Overlay Networks and Tunneling Reading: 4.5, 9.4

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1 Overlay Networks and Tunneling Reading: 4.5, 9.4 COS 461: Computer Networks Spring 2009 (MW 1:30 2:50 in COS 105) Mike Freedman Teaching Assistants: WyaN Lloyd and Jeff Terrace hnp:// 1

2 Goals of Today s Lecture MoVvaVons for overlay networks Incremental deployment of new protocols Customized rouvng and forwarding soluvons Overlays for parval deployments 6Bone, Mbone, security, mobility, Resilient Overlay Network (RON) AdapVve rouvng through intermediate node MulV protocol label switching (MPLS) Tunneling at L2.5 2

3 Overlay Networks 3

4 Overlay Networks 4

5 Overlay Networks Focus at the application level 5

6 IP Tunneling to Build Overlay Links IP tunnel is a virtual point to point link Illusion of a direct link between two separated nodes Logical view: A B E F tunnel Physical view: A B E F EncapsulaVon of the packet inside an IP datagram Node B sends a packet to node E containing another packet as the payload 6

7 Tunnels Between End Hosts B Src: A Dest: B A Src: C Dest: B Src: A Dest: B Src: A Dest: C Src: A Dest: B C 7

8 Overlay Networks A logical network built on top of a physical network Overlay links are tunnels through the underlying network Many logical networks may coexist at once Over the same underlying network And providing its own parvcular service Nodes are o`en end hosts AcVng as intermediate nodes that forward traffic Providing a service, such as access to files Who controls the nodes providing service? The party providing the service Distributed collecvon of end users 8

9 Overlays for Incremental Deployment 9

10 Using Overlays to Evolve the Internet Internet needs to evolve IPv6 Security Mobility MulVcast But, global change is hard CoordinaVon with many ASes Flag day to deploy and enable the technology Instead, bener to incrementally deploy And find ways to bridge deployment gaps 10

11 6Bone: Deploying IPv6 over IP4 Logical view: A B E F tunnel IPv6 IPv6 IPv6 IPv6 Physical view: A B C D E F IPv6 IPv6 IPv4 IPv4 IPv6 IPv6 Flow: X Src: A Dest: F data Src:B Dest: E Flow: X Src: A Dest: F Src:B Dest: E Flow: X Src: A Dest: F Flow: X Src: A Dest: F data data data A-to-B: IPv6 B-to-C: IPv6 inside IPv4 B-to-C: IPv6 inside IPv4 E-to-F: IPv6 11

12 Secure CommunicaVon Over Insecure Links Encrypt packets at entry and decrypt at exit Eavesdropper cannot snoop the data or determine the real source and desvnavon 12

13 CommunicaVng With Mobile Users A mobile user changes locavons frequently So, the IP address of the machine changes o`en The user wants applicavons to convnue running So, the change in IP address needs to be hidden SoluVon: fixed gateway forwards packets Gateway has a fixed IP address and keeps track of the mobile s address changes gateway 13

14 IP MulVcast MulVcast Delivering the same data to many receivers Avoiding sending the same data many Vmes unicast multicast IP mulvcast Special addressing, forwarding, and rouvng schemes 14

15 MBone: MulVcast Backbone A catch 22 for deploying mulvcast Router vendors wouldn t support IP mulvcast since they weren t sure anyone would use it And, since it didn t exist, nobody was using it Idea: so`ware implemenvng mulvcast protocols And unicast tunnels to traverse non parvcipants 15

16 MulVcast Today Mbone applicavons starvng in early 1990s Primarily video conferencing, but no longer operavonal SVll many challenges to deploying IP mulvcast Security vulnerabilives, business models, ApplicaVon layer mulvcast is more prevalent Tree of servers delivering the content CollecVon of end hosts cooperavng to delivery video Some mulvcast within individual ASes Financial sector: stock Vckers Within campuses or broadband networks: TV shows Backbone networks: IPTV 16

17 Case Study: Resilient Overlay Networks 17

18 RON: Resilient Overlay Networks Premise: by building applicavon overlay network, can increase performance and reliability of rouvng Princeton Yale app-layer router Two-hop (app-level) Berkeley-to-Princeton route Berkeley 18

19 RON Circumvents Policy RestricVons IP rouvng depends on AS rouvng policies But hosts may pick paths that circumvent policies USLEC ISP me PU Patriot My home computer 19

20 RON Adapts to Network CondiVons B A C Start experiencing bad performance Then, start forwarding through intermediate host 20

21 RON Customizes to ApplicaVons B A bulk transfer C VoIP traffic: low latency path Bulk transfer: high bandwidth path 21

22 How Does RON Work? Keeping it small to avoid scaling problems A few friends who want bener service Just for their communicavon with each other E.g., VoIP, gaming, collaboravve work, etc. Send probes between each pair of hosts B A C 22

23 How Does RON Work? Exchange the results of the probes Each host shares results with every other host EssenVally running a link state protocol! So, every host knows the performance properves Forward through intermediate host when needed BB A C 23

24 RON Works in PracVce Faster reacvon to failure RON reacts in a few seconds BGP somevmes takes a few minutes Single hop indirect rouvng No need to go through many intermediate hosts One extra hop circumvents the problems BeNer end to end paths CircumvenVng rouvng policy restricvons SomeVmes the RON paths are actually shorter 24

25 RON Limited to Small Deployments Extra latency through intermediate hops So`ware delays for packet forwarding PropagaVon delay across the access link Overhead on the intermediate node Imposing CPU and I/O load on the host Consuming bandwidth on the access link Overhead for probing the virtual links Bandwidth consumed by frequent probes Trade off between probe overhead and detecvon speed Possibility of causing instability Moving traffic in response to poor performance May lead to congesvon on the new paths 25

26 We saw tunneling on top of IP. What about tunneling below IP? Introducing MulV Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) 26

27 Why Tunnel? Reliability Fast Reroute, Resilient Overlay Networks (Akamai SureRoute) Flexibility Topology, protocol Stability ( path pinning ) E.g., for performance guarantees Security E.g., Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) Bypassing local network engineers Censoring regimes: China, Pakistan, 27

28 MPLS Overview Main idea: Virtual circuit Packets forwarded based only on circuit idenvfier Source 1 Destination Source 2 Router can forward traffic to the same destination on different interfaces/paths. 28

29 MPLS Overview Main idea: Virtual circuit Packets forwarded based only on circuit idenvfier Source 1 Destination Source 2 Router can forward traffic to the same destination on different interfaces/paths. 29

30 Circuit AbstracVon: Label Swapping A 1 2 D Tag Out New A 2 D 3 Label switched paths (LSPs): Paths are named by the label at the path s entry point At each hop, MPLS routers: Use label to determine outgoing interface, new label Thus, push/pop/swap MPLS headers that encapsulate IP Label distribu9on protocol: responsible for disseminavng signalling informavon 30

31 Reconsider security problem 31

32 Layer 3 Virtual Private Networks Private communicavons over a public network A set of sites that are allowed to communicate with each other Defined by a set of administravve policies Determine both connecvvity and QoS among sites Established by VPN customers One way to implement: BGP/MPLS VPN (RFC 2547)

33 Layer 2 vs. Layer 3 VPNs Layer 2 VPNs can carry traffic for many different protocols, whereas Layer 3 is IP only More complicated to provision a Layer 2 VPN Layer 3 VPNs: potenvally more flexibility, fewer configuravon headaches 33

34 Layer 3 BGP/MPLS VPNs VPN A/Site 2 VPN B/Site /16 CE 1 B1 P /16 CE A2 PE 2 CE B2 10.2/16 VPN B/Site 2 CE 2 B1 P 2 BGP to exchange routes PE 1 PE 3 MPLS to forward traffic CE A1 P 3 CE A3 10.3/ /16 CE B3 VPN A/Site 3 VPN A/Site /16 VPN B/Site 3 Isola9on: MulVple logical networks over a single, shared physical infrastructure Tunneling: Keeping routes out of the core 34

35 High Level Overview of OperaVon IP packets arrive at PE PE 2 DesVnaVon IP address is looked up in forwarding table PE 1 PE 3 Datagram sent to customer s network using tunneling (i.e., an MPLS label switched path) 35

36 BGP/MPLS VPN key components Forwarding in the core: MPLS DistribuVng routes between PEs: BGP IsolaVon: Keeping different VPNs from rouvng traffic over one another Constrained distribuvon of rouvng informavon MulVple virtual forwarding tables Unique Addresses: VPN IPv4 extensions RFC 2547: Route DisVnguishers 36

37 Virtual RouVng and Forwarding Separate tables per customer at each router Customer 1 Customer /24 RD: Purple /24 Customer /24 RD: Blue Customer /24 37

38 Forwarding PE and P routers have BGP next hop reachability through the backbone IGP Labels are distributed through LDP (hop by hop) corresponding to BGP Next Hops Two Label Stack is used for packet forwarding Top label indicates Next Hop (interior label) Second label indicates outgoing interface / VRF (exterior label) Corresponds to LSP of BGP next-hop (PE) Corresponds to VRF/ interface at exit Layer 2 Header Label 1 Label 2 IP Datagram 38

39 Forwarding in BGP/MPLS VPNs Step 1: Packet arrives at incoming interface Site VRF determines BGP next hop and Label #2 Label 2 IP Datagram Step 2: BGP next hop lookup, add corresponding LSP (also at site VRF) Label 1 Label 2 IP Datagram 39

40 Layer 3 BGP/MPLS VPNs VPN A/Site 2 VPN B/Site /16 CE 1 B1 P /16 CE A2 PE 2 CE B2 10.2/16 VPN B/Site 2 CE 2 B1 P 2 PE 1 PE 3 CE A1 P 3 CE A3 10.3/ /16 CE B3 VPN A/Site 3 VPN A/Site /16 VPN B/Site 3 BGP to exchange routes MPLS to forward traffic 40

41 Conclusions Overlay networks Tunnels between host computers Build networks on top of the Internet Deploy new protocols and services Provide bener control, flexibility, QoS, isolavon, Underlay tunnels Across routers within AS Build networks below IP route Provide bener control, flexibility, QoS, isolavon, Next Vme Peer to peer applicavons 41

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