# Call Admission Control and Traffic Engineering of VoIP

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2 The traffic load to the network is measured by Traffic Intensity which is defined as Traffic Intensity (A) = Call Rate Call Holding Time The measurement unit of Traffic Intensity is Erlang which is the traffic load of one circuit over an hour. The third parameter of the Erlang-B model is Grade of Service (GoS): GoS = probability of an incoming call being blocked For a typical circuit-switched network, the reason for a call being blocked is that all trunks are busy. 2.2 The Model The Erlang B model is commonly used to determine the mathematical relationship of the traffic measurements defined in Section 2.1. The Erlang B model has the following assumptions: 1. Infinite number of sources: The model implies that a large number of users who could make a call through the network. 2. Random call arrival: The call arrival follows the Poisson distribution, which also implies that the inter arrival time follows the exponential distribution. 3. Blocked calls are cleared: When a call is blocked, the user will get a recording or a fast busy tone. The call request is discarded by the network. 4. Random holding time: The holding time (call duration) also follows the exponential distribution. Based on the above assumptions, we can derive the mathematical formula for the Erlang B model: GoS = ( A N N! ) [ ( A k k! ), k=0,n ] Due to the popularity of the Erlang B model, an on-line calculator is available to calculate the model parameters [7]. From an end-user perspective, it does not matter whether voice is encoded in IP packets or not. Therefore, the above assumptions are applicable to both circuitswitched and packet-switched traffic. 3. Voice over IP (VoIP) Network 3.1 Network Architecture This paper studies three VoIP architectures: enterprise network, access network of internet service provider, and VoIP carrier network. The VoIP network for enterprise is illustrated in Figure 2. Traffic engineering for the enterprise network has two components. One is the engineering of the trunk capacity (number of DS0 s) to the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) and the Erlang-B model is applicable for this application. The other is the network capacity (in bps) on the enterprise intranet. In this paper, we assume the VoIP traffic is carried on a dedicated network or a QoScapable network for VoIP traffic. The Call Admission Control (CAC) is implemented on the Call Manager. If the network has sufficient bandwidth to ensure voice quality for an incoming call, the call manager will establish a call connection; otherwise, the call request is rejected. The second VoIP architecture is the access network, where an enterprise subscribes to the VoIP service through an internet service provider (ISP). The network architecture is illustrated in Figure 3. Because the VoIP traffic is carried over the public Internet which does not support QoS, we cannot apply Call Admission Control in this architecture. The engineering of trunks from the ISP voice gateway to the PSTN follows the Erlang-B model described in Section 2.2. Figure 3 VoIP for Access Networks The third VoIP architecture is tandem service over the carrier network, where both Time Division Multiplexed (TDM) and VoIP traffic is converged to IP packets and carried over the carrier s IP backbone as illustrated in Figure 4. Figure 4. VoIP for IP-based Carrier Networks As we can see from Figure 4, the softswitch performs the function of Call Admission Control. If the IP backbone has capacity to ensure voice quality for an incoming call, the call is accepted and the softswitch uses the SS7 signaling to establish a connection over the IP backbone. Otherwise, the call request is rejected. Figure 2 VoIP for Enterprise Networks

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