1 Best Current Practices for SUSE Linux Enterprise High Availability 12 Lars Marowsky-Brée Distinguished Engineer
2 Agenda Introduction Summary of cluster architecture Common configuration issues Gathering cluster-wide support information Exploring effects of cluster events Self-written resource agents Understanding log files 2
4 Overview SUSE Linux Enterprise High Availability Extension Most modern and complete open source solution for implementing high available Linux clusters A suite of robust open source technologies that is: 4 Affordable Integrated Virtualization agnostic Used with SUSE Linux Enterprise Server, it helps to: Maintain business continuity Protect data integrity Reduce unplanned downtime for your mission-critical Linux workloads
5 Current status SUSE Linux Enterprise High Availability Fighting Murphy's Law Service failover at any distance from local to geo % availability with the appropriate tuning Rolling updates for less planned downtime Easy setup, administration, management Virtualization agnostic Leading open source High Availability On par with proprietary products When will you start? 5
6 Benefits SUSE Linux Enterprise High Availability Quickly and easily install, configure and manage clustered Linux servers Ensure continuous access to your missioncritical systems and data Transparent to Virtualization nodes can be virtual or physical Meet your Service Level Agreements Increase service availability 6
7 Overview SUSE Linux Enterprise High Availability Extension Service availability 24/7 Cluster file system Clustered Samba Cluster across unlimited distance Virtualization Agnostic Platform independent setup Disaster tolerance Data replication via IP Node recovery Scale network services Geo Clustering 7 Policy driven clustering Shared and Scaled data-access IP load-balancing User friendly tools Graphical user interface Unified command line interface Free Resource Agents
8 Delivery SUSE Linux Enterprise High Availability Extension 8 Extension to and with SUSE Linux Enterprise Server Releases synchronized with base server product Sold as annual support subscriptions Inherits the support level of the underlying SUSE Linux Enterprise Server subscription Included for free with IBM System z subscriptions Charged for 64bit Intel/AMD platform Free trial available
9 Key Use Cases SUSE Linux Enterprise High Availability Extension High availability for mission-critical services Active/active services Active/passive service fail-over Fine granular monitoring and HA on top of virtualization Remote clustering 9 HA, automation and orchestration for managed VMs High availability across guests Traditional databases, SAP setups, regular services Private Cloud OCFS2, Databases, Samba File Servers Local, Metro, and Geographical area clusters
10 Key Use Cases SUSE Linux Enterprise High Availability Extension Simple Stack HA Enqueue Replication DRBD Data Replication NFS and SAP in one Cluster Node A Local Disk /export /sapmnt /export /sapmnt /sapmnt /SID /sapmnt /SID NFS Mount Point 10 Node B SID Mount Point before Switchover global Mount Point after Switchover exe profile Local Disk Equivalent setup for /usr/sap/trans /sapdb/programs /sapdb/data possible. HA in Virtualized Environments
11 Version 12 Key Features SUSE Linux Enterprise High Availability Extension 11 Major code refresh to latest upstream versions Pacemaker Object tagging Significant CIB performance Cluster Shell: hawk Improved wizards History explorer Geo extension Improved algorithm Per-site attributes in CIB DNS-based IP fail-over Health evaluation Improved error reporting and syntax GFS2 now supported in r/w mode Support corosync configuration New, additional fenceagents
12 Hawk Cluster Dashboard & Diagram 12
13 Usability - Hawk 13
14 Cluster Architecture
15 3 Node Cluster Overview Network Links Xen VM 1 Client s LAMP Apache IP ext3 Xen VM 2 clvm2+ocfs2 DLM Pacemaker Storage Corosync + openais Kernel 15 Kernel Kernel
16 Detailed View of Components libvirt Xen Apache iscsi IP address LRM MariaDB Resource Agents SAP LSB init Custom agents systemd units Per Node:... DRAC ilo SBD LVS HAWK c DRBD MPIO CRM Shell Fencing YaST2 Policy Engine CIB Pacemaker Filesystems DRBD Corosync clvmd dlm_controld XFS OCFS2 GFS2 GFS2 clvm2 16 DRBD Multipath IO Local Disks SAN FC(oE), iscsi DLM DLM Linux Kernel SCTP TCP Bonding Ethernet UDP UDP Infiniband multicast c Corosync
17 Why Is This Talk Necessary? We heard comments: Can't you just make the software stack really easy to understand? Why is a multi-node setup more complicated than a single node? Gosh, this is awfully complicated! Why is this stuff so powerful? I don't need those other features! This session addresses most of these questions 17
18 Simplify Your Cluster by Using More Features!
19 Reducing CIB Duplication Resource templates Define resources once, inherit often Define a constraint just once, all inherited resources rsc_template t_vm ocf:heartbeat:virtualdomain \ primitive \ op monitor interval="20s" timeout="60s" \ params config="/cluster/vmstore/vm-01.xml" op migrate_to timeout="300s" interval="0" \ op migrate_from timeout="300s" interval="0" \ primitive \ meta allow-migrate="false" target-role="started" \ utilization cpu="2" memory="1024" \ params autoset_utilization_cpu="false" migration_transport="ssh" hypervisor="qemu:///system" autoset_utilization_hv_memory="false"force_stop="tru e" 19 params config="/cluster/vmstore/vm-02.xml"... colocation colo-fs-vm inf: t_vm baseclone order order-fs-vm Mandatory: baseclone t_vm
20 Reducing CIB Duplication, part 2 Parameters that are shared only need to be specified once Reference parameters from other resources primitive vip IPAddr2 params $my-ip:ip= primitive www apache 20
21 Referring to Many Objects As One Assign arbitrary tags to objects Does not imply any ordering or collocation Can be used in constraints or in crmsh commands tag sap1 DB1 SAPEV2 21 crm resource start sap1 crm resource stop sap1
22 Automate Resource Placement Define the capacity that nodes provide & Specify how much capacity resources consume Set placement-strategy=balanced Nodes will never over-commit, and make a reasonable attempt at load distribution Avoid lenghty & complex rsc_location constraints node hex-1 \ utilization memory="8192" cpu="32" primitive dummy1 ocf:heartbeat:dummy \ utilization cpu="1" memory="512" 22
23 CLI Management For the Cluster Itself 23 Manage the corosync configuration via crmsh! crm cluster mode: add/remove nodes, init a new cluster health evaluation of the cluster state Improved cluster-bootstrap tools
24 crm Shell Improvements Find out what resource agents are doing, exactly! Test a resource before committing: # crm configure rsctest sap_db Interrogate the cluster history 24 # crm resource (un)trace sap_db start # crm history help
25 Design and Architecture Considerations
26 General Considerations Consider the support level requirements of your mission-critical systems. Your staff is your key asset! Invest in training, processes, knowledge sharing. A good administrator will provide higher availability than a mediocre cluster setup. Get expert help for the initial setup, and Write concise operation manuals that make sense at 3am on a Saturday ;-) Thoroughly test the cluster regularly. 26 Use a staging system before deploying large changes!
27 Manage Expectations Properly 27 Clustering improves reliability, but does not achieve 100%, ever. Fail-over clusters reduce service outage, but do not eliminate it. High Availability protects data before the service. Clusters are more complex than single nodes. Clustering broken applications will not fix them. Clusters do not replace backups, RAID, or good hardware.
28 Complexity Versus Reliability Every component has a failure probability. Good complexity: Redundant components. Undesirable complexity: chained components. Choke point single point of failure Also consider: Administrative complexity. Use as few components (features) as feasible. 28 Our extensive feature list is not a mandatory checklist for your deployment ;-) What is your fall-back in case the cluster breaks? Backups, non-clustered operation Architect your system so that this is feasible!
29 Cluster Size Considerations More nodes: Increased absolute redundancy and capacity. Decreased relative redundancy. One cluster one failure and security domain. HA is not HPC. Does your work-load scale well to more nodes? Choose odd node counts 29 4 and 3 node clusters both lose majority after 2 nodes. Question: 5 cheaper servers, or 3 higher quality servers with more capacity each?
30 Common Setup Issues
31 General Software Stack Please avoid chasing already solved problems! Please apply all available software updates: 31 SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 SUSE Linux Enterprise High Availability Extension Consider migrating to SUSE Linux Enterprise High Availability Extension 12, if you have not already.
32 From One to Many Nodes Error: Configuration files not identical across nodes. /etc/drbd.conf, /etc/corosync/corosync.conf, /etc/ais/openais.conf, resource-specific configurations... Symptoms: Causes weird misbehavior, works one but not on other systems, interoperability issues, and possibly others. Solution: Make sure they are synchronized. SUSE Linux Enterprise High Availability Extension 11 SP2 and up provide csync2 to do this automatically for you. 32 You can add your own files to this list as needed.
33 Networking 33 Switches must support multicast properly. Bonding is preferable to using multiple rings: Reduces complexity Exposes redundancy to all cluster services and clients Firewall rules are not your friend. Keep firmware on switches uptodate! Make NIC names identical on all nodes Local hostname resolution versus DNS Setup NTP for time synchronization.
34 Fencing (STONITH) Error: Not configuring STONITH at all Warning: Disabling STONITH 34 It defaults to enabled, resource start-up will block and the cluster simply do nothing. This is for your own protection. DLM/OCFS2 will block forever waiting for a fence that is never going to happen. Error: Using external/ssh, ssh, null in production These plug-ins are for testing. They will not work in production! Use a real fencing device or external/sbd Error: configuring several power switches in parallel. Error: Trying to use external/sbd on DRBD
35 CIB Configuration Issues 2 node clusters cannot have majority with 1 node failed Resources are starting up in random order or on wrong nodes We'll get back to that... # crm configure property default-resource-stickiness=1000 # crm_verify -L ; ptest -L -VVVV 35 Add required constraints! Resources move around when something unrelated changes # crm configure property no-quorum-policy=ignore Will point out some basic issues
36 Configuring Cluster Resources Symptom: On start of one or more nodes, the cluster restarts resources! Cause: resources under cluster control are also started via the init sequence. 36 The cluster probes all resources on start-up on a node, and when it finds resources active where they should not be possibly even more than once in the cluster, the recovery protocol is to stop them all (including all dependencies) and start them cleanly again. Solution: Remove them from the init sequence.
37 Setting Resource Time-outs Belief: Shorter time-outs make the cluster respond faster. Fact: Too short time-outs cause resource operations to fail erroneously, making the cluster unstable and unpredictable. A somewhat too long time-out will cause a fail-over delay; a slightly too short time-out will cause an unnecessary service outage. Consider that a loaded cluster node may be slower than during deployment testing. 37 Check crm_mon -t1 output for the actual run-times of resources.
38 OCFS2 Using ocfs2-tools-o2cb (legacy mode) O2CB only works with Oracle RAC; full features of SUSE Linux Enterprise High Availability Extension are only available in combination with Pacemaker # zypper rm ocfs2-tools-o2cb Forget about /etc/ocfs2/cluster.conf, /etc/init.d/ocfs2, /etc/init.d/o2cb and /etc/sysconfig/ocfs2 Nodes crash on shutdown Consider: Do you really need OCFS2? 38 If you have active ocfs2 mounts, you need to umount before shutdown Can your application really run concurrently?
39 Distributed Replicated Block Device Myth: has no shared state, thus no STONITH needed. Active/Active: Does not magically make ext3 or applications concurrency-safe, still can only be mounted once With OCFS2, split-brain is still fatal, as data diverges! Active/Passive: Ensures only one side can modify data, added protection. Does not magically make applications crash-safe. Issue: Replication traffic during reads. 39 Fact: DRBD still needs fencing! noatime mount option.
40 Storage in General Activating non-battery backed caches for performance iscsi over unreliable networks. Lack of multipath for storage. Believing that RAID replaces backups. 40 Causes data corruption. RAID and replication immediately propagate logical errors! Please ensure that device names are identical on all nodes.
41 Exploring the Effect of Events
42 What Are Events? All state changes to the cluster are events They cause an update of the CIB Configuration changes by the administrator Nodes going up or going down Resource monitoring failures Response to events is configured using the CIB policies and computed by the Policy Engine This can be simulated using ptest 42 Available comfortably through the crm shell
50 hb_report Is The Silver Support Bullet 50 Compiles Cluster-wide log files, Package state, DLM/OCFS2 state, System information, CIB history, parses core dump reports (install debuginfo packages!) into a single tarball for all support needs. # hb_report -n node1 node2 node3 -f 12:00 /tmp/hb_report_example1
51 Logging The cluster generates too many log messages! System-wide logs: /var/log/messages CIB history: /var/lib/pacemaker/pengine/* 51 Alas, customers are even more upset when asked to reproduce a problem on their production system ;-) All cluster events are logged here and can be analyzed with hindsight (python GUI, ptest, and the crm shell). Logging can be selectively bumped to blackbox logging at runtime for debugging
52 Where Is the Real Cause? 52 The answer is always in the logs Even though the logs on the DC may print a reference to the error, the real cause may be on another node. Most errors are caused by resource agent misconfiguration.
53 Correlating Messages to Their Cause Feb 17 13:06:57 hex-8 pengine: : WARN: unpack_rsc_op: Processing failed op ocfs21:2_monitor_20000 on hex-0: not running (7) Feb 17 13:06:57 hex-0 Filesystem: : INFO: /filer is unmounted (stopped) Feb 17 13:06:57 hex-0 crmd: : info: process_lrm_event: LRM operation ocfs 21:2_monitor_20000 (call=37, rc=7, cib-update=55, confirmed=false) not running 53 This is not the failure, just the Policy Engine reporting on the CIB state! The real messages are on hex-0, grep for the operation key: Look for the error messages from the resource agent before the lrmd/pengine lines!
54 History Explorer 54
55 History Info (loads the report) 55
56 Basic Transition Usage 56
57 Resource Events 57
58 Node Events 58
59 Debugging Resource Agents
60 Common Resource Agent Issues Operations must succeed if the resource is already in the requested state. monitor must distinguish between at least running/ok, running/failed, and stopped 60 Probes deserve special attention Meta-data must conform to DTD. 3rd party resource agents do not belong under /usr/lib/ocf/resource.d/heartbeat chose your own provider name! Use ocf-tester to validate your resource agent.
61 ocf-tester Example Output hex-0:~ # ocf-tester -n Example /usr/lib/ocf/resource.d/bs2010/dummy Beginning tests for /usr/lib/ocf/resource.d/bs2010/dummy... * Your agent does not support the notify action (optional) * Your agent does not support the demote action (optional) * Your agent does not support the promote action (optional) * Your agent does not support master/slave (optional) * rc=7: Stopping a stopped resource is required to succeed Tests failed: /usr/lib/ocf/resource.d/bs2010/dummy failed 1 tests 61
62 Something Hangs and I Don t Know Where... hex-0:~ # export OCF_RESKEY_sid=MyDB hex-0:~ # bash -x /usr/lib/ocf/resource.d/heartbeat/oracle monitor 2>&1 \ while read L ; do echo $(date) $L ; done 62
63 More about High Availability with SUSE Linux Enterprise CAS7318 HO7695 TUT7320 TUT8023 TUT8155 A Geo Redundant Cloud VoIP Service Automated Deployment of a Highly Available OpenStack Cloud Highly Available 2 Node Cluster with KVM High Availability Storage Best Practices: Linux High Availability with VMware Virtual Machines Thank you. 63
64 Questions and Answers
65 65 Corporate Headquarters (Worldwide) Join us on: Maxfeldstrasse Nuremberg Germany
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