Air Pollution Modeling and Its Application XI

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1 Air Pollution Modeling and Its Application XI Edited by Sven-Erik Gryning Ris0 national Laboratory Roskilde, Denmark and Francis A. Schiermeier U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Research Triangle Park, north Carolina Published in cooperation with NATO Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society PLENUM PRESS NEW YORK AND LONDON

2 CONTENTS ROLE OF ATMOSPHERIC MODELS IN AIR POLLUTION POLICY AND ABATEMENT STRATEGIES Multi-Pollutant Modeling and Policy: Dressing the Emperor and Avoiding False Paradigms 3 Robin L. Dennis Meteorological Aspects of Ozone Episodes in Southern Ontario - A Mesoscale Model Investigation 13 Rama Seshu Tangirala Optimization of Ozone Abatement Strategies Using Atmospheric Modeling 17 Marion Wichmann-Fiebig and Thomas Schoenemeyer Numerical Simulations of the Wind Flow and Ozone Formation during the Heilbronn Ozone Experiment 27 N. Moussiopoulos, P. Sahm, C. Kessler, R. Kunz, C. Schneider, and T. Vogele Modeling Anthropogenic Sulfur Transport to the Arctic 37 A.P. Dastoor On the Assessment of Ozone Control Policies for the Northeastern United States 41 S.T. Rao, G. Sistla, W. Hao, K. John, and J. Biswas INTEGRATED REGIONAL MODELLING Meteorological Modeling in Sydney Australia: Case Study of a Smog Event 55 Peter J. Hurley, Julie A. Noonan, and Peter C. Manins Lake Breezes and Their Impact on Ground-Level Ozone Transport over Southwestern Ontario and Southeastern Michigan 63 David M.L. Sills and Peter A. Taylor Impact of Different Clouds on Tropospheric Chemistry 73 Nadine Chaumerliac, Nicole Audiffren, and Sylvie Cautenet Transport and Chemistry of Aircraft Emissions in the Vicinity of an Airport 81 Jutta Graf and Hans G. Tremmel

3 Mass Balances and Interaction of Budget Components of Chemically Reactive Air Pollutants over the Federal State of Baden-JVurttemberg (Germany) 89 Hans-Jiirgen Panitz, Klaus Nester, and Franz Fiedler Possible Mechanisms for Long Range Transport in the Eastern Mediterranean 99 G. Kallos, V. Kotroni, K. Lagouvardos, M. Varinou, and A. Papadopoulos Model-Calculations of Transboundary Episodes of High SO2-Concentrations due to Emissions in the Kola Peninsula 109 Trond Iversen, Anne K. Brenden, Marit H. Jensen, Jan Erik Haugen, and Bjarne Sivertsen The Impact of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation on the Air Quality over Portugal: The Lisbon Case N. Barros, A. Rocha, and C. Borrego Air Pollution Assessment Studies for Sweden Based on the Match Model and Air Pollution Measurements 127 Christer Persson, Joakim Langner, and Lennart Robertson Preliminary Results: Modeling Fine Particulate Mass for the Eastern United States Using the EPA Regional Particulate Model 135 Jason Ching, Francis A. Binkowski, and Jonathan E. Pleim Uncertainties Associated with Source-Receptor Relationships for Visibility Reducing Species Derived from a Grid Model 145 Prakash Karamchandani and Prasad Pai Effects of Emission Controls and Stratospheric Ozone Loss on Tropospheric Ozone Production 155 Kevin C. Crist, Gregory R. Carmichael, Brian T. Hotchkiss, and Kuruvilla John GLOBAL AND LONG-RANGE TRANSPORT Sulfur Deposition in Asia: An Assessment of the Present Situation and Future Scenarios 167 Gregory R. Carmichael and Richard L. Arndt The European Long Range Tracer Experiment (ETEX). Preliminary Evaluation of Model Intercomparison Exercise 181 Graeme Archer, Franco Girardi, Giovanni Graziani, Werner Klug, Sonia Mosca, and Katrin Nodop Long Range Transport of NO^, SO X and O3 over East Asia and the Northern Pacific Ocean Caused by Typhoons 191 Toshihiro Kitada, Seiji Isogawa, and Yutaka Kondo Deposition of Persistent Organic Pollutants over Europe 203 W.A.J. van Pul, J.A. van Jaarsveld, and C.M.J. Jacobs Budgets of Ozone on an European and Global Scale 213 Michiel Roemer, Ger Boersen, Peter Builtjes, and Paul Esser

4 The Effect of Historical Emission Changes and Meteorological Variability on Sulphur Loads in Europe 221 Sophia Mylona Ozone Modeling over a Large City by Using a Mesoscale Eulerian Meteorological and Transport Model: Madrid Case Study 231 Roberto San Jose, Luis M. Marcelo, Belen Moreno, and Arturo Ramirez-Montesinos The Role of Mineral Aerosols in Tropospheric Chemistry 239 Yang Zhang, Li-Ling Chen, Gregory R. Carmichael, and Frank Dentener The Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model 249 Jesper Christensen NEW DEVELOPMENTS Mesoscale Modeling of Clouds and Aerosol Particles 259 Andrea I. Flossmann A New MC2/ADOM Modeling System and Its Applications to the Study of the Oxidants in the Canadian Southern Atlantic Region 275 Xiude Lin, Wanmin Gong, and Sylvain Menard Test of a New Concentration Fluctuation Model for Decision-Makers 285 Per L0fstr0m, Hans J0rgensen, Erik Lyck, and Torben Mikkelsen Model of Internal Boundary Layer Formation over Inhomogeneous Terrain 295 Ekaterina Batchvarova and Sven-Erik Gryning High Resolution Dispersion Modeling near Tunnel Exits 303 Roland Ries Performance of a Flux Conserving and a Semi-Lagrangian Advection Scheme in Simulating a Photochemical Episode 311 Prasad Pai, Prakash Karamchandani, and Akula Venkatram SO2 Dry Deposition Parameterization in a Chemistry-General Circulation Model: Model Description and Development 325 Laurens Ganzeveld, Jos Lelieveld, and Geert-Jan Roelofs The Dynamic Exchange of Pollutants at the Air-Soil Interface and Its Impact on Long Range Transport 333 J.A. van Jaarsveld Modeling of Cloud Effects on Ozone over Europe 345 Jan Matthijsen, Peter J. H. Builtjes, and Ernst W. Meyer Turbulent Mixing of Reactive Gases in the Convective Boundary Layer 353 Ge Verver

5 Comparison between Experimental Data and a Langevin Particle Dispersion Model Including Dry Deposition 363 Edvard Karlsson, Erik Naslund, and Sven-Erik Gryning PRIME - An Improved Downwash Model 373 Richard H. Osa and Charles Hakkarinen Improved Algorithms for Estimating the Effects of Pollution Impacts from Area and Open Pit Sources 379 William B. Petersen and Steven G. Perry New Developments in the CALPUFF Non-Steady-State Modeling System 389 Joseph S. Scire, David G. Strimaitis, and Mark E. Fernau Local-Similarity Description of Trajectories of Plumes and Jets in Neutrally Stratified Turbulent Shear Flow 399 Eugene Genikhovich Breakdowns of the Nighttime Planetary Boundary Layer over Complex Terrain 407 Carmen J. Nappo and Richard M. Eckman A Numerical Simulation of the Eddy Motion and Cloud Distributions over the Santa Barbara Channel 417 Ted Yamada SCIPUFF - A Generalized Dispersion Model 425 R.I. Sykes, S.F. Parker, D.S. Henn, and R.S. Gabruk A Modeling Study of Vertical Diffusion of Passive and Reactive Tracers Using Localand Nonlocal-Closure Boundary Layer Schemes 433 Kiran Alapaty, Rohit Mathur, and Daewon W. Byun Advanced Mesoscale Dispersion Modeling Using Kinematic Simulation 443 Robert Yamartino, David Strimaitis, and Arno Graff Dispersion in Idealized Urban Street Canyons 451 Robert N. Meroney, Stillianos Rafailidis, and Michel Pavageau ACCIDENTAL RELEASES Validation of a Combination of Two Models for Long-Range Tracer Simulations 461 J0rgen Brandt, Thomas Ellermann, Erik Lyck, Torben Mikkelsen, S0ren Thykier-Nielsen, and Zahari Zlatev Severe Nuclear Accident Program (SNAP) - A Real Time Dispersion Model 471 J0rgen Sa'ltbones, Anstein Foss, and Jerzy Bartnicki Studies of Dense Gas Dispersion from Short-Duration Transient Releases over Rough Surfaces During Stable Conditions 481 Steven R. Hanna and Kenneth W. Steinberg

6 Emerging Air Quality Modeling Technologies for High Performance Computing and Communication Environments 491 Daewon W. Byun, Donald Dabdub, Steve Fine, Adel F. Hanna, Rohit Mathur, M. Talat. Odman, Armistead Russell, Edward J. Segall, John H. Seinfeld, Peter Steenkiste, and Jeffrey Young MODEL ASSESSMENT AND VERIFICATION Air Pollution in Coastal Cities 505 D.G. Steyn Toward the Establishment of a Common Framework for Model Evaluation 519 H.R. Olesen Visibility Episodes in Southwestern British Columbia - Evaluation of a Gas-to-Particle Scheme Using the REVEAL Data Set 529 S.C. Pryor, R.J. Barthelmie, and O. Hertel Validation of a Microscale Pollution Dispersal Model 539 Joachim Eichhorn Numerical Study of Dispersion over the Greater Athens Area during Two Days of Heavy Pollution Using the Urban Airshed Model 549 Ioannis C. Ziomas, Paraskevi Tzoumaka, Dimitrios Balis, Dimitrios Melas, and Christos S. Zerefos Intercomparison of 3-D Flow and Particle Models with TRANSALP 1989 Meteorological and Tracer Data 559 E. Ferrero, F. Desiato, G. Brusasca, D. Anfossi, G. Tinarelli, M.G. Morselli, S. Finardi, and D. Sacchetti Quantitative Evaluation of a Mesoscale Numerical Model Simulation Using Four-Dimensional Data Assimilation of Complex Airflow over the Kanto Region of Japan 569 Itsushi Uno Wind Flow over Rolling Terrain: A Comparison of Three Recent Models and Full-Scale Observations 583 J.M. Santabarbara, J.F. Hernandez, J. Calbo, L. Cremades, T. Mikkelsen, and J.M. Baldasano A Comparison Study of Air-Quality Model Simulation Results with Aircraft Data 593 Gunilla Svensson and Otto Klemm A Comparison of CALPUFF Modeling Results with CAPTEX Field Data Results 603 John S. Irwin, Joseph S. Scire, and David G. Strimaitis Comparison of Measured and Modeled Surface Fluxes of Heat, Moisture, and Chemical Dry Deposition 613 Jonathan E. Pleim, John F. Clarke, Peter L. Finkelstein, Ellen J. Cooter, Thomas G. Ellestad, Aijun Xiu, and Wayne M. Angevine

7 AERMOD - The Developmental Evaluation 623 R.F. Lee, S.G. Perry, A.J. Cimorelli, R.J. Paine, A. Venkatram, J.C. Weil, and R.B. Wilson POSTER SESSION Use of the UB/NMC Model for the Simulation of the Life-Cycle of Chernobyl Radioactive Cloud 635 Milan Dacic and Bosko Telenta Air Pollutant Diffusion-Deposition from a Continuous Point Source 639 Ana G. Ulke and Nicolas A. Mazzeo IFDM Modeling for Optimal Siting of Air Quality Monitoring Stations around Five Oil Refineries 641 G. Cosemans, G. Dumont, E. Roekens, and J.G. Kretzschmar An Analytical Formulation for Mixing Length Scales and Eddy Diffusivities in a Convective PBL 643 G.A. Degrazia, A.P. de Oliveira, and O.L.L. Moraes On a PC-Oriented Eulerian Multi-Level Model for Long-Term Calculations of the Regional Sulphur Deposition 645 Dimiter E. Syrakov Air Pollution Modeling in the Capital of Prague 647 Jan Pretel, Josef Brechler, Vaclav Pisa, and Stanislav Bohm Model Predictions on Urban Air Quality and Their Comparison to Measurements 649 A. Karppinen, J. Kukkonen, E. Valkonen, J. Harkonen, E. Rantakrans, L. Jalkanen, S. Haarala, J. Walden, T. Koskentalo, T. Elolahde, P. Aarnio,^'and J. Laurikko Physical Modeling of Car Exhaust Dispersion in Urban Street Canyons - The Effect of Slanted Roofs 653 Stilianos Rafailidis and Michael Schatzmann An Implicit-Explicit Algorithm for Chemistry-Transport Models 655 Ralf Wolke, Oswald Knoth, and Eberhard Renner Modeling Studies on the Atmospheric Long-Range Transport of Toxic Metals to the Lake Balaton, Hungary 657 Laszlo Bozo, Richard Artz, Joseph Pinto, Joseph Scudlark, and Krisztina Labancz Long-Term Atmospheric Transport and Deposition of Heavy Metals in Central Europe 659 Jerzy Bartnicki, Krzysztof Olendrzynski, Jozef Pacyna, Stefan Anderberg, and William Stigliani Complex Mathematical Model Concerning Pollutants Dispersion in the Atmosphere Emitted from Interfering Sources 661 Traian Pop, Livia-Mihaela Pop, Adrian Jelev, and Octavian Olteanu Xll

8 Numerical Modeling of Three-Dimensional Flow and Pollution Transport over Complex Terrain During Stable Stratification 665 Alexander Baklanov and Jan Burman Emergency Warning System in Slovenia for Accidental Radioactive Releases 667 Marija Boznar, Rafael Martincic, and Primoz Mlakar A Numerical Study about the Transport and Diffusion of Sulfur Dioxide during the Breeze Cycle in the Island of Majorca (Spain) 669 Romualdo Romero, Sergio Alonso, and Clemente Ramis Numerical Simulation of the Mesometeorological Circulations in the Iberian Peninsula R. Salvador, E. Mantilla, M.J. Salazar, and M. Millan The Participation of the Swiss Meteorological Institute in the European Tracer Experiment (ETEX) 677 D. Schneiter, H. Berger, and S. Galmarini Analysis of Air Pollutants in Istanbul: A Preliminary Study 679 Mehmet Karaca, Arslan Saral, Mete Tayang, and Ferruh Ertiirk Validation of ADMS for Dispersion in Convective Conditions 683 Belinda M. Davies Dense Gas Plume Field Measurements at the Nevada Test Site 687 Gary A. Briggs PARTICIPANTS 689 AUTHOR INDEX 705 SUBJECT INDEX 707

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