Results and expectations in the traffic and transportation planning of the Hungarian Defence Forces through GIS STANAGs

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1 AARMS Vol. 5, No. 4 (2006) GEOGRAPHY Results and expectations in the traffic and transportation planning of the Hungarian Defence Forces through GIS STANAGs PÉTER NAGY, ANDRÁS KARCSAI Technical and Information Department, Mapping Service of Hungarian Defense Forces, Budapest, Hungary The aim of the article is to give a picture on the complexity of traffic and transportation solutions in the defence structures and the number of factors to be considered for an optimal planning. Special application possibilities of GIS, a structure built for real time 3D modelling and visualisation such as navigation and movements on ground, water and in the air as well as recording, processing and visualising a series of supplementary information, e.g., route optimising or automated tracing that could have never been made possible in the past, will be discussed through reviewing NATO STANAGs. By exploiting the advantages of the new developments, it is the GIS experts task to create an easier and schedulable future. It is not only a defence interest but a great expectation by the civilian sphere as well. This article intends to be one step in this direction. Received: October 16, 2006 Address for correspondence: PÉTER NAGY Technical and Information Department Mapping Service of Hungarian Defense Forces Szilágyi Erzsébet fasor 7 9 H-1024 Budapest, Hungary Introduction Map makers had and have to face a number of expectations in their work. One major problem is the paradox of too many information : users, who may find the maps packed with unnecessary information, would see more, mostly thematic data to answer their needs instead. The constraint to show all information has resulted in more and more complicated maps, most of which are becoming overcrowded and uneasy to read. This problem was eliminated by the introduction of digital maps, where not only the necessary data could be displayed (by switching off the layers not in use), but other information, specific to a map feature, could be added. This information is arranged in attribute tables and does not burden the map itself. One major beneficiary of this technology is the defence forces as it can utilise the nearly unlimited abilities GIS offers. Back in the paper map era the only way of providing special geographic information, such as traffic and transportation data, was achieved by overprinting normal topographic maps with special thematic information. This information, in the

2 most cases, required an additional legend, too, which, due to the lack of available paper space, had to be printed on the back of the sheets. These maps were also often classified. Today one will still find traditional, paper maps but it is worth mentioning that these maps are normally derived from digital databases. A major difference between the old and the new type of maps is that while the traditional, paper maps are fixed, unchangeable products, the digital technology is capable of keeping the maps accurate and up-to-date. This will, on the other hand, raise the issue of a continuous, expensive data capture but, in return, based on these databases many GIS applications and task specific analyses can be made possible. The role of the maps has been enhanced by now. With these ends in view, the article discusses the traffic and transportation thematic maps used in NATO, their creation and fields of use, however, ideas on some possible future developments in map generation are also given. Special traffic and transportation STANAGs in NATO In order to have a consistent interpretation of all NATO designated geographic products, as in the case of many other equipment and tools used within the NATO, standard arrangements, the so-called STANAGs, shall be applied. As a general rule, a STANAG regulates only one particular field, being built over on other, more comprehensive STANAGs. All traffic and transportation tasks have their own STANAGs, which govern the layout of the various maps with special data content. STANAGs dealing with traffic and transportation are as follows: Table 1. Classification of STANAGs by nature discussed in this paper STANAG No. Title Type 2019 APP-6 Military Symbols for Land Based Systems general 2253 Roads and Road Structures transportation 2254 Navigable Inland Waterways traffic 2255 Ports traffic 2256 Inland Hydrography traffic 2257 Railways traffic 2259 Terrain A) Cross Country Movement B) Underground Sites traffic C) Reserved D) Landing and Drop Zones 2260 Electric Power transportation 2263 Coastal Areas and Landing Beaches traffic 2269 Engineer Resources transportation 7164 Special Aeronautical Charts traffic 674 AARMS 5(4) (2006)

3 The above STANAGs, with the exception of STANAG 2019 and 7164, are not only geographic but military geographic standards, too, with an aim of collecting and elaborating military geographic information in a unified way to be displayed on maps specially generated to this purpose. The scope of military geographic standards, of course, is much wider but this article intends to deal with traffic and transportation standards and maps and GIS solutions based on these STANAGs only (in particular, STANAG 3992 and 3710 could be mentioned, but it is the authors point of view that these standards are not directly connected to the subject of this paper). A detailed discussion of these STANAGs will follow in the subsequent chapters. A pure military standard: STANAG 2019 (APP-6) i The aim of this STANAG and the adjoining AAP-6 publication is basically the standardization of operational maps used to planning the movements of land forces; this is why the STANAG is maintained not by the IGeo ii but the TOP iii working group. The STANAG, however, has a significant traffic and transportation role as well since logistical information, such as refuelling or water supply points, essential in serving combat actions, shall be displayed on the maps. Other important information, e.g., obstacles that hinder or restrict manoeuvring, shall be indicated as well. Both factors, especially in combat circumstances, may change rapidly. By destroying a wall, shown as an obstacle on earlier maps, a new road may open; on the other hand, by undermining a field, advancing withdrawing troops may become impossible, urging to search for new, alternative routes. Although tactical or operational planning is not among the geographers tasks, GIS can be of great assistance in such cases. By joining the map and the elevation model complex evaluations can be run on the computer, by the help of which optional troop movements can be worked out. The advantage of this method is its quickness, since all changes can be followed in real time and new solutions can be offered according to the current situation. By setting the parameters the computer can filter the solutions, e.g., it can tailor cross-country movements broken down to vehicle types. Another example for GIS application is to help elaborate alternative resupply routes. The capability of GIS for modelling whole structures, such as operational planning, has practically no limits. Computer generated virtual reality, a true copy of the surrounding world in real or hypothetic situations, can provide a steady background for decision makers to make their decisions based on multiple models. Although many of i Allied Administrative Publication ii Interservice Geospatial Working Group iii Land Force Tactical Doctrine and Operational Procedures Working Group AARMS 5(4) (2006) 675

4 them still prefer traditional maps, the advantages of GIS are inevitable, and more and more people recognise the wide range of solutions GIS can provide. A route planning standard, STANAG 2253 The title of the STANAG (Roads and Road Structures) may be slightly deceiving as it not only deals with roads and road structures but also with structures with traffic and transportation importance, i.e., bridges, tunnels and even fords, and capturing and displaying their technical parameters. The STANAG is divided into three parts: first, it lists the special technical traffic and transportation information to be printed over on normal topographic maps, second, it determines the range of information to be shown separately, mostly on the back of the maps, and third, it gives proposals on what MGID iv in close relation with the maps should be produced. It is easy to see that the number of additional information a thematic map would require can hardly be placed on a map already full of data; the representation of all of them would interfere with the quick visual access to the map data. A relative but constrained solution is to show these data on the back of the sheets but in most cases this would not provide an adequate range of information either. To give a full and reliable picture of a structure a MGID shall be produced. Here again, the solution is offered by GIS. Although GIS is a relatively new field, one can talk about an old and a new approach already. The old approach means arranging the map data in a layer structure where layers with information not currently used during the implementation of a task can be switched off, while other, more relevant ones can be switched on on the screen. Here the map is steady, i.e., there is no direct or real time connection between the map and the user. The advantage of this technology is that one can see a relatively large area at a time, its disadvantage, on the other hand, is that a screen or a laptop has a limited mobility so this approach is suitable mainly for planning purposes. The new approach invokes GPS v technology. Here the map is moving, i.e., the vehicle is equipped with a GPS receiver under which a map has been loaded making real time tracing of the position of the car possible. The system can store or sometimes even update information on the most important ground features by which, in the case of, e.g., a temporary limitation of weight of the vehicles or the suspension of a ferry service, alternative routes can be calculated. The main goal here is not the visualisation of an additional layer but the display and, if necessary, the interpretation of the data of iv Military Geographic Information and Documentation v Global Positioning System 676 AARMS 5(4) (2006)

5 one particular feature. This is a smart technology with a great flexibility but its ability to be used for tactical-operational purposes is quite limited. Whichever solution is chosen it is essential that the databases should be populated and kept up-to-date in all cases. Since today s technology allows most of the data to be captured by field surveys or complicated computations, only some of these databases will remain empty for another period of time. A good example is the MLC, vi a classification of bridges by loading capacity, where the full populating of the database will surely take some more years. A great advantage of GIS, besides the continuous, even on-line storage and update of data, is data archiving. Archiving is normally carried out after filtering, i.e., deleting unnecessary data, due to storage capacity. The extension of the physical limits of the storage capacity, however, is still an issue to be solved in the future. Some less used standards: STANAG 2254, 2255 and 2256 STANAG 2254 (Navigable Inland Waterways), 2255 (Ports) and 2256 (Inland Hydrography), deal basically with navigation issues which, owing to Hungary s landlocked status and the elimination of the Danube flotilla, do not apply (or apply only to a limited extent) to the Hungarian Defence Forces. Giving a brief overview of these STANAGs, however, is worth doing since it is easy to see the traffic and transportation nature of all three STANAGs. At the same time these standards are discussed in just one chapter due to their lesser significance in Hungary. STANAG 2254 lists the most important parameters necessary to navigation, such as width, depth, speed, ice coverage or extremities, e.g., excessive changes in the water level of a watercourse or a lake, based on which decisions can be made on the navigability broken down to the various types of vessels. This information may be of special importance since restrictions imposed on commercial ships may not necessarily apply to low draught vessels especially built to the needs of the law enforcement forces. Commercial waterways are marked with buoys; these are maintained by the continuous monitoring of the river or the lake. Such markings, naturally, do not exist on waterways where commercial navigation is prohibited but other water traffic, like patrolling or rescuing, may exist. In order to provide the users with all this information a map, generally supplemented with extra information on the structures on the river banks or lake shores to increase navigational security, and MGID, containing additional information and data in textual or tabular form, have been produced. These features on traditional paper maps, vi Military Load Classification AARMS 5(4) (2006) 677

6 however, seem to be losing their importance as these maps can give the user only an average image of the terrain, requiring complicated and time-consuming computations by the user to adopt the current situation. GIS, on the other hand, can give a real time picture of the terrain where changes in, e.g., the water level can be constantly traced. Loading the parameters of the vessel in the computer, it is only a matter of software to let the user know if the given reach of the river can be navigated or not, and if the ship is equipped with GPS one will always know when a special care has to be taken. STANAG 2255 will not be discussed here in detail. According to its definition, Military Geographic Documentation (MGD) on Ports comprises of essential military information on this subject which is necessary to Logistic and other divisions of the staff for planning and operations. Since Hungary has neither a navy nor seaports, the importance of this standard is negligible for the Hungarian Defence Forces. Learning this STANAG, however, may be useful for Hungarian logistic officers taking part in missions or trainings abroad. STANAG 2256 deals with inland hydrography. Although this standard has much in common with STANAG 2254 and 2255, this STANAG was basically not made to meet navigational requirements. According to its definition, MGD on inland hydrography comprises military essential information on water courses, extensive natural or artificial bodies of water, flood areas, marshes and swamps, water supply resources and on dams and reservoirs used for electricity supply, water supply, irrigation, control of inland waterways, or whose destruction would cause significant inundation. All this indicates that this is a very complex standard where easy interpretation and clear arrangement of data shall be kept in view. What gives this standard such complexity is that not only parameters of water bodies but also technical data of the related man-made structures, the modelling of which no doubt is the hardest, shall be displayed. The building material or loading capacity of, e.g., a dam can be shown but these data alone would not give adequate information on what measures should be taken in the case of, e.g., a flood. The solution lies in GIS again. E.g., LaserScan, a British company, built a system capable of showing and analysing the possible impacts of a flood, based on feature attributes, as early as The other, more traffic and transportation related part of the STANAG is about navigability and river crossing. Although individual STANAGs on these subjects exist, their data can be regarded as being related to this STANAG, too. Therefore, building up a common GIS system to include all attribute tables of the various databases can be set as final goal. 678 AARMS 5(4) (2006)

7 A railway standard: STANAG 2257 The aim of STANAG 2257 is a unified representation of railways and railway structures and populating their information bases with identical data. As the railway network is generally sparser than the road network, it can be said that the 1:500,000 map scale as suggested by the STANAG will adequately fit the portrayal needs. However, separate depiction of stations and railway stops at a larger scale, due to their large number, may be useful. This solution, on the other hand, would still result in a superfluous number of map sheets. A possible solution, as experiments have already begun, rests once more on GIS: by clicking on a feature on the digital map a more detailed picture of the requested area or object can be visualised, while with another click the related attributes can be invoked. This method, replacing paper MGIDs, however, requires continuous updating, which means higher maintenance costs, but the attribute tables can be altered or supplemented any time, providing the user with the most up-to-date information. As in the case of STANAG 2253 this standard, too, deals with the technical parameters of bridges more specifically railways bridges but contrary to road bridges, being track bounded, these data are of less importance in the respect of setting alternative routes. Thus, GIS applications are merely confined to the use of databases instead of smart solutions. The success of these applications rests in the existence and up-to-dateness of data. A multi-scope standard: STANAG 2259 STANAG 2259 is a row of standards of various topics in loose connection with each other. Among them, cross country movements and underground structures, having significance with regard to traffic and transportation, will be discussed. The creation of cross country maps and MGID is carried out according to STANAG 2259, Annex A, where the map base is the 1:250,000 scale 1501-CCM vii series. Designing and populating such a database and creating a map on its basis is possibly the most difficult task of all since it is not only a matter of assigning various components to an ideal situation shown on the paper map based on which one can make computations to find out, within certain margin of error, of course, the most probable circumstances but rather to be able to plan and model movement at a given place, at a given time and under certain conditions. Paper maps showing an ideal situation resemble a broken clock: they show the exact time twice a day but get more and more inaccurate and unreliable as time goes by. vii Cross Country Movement AARMS 5(4) (2006) 679

8 That is why corrections to the maps have to be made by the use of keys and tables so that circumstances that differ from those that are shown on the map could be tailormade to the current situation. These factors include, e.g., slope (gradients), soil types (soil moisture), weather, (rainfall), climate (anticipated length of periods with precipitation), vegetation (with special regard to tree density and trunk width), hydrography (e.g., assumed periods favourable to the development of fords), man-made features (as potential obstacles), etc. Taking all these factors into account, a value typical for a given portion of the terrain can be calculated, which, compared with the cross country classification of the vehicle, a pre-set figure by the manufacturer distinctive for each type of vehicle, will help the driver to decide if the vehicle can make cross-country movements on the terrain or not. It is easy to recognize that all these complicated computations owing to the too many factors, besides being time consuming, will most probably produce a result with a high failure rate. Thus, the creation of a map showing a snapshot of the terrain would be desirable. By doing so, a screen mounted in the driver s cab will not only show parts of the terrain crossable by the given vehicle, but will also provide accurate and reliable information. If there is a convoy, it is the commander s laptop that should store information on which vehicles can overcome the terrain or which of them should lead the train. These solutions, at present, are just prospective since neither the vehicles of the Hungarian Defence Forces are equipped with such instruments nor the target software has been elaborated so far. Nevertheless, as there is a growing need to provide the user with real time and personalised information, this will be a direction of future developments. In spite of all the above, the importance of the paper map, however, seems to remain unchanged. An experienced eye, at a glance, will always be able to assess if the terrain shown on the map could be surmounted by the available techniques or when larger areas have to be examined in order to make operational plans. But it is quite obvious that the handling of all data, keys and tables on the back side of a map is a very difficult, if not impossible, task; the managing of which can be solved by modern, user friendly GIS systems. Underground structures are displayed according to STANAG 2259, Annex B. Although the STANAG provides instructions on the representation of some natural and artificial underground features and the inclusion of their parameters in tables and MGIDs, there is a surprisingly little number of data the collecting and representation of which are regarded as mandatory. As an example, the ventilation of a cave, which is not among the compulsory information, can be mentioned, although displaying places with sheltering and storage capacities are among the desired ones. 680 AARMS 5(4) (2006)

9 A map, however, may include a number of information based on which underground traffic and transportation tasks can be planned and implemented. The source material is the topographic map containing some underground features by default. These symbols, however, are not represented according to jointly agreed representation principles since no standard is made on the content of a topographic map; it is always determined by the producing agency. In addition, topographic maps made for general purposes display map features with equal weight, where all generalisation rules are equally applied. Another aspect is that due to their strategic importance some features like reservoirs or power supply stations and their attributes may not, or may only partially be shown on an unclassified map. A map or a GIS of comprehensive, unabridged information, on the other hand, can be of help to, e.g., work out secondary resupply routes or plan secret troop movements. (An example from the history of Hungary is the defence of the fort of Eger in 1552 where the secret vaults of the fort were used to deceive the enemy by concealing the movements the defenders had made.) Such a system can be of great assistance in peacetime in, e.g., planning and executing search and rescue tasks, but on the other hand can be dangerous as well: it can cause enormous damages if captured by the enemy. Therefore, instead of producing paper maps, all efforts should be made to create digital databases and maps where the satisfactory encryption of the stored data can be made possible, giving access to the authorised users only. By this, also the update of the database, the exchange of data and not least ensuring the classification of information will be much easier. A distinction shall be made between underground features built especially for traffic and transportation purposes and those that are constructed for transportation but which are also suitable for traffic to an extent. This latter one will be discussed in more detail below. A GIS on underground structures presumes basically an urban environment. Public utilities in urban areas are normally built in a way that maintenance personnel can have access to them. The main sewage conduit under the Great Boulevard in Budapest was built so spaciously that it is big enough for a medium size lorry to go under its arches. Another example is the covered section of the Ördög-árok (Devil s Creek), stretching under the Buda side of the capital, which was used as an escape route by the Nazi soldiers at the end of World War II. The two service tunnels, one for water and one for power supply, under the Danube in Budapest, although narrow, can also be used as crossing facilities in emergency. The Buda Hills have one of the most extensive, presumably connected cave systems in the world. The huge maze of the Budafok wine cellars is famous for its wines but the Kbánya cellars, both in Budapest, are almost unknown to the public. The Budapest Underground has at the same time an individual AARMS 5(4) (2006) 681

10 supply system: its ventilation, water, electricity and sewage facilities can entirely be separated from the town s regular public utilities. The Rock Hospital, today a spare but fully equipped surgery centre situated in the bowels of Castle Hill in Buda can be made operable in just six days to give emergency treatment for fifty patients at a time. It has not only an separate supply system but as a result of its location it is considered as having extraordinary safe conditions even in case of, e.g., a nuclear attack. The above examples show the variety of tasks underground facilities can be used for. Smaller, natural or man-made underground hollows or caves with many openings to the surface used merely for sheltering or camouflaging are, of course, of less importance in terms of defence then artificial, purpose-built structures. The table below shows a possible way of arranging the various underground features into categories. Table 2: Defence characteristics of some typical underground facilities Category Supplies Accessibility Usability Defensibility Example 1. none on foot shelter, storage, poor holes, caves camouflage 2. electricity by vehicle shelter, storage, camouflage + passing, escape fair public utility tunnels, underground watercourses 3. electricity, usually drinking water by vehicle shelter, storage, camouflage + passing, escape fair cellars with multiple exits, wine cellars 4. electricity, drinking water by vehicle survival fair traditional bunkers 5. individual public utilities by vehicle survival good metro, underground 6. individual public utilities, health services by vehicle survival, recovery good Rock Hospital By clicking on the different elements, information on the features and the physical or direct telecommunication links between them, if any, could be queried. The provision of the width and the height of the features are required by the STANAG, so trafficability can be counted, but cooperation with the civil protection forces would be required to populate and maintain the database. An electric power transportation standard: STANAG 2260 STANAG 2260 deals with MGID and maps related to the electric power supply. An emphasis, however, is laid on listing MGID and dividing them into tables, i.e., the majority of the information is to be given by texts rather then by maps. The standard, 682 AARMS 5(4) (2006)

11 however, can be regarded as a paper forerunner of GIS, as the information displayed on the map is supplemented with some additional data (today we would call it a database ). This structure is typical for other military geographic standards, too, as most of them are old (the current edition of STANAG 2260 dates back to 1980) when GIS was a very new technology. The scale of the maps to be created on the basis of STANAG 2260 is limited to 1:250,000, or, in the case of extreme density, to 1:100,000; larger scales are only allowed at map insets. This is because electric power lines and structures are the only features to be shown here; standards to display features of other kind of power supply or public utilities currently do not exist. Therefore, the scope of similar data, regarded necessary in terms of traffic and transportation, should be determined prior to the database is built or populated. Since Hungarian topographic maps include plenty of technical information, their extraction and placing them in a database may be a simple task. From the aspects of the protection of the exclusively transportation structures, such as electric power, fluid energy resources, drinking water, etc., the most important issue is to know their presence and location (e.g., if they are located underground, their existence may not be obvious for everyone), as this will make the use of reserve systems possible or, if circumstances so dictate, their protection as well. All public utility companies have their maps on their own facilities but their integration in one unified database providing interoperability and their representation according to military requirements and standards has not been made yet. As an example, the Hungarian Power Companies Ltd., main supplier of high voltage electricity, and the local electric works, retailers and distributors of household current, can be mentioned. The two companies should cooperate in order to give a service but in some cases may also keep in touch with the Hungarian Oil and Gas Plc., importer of natural gas, who own and operate an extended gas pipe network as natural gas is the main source of producing electric power in Hungary. Thus, having all this information in one common database may be of strategic importance. A naval standard: STANAG 2263 STANAG 2263 deals with coastal areas and landing beaches. As in the case of other military geographic standards, the aim of this STANAG is also to give guidelines to produce MGID and a thematic map or database. Since Hungary is a landlocked country, and therefore this standard cannot be fully integrated in the traffic and transportation system of the Hungarian Defence Forces (consequently, it was reported as will ratify but AARMS 5(4) (2006) 683

12 not implement to the NSA), viii nevertheless, this STANAG cannot be regarded as a purely naval one. Although the tasks outlined in this standard are to be implemented by the units of the navy, it has, undoubtedly, some non-naval aspects as well: movements on coastal areas or on a beach can be well considered as land operations, too. As it can be seen, this task is also among the more difficult ones, since, like in the case of the cross-county movement maps, a great number of factors shall be taken into consideration when creating a map. What makes this task even more complicated is that there is no ideal situation here: e.g., while the limits of a tidal zone can be shown on a paper map without any difficulties, all effects of the lunar cycles, the main trigger of a tide, can hardly be displayed. The tide is higher at full moon than at new moon, and also, the moonlight may have a negative impact on the concealment of the movements of the vessels or vehicles. (As an example, the timing of D-Day can be mentioned, where one of the major aspects was that there should not have been moonlight on the night of 6 June 1944.) With the help of GIS, having this information supplemented with e.g a weather forecast (with today s technology, the reliability of the weather forecasts is around 90% for the following five days) almost any situation can be modelled and any operation can be planned. Although creating MGID and maps on coastal areas and landing beaches will most likely not be among the tasks of the Hungarian Defence Forces, yet, learning its contents may be useful for Hungarian units, e.g in missions abroad. A not really traffic and transportation relevant standard: STANAG 2269 STANAG 2269 deals with maps and MGID on technical resources. Since the aim of the standard is to give information on constructing materials, establishments and installations, and construction equipment considered essential for operations in forward combat zones as well as to provide information on the resources for the planning and execution of operations, it, as a matter of fact, cannot be regarded as a traffic and transportation standard. The reason why it is discussed here is that one of the chapters deals with Water supply and purification equipment, and thus, its traffic and transportation aspects are worth discussing. Emphasizing the importance of water supply points and water purification equipment is unnecessary as the engines of most of the military vehicles are water cooled, and the escorting personnel will also need drinking water. Although this latter aspect may be of importance in more arid countries only it is still worth mentioning, as it is exactly the case in some places where Hungary participates in missions like Iraq. viii NATO Standardization Agency 684 AARMS 5(4) (2006)

13 Although according to the prescriptions this information is to be displayed on a separate map, due to its traffic and transportation characteristics it could also be attached to the STANAG 2260 database, discussed above. An aeronautical standard: STANAG 7164 STANAG 7164, although being the only standard dealing with aeronautical charts, has an outstanding importance as an independent working group, SAC WG, ix was called into existence to determine the compilation principles for these kind of charts and to unify NATO-designated aeronautical geospatial activities. (The working group, however, completed its mission in 2004 and was discontinued subsequently.) According to its definition, A Special Aeronautical Chart is a topographic chart designed to meet military peacetime operations for low level air navigation. Charts will be produced with current aeronautical information and should be revised on at least annual basis. Although the standard does not require the full update of the map content every year, a regular map revision, taking other aspects into consideration, too, shall be carried out. Besides traditional paper maps, and not surprisingly, the significance of digital representation comes more and more into prominence here as well, where digital data, complemented with supplementary information, are structured in attribute tables to provide the user with a complexity of information. The content of a NATO-designated Special Aeronautical Chart is to be consistent with the military requirements for peacetime, low and medium level, visual air navigation. The digital format used in automated flight planning systems, flight simulators and airborne display systems shall be consistent with the chart format. x Aeronautical charts are designed to peacetime use but all of them have an emergency period equivalent, too. Consequently, peacetime Transit Flying Charts (TFC) are substituted with Joint Operational Charts (JOG-Air) at 1:250,000 scale, and peacetime Low Flying Charts (LFC) are replaced with Tactical Pilotage Charts (TPC) at 1:500,000 scale in emergency periods. There is also an Operational Navigation Chart at scale 1:1,000,000 but it is only maintained in an emergency period without a peacetime equivalent. LFCs, however, are based on civilian ICAO xi charts with an identical map content, just supplemented with some military aeronautical information. Other scales may also be used for displaying airport vicinities. The standard gives detailed information on the structure and appearance of the chart, its legend and the accuracy requirements. Information is given on the relation of the ix Special Aeronautical Charts Working Group x STANAG 7164, Detaills of Agreement, Paragraph 6 xi International Civil Aviation Organisation AARMS 5(4) (2006) 685

14 aeronautical data and the original planimetry with a special regard to the influence of the relief on the aeronautical information. Coming to an agreement between the nations in an as many issues as possible was a general aim of SAC WG and liaison was held with the representatives of the participating NATO countries. The main tasks of the working group included the common representation of the features, exchange of aeronautical information, elaborating common principles to the creation and population of databases, working out joint file formats and connections with an aim of producing unified aeronautical maps within the NATO and to build up national aeronautical databases. One of the most important tasks of the near future is the creation and standardisation of a comprehensive aeronautical information system within the NATO nations that can be fitted on the topographic content of an already existing topographic information system. A multifunctional GIS system: a possible future STANAG The intention of giving a glimpse into the above STANAGs was to illustrate how useful the collection and representation of geospatial information on the thematic maps can be with respect to the traffic and transportation planning of the Hungarian Defence Forces. These standards, however, separate the information by themes; their possible combination and portrayal in one common map or database is not discussed. The reasons were quite prosaic: when these STANAGs were elaborated in the late 1970s and early 1980s, the early computers had not yet the capacity to store and manage a large amount of essential data when building such a database. Interestingly, the issue of the possible merging of the existing military geographic standards into one STANAG was brought up more seriously for the first time during the 25th IGeoWG meeting in With a fully populated GIS database, interoperability between the different data and layers is evident, e.g., data of natural gas and electric power can be displayed either jointly or one by one, according to the user s needs. Connecting information, like coal mining, with a particular importance for some thermal power plants, can also be involved for a more reliable planning. This, on the other hand, will require the release of new software, too, but they can be written in a way so that they can serve not only the needs of the military but civilian users as well. In a multifunctional GIS system it could be useful to place institutions providing continuous services and the maximum areas they can serve on a separate layer, thus, in the case of shortfalling a supply line secondary provision routes can be planned. Also, if only suppliers with a capacity of giving a 24-hour logistic background are involved in the system (i.e., they are on a separate layer), other providers with limited capabilities can be excluded from the planning system from the very beginning. 686 AARMS 5(4) (2006)

15 Conclusions With the rapid enhancement of computer technology and the release of new software modelling nearly all conceptions and combinations will become possible in the near future. It is now the experts responsibility to determine the tasks of the future; some of them may have only been a play of fancy not a long time ago. The defence forces of the 21st century will be small strength but will consist of well prepared and well equipped small elite units relying on GIS systems and robot technology to a large extent. This is a great challenge for the GIS experts, too, as future armies will build up their own databases based on the results of GIS and this will be the case for traffic and transportation, i.e., logistics tasks as well. References 1. Originals of the referred STANAGs 2. SZABLYÁR, P., N. KÓSA, J.: Föld alatti Buda. Városháza, SZABLYÁR, P., N. KÓSA, J.: Föld alatti Pest. Városháza, NAGY, P., KARCSAI, A.: NATO térképészeti szabványainak magyarországi bevezetésének helyzete és alkalmazásai. MH TÉSZ, NAGY, P., KARCSAI, A.: Katonai Atlasz Koncepció (koncepció és elvárások). MH TÉSZ, NAGY, P.: Térinformatika a XXI. század hadseregében. ZMNE, NAGY, P.: Térinformatikai rendszerek az elektronikai (információs) hadviselés szolgálatában. ZMNE, ROSTÁS, S.: Korszer topogeodéziai technológiák és a terepi adatgyjtés operatív eszközei, módszerei (GPS, korszer mérállomások). ZMNE, Hadmveleti Együttmködési Oktatótérkép. MH TÉSZ, ADAMS rendszer bemutató anyaga. MH ÖLTP, FM Map Reading and Land Navigation. HQ Department of the Army, Washington, DC, USA, DMA Technical Manual Datums, Ellipsoids, Grids, and Grid Reference Systems. DMA, Fairfax, USA, DMA Technical Manual The Universal Grids: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) and Universal Polar Stereographic (UPS). DMA, Fairfax, USA, AARMS 5(4) (2006) 687

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