1 User Account Management IAA Policies and Procedures: Identity, Authentication, Authorization Christian Isnard, Emmanuel Ormancey, Paolo Tedesco, Alexey Tselishchev CERN - IT/OIS Executive Summary The new User Account management project aims at designing a generic, maintainable solution, simplifying the account management tools and concepts, and handling the lifecycle of accounts and associated computing resources for the whole community of system and service managers. The overall concept is based on IAA Policies: Identity, Authentication and Authorization. Identity is provided by the user, answering the question Who are you? with some public assertion (username, ). This is managed by GS/AIS in the Foundation HR database for the personal information and by IT/OIS for the account (username) information. Authentication is also provided by the user, answering the question Ok, how can you prove it? with some private secret response (password, private keys, pins). This is handled by Active Directory (IT/OIS) through a set of standards (Kerberos, LDAP, SSO, etc.). Authorization is handled by the system, answering the question What can I do? by checking a token or ticket against an access control list. This is maintained by the use of E-Groups to manage access control lists (each application should have a dedicated E-Group containing the list of authorized users). Account Policy: Eligible Users (depending on their status in HR database) are entitled for a Primary account, whereas non- Eligible users can only request External accounts with restricted permissions (e.g. limited to accessing their personal administrative records like payslips). The Primary account is automatically created when the user s status becomes Eligible. The associated username is automatically generated by an algorithm based on first name and last name information. The user must enable his Primary account by calling the service desk to obtain a password. Then he can create Secondary accounts belonging to him (deleted when he leaves CERN) and/or Service accounts assigned to him (automatically reassigned to his Supervisor when he leaves CERN). External accounts will have different levels of trust: the default is address verification only, guaranteed External accounts will have a CERN user as guarantor of the identity, and Grid verified External accounts will be mapped to a digital certificate trusted by the EuGridPMA trust organisation (Grid). Mail Policy: A CERN Mailbox for the Primary account is created automatically for Personnel users, and on request for non- Personnel users (e.g. contractors who should use their home company ). A user has one main address and several aliases. A Web interface will be provided, for the end user, the Service Desk and the Security Team to manage every aspect of the accounts. The primary goals of the system are to empower the end-user and to maximize the self service features. Page 1
2 Introduction The goal of the CERN Identity Management project is to simplify the account and group management tools and concepts, designing a generic solution for the whole community. To make the system generic, maintainable and easy to support, the implementation will be based on a commercial solution, using out-of-the-box features whenever possible, thus minimizing custom coding. A set of tools addressing the needs of the CERN community will be provided. Specific needs will be reviewed to fit in the generic tools, or application owners will be helped to implement their own set of specific tools when needed. This document describes the Identity, Authentication and Authorization (IAA) concepts, defines their policies in the CERN Identity Management context and provides concrete objectives. 1 Definitions The definitions, concepts and conventions used in the rest of the document are defined in this paragraph. IAA stands for Identity, Authentication and Authorization: Identity: A user (typically you) wants to access a system. Because the system doesn t know you yet, you need to make a declaration of who you are. Your answer to the question Who are you? is the first thing you present to a system when you want to use it. Some common examples of identity are user IDs, digital certificates and credit cards. A notable characteristic of identity is that it is public, and it has to be this way: identity is your claim about yourself, and you make that claim using something that is publicly available. Authentication: This is the answer to the question OK, how can you prove it? When you present your identity to a system, the system wants you to prove that it is indeed you and not someone else. The system will challenge you, and you must respond in some way. Common authenticators include passwords, private keys, and PINs. Whereas identity is public, authentication is private: it is a secret known (presumably) only by you. In some cases, like passwords, the system also knows the secret. In other cases, like PKI, the system doesn t need to possess the secret, but can validate its authenticity. Your possession of this secret is what proves that you are who you claim to be. Authorization: Once you have successfully authenticated yourself to a system, the system controls which resources you are allowed to access. Typically this is done through the use of a token or ticket mechanism checked against an access control list maintained by the system administrators. Provided by Answer the questions: Attributes Identity user Who are you? Public assertion Authentication user OK, how can you prove it? Secret response Authorization system What can I do? Table 1: IAA summary Token or ticket Access control 1.1 Identity Identities are defined in HR databases which contain the personal information about the people at CERN. Based on that information are created accounts that represent these Identities in the CERN computing environment. Page 2
3 1.1.1 Accounts An account is a login and password credential pair, with some attributes. The login is used to answer the question Who are you? and the password is the secret response to OK, how can you prove it? (See Table 1: IAA summary). Several account types are available: Primary account: the main account of a user. It is automatically created. Secondary account: a test or administrative account, belonging and attached to a user. Service account: an account representing a service, assigned to a user (the service manager). Service accounts can be re-assigned to another user. External account: standalone account (not necessarily linked to a person in the HR database), obtained via a self-service registration based on address. External accounts have restricted permissions (e.g. payslips & tax certificates access only). Several levels of trust are available (see section 2.6). Reminder: Accounts usage is governed by Operational Circular nº 5. Operational Circular nº 5 requires that users comply with specific rules applicable to services that they use. Users must follow the operational procedures that are in force and the instructions of the service managers. Service managers may withdraw right of access to their service in order to resolve operational problems or in case of failure to comply with these subsidiary rules (http://www.cern.ch/computingrules/oc5_english.pdf) User status Personnel: a user with a CERN contract (staff, fellows, project associates, etc.) or registered as a CERN User. Non-Personnel: a user not member of the CERN personnel (e.g. employees of a CERN contractor, consultants, etc.). See the Table 2: CERN Class in section Eligible users Eligible users are entitled for a Primary account. Non-eligible users can only request an External account, e.g. to access their personal administrative records (payslips etc.). See the Table 2: CERN Class in section Mail addresses Mail address: main address of the user. Alias: convenience alternate address CERN Class The Table 2: CERN Class shows all the possible values for a person s class in the Foundation database (maintained by HR). The CERN Class column shows all the possible CERN Class values in Foundation database. The # column shows the number of entries for each CERN Class in Foundation database. The Eligible column shows which user classes represent eligible users according to the definition in section The Personnel column shows which user classes represent users belonging to the CERN personnel according to the definition in section Page 3
4 CERN Class # Description Eligible Personnel EXMP Ex-Member of Personnel N N USER 9280 User ( CERN User ) Y Y ENTC 3021 Employee of a CERN Y N contractor RETR 2683 Retired N N STAF 2379 Staff Member Y Y UPAS 453 Unpaid Associate Y Y FELL 369 Fellow Y Y PJAS 147 Project Associate Y Y DOCT 118 Doctoral Student Y Y TECH 94 Technical Student Y Y USAS 78 Unpaid Associate with Y Y Subsistence COMT 66 Committee Member N N PDAS 59 Paid Associate Y Y TEMC 35 Temporary Labour for CERN Y Y APPR 24 Apprentice Y Y FTMP 20 Future Member of the Y Y Personnel CASS 11 Corresponding Associate Y Y CNST 7 Consultant Y N ADMI 6 Administrative Stagiaire Y Y CHIL 3 Child Staff Y Y PART 2 Participant to an experiment N N Table 2: CERN Class Account enabling, blocking, unblocking Enabling an account: set the account state to enable and assign a new password (first account use). Blocking an account: Reset the password and set the account state to disabled to prevent alternative authentication methods. Unblocking an account: set the account state to enable and assign a new password. 1.2 Authentication Authentication is the answer to the question OK, how can you prove it? (see Table 1: IAA summary). When an identity is presented to a system, the system will challenge the user who must respond in some way. CERN authenticators include for example passwords and private keys with Digital Certificates through a variety of authentication systems like Kerberos, Single Sign-On or SSH. 1.3 Authorization Authorization is the answer to the question What can I do? (see Table 1: IAA summary). Once successfully authenticated to a system, the system controls which resources a user is allowed to access, usually through the use of a token or ticket mechanism checked against an access control list maintained by the system administrators. A wide range of CERN applications use E-Groups to maintain these access control lists: the token or ticket mechanism contains the list of the E-Groups the user is member of. The application simply compares the E- Group membership list with the access control list and the user is given access if a match is found. Page 4
5 1.4 Generalities Unless specifically mentioned, all operations are available to the end-user in self-service via the dedicated Web Portal (www.cern.ch/account). Some actions are specified to be available only through the ServiceDesk mostly for security reasons. 2 Policies 2.1 Accounts Only Eligible users are entitled for a Primary account (see section 1.1.3): The creation of Primary accounts is automatic. The events triggering the creation of a Primary account are: o The insertion, in Foundation HR database, of a new record having a CERN Class identifying the user as an Eligible user (see Table 2: CERN Class in section 1.1.5). This happens when a new user joins CERN. o The transition, in Foundation HR database, of an existing record from a CERN Class identifying the user as a Non-Eligible user to a CERN Class identifying the user as an Eligible user. This happens for example when an ex-employee gets a new contract. An eligible user can create Secondary accounts: o A Primary account is required to create a Secondary account. o The Secondary accounts are owned by the Primary account of the user. o Ownership of Secondary accounts cannot be transferred. An eligible user can create Service accounts: o A Primary account is required to create or own a Service account. o Ownership of Service accounts can be transferred. o A Service account is always assigned to a Primary account, it can never be stand-alone Account activation On the start day, the user shall contact the ServiceDesk by phone to enable his Primary account (see section 1.1.6) and obtain his login and a new password. In addition, the user s supervisor is also allowed to enable his Primary account, for the first account use Default account names (login) The maximum length for account names is 8 characters. Characters are normalized (removing all diacritic marks); spaces and non-alphanumeric characters are removed. The default account name for a new primary account is chosen as the first available proposal among the following, with a reduction to 8 characters when needed: 1) First letter of the first name + last name 2) First letter of the first name + first letter of the middle name if present, + last name. 3) Last name + first letter of the first name 4) First name + first letter of the last name 5) A number is added to proposal 1 until a unique value is generated. First name Last name Account names John Doe jdoe (no middle name, case 2 does not apply) doej johnd jdoe2 Page 5
6 jdoe3 Jane Mary Doe jdoe jmdoe Johannes Müller jmuller Table 3: Account name generation samples Primary account name change It is possible to change the primary account name (login) during the first week after the contract start date. 2.2 Password policy Primary, Secondary and Service accounts follow the same password policy: the password must be changed every year. Failure to comply will result in account blocking. Multiple reminders will be sent before the year expires and the account gets blocked. 2.3 Mail policies Every account has one main mail address and a number of aliases. Depending on the CERN mailbox existence the mail messages are either delivered to the CERN mailbox or redirected to another external mail address. Only the main address is valid for authentication. Aliases must be in the cern.ch domain (i.e. Each account has mandatory aliases and for technical reasons o Linux batch system, backward compatibility with many existing applications building addresses on the fly by to the current login Mail policy for primary accounts A CERN mailbox is created automatically for Personnel users (see section 1.1.2) o Main mail address o Aliases and Additional aliases can be added. No CERN mailbox is created for Non-Personnel users (e.g. contractors use their home company ) o Main mail address is external (provided by the user upon arrival) o Aliases and Additional aliases can be added. It is possible to create or delete the CERN mailbox: o Non-Personnel users (e.g. contractors, see section 1.1.2) are allowed to create a CERN mailbox if needed (e.g. ServiceDesk people). o Personnel users are allowed to delete their CERN mailbox and register an external primary address instead. In this case the previous primary address will be kept as an alias to ensure mail messages forwarding continuity to the new address Mail policy for secondary accounts Secondary accounts have no CERN mailbox and cannot create one. Main mail address is Alias is Main mail address cannot be changed, no alias can be added. All mail messages sent to the Secondary account are routed to the owner s Primary account main mail address. Page 6
7 2.3.3 Mail policy for service accounts A CERN mailbox is created, configured by default to forward all messages to the owner s Primary account mail address o Reason: to avoid messages accumulating in the service mailbox and ensure communication to the owner. Main mail address o The user will have the possibility to specify a different address when the account is being created. Alias o Additional aliases can be added. 2.4 Acceptance of Computing Rules Every user must follow the Security Quiz and sign the acceptance of computing rules document on the SIR portal (Safety Information Registration within 3 days from the Primary account enabling (start of the contract). If computing rules are not signed within that delay, all the user s accounts are blocked: o The account owner must call the ServiceDesk to have the account(s) re-enabled. o After that, the user has 3 additional days to sign the acceptance document. 2.5 User departure Two months before a user s contract with CERN terminates: The user and his supervisor are notified via mail: o Of the accounts owned by the user o Of the E-Groups the user is member of The user can contact the responsible of the E-Groups he is member of in case he wishes to be still member of them after his departure. When a user s contract with CERN terminates: Their Primary account is moved into a Recycle Bin. All their static E-Groups membership are deleted. All their Secondary accounts are moved into a Recycle Bin. All their Service accounts are transferred to the user s supervisor. A new External account, with the external address of the user is created. aliases are moved from the Primary account to this new External account. After a grace period of 6 months: Their Primary account is deleted. All their Secondary accounts are deleted. The grace period allows recovery if the user gets a new contract (e.g. affiliation renewal). 2.6 External accounts As defined in section 1.1.1, an External account is a standalone account registered manually and based on an address (not in the cern.ch domain). By default the only verified information of an External account is the address used for registration which must be valid and functional Standard External account The only verified information of a Standard External account is the address used for registration which must be valid and functional. A specific E-Group lists all the External accounts and can be used for Authorization. Unused External accounts are automatically deleted after 2 years of inactivity (no login for 2 years). Page 7
8 2.6.2 Guaranteed External accounts External accounts can have a guarantor o Any CERN Primary account holder can be the guarantor of an External account A specific E-Group will list all the guaranteed External accounts and will be used for Authorization. When the guarantor leaves CERN o Guaranteed accounts are reclassified as Standard External accounts. o A notification is sent to the External account . o A Specific guaranteed accounts page will be provided through the Accounts portal Guaranteed accounts will have to change password every year; failure to comply will result in account suspension and eventual deletion. o Password expiration will be enforced to 1 year Grid Verified External accounts A valid certificate can be mapped to the External account assuming: o The Grid certificate was issued by a trusted member of the EUGridPMA (www.eugridpma.org) o The address specified in the certificate matches the registered address of the external account If the checks above are successful the External account is marked as verified: a Grid certificate can only be issued after mandatory identity face to face verifications (following strict EUGridPMA rules). A specific E-Group will list all the Grid Verified External accounts and will be used for Authorization. 3 Interfaces and administrative tools A Web Portal (http://www.cern.ch/account) will provide all the necessary interfaces to manage the accounts, for the end user, the ServiceDesk but also the Computer Security Team. Various user rights will be managed using E-Groups. Figure 1: Web Portal sample Page 8
9 3.1 Standard Access Eligible users are granted access to the Web Portal allowing them to: View the details about themselves Create and manage their Secondary and Service accounts Re-assign the Service accounts they manage to another user o The new owner will have to approve the decision Manage their passwords Figure 2: Account management Figure 3: Password management Page 9
10 Figure 4: Services Management The Web Self Service Portal will present a global view of the computing resources owned by a user, the list of services he has subscribed to, and the available options for each of them. Service managers are encouraged to join the central system to ensure a consistent management perspective. 3.2 ServiceDesk Access Members of specific ServiceDesk E-Groups are granted additional rights to the identity management service through the Web Portal allowing them to: View the details of all the users o Necessary for identity verification Reset a user s password Enable a user s account 3.3 Computer Security team Access Members of specific Security Team E-Groups are granted additional rights to the identity management service through the Web Portal allowing them to: View the details of all the users Block and unblock an account 4 Authorization management Authorization Management is handled through E-Groups. Granting access to a specific resource is done by adding a user to a specific E-Group designed for this purpose. As an example: John Doe builds an application called ApplicationName and wants to restrict access to this application to a set of operators. He can simply create a dedicated E-Group ApplicationName-Authorized- Users filled with the accounts of the allowed operators. Then when accessing the ApplicationName application, the operators will authenticate and their E-Group membership will be verified by the application, allowing access only to the dedicated E-Group ApplicationName-Authorized-Users members. Page 10
11 In addition, each application should also use another specific E-Group to deny access to a list of users (e.g. ApplicationName-Denied-Users ) to allow granularity when blocking access to resources for an account (for security reasons, when a user changes status, etc.). Integration to the central Web Interface for Service Management is proposed to Application owners to provide a consistent End-User interface: see Figure 4: Services Management in section Roles There is no specific role concept and/or dedicated application in the new IAA Policy. A role is simply obtained by adding a user to a specific E-Group. Adding operator1 to the E-Group ApplicationName-Authorized- Users (see example above) creates a specific authorization role for the application ApplicationName. 4.2 Groups for AFS AFS can handle only a limited number of groups, with a limited number of characters for the group name, and a limited number of group memberships is allowed per user. It is proposed to address these restrictions allowing AFS to use the central E-Groups system in the following way: A specific E-Group will be created: e.g. AFS-Published-Groups, managed by the AFS team. This E-Group will be populated (only) with the E-Groups that will be available in AFS. AFS system will synchronize the user memberships and the list of E-Groups only for those listed in this specific AFS-Published-Groups E-Group. 4.3 Exceptions Some services might not be able to use the central E-Groups system to manage Authorizations; those services will have to continue using their internal Authorization systems with their own management tools. 5 Migration 5.1 Accounts Data will be migrated to the new Identity Management Service from: o HR database (Foundation) o Active Directory The migration process will not enforce compliancy to the policies described in this document. Noncompliant cases will be addressed manually. Policies will be enforced on resources created through the new Identity Management Service. Existing service provider accounts will be assigned to a primary account after the migration process. 5.2 Computing groups Computing groups will be migrated to E-Groups. o An will be sent to the computing group owners, indicating that the new computing group management interface is the E-Groups interface. The aim is to remove the unused computing groups if possible, but also to merge, simplify and enhance the use of computing groups by using the centralized standard E-Group system. 5.3 Service Transition Currently, the services provisioned by the legacy system are AFS, AIS, EDMS, MAILSERV, MISS, NICE, ORACLEDB, PARC, PLUS, REMEDY, TELECONF. Most of them are already based on Active Directory so the change will be transparent. Some like EDMS do not even need account provisioning anymore, following the Page 11
12 new model. Others like ORACLE will require a specific solution either transparent or with some minor adaptations. Page 12
13 Contents Executive Summary... 1 Introduction Definitions Identity Accounts User status Eligible users Mail addresses CERN Class Account enabling, blocking, unblocking Authentication Authorization Generalities Policies Accounts Account activation Default account names (login) Primary account name change Password policy Mail policies Mail policy for primary accounts Mail policy for secondary accounts Mail policy for service accounts Acceptance of Computing Rules User departure External accounts Standard External account Guaranteed External accounts Grid Verified External accounts Interfaces and administrative tools Standard Access ServiceDesk Access Computer Security team Access Authorization management Roles Groups for AFS Page 13
14 4.3 Exceptions Migration Accounts Computing groups Service Transition Page 14
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