Introduction. Research methodology

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1 A Primary Study of the Size in Working Area of Librarians Ko-Li Chen Associate Professor, Department of Architecture, Tunghai University Li -Wen Pan Library Clerk, Nan-Kai Institute of Technology Introduction In the process of architectural planning and design for libraries, librarian working space requirements often do not receive sufficient attention. Among the questions affecting librarian space requirements, are included the minor issues of their office equipment needs and placement, to the larger issues of their spatial relation to the overall library layout. An even more fundamental issue remains the determination of spatial requirements for librarian workspace, as well as the ideal work space size? Thus, this study will explore: 1. Whether library workspace area requirements should be designed in accordance with personal basic workspace as the determinative factor. 2. The relations among individual workspace and common shared workspace. 3. Finding the appropriate parameters for adjustment of guidelines. This study assumes: to undertake an analytical comparison, that basically, the nature of the work done in any library department will be common across that department s colleagues, with similar equipment requirements as well, and each section s office environment conditions shall also be similar. In terms of characteristic features, the following are relevant: 1. Consideration of the specialized functional office space requirements of the library 2. Study of the specialized units of the library and their office workspace requirements. 3. No discussion of factors which affect decision maker s determination of spatial allotments, as such considerations lack any core common consensus established standard guidelines. 4. Focus on the existing environment as critical. Research methodology This study relies on some data from the University Library Professional Services and Work Space Research project, especially data exploring librarians perceptions of their spatial requirements. The primary focus scope includes library staff and interns office space requirements, including hallways/walkways, work or procedure manual shelves, ingress and egress appurtenant equipment (placement),

2 intern workspace and department common use computing equipment, but not including service shelving and other service space (such as for drinking water or snack areas), including operational areas, management areas, storage areas, restrooms with doors, and meeting rooms. In accordance with the study s characteristics and objectives, the following research methods are deployed in this study: 1. Survey questionnaire: After obtaining authorization, the study examined various departmental staff located at six university libraries in Taiwan. The purpose of this effort was to explore library staff perceptions towards their workspace environment, and further inform a robust basis for in-depth interviewing. 2. Site sketches: This involved site visits to each department to sketch the office workspace locations, size, position, furniture placement, and environment related equipment, surveying and depicting, for the departmental space requirements of study respondents as well as their individual basic work space size requirements. 3. Interviewing: After the interview results were obtained, statistical analysis was performed, and where indicated, additional interviewing conducted, primarily among section chiefs. 4. Behavioral observation: The researcher observed library staff at work to understand their environment, equipment, space and personnel interactions, helping provide more empirical insights which the questionnaire and interviewing may have overlooked. Statistical analysis helped elicit both individual workspace area and median departmental workspace area data. With respect to our domestic guidelines (standards), librarian staff office space requirement calculations and their actual size in practice are vastly different. This study undertook a survey of six university libraries, both seeking their staff perspectives on space requirements, but also measuring departmental and individual area requirements. The study then compared and contrasted the actual workspace area sizes and staff perspectives, to identify staff views on the optimal or ideal space requirements. Then the study considered the ideal size for each of the six libraries dividing by the total personnel, obtaining median values for each of the six university libraries, elucidating individual basic workspace area requirements and departmental median individual workspace area requirements.

3 Research results The study results indicate a comparison of our findings and the literature, for each department s individual basic workspace and departmental median individual workspace area requirements, most had larger actual size, but was smaller than the recommendations of architect Malone Chang, though the findings showed larger areas than the prior literature found. The study findings indicate that the number of personnel deployed to any library departmental unit do not exercise the major affect (25%) on staff perceptions of overall spatial crowding, rather the overall departmental area was the major factor (75%)(Pan Li-wen, 2006). At the same time, in libraries, personnel workspace area dimensions are clearly different in size depending on the nature of their work functions, with technical service staff enjoying larger individual spatial area size than that of reader service staff. The study findings noted that categorizing and analyzing acceptable individual spatial requirements, the audiovisual and periodicals departments did not have the same workspace area size as did the cataloging area, but were similar in size to that for printed work or audiovisual areas, and these could all be deemed to fall within technological services. Conclusion The study elicited the following four conclusions: 1. When calculating workspace physical requirements for librarians, individual workspace area should not be selected as a parameter, instead an emphasis on overall departmental median workspace area should be the dimension selected. As for acceptable workspace size dimensions in fact, surveying and calculations found that the basic workspace area of different departments was not substantially great (the largest being the cataloging section at 5.08 m2, while the least was the reference section with 3.55 m2, for a difference of only 1.5 m2, while in terms of overall department median size the results varied substantially (the maximum being the cataloging area with m2, and the least being the Reference Section at 19.2 m2). 2. Exploring the reality and significance of shared space. By considering the overall personnel median workspace area divided by the individual workspace area, we obtained a department s Shared Space. This departmental parameter establishes the departmental staff requirements for common space (area), ranging from the highest of 6.8 m2, to the lowest of 3.9 m2. This factor expresses differences in staff perspectives for workspace requirements, which merit further empirical study of their value and signification.

4 3. The study articulates some inconsistencies amongst the parameters in the prior literature. Firstly, the individual space size for each department is enlarged, beyond that needed for basic workspace requirements. Secondly, the individual workspace requirement is reframed through overall individual median area for use, which may be unreasonable. Thirdly, no differentiation was made as to technical staff basic workspace area and public (patrons) service staff basic workspace requirements. From this, one can conclude that domestic guidelines have some inconsistencies in definitions/standards and in actuality, but neither can it be assumed that overseas figures would be more complete or correct. 4. The study data lack the requisite precision and accuracy, so their use ought to be limited to reference alone. Since the numbers of respondents were few, it was difficult to establish the actual scope of use of departmental areas, and each department s use of interns in terms of numbers and type of activity varied greatly. All of these affect this study s precise determination of area requirements and statistical analyses of the survey results, thus the findings are useful only as referents. Reference Brawner L.,Beck D.(1996).Determining Your Public Library's Future Size.Chica go:american Library Association. Brill, M.,Stephen, T.,Konar, E.(1984).Using Office Design to Increase Productiv ity.buffalo, NY:Workplace Design and Productivity. Brill, M.,Stephen, T.,Konar, E.(1985).Using Office Design to Increase Productiv ity.buffalo, NY:Workplace Design and Productivity. Chiara De,Crosbie M.(2001).Time-saver Standards for Building Types.Chicago:A merican Library Association. Dancik D. (eds.),shroder E. (eds.)(1995).buildings Blocks for Planning Function al Library Space.Chicago:American Library Association. Edward H.(1990).University Library Building Planning.Metuchen, N.J:Scarecrow Press. Freifeld R.,Masyr C.(1991).Space Planning.Washington, D.C:Special. Harold L. Dahnke, H.L.,Dennis P. Jones, D.P.,Mason, T.R.,Romney, L.C.(1971). Higher Education Facilities Planning and Management Manuals. Leighton P.,Webb D.(1999).Planning Academic and Research Library Buildings. Chicago:American Library Association. Margeton S.(2000).Introduction to Academic Law Library Design: A Features p proach. Littleton.Colorado:Fred Rothman Publications. McGowan M.,Kruse K.(2004).Interior Graphic Standards.New York:John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

5 Metcalf K.(1965).Planning Academic and Research Library Buildings.New York: McGraw-Hill. Ross R.(1987).Information Technologies and Space Planning for Libraries and I nformation Centers.Boston, Mass:G.K. Hal. The American Library Association(2001).Building Blocks for Planning Function al Library Space.London:Scarecrow Press. Xu, J.,Croft, B.(1996).Query expansion using local and global document analysi s.proceedings of the 19th annual international ACMSIGIR. 中 國 西 北 設 計 研 究 院 (1999)[Zhong guo xi bei she ji yan jiu yuan] 圖 書 館 建 築 設 計 規 範 [Tu shu guan jian zhu she ji gui fan] 北 京 : 中 國 建 築 工 業 出 版 社 [Bei jing :zhong guo jian zhu gong ye chu ban she] 木 野 修 造 建 築 思 潮 研 究 所 編 (1984)[Mu ye xiu zao` jian zhu si chao yan jiu s uo bian] 圖 書 館 建 築 之 100 關 鍵 語, 建 築 設 計 資 料 第 7 冊 圖 書 館 [Tu shu guan jian zhu zhi 100guan jian yu, jian zhu she ji zi liao di 7ce tu shu guan] 日 本 東 京 都 : 日 本 建 築 資 料 研 究 社 [Ri ben dong jing dou :ri ben jian zhu zi liao yan jiu she] 洪 翠 錨 (2001)[Hong cui mao] 圖 書 館 編 目 館 員 工 作 壓 力 之 探 討 [Tu shu guan bi an mu guan yuan gong zuo ya li zhi tan tao] 大 學 圖 書 館,5(2),63-66[D a xue tu shu guan, 5(2), 63-66] 國 立 臺 灣 大 學 校 園 規 劃 工 作 小 組 總 圖 書 館 工 務 小 組 (1991)[Guo li tai wan da xu e xiao yuan gui hua gong zuo xiao zu zong tu shu guan gong wu xiao z u] 國 立 臺 灣 大 學 圖 書 館 競 圖 作 品 資 料 集 [Guo li tai wan da xue tu shu gu an jing tu zuo pin zi liao ji] 臺 北 市 : 臺 灣 大 學 [Tai bei shi: tai wan da xu e] 張 瑪 龍 (2000)[Zhang ma long] 博 士 論 文 ( 博 士 論 文 )[Bo shi lun wen (bo shi lu n wen)] 臺 南 市, 國 立 成 功 大 學 建 築 研 究 所 [Tai nan shi, guo li cheng gon g da xue jian zhu yan jiu suo] 經 濟 部 中 央 標 準 局 (1995)[Jing ji bu zhong yang biao zhun ju] 公 共 圖 書 館 建 築 設 備 [Gong gong tu shu guan jian zhu she bei] ( 中 國 國 家 標 準, 總 號 , 類 號 Z7267)[Zhong guo guo jia biao zhun, zong hao 13612, lei hao Z7267] 潘 儷 文 (2006)[Pan li wen] 碩 士 論 文 ( 碩 士 論 文 )[Shuo shi lun wen (shuo shi lu n wen)] 臺 中 市, 中 興 大 學 圖 書 資 訊 學 研 究 所 [Tai zhong shi, zhong xing da xue tu shu zi xun xue yan jiu suo]

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