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3 Table of contents Section 1 The value of culture for society; management summary Introduction Current trends Consequences for the publicly funded cultural sector: initial impression Tracking trends 11 Section 2 The value of culture Introduction Culture in the care sector The living environment Transformation Municipal policy Research and evidence Survey knowledge 22 Section 3 Cultural education and participation in cultural life Introduction Cultural education at school The importance of cultural education Cultural education at school Music education at primary school The Dutch Canon ofhistory at primary schools Culture credit card Promoting reading Primary school managers Receptive participation in cultural life Trends in participation in cultural life Potential reach and experience of the arts Participation in cultural life via audiovisual media and the Internet Culture on television (public broadcasting) Internet and social media Reading e-books Amateur Arts Voluntary work 52 Section 4 The economic value of culture Introduction Key economic figures Contributions to the economy The broader economic impact of the cultural sector The importance of culture for cities, and regions Tourism European Capital of Culture and city marketing Exports and internationalisation Economic trends and entrepreneurship The effects of the economic crisis Employment Size of the sector Match between education and labour market Philanthropy Trends in donations to the arts and culture Donation campaign 85 Section 5 The publicly funded sectors Introduction Trend in expenditure on the cultural sector by the G35 municipalities and the provinces Trends in the publicly funded cultural sector Results in the publicly funded cultural sector State of play in the sectors Trends in the performing arts Results achieved by performing arts institutions within the Basis National Infrastructure Trends at the museums Results achieved by museums within the Basis National Infrastructure (30 institutions) Trends in the visual arts Results achieved by visual arts institutions within the Basis National Infrastructure Trends in the film sector PResults achieved by the film festivals within the Basis National Infrastructure (5 institutions) Trends in architecture, design, and new media Results achieved by architecture, design, and new media Trends in the literary world and at libraries 111 / Appendix 115 Classification of culture sector 116 Appendix to Section / Publication information / 5 \

4 Culture at a Glance The value of culture for society; management summary 1.1 Introduction This is the latest edition of Culture at a Glance [Cultuur in Beeld]. This publication provides an annual overview of trends in the cultural sector, based on research and data made available by the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science, the national public cultural funds, sector organisations, and municipalities. This year, in addition to covering various culture-specific developments and economic trends, Culture at a Glance sets out the consequences for the cultural sector of the economic crisis and austerity measures. For the first time, it is also possible to provide a clear picture not only of state-funded institutions but also those that receive funding from the G9 cities (Amsterdam, Arnhem, Eindhoven, Enschede, Groningen, The Hague, Maastricht, Rotterdam, and Utrecht). The full impact of the austerity measures will only be apparent from next year, however, given that they took effect on 1 January Current trends Outreach Cultural institutions are attempting to bring what they offer to the attention of audiences (and potential audiences) in novel ways. In the case of the performing arts, more and more events are being staged outside theatres and concert halls. Performances that used to be put on mainly at festivals are increasingly being staged on location, including by the theatres and concert halls themselves. More and more theatrical performances are being staged out of doors, but also in such places as office buildings and factories. Operas and concerts are shown live at cinemas, for example, or on a big screen in a park. Last year, the TV series Bloed, zweet en snaren [Blood, Sweat and Strings] gave viewers a behindthe-scenes look at the Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra, while dance programmes such as So You Think You Can Dance and Dance Battle make choreographers household names. Visual works of arts are also being displayed at a growing variety of locations, for example at festivals. The number of art fairs focusing on specific art forms such as photography or drawing has also increased, thus addressing and appealing to a wider audience. The cultural sector is thus making a considerable effort across the board to reach out and make itself accessible to new audiences. Taking it abroad Globalisation has made international cooperation and export important components for the cultural sector, which no longer depends solely on the Dutch domestic market for its revenues. Germany, the United States, and the United Kingdom are the top three foreign destinations for the sector. The volume of activities abroad is increasing year by year. The number of visits abroad by Dutch theatre companies has doubled, while Dutch museums are collaborating more and more closely with their foreign counterparts to loan works for exhibitions in other countries. While closed for renovation, for example, the Royal Picture Gallery Mauritshuis (The Hague) organised an exhibition in Japan that attracted an 6 / 7 \

5 1 \ The value of culture for society; management summary \ > average of more than 10,000 visitors a day. Popular music is one of the country s main cultural export products, accounting for 100 million euros in Almost 70% of that amount was generated by dance music. The literary sector has also been successfully engaged in international cooperation and export for a considerable time; since 1991, for example, the number of translations of Dutch works has tripled. Greater attention to collaboration with other sectors; more knowledge necessary Collaboration between the cultural sector and other sectors is the focus of a great deal of interest. One good example is the collaboration between the culture and healthcare sectors. Displaying works of art in hospitals can make the patient s stay more pleasant. The creative industry is developing all kinds of technical innovations, for example care robots or simulation games to educate and train staff to carry out examinations and operations. Culture also plays a role in the physical environment, for example by transforming obsolete buildings and by improving the quality of life of neighbourhoods. But providing scientific evidence for the social effects of culture is a difficult matter and requires a better knowledge base. Decline and rise in participation in cultural life: a mixed picture The Netherlands is still one of Europe s leaders when it comes to people s participation in cultural life. It is in the top three for theatre attendance, reading (books), and visits to museums, art galleries, and historic buildings and monuments. Since the 1980s, however, visitor numbers have been falling in the more costly and traditional performing arts, for example orchestral concerts and opera. On the other hand, attendance at cinemas (including art cinemas ) and state-funded museums have increased. The reopening of a number of famous museums attracted large numbers of people, including visitors from abroad. Many Dutch people are actively involved in the arts in their spare time, although the figures do not provide any clear overall picture. According to the Netherlands Institute for Social Research [Sociaal Cultureel Planbureau], involvement in the amateur arts has increased somewhat since 1995, to some 48% of the population. The Monitor Amateurkunst [Amateur Arts Monitor] for 2013 shows a fall from 52% in 2009 to 41% in Cultural sector under pressure from economic trends: commercial market hardest hit The cultural sector is shrinking at a faster rate than the economy as a whole, with the sharpest decline being in the commercial segment of the sector. The creative industry has been particularly hard hit. The slump in the housing market, for example, meant that in early 2013, architectural firms saw their order books drop to 2007 levels. Turnover in the first quarter of 2012 was more than 20% down on the corresponding quarter in Commercial (non-funded) producers in the performing arts are also feeling the impact of the recession. Despite an 8.7% reduction in commercial ticket prices between 2008 and 2012, there was a major fall in attendance. Turnover of general books (novels, non-fiction) fell in 2012 by 6.3% compared to This includes turnover from sales (1.2 million copies) of e-books, the market share of which has risen from 1.2% in 2011 to 2.2% in Book sales did not decline as sharply as turnover in other sectors of the entertainment and leisure industry, however (CDs, DVDs, games). Donations to culture also under pressure The economic crisis made itself apparent in the philanthropic sector in The overall decline is also clear in donations to the arts and culture, with a 50% drop in gifts compared to In that year, donations to the arts and culture totalled 545 million euros; by 2011, that figure had fallen to 287 million euros. Businesses, in particular, are donating less. Lottery money and legacies increased between 2009 and 2011, and revenue from crowdfunding also rose. (These figures concern The Gift and Inheritance Tax Act [Geefwet] only came into force in 2012, meaning that its effects are not apparent in these figures). 1.3 Consequences for the publicly funded cultural sector: initial impression Budget and numbers of institutions State financing of the Basis National Infrastructure and the national public cultural funds has been cut from 530 million euros in to 458 million euros in Net funding by local government (the biggest 35 municipalities) and regional government (the provinces) fell in from 1.3 billion euros in 2011 to 1.2 billion euros in 2013, a decline of 9%. It is the provinces that are economising most on culture (down 23%) and the municipalities least (down 4%). The state budget for institutions receiving multi-year funding fell by an average of 19%. The number of institutions making up the Basic Infrastructure decreased from 172 in 2012 to 84 in This does not mean that all the institutions concerned have ceased to exist; some of them are now funded by a state cultural fund and/or by a municipality. Most national public cultural funds are now financing fewer institutions than in the preceding funding period. The Performing Arts Fund (FPK), for example, is providing 81 institutions with multi-year funding from 2013; in the figure was 118. In the case of the G9 cities (Amsterdam, Arnhem, Eindhoven, Enschede, Groningen, The Hague, Maastricht, Rotterdam, and Utrecht), the budget for the institutions that they fund fell less sharply from 2012 to 2013 than was the case with state funding (an average of approx. 11%). With a slight drop from 810 to 802, the number of funded institutions remained more or less the same. The institutions are therefore receiving less funding on average. 8 / 9 \

6 1 \ The value of culture for society; management summary \ > Talent development Where talent development is concerned, there have been a great many changes. In the current funding period, the 21 production centres for the performing arts [productiehuizen] that were funded in the framework of the Basis National Infrastructure are no longer receiving any state funding. Of those 21 institutions, 19 are still active. Six received multi-year funding for their activities in 2013 from the Performing Arts Fund, while 14 received funding from local authorities. The total available budget fell by 16%. New talent development measures have been introduced and the Ministry is keeping close track of them. Institutions making up the Basis National Infrastructure are in most cases able to put on the planned productions and performances; a considerable number are even producing and performing more. Despite this generally favourable picture, there are institutions in virtually all sectors that are unable to stage the agreed number of performances, and there are more such institutions than in the preceding funding period. If we also consider audience and visitor numbers, the picture becomes even more diverse. In the period from 2009 to 2012, for example, attendance at orchestral concerts fell by 5% and at opera performances by 9%. Putting on large numbers of performances has enabled the big theatre companies to keep attendance stable. The picture in the heritage sector is also a varied one. The number of visitors to state-funded museums increased by 14% in the funding period. Performance of institutions within the Basis National Infrastructure : differences between sectors and institutions The turnover of institutions making up the Basis National Infrastructure rose over the past four years by approx. 8%. There was no structural increase in the percentage of self-generated revenue, however. After a substantial increase in 2011, that percentage fell again in 2012 to the level of Major differences are apparent between sectors and institutions. In 2012, institutions making up the Basis National Infrastructure had, on average, a lower percentage of self-generated revenue than those funded by the Performing Arts Fund or the G4 cities (Amsterdam, The Hague, Rotterdam, and Utrecht). This does not apply to all disciplines: institutions in the field of dance, pop/jazz/ world music, museums of cultural heritage and art museums achieved the same percentage of self-generated revenue as those funded by the Performing Arts Fund or the G9 cities, or indeed surpassed them in this regard. Ethnology and natural history museums, theatre companies, and the creative industry are lagging behind. 1.4 Tracking trends The Ministry of Education, Culture and Science will keep close track of trends in the cultural sector over the coming years. For this edition of Culture at a Glance, the Ministry has therefore collaborated more closely than in the past with the major cities, sector organisations and public cultural funds. This has led to a publication that enables the Ministry and other parties to formulate and revise policy based on reliable data. That data also gives cultural institutions a good basis for emulating groups of fellow institutions in the near future. The Ministry therefore plans to continue collaborating with the various parties in this respect and to build on that collaboration going forward. 10 / 11 \ < \

7 2013 Culture at a Glance 2 The value of culture 2.1 Introduction In June 2013, the Minister of Education, Culture and Science, Jet Bussemaker, submitted a memorandum to Parliament Cultuur beweegt [Culture Moves] setting out her views on the arts and culture. 1 In her memorandum, the Minister argues in favour of a wide-ranging appreciation of culture, and makes a distinction between the intrinsic, the social, and the economic value of culture. The intrinsic value concerns the significance of culture for the individual. The social value is determined by the benefits of culture for society as a whole. The economic value is the contribution that culture makes to employment and to the country s gross domestic product. Viewed in this way, culture with its individual, social, and economic components is a unifying factor within society. It offers people the opportunity to share individual and collective customs, attitudes, and experiences with one another. It reveals similarities and differences visible and provides material for discussing them. The active involvement in culture that is necessary for this begins with the individual s interest in culture: for relaxation and entertainment, as a sounding board for personal development, or as a profession and source of income. Government is well aware of the significance of culture as an individual, collective, and also economic good. It supports the production and dissemination of culture and monitors its quality and accessibility. The Minister considers that artists and cultural institutions derive their raison d être primarily from their relevance to society. Her policy therefore assigns priority to the social value of culture. Culture is increasingly part of a social agenda and the importance of creativity and innovation is increasing. In many areas, Dutch society finds itself confronted by new and complex problems, for example regarding sustainability, mobility, ageing, and population shrinkage. New problems demand innovative solutions. With their creativity and imagination, artists, designers, and architects can make a major contribution to finding those solutions. This social significance of culture is still insufficiently recognised. Culture can play a greater role in tackling the issues facing society. The policy pursued by the Minister therefore aims to encourage cross-fertilisation between the arts and culture and other sectors. This means an open and entrepreneurial spirit within the cultural sector and the creative industry, with clients government and other civil-society players being prepared to abandon old patterns and to engage in new kinds of cooperation. Culture is significant for many social and professional sectors. Two of these healthcare and the design of our living environment are dealt with below. The role of culture in the 1 Ministerie van Onderwijs, Cultuur en Wetenschappen, memorandum: Cultuur beweegt (10 June 2013) 12 / 13 \

8 2 \ The value of culture \ > healthcare sector has developed from therapeutic applications into a much broader range within which culture is valuable to both patients and personnel. Culture has long been a significant factor in the form, technology, and process of designing and redesigning our living environment, and its role continues to evolve. A number of practical examples from within these two sectors can help understand the various ways in which the arts and culture can be of value to society. 2.2 Culture in the care sector In the Netherlands, collaboration between the cultural sector and care goes back a long way. One familiar example is the display of works of art in hospitals as a means of making the patient s stay more pleasant. BETER Many people agree that art enriches our lives and must therefore be good for our health. But is there any hard data to prove it? The BETER Consortium (beter = better), a partnership between artists, care providers and researchers, investigated the impact of art and art placebos on health. Martijn Engelbregt 2 headed the consortium. When I got sick myself, I discovered just how artificial our approach to health can be at times. We treat illness in a forced manner that is very alien to our basic nature. If all my attention and energy go into fighting the illness, then all I m doing is battling myself. When I started paying attention to my health instead, I was able to relax and immediately started feeling better too. I believe that we need to de-stress for our health, and that art can help us do that. I think our BETER Consortium is the first step in a movement that can spread throughout the healthcare system. The project research question was: Does art have a positive effect on people s state of health? We conducted a number of different studies. For example we developed an art route through the hospital, an ECG test, and wellbeing surveys in the treatment units. The project covered the entire hospital, 3 including the waiting rooms, the corridors, the treatment areas and a separate laboratory. We displayed works of art in all these areas and invited people to inspect them and think about them. The survey showed that people felt happier with art around them. In fact, they kept coming back. It was almost like a community centre. The hospital became a place where people received attention and where they could chat too. It was nice that the hospital was so enthusiastic about it. That opened a lot of doors. But it s quite another thing for a hospital to make the first move and pro-actively approach artists. Personally, I think it s important not to sit around and wait for a commission. Artists can take the initiative themselves. If we think that things can be done differently, then we shouldn t just wait around until others see the light too. BETER bridged the gap between care, science, art, and society. Its aim was to involve as many people as possible from all walks of life and encourage them to think about things like: What s healthy for me? How do I organise my life so that I feel better? 2 Interview with Martijn Engelbregt, director of the BETER Consortium, 18 July Haaglanden Medical Centre. 14 / 15 \

9 2 \ The value of culture \ > Culture in the care sector aims to increase the quality of life of those who are dependent on care, for example elderly people in a poor state of health and with decreased mobility. The creative industry is developing all kinds of technical innovations, for example care robots, social media for innovative DNA applications, and simulation games to educate and train staff to carry out examinations and operations. More traditional kinds of cultural expression are also utilised, for example music and the visual arts. These promote relaxation, personal development, and a sense of purpose for people with social or physical disabilities. In this way, culture helps maintain social contacts and improves mental health. Bedside concert Last Christmas, Jeeves a commercial provider of business, hospital, and senior care services gave eight of its institutional clients, all hospitals, a unique gift to thank them for their custom: it brought in musicians from the Rotterdam Philharmonic Orchestra for a series of bedside concerts. For example, two of the orchestra s violinists performed at patients bedsides at the Albert Schweitzer Hospital. The music was therapeutic for patients and helped transport them temporarily to a more pleasant place. Vico de Graaf (hospitality coordinator at the hospital) and Frank van den Elsen (hospital Communications Adviser and Press Spokesperson) talk about the bedside concert series. 4 The hospital does a lot with music. For example, we had a children s choir perform in the foyer and a popular TV show about classical music filmed here. People really enjoy this kind of distraction. And music is therapeutic. The Rotterdam Philharmonic concerts were special because the musicians played right on the wards, and they also took requests. People got emotional. I saw quite a few handkerchiefs dabbing eyes. The music brings back memories and stirs up emotions. We asked the patients ahead of time whether they minded having a bedside concert. Those who didn t mind agreed to leave their doors open, and those who did mind agreed to close theirs. Most of the doors were left open. One very special moment was when the musicians played at the bedside of a lady who had breathing difficulties. She was in a bad way, so we asked her once more whether she really wanted the music, just to be sure. And she did. She listened with her eyes closed and when the violinists were done, she exclaimed Wonderful! It was moving for both the patients and the musicians. It takes the patients away from the world of the hospital for a little while. First violinist Cor van der Linden of the Rotterdam Philharmonic Orchestra reflects on his experience. 5 It was fantastic! We played duets on the wards. I volunteered because it was such a wonderful initiative. We rehearsed a variety of short compositions in advance and played them at people s bedsides, very close to them. It was moving to see how much the patients enjoyed it. One memory that sticks out is when I played Sonny Boy for a sick lady. I couldn t have chosen better: it had been her deceased husband s favourite song. She was deeply affected. The Rotterdam Philharmonic Orchestra is passionate about innovation. I think we excel at it. We have developed all sorts of activities to reach out to people, and increasingly we re taking the music directly to them. This experience has inspired me to play at the nursing home where my parents live in my spare time. It gives me and the people I play for enormous joy! 4 Interview with Vico de Graaf and Frank van den Elsen, 23 July Interview with Cor van der Linden, 23 July / 17 \

10 2 \ The value of culture \ > The cultural sector also contributes to healthcare by creating a familiar and inspiring patient environment. Architects, artists, and conservationists work to create high-quality designs and well-maintained residential and healthcare facilities. To an increasing extent, their designs take account of customs, cultural preferences, and lifestyles. An internationally renowned example is De Hogeweyk in the town of Weesp, which provides living accommodation for elderly people with dementia. Residents are housed according to their lifestyle, in an environment where there is time and scope for the cultural dimensions of that lifestyle, and in an atmosphere within which people can recognise, communicate with, and visit one another. This arrangement offers them a sense of security and fosters mutual understanding. At De Hogeweyk, scope for culture is an important factor in the well-being of both the residents and the personnel. The design by the architectural firm of Molenaar&Bol&VanDillen was nominated for the Hedy D Ancona Prize for Outstanding Architecture for Care Facilities (awarded by the Creative Industries Fund NL). Unforgettable Van Abbe More and more people are finding themselves dealing, either directly or indirectly, with Alzheimer s disease or another form of dementia. Since April 2013, the Van Abbe Museum in Eindhoven and the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam have collaborated on a special programme for Alzheimer sufferers and their carers. Known as Unforgettable Van Abbe, the programme consists of interactive guided tours of the two museums. By looking at art interactively, people living with Alzheimer s have the opportunity to express themselves and enter into dialogue with those around them. Director Charles Esche 6 talks about the programme and what the Van Abbe Museum hopes to achieve. The Unforgettable Van Abbe programme is entirely in line with our belief that museums should engage in society. We want to mirror society, and offer visitors a place to meet and encounter people from all walks of life. The Alzheimer tours usually take place on Mondays at the moment, when we re closed to other visitors. That gives the participants the time and quiet they need to look at the artworks. Eventually, I d like to integrate the tours more by organising them during normal opening hours. A visitor who enters the museum to enjoy art and encounters a group of Alzheimer patients will experience the museum differently too. And the Alzheimer sufferers will feel like they are an important part of society. Our main challenge is to build trust with organisations like Alzheimer Netherlands, healthcare institutions such as Vitalis and Archipel, 7 and the patients family and friends. It helps that we re cooperating with the Stedelijk Museum, because together it s easier to convince people of the importance of the programme. After all, it doesn t really fit in with mainstream ideas of what a museum is supposed to do. Archipel published a front-page article about the tours in its magazine. That tells me that it has confidence in the programme, but also that the programme satisfies many people s needs. Daniel Neugebauer, Head of Marketing, Mediation and Fundraising at the Van Abbe Museum and one of the initiators of Unforgettable Van Abbe, had this to say. The main idea behind the programme is that everyone should be able to visit the museum. Having Alzheimer s is no reason to stop participating in cultural life. The programme also focuses on both the Alzheimer sufferer and his or her carer. The point is for both of them to have a pleasant and relaxed day together. We see that art stimulates people, reminds them of the past, or simply opens the door to their imagination. One man began to sing songs he knew growing up while he was looking at a work of art. There isn t enough empirical evidence yet to say precisely how art affects Alzheimer s. Research on a similar programme at the MoMA in New York shows that people are in a better mood after a tour, but we don t really know what happens in the brain. We have to take things a step further and start talking to artists and universities about carrying out research. 6 Double interview with Charles Esche and Daniel Neugebauer, 25 July Vitalis and Archipel are patient care and nursing organisations that operate in Eindhoven and environs. 18 / 19 \

11 2 \ The value of culture \ > The positive attitude towards culture in the care sector is based mainly on the experience of patients and carers. They indicate that culture helps create a pleasant atmosphere and has a beneficial effect on the condition of patients. Moreover, research increasingly shows that culture has a positive impact on well-being, healing, and recovery. The research literature is still too limited, however, and also does not present any clear overall picture. It is not yet possible to draw any robust conclusions regarding the long-term effects of culture on well-being and health, whether preventive or curative. Actually demonstrating effects will require more longitudinal and experimental studies. 2.3 The living environment Culture also plays a role in more physical social issues, for example how we deal with the living environment. Cultural events and accommodation for artists are tried and tested tools in urban and regional development. In many municipalities, policies geared towards creating neighbourhoods with a good quality of life concentrate not only on the factors clean, sound and safe and the neighbourhood economy, but also on improving the cultural climate. This applies in particular to neighbourhoods that are redeveloped in the context of urban renewal. In the 1980s and 90s, the emphasis was on the redevelopment of city centres and nineteenth-century neighbourhoods. That emphasis has now shifted to pre-war and post-war neighbourhoods with an accumulation of physical, economic, and social problems. More and more artists also want to tackle environmental issues. Artists, writers, architects, and designers can ignite a process of change with their different ways of seeing, thinking, and imagining. An example of this is the smart highway project by Studio Roosegaarde, which works with the Heijmans construction firm to develop new approaches to lighting motorways Transformation Cultural activities act as a catalyst in transforming obsolete buildings and districts so that they can be used in a new and contemporary way. Artists often feel attracted to deserted, rundown locations that offer them an affordable place to live and work, often with its own unique character. Once these places are discovered and their image improves, investors, businesses, and new residents start to taken an interest in them. As a result, the area may become more socially, culturally, and economically significant for the town. These processes are often driven by bottom-up initiatives, but municipalities and property owners also encourage them, for example by introducing an incubator policy or by identifying temporary uses for office buildings, churches, or industrial heritage sites scheduled for conversion Municipal policy Many Dutch municipalities utilise culture as a means of improving urban areas. The national government has encouraged this in recent years, for example by means of the Cultural Incentive for Urban Renewal and the Rezoning and Redevelopment Incentive for the priority neighbourhoods [krachtwijken]. Municipalities utilise culture in various different ways, for example events; the maintenance, repair and conversion of distinctive buildings; better design of buildings and public areas; temporary or permanent accommodation for artists; and low-threshold cultural facilities. There have been a number of studies of the significance and effects of deploying culture for the purpose of neighbourhood and area development, for example studies and publications by ABF Cultuur (2007), the Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis (CPB) (2010), and the Cultuurimpuls Foundation in collaboration with the Nicis Institute (2011). This research shows that the ability of towns and cities to reinvent themselves is an indicator of economic success. Culture plays an important role in propelling urban renewal. The presence of culture in the form of historic buildings and iconic architecture, amenities, and activities makes an important contribution to a neighbourhood s quality of life. Culture also creates value, for example as evidenced by the positive effect of historic buildings on property prices in their immediate vicinity. Section 4 looks more closely at the role of culture in value creation. 2.4 Research and evidence Providing scientific evidence for the impact of culture on society is a difficult matter. It is often difficult for researchers to demonstrate not only a positive correlation but also a causal connection, and to link the budgets and measures deployed directly to the results. Much research is still in its infancy, for example concerning the significance of culture for creative development. Demonstrating the social effects of culture demands a better knowledge base, and that, in turn, requires further advances in research and research methodology. In her cultural policy memorandum, the Minister makes clear that she attaches great importance to increased cohesion between cultural, social, and scientific trends. She therefore wishes to improve the relationship between science and culture, for example by means of a programme to be set up within the Academy of Arts, initiated by the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW). 20 / 21 \

12 2 \ The value of culture Survey knowledge In anticipation of this, the cultural sector can already systematically collect knowledge regarding the social impact of culture. Although its evidence-based compass still has limited functionality, it can chart the relationships between culture and other sectors based on evidence-informed models and best practices. Some examples include the What Works in the Neighbourhood [Wat werkt in de wijk] project database and the Community of Practice Cultural Incentive. What Works in the Neighbourhood was initiated by fourteen public housing associations and Aedes, an umbrella organisation for such associations. 8 It enables those who play a professional role in neighbourhoods to find relevant knowledge about the effectiveness of local interventions and to develop and make available such information for their own organisation and for others. This is a more effective way of substantiating the experiences and convictions of those involved. Sharing knowledge of what does and does not work and why is then less a matter of merely personal observation. The Community of Practice Cultural Incentive follows the same kind of pattern. This is an initiative by parties that include De Stad BV, ABF Cultuur and the Cultuur-Ondernemen Foundation. It is a learning network in which participants in various projects share practical know-how and experience so as to improve the quality, feasibility, and results of projects. In this context, the sector itself has work to do, not only to develop relevant civil-society groupings but also to make them visible. After all, artists and cultural institutions derive their raison d être not so much from the sector itself, but from its relevance to society. 8 ended up staying. It s a city with an ever-expanding port that was destroyed and rebuilt in the twentieth century and therefore looks and is very modern. It has a lot of space for newcomers, and it offers them a lot of opportunities. As Rotterdam s municipal museum, we realise that our mission is to document not only the past but also history as it is unfolding right now. We took that idea into the neighbourhoods. It s very important to explore and preserve this history together with the Rotterdammers. We don t go in there as know-all experts, but with the aim of genuinely collaborating. In other words, we want to develop presentations in partnership with local people and get them to help us interpret the found objects and the stories associated with them. For example, we invited local people to view a selection of objects with us before the exhibition and to share their stories and ideas with us. We documented that process, recording their stories and adding them to our collection. The objects in the exhibition come from many different periods and sources. People feel they have been recognised and appreciated as local residents when they see their objects presented as part of the city s history. We ve noticed that the connecting role we want to play really does work. The tension between traditional exhibitions and our approach is leading to new kinds of exhibitions. It s not simply about tea service that happen to belong to Rotterdammers. It s about Rotterdam s identity. The link between past and present, and between the smaller, personal story and the city s larger narrative, is very important to us. We want to help connect up local residents so that they get to know one another better. That s how we see our role as a municipal museum. Real Rotterdammers Real Rotterdammers is the first major exhibition put on by the Rotterdam Museum after the Schielandshuis one of the museum s two buildings closed its doors in early The exhibition is being held at an exhibition hall located in the middle of Rotterdam s port district, the source of the city s fame. It explores the identity of the city s people and the origins of their behaviour, appearance, work, language, food, beliefs, and leisure pursuits. In a décor created by Thomas Rupert, theatrical designer for RO Theatre and the Conny Janssen Dance Company, Rotterdam natives past and present tell their stories, illustrated by objects from the museum s collection. Nicole van Dijk, 9 the exhibition s curator and project manager, has this to say. Rotterdam has a very interesting modern-day story. It s typified by the many people who have washed up here down through the years, each with his or her own history, and 8 9 Interview with Nicole van Dijk, 12 July / 23 \

13 Hoofdstuktitel hier Culture at a Glance Cultural education and participation in cultural life 3.1 Introduction This section focuses on cultural education, involvement in cultural life, the utilisation of culture, and support for culture by the Dutch population, as well as what research reveals about all these. It discusses cultural education both at school and elsewhere, receptive participation in cultural life (including via the media), the amateur arts, voluntary work, and membership of cultural societies (including Friends of... ). 3.2 Cultural education at school The importance of cultural education The importance of cultural education for children s overall development is not in dispute. Cultural education is one of the statutory tasks of primary and secondary schools. Virtually everyone in the Netherlands finds it important that children learn about the arts and culture, 10 and almost four out of five consider this to be a necessary component of the school curriculum. Most political parties agree on this point. 11 The Minister also endorses the significance of cultural education at school in her Culture Moves memorandum, and she intends maintaining the Culture credit card system for secondary school pupils. In consultation with the State Secretary for Education, the curriculum for Cultural and Artistic Education (CKV) is to be revised. The Minister also intends taking steps to improve the quality of cultural education at primary schools. In collaboration with the State Secretary, administrative agreements will be concluded with the 35 largest municipalities towards the end of 2013 with a view to improving the quality of cultural education over the course of the next ten years. What is cultural education? Cultural education involves pupils not only acquiring knowledge but also developing their creativity and a spirit of enquiry. Cultural and heritage education contribute to shared historical awareness and a shared identity. There is growing acknowledgement that cultural education is important for the development of creativity and innovativeness skills that many business people, policymakers, and researchers consider indispensable for the continued growth of our knowledge society / 10 Tepaske, E. T. et al., De betekenis van kunst en cultuur in het dagelijks leven (2010). p. 23 ff. 11 See, for example, Boekman 95 on Sociaal-liberaal cultuurbeleid (June 2013). 12 Council conclusions on fostering the creative and innovative potential of young people. EYCS Council (2012). Topteam Creatieve Industrie, Creatieve industrie in topvorm (2011). 25 \

14 3 \ Cultural education and participation in cultural life \ > What are the effects of cultural education? The growing interest in cultural education, both in the Netherlands and abroad, is creating a powerful incentive to study its effects. 13 The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) recently published Art for Art s Sake?, a review study of scientific research on the potential transfer effects of cultural education. Transfer effects means the extent to which cultural education influences pupils performance in other school subjects and skills for innovation. Do music lessons make children cleverer, for example, and do visual arts lessons make them more creative? The OECD s report concludes that a great deal of research is still restricted to establishing correlations and that causal connections have not yet been sufficiently demonstrated. 14 If there are in fact effects, they do not as yet offer any support for the belief that cultural education has beneficial effects on academic performance, for example in arithmetic, mathematics, and language. The effects of cultural education on creativity and critical thinking, and on such things as self-confidence, persistence and co-operation, have also not yet been investigated sufficiently to draw conclusions. It has been established, however, that cultural education contributes to making children well rounded and to preparing them for creative work within society. 15 Experimental studies indicate that there are, in fact, transfer effects. Music education boosts children s IQ, their speaking and listening skills, and their scholastic achievement. The training of listening skills has a positive effect on language skills. This can be explained in part by the concentration required for music lessons, while IQ levels and scholastic achievement both benefit from the academic approach to music education. One proven effect is that of drama training on verbal skills. There are also a number of studies that suggest a link between creativity and drama and dance education. Here too, however, the general thrust is that it is too early to draw firm conclusions; there has been too little research for that to be done. For the authors of Art for Art s Sake?, the justification for cultural education is to be found not in any possible side effects but in the intrinsic value of the arts and culture and the associated patterns of thinking. To begin with, cultural education imparts artistic skills and knowledge of the arts. Effective cultural education contributes to skills that arise directly from the domain of the arts, for example perception, imagination, power of expression, a spirit of enquiry, tenacity, the ability to reflect, and communication skills. According to these authors, cultural education can lay the basis for professional training and advanced programmes leading to creative work within society. This applies not only to professions in the arts sector itself; science and industry also demand skills that are inherent in the arts and culture and that can be developed by means of arts education Cultural education at school What is the current situation as regards cultural education at Dutch primary and secondary schools? The previous edition of Culture at a glance described the situation from the perspective of cultural policy. To summarise: education has made progress in terms of the underlying conditions for cultural education, but greater attention needs to be paid to the quality of the school subject itself. This is apparent from research and from a joint advisory report by the Council for Culture [Raad voor Cultuur] and the Education Council [Onderwijsraad]. 17 In 2013, the Dutch Inspectorate of Education [Inspectie van het Onderwijs] found that between 1994 and 2012 there had been a decline in the amount of time allotted to the expressive arts in years 3 to 8. The number of specialist music teachers has also fallen. A few specialist music and visual arts teachers have still been appointed at primary schools but the vast majority of lessons are now given by the class teacher. 18 The Quality Cultural Education [Cultuureducatie met kwaliteit] programme helps schools and cultural institutions identify and reinforce that quality in cultural instruction. Important improvements are the development of a continuous learning pathway in cultural education, based, among other things, on Culture in the Mirror [Cultuur in de Spiegel], 19 the Curriculum for Fine Arts and Design drawn up by the Association for Cultural and Arts Education (VONCK), and the new Arts ID learning pathways devised by the Rotterdam Foundation for Arts Education (SKVR). The agenda also includes continuing professional development for primary school teachers and the development of a tool for assessing pupils learning outcomes. The Dutch Inspectorate of Education has been asked to draw up a report on cultural education by The Ministry is working closely with the municipal and provincial authorities on this programme. 13 See, for example, Mieras, F. Wat muziek doet met kinderhersenen (2010). 14 See also Oosterhuis, R., Slimmer en succesvoller dankzij de kunst? (2012). 15 Winner E., T.R. Goldstein & S. Vincent-Lancrin, Art for Art s Sake? The Impact of Arts Education (2013). 16 See 17 Ministerie van Onderwijs, Cultuur en Wetenschappen, Cultuur in Beeld, The Hague (2011), pp See also: Oomen, C., et al. Cultuureducatie in het primair en voortgezet onderwijs. Monitor (2009). Timmermans, P. & S. Plantinga, Cultuureducatie in het basisonderwijs (2012). 18 Inspectie van het Onderwijs, Over de volle breedte, Stand van zaken met betrekking tot het onderwijsaanbod in het basisonderwijs (2013), pp Heusden, B. van, Cultuur in de Spiegel, naar een doorlopende leerlijn cultuuronderwijs (2010) 26 / 27 \

15 3 \ Cultural education and participation in cultural life \ > We will now take a look at some practical aspects of cultural education at schools: music at primary schools, the Dutch Canon of History, the Culture credit card at secondary schools, and reading. We will do this on the basis of recent research. Finally, we will review research on the role of primary school managers in cultural education. The importance of arts education Het Filiaal is the largest theatre company for families and primary schools in the central Netherlands region. It puts on a wide range of different shows, ranging from popular Broadway-style productions at theatres to small, intimate performances at schools or on location. Monique Corvers, the artistic manager, and Marjolein van Bommel, the commercial manager, talk about arts education. 20 Creativity is one of the most important twenty-first century skills, and arts education is the key. We believe our job is to inspire and support education with our shows and performances. Art broadens children s minds and helps them look at the world around them through different eyes. By creating theatrical productions that reflect the interests and experiences of pupils, we stimulate their emotional, creative, cognitive, and social development and their communication skills. Everything we do is based on the artistic content. We build the best bridges we can to schools and do whatever is needed to make our performances fit in with the lesson programme. We tailor our educational activities as much as possible to the various school subjects, be they geography, history, and so on. That way the curriculum becomes more integrated. For example, we ve just finished a project with a primary school related to our Einstein, Faster Than Light show. The pupils worked with an artist on building replicas of planets. We then built a replica of the entire solar system in the playground. Each child moved the earth to the position that it occupies in the solar system on his or her birthday. The teacher didn t think they d manage it, but they all did. A lot of children really blossom with a more creative approach to learning. Like other theatre companies in the Basic National Infrastructure, we see the inclusion of cultural education in the primary school curriculum as a huge opportunity. Dutch youth theatre is highly regarded abroad. Our company alone will be performing in Australia, Austria, Belgium, Germany, Ireland, Luxembourg, Russia, and Switzerland this year. Ironically, Dutch schools are generally contracting fewer and fewer of these special performances, even though they can take their classes to see a fabulous show the kind one sees on Broadway right here in their local theatre. And the show may very well turn out to be more than just a one-off encounter, but can have long-term benefits for all sorts of subjects and extramural activities. 20 Interview with Monique Corvers and Marjolein van Bommel, 16 August / 29 \

16 3 \ Cultural education and participation in cultural life Music education at primary school In 2009, the Cultural Participation Fund began implementing the Music in Every Child [Muziek in ieder kind] programme. This programme provides support for collaboration projects aimed at improving the quality of music education at primary schools. 21 In addition, 2010 saw the launch of the Music Counts [Muziek Telt] campaign by the former Kunstfactor, the Cultural Participation Fund, and Music Centre Netherlands [Muziekcentrum Nederland]. This campaign aims to draw attention to the importance of music education at primary schools. An opinion poll was carried out in that connection on the importance of music education; this showed that more than four fifths of the Dutch population consider that music lessons are important for children. 22 Research on music education Research was carried out within the context of the Music in Every Child programme and the Music Counts campaign on the current state of primary school music education. Schools employee only a few specialist teachers with a background in music education. Music education is given mainly by the class teacher, sometimes with the assistance of external (instrumental) music teachers. Lessons focus primarily on technique and listening skills and far less on interpretation and aesthetic skills. There is also no consensus on what should actually be taught. Class teachers, for example, tend to emphasise general music education, whereas specialist music teachers emphasise instrumental skills to a greater extent. Need for more music education training In projects involving external music teachers, collaboration between the external teacher and the class teacher on the actual subject matter remains limited. Class teachers tend to focus on providing practical support. There is also little collaboration between schools and orchestras or music schools. Once the project has finished, the music lessons usually cease too. Many class teachers are uncertain of their abilities when it comes to teaching music, and they therefore focus less on certain aspects. Conversely, music teachers employed at cultural institutions who also give lessons at schools often do not have the necessary pedagogical and didactic skills for whole-class teaching. Specialist music teachers (with a background in music education) do have the skills, but spend little time teaching at schools, relatively speaking. Researchers conclude that there is a pressing need for training in music education, both in teacher training programmes and for current teachers The Dutch Canon of History at primary schools A focus on heritage is one of the core activities for artistic orientation and for the school subject of history. The Dutch Canon was presented in 2007 and reviews the history of the Netherlands in words and images, in the form of fifty windows. Its aim is to introduce historical cohesion and to improve pupils chronological understanding. Since the 2010/2011 school year, the Canon has been one of the core objectives for primary schools and the lower years at secondary schools. Almost all school history courses have now included the Canon in their teaching materials. 24 Increasing use of the Canon Five years after it was introduced, the Canon is now being used by 63% of Dutch schools. That is considerably more than in 2008, when only 33% were using it. 25 Schools that do not use the Canon (36%) say that the main reason is that the topics it covers have already been incorporated into their teaching. Of those 36%, 17% say that they do intend starting to use it. Only a few schools give other reasons for not using the Canon. They say that they do not have any suitable ways of using it, that they disagree with the selection of topics that it covers, or they do not have an interactive whiteboard (IWB) in the classroom (each 2%). The Internet plays an important supportive role. Schools are particularly familiar with the Dutch Canon website (www.entoen.nu), with 64% saying that they sometimes access or use one or more of its components (2008: 13%). Schools collaborate extensively with cultural institutions when using the Canon in their teaching, primarily with libraries (75%), centres for cultural education (60%), and museums (50%). In general, primary schools have a very positive opinion of the Canon as a pedagogical concept (see Table 3.1). Table 3.1 Opinion of the Canon as a pedagogical concept (N= 363) 26 The canon... Yes? No helps inculcate knowledge of Dutch history and culture 83% 10% 6% can be used effectively in education 77% 18% 6% has well-chosen components 65% 27% 7% meets a need in education 53% 30% 17% offers welcome guidance for my lessons 51% 28% 20% appeals to pupils 47% 40% 13% strengthens our national identity 43% 38% 18% helps us to overcome gaps in education 40% 41% 20% is superfluous 14% 14% 72% 21 Fonds voor Cultuurparticipatie, Er zit muziek in ieder kind (2013). Jans, M. et al., Muziek in ieder kind (2012). 22 Wils, J. Muziek telt! (2010). 23 Schilt-Mol, T. van, Muziekles op de basisschool: meer en beter? In Jaarboek Actieve Cultuurparticipatie Fonds voor Cultuurparticipatie, Utrecht (2012), pp More information is available on the associated website: 25 Haalen, J. van & M. Kieft, De Canon in het basisonderwijs, Utrecht. Oberon, September (2012). 26 Adapted from Haalen, J. van & M. Kieft, De Canon in het basisonderwijs, Utrecht: Oberon, September / 31 \

17 3 \ Cultural education and participation in cultural life \ > The highest level of agreement was with the statement The Canon helps inculcate knowledge of Dutch history and culture, with some eight out of ten schools agreeing. Schools were also enthusiastic about using the Canon effectively in education (in 2008, that statement in fact had the highest level of agreement). Only a minority consider the Canon to be superfluous Culture credit card The aim of the Culture credit card is to encourage participation in cultural life by secondary school pupils (VMBO, HAVO, VWO, and VSO schools and Practical Education (PRO)). The Culture credit card is not obligatory but since it was introduced in virtually all secondary schools have made use of it. Each pupil receives a personal cultural discount pass with 15 euros worth of credit on it. For the first three years, the VSB Fund added another 10 euros for pupils taking the subject of Cultural and Artistic Education. The credit becomes available when the pupil activates the pass. In the season, 89% of all registered pupils did so. A total of just under 1300 cultural institutions had signed up for the initiative in that season. A number of spending trends have become apparent in the four school years since the Culture credit card was introduced ( ). Most spending was on theatre and dance, by 30% of pupils. Art centres took second place, with approx. 20%. Spending on cinema and art cinemas declined, with the budget falling from 8% during the first school year to 4% in the final school year. In the case of museums, there was a slight rise to 10%. Finally, the category of cultural and educational services saw growth from 7.5% to 12.5%. It is striking that spending on music (including popular music) was no more than a few percent. 27 During the season, it was uncertain whether the Culture credit card would continue to exist. The first Rutte Government decided to terminate funding for the scheme. Minister Bussemaker has made government funding available again for Culture credit card for the next ten years Promoting reading A number of studies demonstrate a relationship between reading and educational success. 29 A good command of language and reading skills turn out to be good predictors of academic success and the social position that pupils achieve after graduation. It is therefore important to promote reading among children and young adults. The more children enjoy reading, the greater the effect that it has. 30 Reading aloud to children also has a positive effect on their text comprehension, vocabulary, and spelling. 31 A survey conducted in the context of Reading Aloud Year [Jaar van het Voorlezen] showed that 51% of all people in the Netherlands sometimes read aloud to children or adults. They almost unanimously find doing so fun (91%) and useful (96%). A majority of those who read aloud (58%) find time to do so at least once a week and 15% even do so every day. In three quarters of cases, people read aloud for between 5 and 15 minutes. Of those who never read aloud to others, 41% still say that it is fun, while 75% say that it is useful. Most people in the Netherlands are aware that reading aloud is beneficial. 32 The Art of Reading The Dutch Reading Foundation [Stichting Lezen] is the national knowledge centre for reading promotion and literature education. Since 2008, it has collaborated with the Public Libraries Sector Institute [Sectorinstituut Openbare Bibliotheken] on the Art of Reading [Kunst van Lezen] programme to promote reading. Between 2012 and 2015, the programme comprises three components: strategic reading promotion networks, BoekStart, and the Library at School. Strategic reading promotion networks form the core of Art of Reading. During a long-running campaign, library directors attend a variety of workshops and regional conferences preparing them for collaboration with municipalities and institutions (Centres for Family and Children (CJGs), childcare organisations, and schools). The aim is to ensure the systematic, long-term incorporation of BoekStart and Library at School into the policy pursued by all the partners. In the BoekStart programme, the parents of newborn babies receive a letter containing a voucher that they can cash at a local library. The project now operates at 90% of libraries, with 41% of parents actually cashing the voucher. Of all parents with a baby subscription, 45% are active and borrow a baby book at least four times a year. 33 The Library at School system has now been introduced at more than 700 primary schools. In secondary education, the system will begin in 2013 with a series of pilot projects. 27 CJP, Eindrapportage Cultuurkaart Cultural policy memorandum Cultuur beweegt (10 June 2013). 29 Notten, N., Parents and the Media (2011) & Kortlever, D.J.M. & J.S. Lemmens, Relaties tussen leesgedrag en Cito-scores van Kinderen (2012). 30 Huysmans, F., Van Woordjes naar wereldliteratuur (2013). 31 Bus, A.G., et al. Een meta-analyse naar intergenerationele overdracht van geletterdheid (1994) Evaluatie BoekStart, Stichting Lezen, / 33 \

18 Helping children enjoy reading with the Reading Express In the Reading Express programme [VoorleesExpress], a group of enthusiastic volunteers help children with a language deficiency by reading to them in their own homes over a twenty-week period. The volunteers introduce families to the ritual of reading aloud. They coach parents so that they can take over reading to their children and help make books part of everyday family life. Their assistance encourages children s language development, enriches the linguistic environment in the home, and puts people in touch with one another. Piet Hoffman 34 has been a volunteer with Reading Express in Amsterdam for almost a year now. According to the guidelines, volunteers are supposed to read aloud to the children for 45 minutes and then spend 15 minutes talking to the parents. But 30 minutes is already quite a long time to read aloud (although we alternate reading and playing games, colouring pictures, putting on shows, and just chatting about things). Children need to learn to concentrate too. We always pick a fixed point in the week for the reading aloud session so that we can work on building a tradition and on making reading a ritual. It s amazing to be able to help a child s development just by spending an hour with them each week and by getting to know them as neighbours. The volunteers develop real relationships with the families. At first, they re focused exclusively on the reading sessions. But after a while, the families start asking the volunteers to stay for dinner or to celebrate the end of Ramadan with them. They re very welcoming. A lot of volunteers stay in touch with the host families even after the twenty weeks are finished. Still, they try to coach the parents as much as possible during the final few sessions so that they will continue reading aloud to their children themselves. Many parents have to get over their own fear of mispronouncing words or not knowing what they mean. So the project also helps the parents improve their language skills Primary school managers School managers are responsible for ensuring that their schools provide a good quality of education. They are therefore also responsible for the quality of the cultural education provided. How do educational boards implement that responsibility? What factors do they consider in their strategic planning, allocation of resources, and personnel policy? Recent research in the provinces of North Holland and South Holland shows how the managers of primary schools shoulder their responsibility in the field of cultural education. 35 Most school managers endorse the importance of cultural education, viewing culture as an integral part of children s broad development. They also say that cultural education helps children develop creativity and encourages them to adopt an open attitude to the world around them. In actual practice, however, only a few policy plans identify specific aims in the field of cultural education. According to school managers, things that are difficult to quantify, such as cultural education, do not lend themselves to formulating objectives. School managers are also largely unaware of the possibilities and national trends in the field of cultural education. Towards the end of 2013, the Minister and State Secretary will be concluding agreements on cultural education with the assembled municipal alderman responsible for education and culture and with the Primary Education Council [PO-raad] (the association of school managers in primary education). Those agreements will set out the joint aims for cultural education for the next ten years. The objective of the agreements is to support the discussion of cultural education at primary schools at local level, i.e. between the municipal authorities, the school managers, and the cultural institutions. 3.3 Receptive participation in cultural life Trends in participation in cultural life The Netherlands is one of Europe s leaders as regards participation in cultural life. It is, for example, in the top three for theatre attendance, reading (books), and visits to museums, art galleries, and historic buildings. 36 However, participation is not stable. Since the 1980s, visitor numbers have been falling where the more costly and traditional performing arts are concerned, for example opera. The number of people borrowing books from libraries is also falling, but in the case of popular art forms such as popular music and film, interest is in fact increasing. From AVO to VTO In order to keep track of these trends, the Ministry for many years utilised the figures generated by the Netherlands Institute for Social Research (SCP) on the basis of its Amenities and Services Utilisation Survey (AVO). The AVO was a large-scale survey, carried out every four years, of the utilisation of government-provided facilities. The size and cost of the survey meant that the SCP was unable to continue it, ending an uninterrupted, decades-long series of surveys concerning participation in cultural life in the Netherlands Interview with Piet Hoffman, 1 August VoorleesExpress was initiated by SodaProducties, bureau voor Maatschappelijk Innovatie. Admiraal, K. et al., Cultuureducatie op niveau (2012); Ligtvoet-Janssen, M.G.A. et al., Kansen voor cultuureducatie (2012). 36 Eurostat, Eurobarometer 278 (2007), p / 35 \

19 3 \ Cultural education and participation in cultural life \ > The Leisure Activities Survey (VTO) provides a new basis for our knowledge of such participation in the country. The first survey took place in late 2012/early 2013, with the first reports appearing later in The VTO will take place once every two years, therefore providing more up-to-date information. Data from the VTO does provide up-to-date information but not yet any information as regards trends. A solution to this can be found in a different SCP survey associated with the SCP Life Situation Index (SLI). That survey includes a limited number of questions about participation in cultural life, with a series being available from 2004 to 2005 (see Table 3.2). The SCP itself will report on this subject for the first time in December in The Social State of the Netherlands Table 3.2 Cultural participation by Dutch population (18 and over), (percentage who, once or more in the past twelve months, have attended...) Opera Classical music Ballet Theatre Museum Musical Cabaret Film Popular music The different questions, age selection, and structure of the SLI mean that these figures for participation differ from those based on the AVO and therefore from the Kunstminnend Nederland? study [The Art-loving Netherlands?] discussed below. 38 Declining participation Table 3.2 shows the figures for participation in cultural life between 2004 and 2012, based on population surveys. Section 5 discusses trends in the number of visitors to subsidised cultural institutions. The surveys show that in 2012 more than 60% of the adult popula- 37 The SCP will also use the figures in the Cultuur Index Nederland, which it is developing together with the Boekman Foundation. A special edition of the periodical Boekman on this topic will appear in December This is disappointing and sometimes troublesome in the context of policy; it is, however, unavoidable with research of this kind. There is still no generally accepted international standard for research on participation in cultural life. tion of the Netherlands went to the cinema at least once a year; this represents an increase compared to A quarter of the population attended a popular music, cabaret, musical, or theatre performance. About half the Dutch population visited a museum at least once a year. With the exception of film, participation declined in all disciplines between 2010 and This difference between the two years cannot be called a trend; it may be due to the economic crisis. The exceptional position of film was noted previously, including in an international context. In times of crisis, falling attendance affects film less than other genres. 39 Differences between generations The kinds of cultural expression that people patronise are largely determined by their age. In the case of popular culture for example popular music and film young people are strongly overrepresented. Attendance at traditional cultural events is reasonably well distributed across different age groups, but the public for such events is in fact ageing. The differing generations have been socialised differently in cultural terms. People retain the cultural preferences of their youth for the rest of their lives, and only some of those preferences change as they pass through the various life phases. The younger the generation, the greater the interest in popular culture (popular music, cabaret, film). If this trend continues, it will mean that popular culture will have increasingly wide audience. Traditional culture Compared with attendance at popular culture performances, attendance at traditional cultural events theatre, classical music, ballet, museums, and historic buildings depends much less on the generation or phase of life. There are certain differences between the generations, but these are not as marked as in the case of popular culture. There are significant differences within the traditional disciplines, but these dwindle to insignificance in survey results when taken the genres are taken as a group. The preference for classical music has declined with successive generations. In the youngest generations, the percentage of those attending classical music concerts is approximately half that among retired people (born between 1935 and 1944). This decline has in fact been brought to a standstill but it has not yet been reversed. 40 For many cultural institutions, the ageing of the population provides an opportunity to attract more people in the older age groups, something that the SCP refers to as cashing in on ageing 41 In 2013, a large number of parties signed an agreement on elderly people and culture, with the aim of encouraging participation in cultural life by members of this group In southern European countries such as Spain and Greece, there has in fact been a marked decline in the number of people going to the cinema (Focus 2013, World film market trends. European Audiovisual Observatory, p. 7 and p. 17.) It is not only the impact of the crisis that plays a role; the increasing availability (paid and unpaid) of films on television and the Internet is also a factor. 40 Broek, A. van den, et al., Wisseling van de wacht: generaties in Nederland (2010), p Broek, A. van den, et al. Cultuurbewonderaars en cultuurbeoefenaars (2009), p Ministerie van Onderwijs, Cultuur en Wetenschappen et al. convenanten/2013/06/18/convenantouderen- en-cultuur.html (accessed 8 August 2013). 36 / 37 \

20 3 \ Cultural education and participation in cultural life Potential reach and experience of the arts The recent SCP study Kunstminnend Nederland? deals with the reach of the arts on the basis of data for Reach is a broad term in this context: it ranges from being interested in culture, reading about it, watching cultural programmes on TV or talking about it with friends, to actually attending a cultural event. For each art form, more than 50% of the population say that they are interested in the canonical forms (classical music, the visual arts, theatre, dance), while more than 80% say that they take an interest in the more popular art forms (cabaret, film, popular music). But not everyone who is interested actually attends a cultural event. The gap between being interested and actually attending an event can be interpreted as the potential participation within the population. The percentage of people interested in culture who convert that interest into actual attendance is referred to as the degree of conversion (see Figure 3.1). Conversion differs according to genre, but for most art forms the potential participation is considerably larger than the actual attendance figure. On average, the conversion from interest to attendance is one third of those who are interested; this applies to both canonical and popular art forms. Here is where arts institutions have the potential to attract a larger audience. Figure Interest, reach, and conversion for various art forms Population aged 16 and over, 2009 (as percentages) 44 classical music visual arts theatre dance musical cabaret film popular music In current discussions of the arts and the extent to which they reach the public, much is being said about how the arts enrich people s experience of life. A whole range is mentioned: enjoyment or relaxation, unwinding, encountering new ideas, feeling moved, being consoled, feeling a sense of solidarity with others or, conversely, celebrating one s individual identity. The world of marketing goes to great lengths to research customers experience. In the arts and culture, however, that kind of research is still rare, even though knowing what an audience experiences during a performance or an exhibition may enable performers and artists to key into that experience more effectively. The Kunstminnend Nederland? study attempted to investigate how the Dutch population experience the arts. People were asked to indicate the extent to which they agreed with the following statements, which describe how they may have felt during their last visit (to a museum, the theatre, etc.): it was relaxing; it got me thinking; it made me laugh, it made me happy, it cheered me up; it was comforting, consoling; it gave me a shot of energy, pepped me up, charged me up; it was moving, emotional; it made me a sense of belonging. The results are summarised in Figure 3.2 according to canonical and popular art forms. 45 interest reach conversion 43 Broek, A. van den, Kunstminnend Nederland? (2013). This does not deal with heritage. 44 SCP version based on Broek, A. van den, Kunstminnend Nederland?, (2013). 45 It is striking that no category is included that attempts to describe the experience of beauty or aesthetic pleasure. 38 / 39 \

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