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1 REPORT WRITING KIE & SGN Tolkki

2 Outline Part 1: The basics Part 2: Language for reports Part 3:Practical considerations Summary Free discussion Pair formation

3 Part 1: The basics Starting points for writing Report structure: Introduction Theory / Background (KIE only) Methods Results and discussion Conclusion Abstract (appears first, of course)

4 Starting points for writing Purpose Audience Topic & contents Procedure A careful analysis of the assignment! Thesis statement: The purpose of this assignment is to by doing X, Y & Z (procedure).

5 Report structure 5 Each section of a text e.g. a research report has its own purpose in the whole. E.g. Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion ex.html TASK: Discuss the role of the introduction with a partner What are the key functions of the introduction e.g. in a research article? 21/01/2014

6 Report structure: Introduction 6 Basic functions: Raising interest, setting the scene, explaining the topic, explaining the objective (thesis statement), explaining the key contents Situation, Problem, Solution CARS model (Swales 1990), (handout) Move 1: Establish territory Move 2: Establish your niche Move 3: Occupy your niche 21/01/2014

7 Report structure: Introduction 7 Move 1: Establish territory Claim centrality, show relevance Make topic generalisations Review previous research (very briefly) Move 2: Establish your niche Counter-claim (However, )/ Indicate a gap / Raise a question / Continue tradition Move 3: Occupy your niche Outline the purposes (Announce key findings) Outline the structure 21/01/2014

8 Report structure: Theory / background (KIE nd assignment) A brief literature review related to the topic of the assignment Three major questions to address: 1. How does your research project build on or depart from previous studies? 2. What does previous research on related topics tell us about your topic? 3. Why do you expect to obtain different (or similar) findings or reach different (or similar) conclusions?

9 Report structure: Methods (& materials) Describe the procedure coherently & concisely Assignment instructions as a starting point (i.e. what you should have done) More general point of view main points only Include enough information Examples & useful language:

10 Report structure: Results and discussion (or Results) Description and evaluation of the results: Figures & tables Author comments & interpretations Comparison to previous results (if applicable): ex.html

11 Report structure: Conclusion What are the functions of the final section of your paper? Give a brief overview of the study Create a link to the introduction E.g. restate the main problem / thesis statement Summarize the main findings Show what you have learned: Explain the findings, if possible Generalize, if possible Evaluate the findings (limitations) Suggest ideas for future research

12 Report structure: Abstract Appars first Contains key information only The aim of the paper The main results words

13 Template available to help you See SGN web-page:

14 Part 2: Language for reports Text structure: Paragraphs Logical connectors Given & new information Academic writing style: The passive Vocabulary

15 Text structure: Paragraphs 15 A unit of writing containing one sentence or more. Starts on a new line. One controlling idea in each paragraph. Often expressed in the first sentence of a paragraph One controlling idea can cover several paragraphs One or more supporting ideas that further explain and develop the controlling idea. 21/01/2014

16 Text structure: When to start a new 16 paragraph? Contrasting information Two sides of the same idea Introducing a sub-theme of the same idea Complex ideas can be divided to help the reader Moving on to a new idea 21/01/2014

17 Text structure: Identifying a coherent 17 paragraph A clear controlling idea Key words (or their synonyms) Key themes Verb tenses Grammatical structures 21/01/2014

18 Paragraph structure, an example 18 During the first decade of this century, nanotechnology has clearly been one of the most prominent areas of science. In a period of few years, nanotechnology has developed from a tiny field of specialists into a worldwide scientific and industrial enterprise. In the United States, funding for the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI), which started at $270 million in 2000, reached $1 billion already in 2005 and has grown ever since. Worldwide, government funded nanotechnology research has increased at an even faster pace. 21/01/2014

19 Paragraph structure, an example 19 During the first decade of this century, nanotechnology has clearly been one of the most prominent areas of science. In a period of few years, nanotechnology has developed from a tiny field of specialists into a worldwide scientific and industrial enterprise. In the United States, funding for the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI), which started at $270 million in 2000, reached $1 billion already in 2005 and has grown ever since. Worldwide, government funded nanotechnology research has increased at an even faster pace. 21/01/2014

20 Paragraph structure, an example 20 During the first decade of this century, nanotechnology has clearly been one of the most prominent areas of science. In a period of few years, nanotechnology has developed from a tiny field of specialists into a worldwide scientific and industrial enterprise. In the United States, funding for the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI), which started at $270 million in 2000, reached $1 billion already in 2005 and has grown ever since. Worldwide, government funded nanotechnology research has increased at an even faster pace. 21/01/2014

21 Paragraph structure, an example 21 During the first decade of this century, nanotechnology has clearly been one of the most prominent areas of science. In a period of few years, nanotechnology has developed from a tiny field of specialists into a worldwide scientific and industrial enterprise. In the United States, funding for the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI), which started at $270 million in 2000, reached $1 billion already in 2005 and has grown ever since. Worldwide, government funded nanotechnology research has increased at an even faster pace. 21/01/2014

22 Paragraph structure, an example 22 During the first decade of this century, nanotechnology has clearly been one of the most prominent areas of science. In a period of few years, nanotechnology has developed from a tiny field of specialists into a worldwide scientific and industrial enterprise. In the United States, funding for the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI), which started at $270 million in 2000, reached $1 billion already in 2005 and has grown ever since. Worldwide, government funded nanotechnology research has increased at an even faster pace. 21/01/2014

23 Homework (fully independent) 23 Analyse a paragraph Take an old piece of your writing and identify the controlling and supporting ideas of (some of) your paragraphs. If these are not clear, edit your text and ask your partner to offer feedback 21/01/2014

24 Text structure: Logical connectors Linking words, clause connectors, transition words. Link two ideas together and show relationships between them Help your reader to see how things are connected. Some examples: And, furthermore, moreover, but, however, whereas, correspondingly, equally, consequently, therefore, first, second, last MORE: Lauri Tolkki / TUT Language Centre

25 Logical connectors: an example John is rich. He is sad. John is rich and sad. John is rich, but he is sad. Although John is rich, he is sad. John is rich; therefore he is sad. John is rich because he is sad. Lauri Tolkki / TUT Language Centre

26 Text structure: Given-New 26 Readers expect new information to be presented within a context which is familiar to them. something that has already been mentioned in the text something familiar to the readers from their general or specialist knowledge about the topic(s) of the text. Thus, writers should (in most cases) place familiar information before new information in the sentence. 21/01/2014

27 TASK Read and compare 27 dex.html 21/01/2014

28 Academic writing style: The passive Passive voice used when: The emphasis is on the action not who did it Methods section! Three pictures with different parameters were taken. VS. We took three pictures with different parameters. You wish to focus on the result of the action and thus place it first in the sentence. The distortion was caused by a programming error. More on the passive: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jg8uyyidn-c

29 Academic writing style: vocabulary Words that are common in spoken / informal language are replaced with more formal ones. Verbs: do, have, make With your partner, try and think of more specific verbs Do: complete, conduct, execute, function, implement, operate, perform Have: contain, include, incorporate, involve, possess Make: assemble, construct, create, erect, fabricate, form, generate, manufacture, produce Lauri Tolkki / TUT Language Centre

30 Academic writing style: vocabulary Phrasal verbs are not used: The price of oil has gone up. The price of oil has increased. They are trying to find out what causes the problem. They are attempting to identify the cause of the problem. Lauri Tolkki / TUT Language Centre

31 Academic writing style: vocabulary Adjectives: big, small, good, bad Again, work with your partner for a moment. Big: considerable, great, large, major, significant, substantial Small: insignificant, minor, minute Good: advantageous, appropriate, attractive, effective, suitable Bad: defective, inappropriate, ineffective, poor, unsuitable Lauri Tolkki / TUT Language Centre

32 Academic writing style: vocabulary Nouns: Never use unspecific nouns such as a thing, stuff. A thing: a device, an entity, an instrument, an item, an object anything but a thing. Stuff: material, substance, miscellaneous objects, any specific material (chemicals, dust, waste ) Lauri Tolkki / TUT Language Centre

33 Academic writing style: vocabulary Nouns: Use umbrella terms to avoid long lists: Cars, lorries, trucks, motorcycles = vehicles Firefox, Opera, Internet Explorer =browsers Users may access the Internet with the help of several programmes like Firefox, Opera, Internet Explorer etc. ->can be improved: Users may access the Internet by using browsers, such as Firefox, Opera or Internet Explorer. Lauri Tolkki / TUT Language Centre

34 Academic writing style: vocabulary Adverbs: Use formal equivalents Nowadays currently Often frequently Sometimes occasionally Lauri Tolkki / TUT Language Centre

35 Part 3:Practical considerations Using figures & tables Using sources

36 Using figures & tables Each figure / table should have a number and title (see template) Each figure / table should be referred to & commented on in the text. NOT self-explanatory!

37 Using figures & tables Table 1 shows the results obtained with three different parameters. As can be seen, the second set of results differs significantly from the other two.[ ] More examples: a.htm

38 Using sources: Referencing Any source material used is to be referenced using the IEEE (numerical) system or the numerical system of TUT Thesis Guide See the template for examples Why bother with sources? Starting points for your work (cf. CARS model) Foundations of your theory Points of comparison for your results Support for your analysis Absolutely vital for good science!

39 Using sources: reporting verbs Effective use of sources links ideas together and shows the connections clearly. For example, do your results agree / disagree with somebody else s. Requires sufficient vocabulary See the link below: https://www.adelaide.edu.au/writingcentre/learning_guide s/learningguide_reportingverbs.pdf

40 Summary Read the assignment instructions with care & plan your work Use the template to structure your work Pay attention to your paragraphs One controlling idea in each Use academic writing style consistently Discuss all your figures & tables Reference properly

41 FREE DISCUSSION Questions Comments Observations

42 Pair formation (if not already done) KIE students are expected to form pairs amongst themselves.

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