Surveying the Relationship Between Relationship Marketing and Customer Loyalty Case Study: Pasargad Bank in Mazandaran province

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1 71 Surveying the Relationship Between Relationship Marketing and Customer Loyalty Case Study: Pasargad Bank in Mazandaran province Seyyedeh Mohaddeseh Seyyednejad, Department of Management, Germi Branch, Islamic Azad University, Germi, Iran Hossein Alipur (PhD), Department of Management, Germi Branch, Islamic Azad University, Germi, Iran Mohammad Feizi (PhD), Department of Management, Germi Branch, Islamic Azad University, Germi, Iran ABSTRACT The main objective of this study is to add to understanding about the role of relationship marketing tactics in customers loyalty. We determined the amount of the sample size with the used of Cochran sampling method which the statistical sample is 352 of these Bank customer which have been selected through the simple random sampling method. To gathering of data, we used a questionnaires with 37 items. Questionnaires reliability was estimated by calculating Cronbach s Alpha. In order to analyze the data resulted from collected questionnaires deductive and descriptive statistical methods are used, and to display some statistical data we used column diagram and in deductive level to test the hypothesis of the research we used Pearson Correlation coefficients and Multivariate regression. Finding show that correlation results show a positive relationship between Trust, commitment, communication, conflict management and competence as independent variable and customer loyalty as dependent variable. Therefore, as the level of Trust, commitment, communication, conflict management and competence increase, the customer loyalty also increases. On the other hand, based on the correlation analysis results, there is also a positive relationship between relationship marketing as independent variables and the customers loyalty as dependent variable. Therefore, the increase in relationship marketing enhances the customers loyalty. Keywords Relationship marketing, customers loyalty, Pasargad Bank INTRODUCTION Too many companies still think of customers as a single event or short-term relationship. It's a bit ironic considering everyone has some experience at establishing, fostering and sustaining relationships over the long-term. It's unfortunate most of us don't recognize and apply these same skills in the business world. Getting to know someone at a deeper level requires building trust, openness and a desire to help each other moving forward. This is no different in the business world. The concepts are simple, yet require some discipline and structure to reach goals (Graves, 2008). The concept of relationship marketing emerged within the broad areas of service marketing and industrial marketing. In an era of increasing competition, firms have resorted to using relationship marketing as a strategy to attract, maintain and enhance customer relationships and build loyalty. Relationship marketing aims to establish, maintain, and enhance relationships with customers, so that the objectives of the parties are met (Sadqi, 2012). Relationship marketing helps to develop marketing productivity and builds up mutual values for both customer and company through growing marketing effectiveness and efficiencies. Relationship marketing is all marketing activities performed in order to create, extend, and sustain successful relationships (Mishra & Liy, 2008). Gummesson (1994) referred to relationship marketing as a continuing mutual relationship between the business holder and the customer that leads to enduring profitability. Meanwhile, Kotler (1992) claimed that companies can make more profit if they move from relationships with short-term goals towards long-term relationships. Relationship marketing encourages companies to build long term relationships with their stakeholders (e.g., customers, suppliers). Based on other prior studies, relationship marketing develops business performance (Izquierdo & et al, 2005). Relationship marketing theory describes that successful relationship marketing is created from a number of certain features of cooperative relationships that describe successful relational exchanges (Hunt & et al, 2006). There are many studies that approve the incredible benefit which service companies obtain from their loyal customers (Anderson and Zeithamal, 1984). The crucial aim of many successful service companies is to target, gain, and retain the beneficial customer. These companies attempt to create loyal customers. Loyal customers raise profitability for a company over time (Reichheld, 2001; Mishra & Li, 2008), consequently; they try to use some tactics in order to encourage their beneficial customers to become loyal customers. There are a number of advantages associated with relationship marketing (Sin & et al.,2005; Arnett and Badrinarayanan, 2005), comprising better financial performance (Walter and Gemuenden, 2000), and

2 72 achieving competitive advantages enhancements in the market (Hunt 1997), and attaining higher degrees in customer satisfaction(abdul-muhmin, 2002). Extant literature has identified underpinnings of relationship marketing. We review literature on these elements. Trust - Trust has been defined in numerous ways in the relationship marketing literature. It is the willingness to rely on an exchange partner in whom another has confidence (Hadjikhani and Thilenius, 2005) Commitment - Commitment can be defined as the sacrifices made by the seller and buyer to maintain a relationship. It is meet customer needs and Information sharing with customers. Communication - Communication is a process by which formal and informal sharing of meaningful and timely information between seller and buyers (Anderson and Narus, 1990). Conflict Handling - Conflict handling refers to a supplier s ability to avoid potential conflicts, solve manifest conflicts before they create problems and discuss solutions openly when problems arise (Dwyer et al, 1987). Competence Competence is market stakeholders and client staff, staff awareness of all matters pertaining to banks, recommended investment and effective and efficient advertising. The term customer loyalty is used to describe the behavior of repeat customers, as well as those that offer good ratings, reviews, or testimonials. Some customers do a particular company a great service by offering favorable word of mouth publicity regarding a product, telling friends and family, thus adding them to the number of loyal customers. However, customer loyalty includes much more. It is a process, a program, or a group of programs geared toward keeping a client happy so he or she will provide more business. Customer loyalty is increasingly seen to be crucial to the success of business organizations, with the growing realization that attracting new customers is far more expensive than retaining existing ones. It has been suggested that a way of increasing customer retention is through secure relationships between buyers and sellers. Surprisingly, however, and despite the growing body of literature on relationship marketing issues, little empirical research has been conducted on the link between relationship marketing and customer loyalty in a retailing context (Leanne & et al, 2001). The value of customer loyalty is that it undoubtedly impacts the company's continual existence and future progresses. Customer Loyalty can be illustrated as the customer s commitment to a company, or the customer s desire to keep an enduring relationship with the vendor (Zhang & Prybutok, 2005). According to Grönroos (1995), the most important goal of customer relationship marketing is to obtain and keep customers. Based on previous studies, all marketing activities intend to create customer loyalty. Moorman et al. (1992) declared that Customer loyalty is an intention to keep a valued relationship. It is also defined as a highly deep commitment to keep on purchasing a product or service in the future regardless of the fact that there are situational factors and marketing efforts which have potential to create switching behavior (Yim et al., 2008). Manager and marketers should highly pay attention to Customer loyalty as an important factor that has to be developed if they want to maintain their company and develop its profitability. The main objective of this study is to add to understanding about the role of relationship marketing tactics in customers loyalty. RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS In this paper we have one main hypothesis and 6 subhypothesis. The statistical way of analysis of hypotheses is two ways, H 1 is acceptance of hypothesis and H 0 is rejecting of hypothesis. In other words, it means that H1 has positive meaning and H0 has negative meaning. 1- There is a significant relationship between relationship marketing and customer loyalty. 1.1 There is a significant relationship between trust and customer loyalty. 2.1 There is a significant relationship between commitment and customer loyalty 3.1 There is a significant relationship between quality of communication and customer loyalty. 4.1 There is a significant relationship between conflict management and customer loyalty. 5.1 There is a significant relationship between competence and customer loyalty. 6.1 The significant same time impact of relationship marketing on customer loyalty METHODOLOGY This has done Pasargad Bank in Mazandaran province. We determined the amount of the sample size with the used of Cochran sampling method which the statistical sample is 352 of these Bank customer which have been selected through the simple random sampling method. To gathering of data, we used a questionnaires with 37 items. 35 item for relationship marketing, and 12 for customer loyalty. Questionnaires reliability was estimated by calculating Cronbach s Alpha that is shown in the table 1.

3 73 Table1. Results of questionnaires reliability from SPSS software Variables Cronbach's Alpha Relationship Marketing Customer Loyalty In order to analyze the data resulted from collected questionnaires deductive and descriptive statistical methods are used, and to display some statistical data we used column diagram and in deductive level to test the hypothesis of the research we used Pearson Correlation coefficients and Multivariate regression. In order to determine the relationship between the variables of the study, the SPSS tool has been used. ANALYSIS AND CONCLUSION Fifty-seven percent of responders are male and forty three are female. Fifty-nine percent are married. The responder s degree is 4 percent M.A, 39 percent BA, 41 percent DA, and 16 percent Under DA have degree. Also, Age of the responders. from the precedence point of view about 16 percent of responders have less than 20 years old, and 45 percent have between 21-30, 30 percent and 9 percent more than 41. It shows that most of the people is young. Subsequently, correlation analysis has been done in order to determine the relationship between relationship marketing as independent variables and customer loyalty as dependent variable. The correlation analysis result between these variables is shown in table 2. Basically, correlation results determine the relationship between variables. Consequently in this study, correlation results show a positive relationship between Trust, commitment, communication, conflict management and competence as independent variable and customer loyalty as dependent variable. Therefore, as the level of Trust, commitment, communication, conflict management and competence increase, the customer loyalty also increases. On the other hand, based on the correlation analysis results, there is also a positive relationship between relationship marketing as independent variables and the customers loyalty as dependent variable. Therefore, the increase in relationship marketing enhances the customers loyalty. Table 2- Pearson correlation coefficients and t-test of variables Independent Variables dépendent Variable n Pearson Correlation Level of sig. Trust customer loyalty Conflict Management customer loyalty Communication customer loyalty Competence customer loyalty Commitment customer loyalty According to table 2, which present the correlations of each hypothesis. The results show that relationship marketing and their dimensions are all significantly and highly related with customer loyalty. Strong positive correlation was found between Competence and customer loyalty (r=0/681). According to above results, we can confirm H 1 and reject H 0. There is a significant relationship between trust and customer loyalty is supported and it is significant at alpha value (0.000<0.05). There is a significant relationship between commitment and customer loyalty is supported and it is significant at alpha value (0.000<0.05). There is a significant relationship between quality of communication and customer loyalty is supported and it is significant at alpha value (0.020<0.05). There is a significant relationship between conflict management and customer loyalty is supported and it is significant at alpha value (0.031<0.05). There is a significant relationship between competence and customer loyalty is supported and it is significant at alpha value (0.041<0.05). After wards, multivariable regression analysis has also been used to analyze the relationship between the dependent variables and independent variables (table3). Moreover, multivariable regression analysis shows the following results: Table 3. multivariable regression analysis Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate a

4 74 There is a positive and significant relationship between relationship marketing and customer loyalty. R is 0.73 and it means that there is a strongly relationship between variables. regression analysis shows that dimensions of. relationship marketing explain 53 percent of changes in loyalty. Also, the ANOVA shows this relationship with 0.99 Level of Assurance is significant Table 4. ANOVA Model Sum of Df Mean Square F Sig. Squares 1 Regression a Residual Total Table 4 results show The effects of trust, commitment, communication, conflict management and competence on customer loyalty is significantly. And in table 5, Beta results show that trust (0.467), communication (0.466), conflict management (0.192), competence (0.153), and commitment (0.152) have respectively the highest net effect on customer loyalty. Table 5 The net effects of independent variables on the dependent Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized t Sig. Coefficients B Std. Error Beta 1 ( Constant ) Trust commitment communication conflict management competence a. dependent variable: customer loyalty REFERENCES [1] Abdul-Muhmin AG. (2002). Effects of suppliers marketing program variables on industrial buyers relationship satisfaction and commitment. J Bus Ind Mark; 17(7): [2] Anderson, Carl R. and Zeithaml, Carl P. (1984). Stage of the Product Life Cycle, Business Strategy and Business Performance. Academy of Management Journal, 27 (1), [3] Anderson, J.C and Narus, J.A. A model of distributor firm and manufacturer firm working partnerships. Journal of Marketing, 1990, 54 (1): [4] Arnett, Dennis B., & Badrinarayanan, Vishag. (2005). Enhancing Customer needs driven CRM strategies: core selling teams, knowledge management competence, and relationship marketing competence. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 25(4), [5] Dwyer, F. R, Schurr, P.H., and Oh, S. Developing Buyer-Seller Relationships. Journal of Marketing (2): [6] Graves Rick, The Key to Customer Loyalty is Relationships, Chief Marketer, Mar. 25, 2008 [7] Hadjikhani, A and Thilenius, P. The impact of horizontal and vertical connections on relationships: Commitment and Trust. The Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing (2/3): [8] Hunt, S. Arnett, D. and Madhavaram, S. (2006). The explanatory foundations of relationship marketing theory. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing. Vol. 21 (2), pp [9] Hunt, S. D. (1997). Competing through relationships: grounding relationship marketing in resourceadvantage theory. Journal of Marketing Management, 13(5), [10] Izquierdo, C.C. Cilllan, J.G., & Gutierrez, S.S.M (2005). The impact of customer relationship

5 75 marketing on the firm performance. Journal of Services Marketing, 19(4). [11] Leanne H.Y. Too, Anne L. Souchon & Peter C. Thirkell, 2001, Relationship Marketing and Customer Loyalty in a Retail Setting: A Dyadic Exploration, Journal Of Marketing Management, Volume 17, Issue 3-4, pages [12] Mishra, Karen E., and Li, Cong. (2008). Relationship Marketing in Fortune 500 U.S. and Chinese Web Sites. Journal of Relationship Marketing, 7 (1), [13] Reichheld, F. (2001). The loyalty effect. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press. [14] Sadiq Sohail, 2012,The Antecedents of Relationship Marketing and Customer Loyalty: A Conceptual Framework to Determine Outcomes, International Conference on Economics, Business Innovation, IPEDR vol.38 (2012) (2012) IACSIT Press, Singapore [15] Sin, L., Tse, A., Yau, O., Chow, R., Lee, J., Lau, L., (2005). Relationship Orientation, Relationship Marketing Orientation, and Business Performance: The Moderating Effects of Economic Ideology and Industry Type, Journal of International Marketing, 13, (1), [16] Walter, A. und Gemünden, H. G. (2000): Bridging the Gap between Suppliers and Customers through Relationship Promoters: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis. Journal of Business &Industrial Marketing, Jhg. 15, S [17] Yim, Chi Kin (Bennett), TSE, David K., & Chan, Kimmy Wa. (2008). Strengthening Customer Loyalty through Intimacy and Passion: Roles of Customer firm Affection and Customer Staff Relationships in Services. Journal of Marketing Research, 45 (December), [18] Zhang, X. and V.R. Prybutok, (2005). A customer perspective of e-service quality. IEEE Tran. Eng.Manage. 52:

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