deviation sample Website design one website multiple website Website reliability one website multiple website Website security one website multiple website Customer service one website multiple website e-trust one website multiple website Customer satisfaction one website multiple website

9 Factor Table 7: The result of one-sample T-test Degree of T value freedom Sig (d.f) Result of significant Website design NO Website reliability NO Website security NO Customer service YES e-trust NO Customer satisfaction According to mentioned hypothesis, among these factors, it is clear that there is significant difference between groups in terms of the quality of customer service. 8. The effect of customer satisfaction on customer return In this section, return customers are assessed in terms of buying order number from the website throughout the year. It is clear that if a customer is unhappy about his/her previous purchase of the website, he or she will not repurchase and his/her order number will be NO less. It is expected that there will be a significant difference between the groups with difference in number of shopping order in a year, as the satisfaction of customers who are buying more are high. To investigate this hypothesis (examining the presence of significant differences between groups in terms of satisfaction) analysis of variance was used. Thus, if the null hypothesis is rejected, meaning that there is difference between the groups and satisfaction influences on amount of purchase (customer return). The mean and standard deviation of satisfaction for each group are presented in Table. Table 8: The mean and standard deviation of satisfaction for each group Group feature The Standard number of Mean deviation sample One purchase or less per year Between 2 and 4 purchase Between 5 and 7 purchase Between 8 and 10 purchase More than 10 purchase As can be seen, increase of satisfaction from 4.51 to about 5.25 could lead to increase in purchase of book from less than one to more than 10. Besides, this results show that the. amount of book order is affected by the degree of satisfaction. The results of variance analysis are also presented in Table 9 Table 9: Analysis of variance between groups in terms of satisfaction Error source The sum of df Mean square F statistics sig

10 squares Between groups Inner groups Total As can be seen, the value of significant is less than 0.05 and in other words there is significant difference between the groups in terms of satisfaction. The mean tables also show that this difference is positive and. namely, the amount of purchase will be increase by increasing the satisfaction. Tukey s test was performed to examine differences within the group. The results are shown in Table 10 Table 10: The amount of significant different between groups (Tukey s test) The number of purchase ** ** ** 2-4 ** ** ** 5-7 ** ** 8-10 ** ** 11- ** ** Being significant difference between two groups in terms of satisfaction ** ** Tukey s test also shows that there is a difference between the first and the fourth group since the value of significant is less than As can be seen, the major difference is related to difference between the first two groups and last three groups. The results show that customer satisfaction has a positive effect on his/her return. 9. Conclusions and future research Grow of online shopping has encountered companies with many new challenges for survival in relationship with their clients. It is clear that in exchange process online, website is the part of relationship between a company and its customers and the lack of human interaction should be compensated by other qualitative factors. So, extracting and categorizing the factors of website quality from the consumer's perspective in this process is vital. In addition, dimensions of website quality in various countries and industries are different. Since the online book sales is one of the pioneer industries in e-commerce, online bookstores should recognize the most important factors of website quality in the eyes of customers until to create and manage an efficient website. Such an understanding certainly will provide online book sellers with possibility of improve of its position among other online and retention of their customers. According to the conceptual research model, to evaluate the impact of website quality and e-trust on customer satisfaction, a model is proposed and data were collected through questionnaires and the relationships of model were analysed by structural equation modelling. Then, regarding to the number of customer purchase, the variables of website quality, e-trust and satisfaction were evaluated and also according to the number of purchasing from the site during the year, customer return were analysed. The results show there is a significant positive correlation between each of the dimensions of website quality (web design, reliability, security and customer service) and the quality. Besides, among the four dimensions of website quality customer service has most importance in improving the quality and reliability, web design and security respectively are considered in next priorities. On the other hand, the results show that "an immediate response to customer requests," "not waste of time on the web", "on time delivery of product" and

11 " adequacy of security dimensions in online exchange" respectively have the highest correlation with customer service, web design, reliability and privacy. Also there are strong correlations between quality of website and customer satisfaction as well as quality and e-trust. However the correlation between trust and satisfaction is so stronger. Furthermore, it was shown that the e-trust directly affects the quality and quality affects the satisfaction directly. Nevertheless, e-trust has significant indirect influence on satisfaction obtaining by quality. Examining the relationship between the dimensions of e-trust also suggest that "willingness of customers in order to prepay of products" has the highest correlation with e-trust. Moreover, with reference to the results of this study, among all variables of quality, the customer service only has significant direct positive effect on satisfaction in the total sample. Nonetheless, the comparison shows that for customers who have the experience of shopping from the website, all dimensions of website quality influence on satisfaction based on website quality. By increasing the shopping experience from various websites, customer service directly affects customer satisfaction. Finally, by increasing the number of purchases made by customers, the quality level is assessed better. Also, return of customer for the purchase of a site is influenced by satisfaction. In fact, increase of satisfaction can lead to increase in shopping and as a result since the quality is output of satisfaction, thus obtained quality lead to customer satisfaction and finally his/her return. An important component that helps to increase the quality of Iranian online bookstore is providing customer service. Therefore, it is suggested that the online bookstore at first attempt to respond quickly to requests. It is required that online book sellers offer their books properly and give customers a choice of what exactly they want. Web security with web design, reliability and customer service are correlated. It seems that, at first, privacy from other qualitative factors especially reliability and customer service can be achieved. It seems that customer judges about privacy or security based on factors such as willingness and respond time of website to their requests and problems. Although the major of customers are satisfied with the quality of Iranian websites bookstores, by increasing the number of purchases, judgements about security are reduced simultaneously. In addition, the results showed that the level of service provided to customers having more purchases is more than customers having fewer purchases. Therefore, customers who have many visits to website (loyalty customer) have a higher level of satisfaction and are so valuable for the online bookstore. As a result, since the main reason for the dissatisfaction of customers is poor service, the online bookstores should try to retain these customers. The main difference between satisfied and dissatisfied customers is related to reliability and customer service. In this way, since there are a high correlation between website design and reliability as well as relatively high correlation exists between the reliability and customer service, online bookstores should seriously improve the service level of their customer. References Bazargan, A., & Sarmad, Z. (2001). Behavioral science research method. Tehran. Agah publication, 141. Evans, P.B., & Wurster, T.S. (1996). Strategy and the new economics of information. Harvard business review, 75(5), Gounaris, S., Dimitriadis, S &,.Stathakopoulos, V. (2010). An examination of the effects of service quality and satisfaction on customers' behavioral intentions in e- shopping. Journal of services marketing, 24(2), Gunasekaran, A., & Ngai, E.W. (2005). Build-toorder supply chain management: A literature review and framework for development. Journal of Operations Management, 23(5), Jamal, A., & Naser, K. (2002). Customer satisfaction and retail banking: An assessment of some of the key antecedents of customer satisfaction in retail banking. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 20(4), Jang, S., Tang, C., & Chen, M. (2006). Crossbalance sheet interdependencies: A

12 longitudinal study of hotel companies. Paper presented at the Proceeding of the 12 th APTA (Asia Pacific Tourism Association) and 4th Asia Pacific CHRIE Joint Conference, Jualien, Taiwan. Javanmard, H.A., Mardani, A. (2010). Examining the effects of electronic service quality and customer satisfaction on behavioural intentions of customers in electronic purchases; the case study of Iran Petrochemical Commercial Company. Management Research, 3 (7), Kotler, P. (2003). Marketing management. Pearson education, inc. Lavee, Y. (1988). Linear structural relationships (LISREL) in family research. Journal of Marriage and Family, 50(4), Liu, V., & Khalifa, M. (2003). Determinants of satisfaction at different adoption stages of internet-based services. Journal of the association for information systems, 4(1), 12. Loiacono, E.T., & Director-Watson, R.T. (2000). Webqual (tm): A web site quality instrument: University of Georgia. Manvi, S.S., & Venkataram, P. (2005). An intelligent product-information presentation in e- commerce. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, 4(3), McKnight, D.H., & Chervany, N.L. (2002). What trust means in e-commerce customer relationships: An interdisciplinary conceptual typology. International journal of electronic commerce, 6, Papadopoulou, P., Andreou, A., Kanellis, P., & Martakos, D. (2001). Trust and relationship building in electronic commerce. Internet Research, 11(4), Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V. A., & Berry, L. L. (1988). Servqual:a multi item scale for measuring consumer perceptions of SQ. Journal of retailing, 64(1), Patterson, M., O'Malley, L., & Evans, M.(1997). Database marketing: Investigating privacy concerns. Journal of Marketing Communications, 3(3), Rice, M. (1997). What makes users revisit a web site. Marketing News, 31(6), Santos, J. (2003). E-service quality: a model of virtual service quality dimensions. Managing service quality, 13(3), Seddon, P.B. (1997). A respecification and extension of the delone and mclean model of is success. Information systems research, 8(3), Seto-Pamies, D. (2012). Customer loyalty to service providers: Examining the role of service quality, customer satisfaction and trust. total Quality Management, 23( ,( 1 Tianxiang, S., & Chunlin, L. (2010). An empirical study on the effect of e-service quality on online customer satisfaction and loyalty. Nankai Business Review International, 1(3), Urban, G.L., Sultan, F., & Qualls, W.J. (2000.( Placing trust at the center of your internet strategy. Sloan Management Review, 42(1). Van Riel, A.C., Liljander, V., & Jurriens, P. (2001). Exploring consumer evaluations of e- services: A portal site. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 12(4), Wolfinbarger, M., & Gilly, M. C. (2003). etailq: dimensionalizing, measuring and predicting etail quality. Journal of retailing, 79(3), Yang, Z., Peterson, R.T., & Cai, S. (2003). Services quality dimensions of internet retailing: An exploratory analysis. Journal of services marketing, 17(7), Yoo, B., & Donthu, N. (2001). Developing a scale to measure the perceived quality of an internet shopping site (sitequal). Quarterly Journal of Electronic Commerce, 2(1), Zeithaml, V.A., Parasuraman, A., & Malhotra, A. (2000). Conceptual framework for understanding e-service quality: Implications for future research and managerial practice.

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