Presentation by Mrs. Ton Nu Thi Ninh Former Ambassador of Viet Nam to EU Former Vice Chair Foreign Affairs Committee, National Assembly of Viet Nam

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1 Presentation by Mrs. Ton Nu Thi Ninh Former Ambassador of Viet Nam to EU Former Vice Chair Foreign Affairs Committee, National Assembly of Viet Nam

2 Viet Nam s nuclear energy planning & development What has been done so far in terms of capacity building & human resources training Outstanding issues and challenges 2

3

4 From the early 1980s ( ): project for the Development of a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) in Viet Nam presented by Viet Nam s Atomic Energy Institute supported by the Prime Minister initial talks with the Soviet Union for the transfer of a 440 MW NPP 2006: Prime Minister s Decision on the Strategy for Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy up to

5 June 2008: Adoption of the Atomic Energy Law by the National Assembly November 2009: Adoption of the Resolution on the Ninh Thuan NPP by the National Assembly The foreign partner for Ninh Thuan 1 is Russia, and for Ninh Thuan 2 is Japan 2010: Master planning for the Peaceful Development and Use of Atomic Energy up to 2020 approved by the Prime Minister 5

6 6

7 Areas covered by detailed planning ( ): Agriculture; Medicine; Industry; Geological Science and Environment; Nuclear Power Development; HR Development; Disposal Site; Capacity Building for Security; Capacity Building for R&D and TSO According to Master Planning VII for power generation approved in 2011: By 2020 nuclear energy should account for 2.1% of the energy mix By 2030 it should account for 10.1% 7

8 In sum: Viet Nam s nuclear energy choice goes back several decades and practical planning started some 10 years ago Post-Fukushima, the nuclear energy option has been re-affirmed taking into account lessons from Fukushima (shared by IAEA), bringing some modifications to the location (place & height) of the planned Ninh Thuan 1 NPP, emphasizing up-to-dateness and safety in the choice of technology, revisiting the HR training planning and the legal framework (the 2008 Atomic Energy Law is being reviewed for amendment; February 2013 approval by the Prime Minister of the list of legal documents to be promulgated up to 2020), enhancing institutional capacity of state agencies and other actors. 8

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10 A full governmental management system has been put in place: 10

11 11

12 Specific emphasis on safety and security, HR and public communication: 2010 National Project for the Training and Development of Human Resource for Atomic Energy 2011 Project on the Development of Measures to guarantee Safety & Security in the Field of Atomic Energy 2012 Detailed planning for 2011 Project 2012 National Project on Public Information up to National Nuclear Safety Council establishment (May 2013) 12

13 13

14 In view of the Fukushima incident: Viet Nam is setting up a National Preparedness and Response plan involving 3 levels Nationwide Local (Ninh Thuan province) The NPP itself Right now work has started on the nationwide framework 14

15 HR training planning Approval by the Prime Minister of the master plan for Training and HR Development in the field of nuclear energy (August 2010) A national steering committee for the implementation of the HR master plan has been set up headed by a Deputy Prime Minister and has held 5 review meetings so far 15

16 HR training planning Salient orientations of the HR master plan include: HR development must be one step ahead Ensure safety & security Due attention to policy planning & legal training for management Attracting overseas Vietnamese expertise and engaging proactively in international cooperation 16

17 5 universities (1) and 1 training centre under the Institute for Nuclear Energy (Ministry of Science and Technology) have been selected to carry out training. Training objectives for the Ninh Thuan 1 NPP by 2020: 2,400 engineers (200 trained overseas) 350 Masters & PhDs in Nuclear Power (150 trained overseas) (1) - University of Natural Sciences VNU (Ha Noi) - Polytechnic University (Ha Noi) - University of Natural Sciences VNU (Ho Chi Minh City) - Dalat University (Dalat) - Electric Power University (EPU, Ha Noi) 17

18 Training objectives for R&D and safety & security by 2020: 650 engineers (150 overseas) 250 Masters & PhDs (100 overseas) Training objectives for nuclear energy trainers: 100 Masters and PhDs Sending 500 administrators, managers and scientists on observation & study tours in relevant countries Review and modify related curricula and syllabi towards greater up-to-dateness, closer linkage between theory and practice as well as between academe and R&D 18

19 Practical steps taken since 2010: Between 2005 & June 2012 Viet Nam Electricity Corporation (VEC) dispatched 196 staff on short training courses abroad (Japan, Korea, France, Hungary, etc.) and 29 students on longterm training at the Moscow Power Engineering Institute and 2 to Grenoble University in France VEC started training at its own university (EPU) in 2010 with a yearly intake of 50 students It is expected that each of the 5 other institutions assigned will take in 30 students every year from 2014 Overseas training conducted with Russia (238 so far), Hungary (496 faculty) and Japan 19

20 Supporting measures: MOUs signed with ROSATOM of Russia in March 2010 for training of Vietnamese students and in October 2011 for the establishment of an Information Center on Nuclear Energy in Ha Noi financed by ROSATOM. On 18 September 2012, signing of an MOU between Viet Nam and IAEA on cooperation for HR training in atomic energy including consultancy related to curriculum, syllabi, equipment, search for appropriate academics & scientists, and quality assurance regarding Viet Nam s atomic energy training programs. 20

21 Supporting measures: In September 2013, signing of an agreement on atomic energy training with Hungary; and another with Japan. Roughly 150 million USD has been mobilized to serve the HR master plan. 21

22 From all of the above, the following can be asserted: Viet Nam s consistently reaffirmed nuclear energy policy over the past several decades, including post-fukushima This translates into serious comprehensive and systematic planning taking into particular account the Fukushima incident Due importance is granted to the need for international guidance and cooperation in several aspects of nuclear energy, including development of national nuclear power infrastructure and especially with regard to the 3S s as well as capacity building and HR training. IAEA has conducted 2 INIR missions to Viet Nam: one in 2009 (30 Nov 4 Dec) and one in 2012 (05 14 Dec) 22

23 Viet Nam is actively participating in most of the relevant international instruments: 1982: Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) 1987: Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident (accessed) 1987: Convention on Assistance in Case of Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (accessed) 1989: Safeguards Agreement with IAEA 1996: Bangkok Treaty on Southeast Asian Nuclear Weapon Free Zone (SEANWFZ) 1996: Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT, signed, ratified 2006) 2007: Additional Protocol (AP, signed, ratified 9/2012) 2010: Convention on Nuclear Safety (CNS, accessed) 2012: Convention of Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials and its Amendment (in force since 3 Nov 2012) 23

24 Consideration is being given to participation in the following instruments: Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism Viet Nam is also actively engaged in several relevant regional institutions e.g. the Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia (FNCA); the Asia-Pacific Regional Cooperative Agreement (RCA); the Asia Nuclear Safety Network (ANSN); and the Asia-Pacific Safeguards Network (APSN) 24

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26 Lingering skepticism among some expert, scientists circles about the wisdom and feasibility for Viet Nam of moving into nuclear energy at this stage given that this option is better suited to developed countries; if Viet Nam s power utilization was made less wasteful (power consumption growing more than twice faster than the economy: 12.5% to 5.3% in 2012), the need for nuclear energy would lessen post Fukushima nuclear energy is becoming expensive 26

27 it will be very hard if not impossible for Viet Nam to meet the 2020 target in terms of appropriate capacity building and human resources. In fact, their view is, now that the executive and legal framework is in place, the slower the process of implementation the better. 27

28 The executive institutional set-up is indeed full-fledged, with all related agencies involved. There remains, however, the issue of effective and timely interagency and central-local coordination especially in case of an incident. Viet Nam has proven experience in disaster preparedness and response when it comes to typhoons and floods. However, Viet Nam has no experience of nuclear-related incidents on its territory. As part of the national preparedness and response plan, drills should be integrated in a suitable way. 28

29 In terms of qualified HR for the construction and operation of a NPP, Viet Nam suffers from a clear deficit: most of the 568 staff (2012) working in the nuclear field are concentrated in the nonpower nuclear power industry such as the Viet Nam Atomic Energy Agency. There is a consensus on considering capacity building and HR training for nuclear energy as the greatest challenge (both quantitative and qualitative) and top priority if Viet Nam is to carry out successfully its nuclear energy master plan. 29

30 There is yet the issue of how to structure the HR training: some experts worry that too much emphasis including quantitatively is being put on theoretical academic training rather than on application. They think that what is needed is good engineers, more particularly those working in thermal- or hydro-power plants who are further trained in the specifics of nuclear energy. 30

31 It has been stressed that there exists a further challenge, specific to Viet Nam, i.e. the deficit in safety culture in Viet Nam: the Vietnamese can be viewed as at the opposite end of the Japanese for instance, who are known for their safety mindset and culture. This may mean that HR manning the future NPP in Ninh Thuan might not follow strictly all safety rules and processes. Proper independent expert supervision and oversight might be necessary. 31

32 Finally, proper nuclear governance post-fukushima requires responsible and timely public information to ensure public trust and support at all levels (national, provincial and local). In this respect, the fine line is to determine what information needs to be made public or available while avoiding causing unfounded counterproductive public anxiety. 32

33 In facing these challenges as a newcomer, Viet Nam is also looking to fellow ASEAN countries to share experiences in preparing for the nuclear energy option as well as to link up with the ASEAN nuclear regulators network./. 33

34

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