CHAPTER-III CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT (CRM) AT COMMERCIAL BANKS. performance of the commercial banks. The implementation of the CRM consists

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1 71 CHAPTER-III CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT (CRM) AT COMMERCIAL BANKS The implementation of the CRM is essential to establish a better performance of the commercial banks. The implementation of the CRM consists of the stages of the CRM development at the banks, stages of implementation of the CRM, the CRM systems implemented, the CRM practices at the banks, the level of acceptance of the CRM at the banks and its causes; and the critical success factors for the implementation of CRM in the present study. It is imperative to analyse the stages and level of implementation of the above said CRM measures at the commercial in order to findout the relationship between CRM implementation and the performance of the commercial banks. Hence, the employees of the commercial banks have been asked to mention the level, stages and extent of implementation of the CRM practices. In order to provide the back ground of the employees, the profile of the employees have been discussed initially. In the present chapter, the profile of the employees and their views on stages, level and rate of implementation of the CRM practices at the commercial banks have been discussed. Gender of the Employees The gender of the employees may be related with the idea on the implementation and the consequences of the CRM in the commercial banks.

2 72 Hence it is included as one of the profile variables of the employees. The gender of the employees is given in Table 3.1. TABLE 3.1 Gender of the Employees Sl.No. Gender Number of employees in NPSBs OPSBs Total 1 Male Female Total The important gender of the employees is male which constitutes per cent to the total whereas the remaining per cent of the employees are female. The important gender of the employees in the New Private Sector Banks (NPSBs) and the Old Private Sector Banks (OPSBs) is male which constitutes and per cent to its total of 109 and 127 employees respectively. The analysis infers that the important gender of the employees is male. Age of the Employees Since the age of the employees in the commercial banks may provide more knowledge and experience in their banking activities, it is included as one of the profile variables of the employees. The aged employees may have more knowledge and experience on the CRM whereas the younger employees may have more idea on the latest CRM strategies implemented by the banks. The age of the

3 73 employees is confined to less than 25 years, 25 to 35; to 45; to 55 and above 55 years. The distribution of employees on the basis of their age is illustrated in Table 3.2 TABLE 3.2 Age of the Employees Sl.No. Age (in years) Number of employees in NPSBs OPSBs Total 1 Less than Above Total The important age groups among the employees are to 45 and to 55 years which constitute and per cent to the total respectively. The employees with the age of less than 25 years constitutes per cent to the total. The important age groups among the employees in the NPSBs are to 45 and to 55 years which constitute and per cent to the total respectively. Among the employees in the OPSBs, these two are to 45 and to 55 years which constitute and per cent to the total. The

4 74 analysis shows that the average age of the employees in the OPSBs is higher than the age of employees in the NPSBs. Designation of the Employees The designation of the employees represents the present occupational status of the employees. Since the designation of the employees may have its own influence on the perception and the implementation and outcome of the CRM at the commercial banks, it is included as one of the profile variables. By designation, they are classified into clerk, cashier, supervisor, assistant manager and manager. The distribution of employees on the basis of their designation is illustrated in Table 3.3. TABLE 3.3 Designation of Employees Sl.No. Designation Number of employees in NPSBs OPSBs Total 1 Clerk Cashier Supervisor Assistant Manager Manager Total

5 75 The important designations of employees are cashier and manager which constitute and per cent to the total respectively. The number of clerks constitutes per cent to the total. The important designations of the employees in the NPSBs are cashier and managers since they constitute and per cent to the total. In the case of the OPSBs, these are cashiers and clerks since they constitute and per cent to the total respectively. The analysis shows that the important designations among the bank employees are cashier, manager and clerk. Years of Experience of the Employees It represents the total years of experience of the employees in their banking service. Since the years of experience of the employees may have more influence on their perception on the rate of implementation and the consequences of the CRM at their banks, it is included as one of the profile variables. The years of experience of the bank employees is confirmed to less than 5 years, 5 to 10 years; to 15 years; to years and above 20 years. The distribution of employees on the basis of their years of experience given in Table 3.4

6 76 TABLE 3.4 Years of Experience of the Employees Sl.No. Years of experience Number of employees in NPSBs OPSBs Total 1 Less than Above Total The important years of experience among the employees are to 20 years and to 15 years which constitute and per cent to the total respectively. The employees with an experience of less than 5 years and above 20 years constitute and per cent to the total respectively. The important years of experience among the employees in the NPSBs, is to 15 years and 5 to 10 years which constitute and per cent to the total respectively. Among the employees in the OPSBs, these two are to and to 15 years which constitute and per cent to the total respectively. The analysis infers that the years of experience among the employees in the OPSBs is higher than the years of experience among the employees in the NPSBs.

7 77 Number of Branches Worked so far among the Employees The years of experience at various branches among the employees may provide more knowledge and experience in the case of banking activities. Hence it is included as one of the profile variables. The numbers of branches worked so far by the employees are confined to less than 3, 3 to 5; 6 to 8; 9 to 11; and above 11 branches. The distribution of employees on the basis of the number of branches worked so far explained in Table 3.5. TABLE 3.5 Number of Branches Worked So Far among the Employees Sl.No. Number of branches Number of employees in NPSBs OPSBs Total 1 Less than Above Total In total, a maximum of and per cent of the employees have worked in 6 to 8 and 9 to 11 branches so far respectively. The number of employees working in above 11 branches constitutes per cent to the total.

8 78 Among the employees in the NPSBs, these are 3 to 5 and less than 3 branches since it constitutes and per cent to its total of 109 employees. In the case of the OPSBs, these two are 6 to 8 and 9 to 11 branches which constitute and per cent to the total respectively. The analysis reveals that the employees in the OPSBs are having an experience in higher number of branches than the employees in the NPSBs. Number of Departments Worked so far among the Employees It indicates the total number of departments worked by the employees during his/her service. Since, the services at the various departments may provide a lot of exposure and knowledge on the banking activities, it is included as one of the profile variables. The number of departments worked so far is confined to less than 2, 2 to 4, 5 to 7 and more than 7. The distribution of employees on the basis of their experience at the various departments is given in Table 3.6.

9 79 TABLE 3.6 Number of Departments Worked So Far among the Employees Sl.No. Number of departments worked so far Number of employees in NPSBs OPSBs Total 1 Less than More than Total In total, a maximum of per cent of the total employees are having work experience at 5 to 7 departments whereas only per cent of employees are having work experience at more than 7 departments. Among the employees in the NPSBs, a maximum of per cent of the employees are having experience at 2 to 4 departments. Among the employees in the OPSBs, a maximum of per cent of the employees have experience at 5 to 7 departments. It is followed by per cent of the employees who have experience at 2 to 4 departments. Monthly Income of the Employees Since the income of the employees is one of the important profiles, it has been included in the present study. The monthly income of the employees is confined to less than Rs.20,000; Rs.20,000 to 30,000; Rs.30,001 to 40,000;

10 80 Rs.40,001 to 50,000 and above Rs.50,000. The distribution of employees on the basis of their monthly income is given in Table 3.7 TABLE 3.7 Monthly Income of the Employees Sl.No. Monthly income Number of employees in NPSBs OPSBs Total 1 Less than 20, ,000-30, ,001-40, ,001-50, Above 50, Total The important monthly incomes among the employees are Rs to 40,000 and Rs.20,000 to 30,000 which constitute and per cent to the total respectively. The employees with the monthly income of above Rs.50,000 constitute per cent to the total. The important monthly incomes among the employees in the NPSBs are Rs.20,000 to 30,000 and less than Rs.20,000 which constitute and per cent to the total respectively. Among the employees in the OPSBs, these two income groups are Rs.30001to 40,000 and Rs.20,000 to 30,000 which constitute and per cent to the total respectively.

11 81 Stages in CRM Development at Banks There are several stages in the CRM development at the banks. There is no fixed norms or stages in the CRM development at the commercial banks. In the present study, 14 stages of the CRM development at the banks have been included. The employees are asked to rate these stages at five point scale from very high to very low according to the order of development at their banks. The assigned scores on these scales are from 5 to 1 respectively. The mean scores of each stage among the employees in the NPSBs and the OPSBs have been, computed separately. The results are shown in Table 3.8.

12 82 Sl.No. TABLE 3.8 Mean Score on Various Stages in CRM Development at Banks Stages Mean score among employees in NPSBs OPSBs t-statistics 1 Identifying target customers and their needs 2 Co-ordination of customers, services and channels * 3 Integration process * 4 Strategy development * 5 Value creation * 6 Channel and Media integration Information management * 8 Performance assessment * 9 Enterprise-wide marketing strategy 10 Relationship management system 11 Building on service excellence, value and convenience * * Channel Management * 13 Preparation on CRM tools * 14 Analytical and feed back system * *Significant at five per cent level.

13 83 As per the view of the employees in the NPSBs, the highly developed stages of the CRM are enterprise-wide marketing strategy, performance assessment and channel management since their respective mean scores are , and As per the view of the employees in the OPSBs, these CRM stages are information management, building on service excellence, value and convenience, and identifying target customers and their needs since their respective mean scores are , and Regarding the view on development of the stages of the CRM at the banks, significant differences among the employees in the NPSBs and the OPSBs have been noticed in the case of coordination of customers, services and channels, integration process, strategy development, value creation, performance assessment, enterprise wide marketing strategy, relationship management system, channel management, preparation on the CRM tools and analytical and feed back system since their respective t statistics are significant at five per cent level. The existence of various stages of the CRM in the NPSBs is higher than in the OPSBs. Important Stages in CRM Development at Banks In order to narrate the various stages in the CRM development at the banks, the Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) has been executed. The score of the 14 stages in the CRM development among the employees in both sector banks have been included for the analysis. Initially, the Kaiser-Meyer-Ohlin (KMO) Measure

14 84 of Sampling Adequacy and Bartletts Test of Sphericity have been executed to findout the validity of data for factor analysis. Since the KMO measure is greater than the minimum threshold of 0.5 and the level of significant of Chi-square value is at zero per cent level, the validity of data for the factor analysis has been confirmed. The EFA results in four important stages namely system development, Application of the CRM tools, Feed back and Image building. The included stages in each important stages of the CRM development, its Eigen value, per cent of variation explained and the reliability coefficient of each important stages are examined and the results are shown in Table 3.9. TABLE 3.9 Important Stages in CRM Development at Banks Sl.No. Stages Number of stages in Eigen value Reliability coefficient Percent of variation explained Cumulative per cent of variation explained 1 System Development 2 Application of CRM tools Feed back Image Building KMO measure of sampling adequacy: Bartletts test of sphericity Chi-square value 89.08* *Significant at zero per cent level.

15 85 The most important stage of the CRM development in banks is system development since its Eigen value and the per cent of variation explained by it are and per cent respectively. It consists of five stages with the reliability coefficient of It indicates that the included five stages in system development explain it to the extent of per cent. The second important stage is Application of the CRM tools since its Eigen value and the per cent of variation by it are and respectively. The last two stages in the CRM development at the banks are feed back and image building since their respective Eigen values are and The respective per cent of variation explained by these two important stages are and 9.92 per cent respectively. The feed back consists of two stages with the reliability coefficient of whereas the image building consists of two stages with the reliability coefficient of , whereas the image building consists of two stages with the reliability co-efficient of The narrated four stages in the CRM development at the banks explain the various stages to an extent of per cent. Reliability and Validity of Stages in each Important Stage of CRM Development In order to test the reliability and validity of stages in each important stage of the CRM development at the banks, the Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) has been executed. The range of standardized factor loading of the stages in each important stage, its range of t statistics and its statistical significance, composite

16 86 reliability and average variance extracted by each important stage have been computed. The results are shown in Table TABLE 3.10 Reliability of Stages in Each Important Stage Sl.No. Important stages No.of stages in Range of standardized factor loading Range of t statistics Composite reliability Average Variance Extracted 1 System development * * Application of CRM tools * * Feed back * * Image building * * *Significant at five per cent level. The t statistics of standardized factor loading of the stages in each important stage are significant at five per cent level. It shows the convergent validity of the stages in each important stage. The composite reliability of each important stage of the CRM development is greater than the minimum threshold of The Average Variance Extracted by each important stage is greater than the standard minimum of per cent. These two results are also supporting the convergent validity of the construct. The standardized factor loading of the variables in each important stage are greater than 0.60 which reveals the content validity. The overall reliability (0.7804) indicates that the included 14 stages

17 87 explain the stages of the CRM development at the banks to the extent of per cent. Implementation of Important Stages of CRM Development at Banks The employees perception on each important stage of the CRM development has been computed by the mean score of the stages involved in each important stage of the CRM development. The mean scores on each important stages of the CRM development as per the view of employees in the NPSBs and the OPSBs have been computed separately. The t test has been administered to findout significant differences among the two groups of employees regarding their views on the stages of the CRM development. The results are given in Table TABLE 3.11 Employees Perception on the Stages of CRM Development at the Banks Sl.No. Important stages in CRM development Mean score among employees in NPSBs OPSBs t-statistics 1 System development * 2 Application of CRM tools * 3 Feed back * 4 Image building * *Significant at five per cent level. The highly viewed stages of the CRM development among the employees in the NPSBs are system development and feed back since their respective mean

18 88 scores are and whereas among the employees in the OPSBs, these are system development and image building since their mean scores are and respectively. Regarding the view on the stages of the CRM development at the banks, significant differences among the two groups of employees have been noticed in the all four important stages in CRM development since their respective t statistics are significant at five per cent level. Steps in CRM Implementation at Banks The steps in the implementation of the CRM at the commercial banks are many. In general, these steps are classified into four important steps. The first step is the identification of customers whereas the second step is differentiation of customers or identifying the customers segments. The third steps is the interaction with customers whereas the fourth step is the customization of service for them. In the present study, the rate of implementation of the CRM at each step has been measured with help of some related statements. The included statements to measure the four steps are 4,7,7 and 7 respectively. The employees are asked to rate the above said 25 statements at five point scale according to the order to implementation at their banks. The assigned marks on these scales are from 5 to 1 respectively. The mean scores of the 25 statements in the NPSBs and the OPSBs have been computed initially to exhibit the level of implementation of various steps in the CRM. In order to findout the significant difference among the two

19 89 groups of banks regarding the rate of implementation of various steps in CRM, the t test has been executed. The results are given in Table Sl.No. I TABLE 3.12 Implementation of Steps in CRM at Banks Steps in CRM implementation Stage I: Identification of Customers Mean score among employees in NPSBs OPSBs t-statistics 1 Privacy security system * 2 Ability of identify users identity * 3 Not required to re-enter personal information again and again * 4 Register function * II Step-II Differentiating Customers 1 Clear main theme and classified content 2 Consideration of target customers and contact designs 3 Data base and differentiate selling 4 Data base management and mining systems * * 5 Identifying top customers * 6 Interaction of Information * 7 Online community *

20 90 Sl.No. Stages in CRM implementation Mean score among employees in t-statistics NPSBs OPSBs III Step III: Interaction with Customers 1 Degree of community interaction * 2 Feed back system * 3 Follow-up Management * 4 Online transaction * 5 Online community * 6 Search engine * 7 Size of community and frequency of activities * IV Step IV: Customized Service for them 1 Convenient transaction * 2 Customized content * 3 Customized web page * Multiple CRM programme Personal history files * 6 Up-selling, cross-selling active selling * 7 Varieties of transaction methods * *Significant at five per cent level.

21 91 Regarding the rate of implementation of the CRM at first step, the significant difference among the two groups of banks have been seen since their t statistics of all four statements in step-i are significant at five per cent level. Regarding the step II, the significant difference is identified in five statements out of seven statements. In the case of step-iii, significant differences among the two groups of banks have been noticed in all the seven statements whereas in the case of step IV, it is identified in the case of five statements out of seven statements. The rate of implementation of the CRM at four steps are identified as higher in the NPSBs compared to the OPSBs. Reliability and Validity of Statements in Each Important Steps The scores of statements in each important stage of implementation of the CRM have been included for the Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) in order to test the reliability and validity of statements included in each stage. The results of the CFA are given in Table 3.13.

22 92 TABLE 3.13 Reliability of Various Steps in Each Important Stages of Implementation of CRM Sl.No. Steps Standardized factor loading t- statistics Cronbach Alpha Composite reliability Average Variance Extracted I Identification of Customers 1 Ability to identify customers 2 Privacy security system * * 3 Register function * 4 Not required to re enter personal function again and again II Differentiating Customers 1 Clear main theme and classified content 2 Data base and differentiate selling 3 Identifying top customers 4 Inter action of information 5 Consideration of target customers and contact designs 6 On line community 7 Data base management and mining systems * * * * * * * *

23 93 Sl.No. Steps Standardized factor loading t- statistics Cronbach Alpha Composite reliability Average Variance Extracted III Interaction with Customers 1 Online transaction * Search engine * 3 Degree of community interaction 4 Online community * * 5 Feed back system * 6 Size of community and frequency activities 7 Follow-up management * * IV Customize Service 1 Multiple CRM programs 2 Customized web page 3 Up-selling, cross selling, active selling 4 Convenient transaction 5 Personal history files 6 Variety of transaction methods 7 Customized content * * * * * * *

24 94 Since the t statistics of all standardized factor loading of the statements included in step I are significant at five per cent level which reveals the convergent validity. It is also confirmed by the composite reliability and average variance extracted since these are higher than the standard minimum of 0.50 and per cent respectively. The standardized factor loadings of the variables in each important stage of implementation of the CRM are greater than 0.60 which indicates the content validity. The same trend is identified in the case of step II, III and IV. Hence, the CFA results that the included statements in all the four steps explain the four important steps at reliable manner since the reliability coefficients are also greater than Employees view on Steps in Implementation of CRM at Banks The employees views on the steps of implementation of the CRM at the banks have been examined by the mean scores of the four important steps. The scores on each important steps of the implementation of CRM have been derived by the mean scores of the statements included in each step. In order to examine significant differences among the new private and the old private sector banks regarding their implementation of the important steps in the CRM, the t statistics have been executed. The results are given in Table 3.14.

25 95 TABLE 3.14 Employees View on Implementation Steps in CRM at Banks Sl.No. Important steps in CRM Implementation Mean score among employees in NPSBs OPSBs t-statistics 1 Identification of customers 2 Differentiating customers 3 Interaction with customers * * * 4 Customized service * 5 Overall * *Significant at five per cent level. The employees views on the steps of the CRM implementation at the NPSBs are higher than its counterparts. Significant differences among the two groups of banks have been seen in three steps namely identification of customers, interaction with customers and customized service since their respective t statistics are significant at five per cent level. The overall mean scores on the implementation of steps in the CRM at the NPSBs and the OPSBs are and respectively. The t statistics reveals that there is a significant difference between the NPSBs and the OPSBs regarding their implementation of the important stages of the CRM at the commercial banks.

26 96 Mean Difference and Discriminant Power of Implementation of various Steps of CRM The present study has made an attempt to identify the important discriminant steps of the CRM implementation at the two groups of banks with the help of two-group discriminant analysis. Initially, the mean difference and its t statistics of each important step have been computed. In order to examine the discriminant power of each important step, the Wilk s Lambda has been computed. The results are shown in Table TABLE 3.15 Mean Difference and Discriminant Power of Steps of CRM Implementation in NPSBs and OPSBs Sl.No. Steps of CRM Implementation Mean score among employees in NPSBs OPSBs Mean Difference t- statistics Wilk s Lambda 1 Identification customers 2 Differentiating customers 3 Interaction with customers 4 Customized service * * * The significant mean difference is identified in three steps namely identification of customers, interaction with customers and customized service

27 97 since their respective t statistics are significant at five per cent level. The higher mean differences are noticed in the case of identification of customers and interaction with customers since their respective mean differences are and The higher discriminant powers are noticed in the case of customized service and interaction with customers since its Wilk s Lambda are and respectively. Significant steps have been included for the establishment of two-group discriminant analysis. The unstandardized procedure has been followed to estimate the discriminant function. The estimated function is Z= x x x 4 The relative contribution of each discriminant steps in total discriminant score has been computed by the product of discriminant coefficient and the mean differences of the respective steps of the CRM implementation. The results are given in Table 3.16.

28 98 TABLE 3.16 Relative Contribution of Discriminant Steps of CRM Implementation in Total Discriminant Score (TDS) Sl.No. Discriminant steps of CRM implementation Discriminant coefficient Mean Difference Product Relative Contribution in TDS 1. Identification of customers 2. Interaction with customers 3. Customized service Total Per cent of cases correctly classified: The higher discriminant coefficient is identified in the case of interaction with customers since its coefficient is It shows the higher degree influence of the stage in the discriminant function. The higher relative contribution in total discriminant score is identified in the case of interaction with customers since its contribution is per cent. The analysis infers that the important discriminant steps of the CRM implementation at the two groups of banks is interaction with customers which is identified as higher in the NPSBs compared to that of the OPSBs. The estimated discriminant function correctly classifies the cases to the extent of which shows the reliability of two group discriminant function.

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