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1 SIGUARD PSA Protection security assessment for control centers and studies

2 Prof. Dr.-Ing. Rainer Krebs Principal Expert Power Technologies Head of Protection and Control System Studies Siemens AG, Infrastructure & Cities Sector NC PCS, Erlangen, Germany Honorary Professor for System Protection and Control Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, Germany German Member in working groups of: IEC, CIGRE, IEEE, DKE, T&D Europe Board Member of VDE Bavaria Page 2

3 Content Field Examples Protection System Review: classical and new The Solution: SIGUARD The Protection Security Assessment SIGUARD PSA References Page 3

4 Content Field Examples Protection System Review: classical and new The Solution: SIGUARD The Protection Security Assessment SIGUARD PSA References Page 4

5 Field Examples Incidents, causes, implications, consequences Fall Case I: I: Städtisches Urban Network Netz Cause: weakness in the protection scheme Implication: damaged S/S, disconnection of a large network area Consequence: replacement & repair costs, damage of public image Case II: Rural Network Fall II: Regionales Netz Cause: false protection settings Implication: disconnection of an important industrial customer Consequence: loss of production, complaint, migration of industrial plant Result of Root Cause Analysis Ergebnis der Fehlerklärung: The causes of both incidents could have been found and corrected prior to the incidents if protection security assessments would have been performed The enhancement of the protection scheme and the improvement of relay settings respectively would have avoided/ limited the physical and monetary damage of both incidents Page 5

6 Field Examples Root Cause Analysis Why were the fault causes not detected prior to the incidents? Networks are continuously changing and consequently the performance and adequacy of the protection system must be regularly checked to detect limitations and weak points Hidden faults, e.g. of the back-up protection, are mainly found by simulation of the combined power & protection system or by real disturbances Protection system reviews are complex and time-consuming Automated solutions are normally unavailable and consequently protection system reviews are not performed in regular intervals When should protection security assessments be performed? For the root cause analysis after disturbances In case of structural changes in network, e.g. construction projects In case of changing operating conditions, e.g. new generation connections For the determination and validation of new protection settings For the verification of the correct protection function prior to switching actions For the validation of remedial action in critical system conditions After takeover of operation license for new network area Page 6

7 Field Examples Involvement of Protection Relays in Blackouts In 80% of all blackouts relays are involved Zone 3 trips of distance relays, often used for overload protection instead of thermal models in numerical relays Missing load and power swing blocking Uncoordinated protection / or overload settings across borders or between diff. utilities Too low synchro-check settings OC backup in parallel to distance or differential protection without delay Development of primary system without adaption of relaying design and relay settings Source: udoleuschner.de: 400kV Mettlen-Lavorgo Line Area of tree flashover starting the 2003 Italy Blackout Page 7

8 Content Field Examples Protection System Review: classical and new The Solution: SIGUARD The Protection Security Assessment SIGUARD PSA References Page 8

9 Protection System Review Classical: Check of coordination through depiction of settings All graphical methods used so far, are incomplete from an overall system perspective (e.g. the resistive reach in distance diagrams, see above, can not be shown) Diagrams are for one network state and do not support the detection of cascading trippings Large numbers of possible grading paths require numerous grading diagrams to be analyzed Coordination of different protection methods (e.g. 21, 50/51) cannot be evaluated together Selectivity analysis is only based on the depiction of settings instead of simulated selectivity Significant time efforts for complete protection system reviews paired with limited resources often result in negligence of the importance of regular protection system reviews Page 9

10 SH EBA 1000,0 MVA 0,1 p.u. ZW T G1 ZW T G2 ZWT G3 ZWT G4 65,0 MVA 65,0 MV A 65,0 MVA 65,0 MVA 0,1 p.u. 0,1 p.u. 0,1 p.u. 0,1 p.u. 0,2 p.u. 0,2 p.u. 0,2 p.u. 0,2 p.u. G G G G ZW T G1 ZW T G2 ZW T G3 ZWT G4 ZWT UT1 68,0 MVA 12,5 % ZWT UT2 68,0 MVA 12,5 % ZWT UT3 68,0 MVA 12,5 % ZWT UT4 68,0 MVA 12,5 % ZW T 220A ZW T 220B ZW T 2 20C ZWT 220D AL ALLOY bundle 8,7 km AL ALLOY bundle 8,7 km AL ALLOY bundle 8,7 km GDB 220A GDB 220B ST _GD B-A ST _GDB -B ST_GDB-A ST _GD B B 12,6 % 12,6 % 9,9 % 9,9 % GDB 30A GDB 30B GDB 66A GDB 66B L GDB A L GDB B L GDB A L GDB B 10,1 MW 10,1 MW 10,1 MW 10,1 MW 0,0 MVA r 0,0 MVA r 0,0 MVAr 0,0 MVAr JA L 220A JA L 220B JA L 30A L JAL A 15,1 MW 0,0 MVAr ST_JAL-A 9,9 % SRW 220A SRW 220B JA L 30B S RW 66A L JA L B 15,1 MW 0,0 MVA r L S RW A 6,7 MW 0,0 MVA r AL ALLOY bundle 8,7 km BR 1-SR W 25,0 MVA BR1-GDB 50,0 MVA AL ALLOY bundl e 259,0 km ST _JAL-B 9,9 % AL ALLOY bundl e 159,4 km 78 Le it un g 17 AL ALLOY bundl e 259,0 km L eit un g 18 AL ALLOY bundl e 159,4 km 80 ST _SR W-A ST _S RW -B 10,8 % 10,8 % KUF TZR 13 3, 0 MVA 0, 1 p. u. SR W 66B L S RW B 6,7 MW 0,0 MVA r Leitung 16 GMS 220A GMS 220B RE DW ING bundle 86,4 km RE DW ING bundle 86,4 km ST _GMS-A 10,8 % L GMS A 3,9 MW 0,0 MVA r GMS 66A L GMS B 3,9 MW 0,0 MVA r L eit un g ST_GMS-B 10,8 % GMS 66B 66 GOOS E singl e 144,3 km GOOS E singl e 133,8 km 36,4 km Leitung 15 36,4 km GWR 220 A GWR 220 B Leitung 21 GWR 30A GW R 30B GWR 66A GWR 66B L GWR A L GWR B L GW R A L GWR B 30,0 MW 30,0 MW 30,0 MW 30,0 MW 0,0 MVA r 0,0 MV Ar 0,0 MVAr 0,0 MVA r 8,8 km 8,8 km ST_GWR-B ST_GWR-A ST _GW R-B 12,6 % ST _GW R-A 12,6 % 9,9 % 9,9 % BNS 220A BNS 220B ST _BN S-4W 62 60,0 MVA 60,0 MVA 60,0 MVA 12,2 % 27,8 % ST_BNS-B1 12,7 % 9,9 % Leitung 14 25,4 km 25,4 km BNP 220A BNP 220B BNP 30A BNP 30B L eit un g 22 L BNP A L BNP B 35,3 MW 35,3 MW 0,0 MVA r 0,0 MVAr XLPE CABLE 15,0 km BN C 30B B NC 30A L B NC B L BNC A 16,5 MW 16,5 MW 0,0 MVAr 0,0 MVAr XLPE CABLE 15,0 km BNC 220A BNC 220B ST_BNC-B ST_BNC-A 63,0 MV A 9,9 % 9,9 % Leitung 19 GO OS E s i ngl e 10,5 km ST _BN P- A 9,9 % BUT 220A BUT 220B ST_BUT-A1 ST _BU T-A 2 ST_BNS-B2 12,5 % 12,5 % 9,9 % Le itu ng ,4 km 152,4 km ST_BNP-B 9,9 % ,6 km BN P G1 210,0 MVA 0,1 p.u. 0,2 p.u. BNP G1 BN P G2 BNP G3 BNP G4 BNP UT1 BN P U T2 BN P UT 3 BNP UT4 176,0 MVA 176,0 MVA 176,0 MVA 176,0 MVA 12,5 % 12,5 % 12,5 % 12,5 % 11,6 km G Leitung 12 BU T 30A BUT 30B BN S 30B B NS 30A -1 BNS 30A -2 L eit un g 23 L BUT A L BNS A L BNS B 63,8 MW 58,8 MW 58,8 MW 0,0 MVAr 0,0 MVAr 0,0 MVAr BN P G2 210,0 MVA 0,1 p.u. 0,2 p.u. G L B UT B 63,8 MW 0,0 MVA r 46 ST _B UT -B 12,5 % BNP G3 210,0 MVA 0,1 p.u. 0,2 p.u. G 44 BNP G4 21 0,0 MVA 0,1 p.u. 0,2 p.u. 42 G GOOS E single 9,5 km GOOS E single 9,5 km 2,2 km 2,2 km Leitung BNN 220A BNN 220B L eit un g 11 MRJ 220A MRJ 220B ST _MRJ-A ST_MRJ-B 12,6 % 12,6 % MRJ 30A MRJ 30B L MRJ A L MRJ B 29,8 MW 29,8 MW 0,0 MVA r 0,0 MVAr MRW 220A MRW 220B B NN 30A BNN 30B L BNN A L B NN B 17,4 MW 17,4 MW 0,0 MVAr 0,0 MVA r BR 1-MRW 25,0 MVA 19 ST_BNN-A ST _BN N-B 63,0 MV A 9,9 % 9,9 % GOOSE si ngle 84,5 km GOOSE si ngle 60,9 km Le it un g 9 GOOSE si ngle 84,5 km GOOSE singl e 60,9 km Leitung BR 2-MRW 25,0 MVA ST _MRW -A 31,5 MVA 31,5 MVA 31,5 MVA 9,2 % 20,3 % 10,0 % MRW 66A MRW 30A MRW 30B MRW 66B L MRW A L MRW A L MRW B L MRW B 14,6 MW 14,6 MW 14,6 MW 14,6 MW 0,0 MVA r 0,0 MVA r 0,0 MVAr 0,0 MVA r XRD 220A XRD 220B GO OS E s i ngl e 62,3 km GO OS E s i ngl e 62,3 km ST _MRW-B 31,5 MVA 31,5 MVA 31,5 MVA 9,2 % 20,3 % 10,0 % L XRD C 30,6 MW 0,0 MVAr RE DW ING bundle 191,7 km RE DW ING bundle 191,7 km Leitung 4 GOOSE si ngle 63,8 km DR N 66A DR N 66B GOOSE si ngle 63,8 km BR 1-TB K 25,0 MVA DRN G2 DR N G 1 81,3 MVA 81,3 MVA G 0,1 p.u. G 0,1 p.u. 0,2 p.u. 0,2 p.u. DR N UT 2 DRN UT1 81,5 MVA 81,5 MVA 10,1 % 10,1 % GOOSE si ngle 116,1 km 05 DRN LT2 DR N LT 1 75,0 MVA 75,0 MVA 10,0 % 10,0 % DRN 220A DRN 220B ST_DRN-A ST_DRN-B 75,0 MVA 75,0 MVA 10,5 % 10,5 % DRN 30A DR N 30B GOOSE single 72,4 km GOOSE single L DR N A L DR N B 44,8 MW 44,8 MW 72,4 km 0,0 MVAr 0,0 MVAr Le itu n g 6 X RD 66C ST_XRD-C 100,0 MVA 12,8 % L T AM A L T AM B 8,4 MW 8,4 MW ,0 MVA r 0,0 MVA r Leitung 5 ST _XR D-A ST_XRD-B 10,8 % 10,8 % TA M66A TA M 66B XR D 66A X RD 66B ST _T AM-B ST _TA M-A 10,8 % 10,8 % L X RD A L X RD B 30,6 MW 30,6 MW TAM 220A 0,0 MVA r 0,0 MVAr TAM 220B Leitung 7 DR N G2 DRN G1 GOOSE si ngle 116,1 km Leitung 3 TBK 220A TBK 220B TBK UT1 TB K U T2 ST_TBK-A ST_TBK-B 81,5 MVA 81,5 MVA 75,0 MVA 75,0 MVA 10,1 % 10,1 % 10,5 % 10,5 % ,0 km ,0 km Le it un g 2 ST _TB K-A 10,8 % TB K 3 0A T BK 30B TB K 66A TB K 66B TBK G1 TB K G2 L TB K A L TB K B L T BK A L T B K B G G 19,3 MW 19,3 MW 19,3 MW 19,3 MW 0,0 MVAr 0,0 MVAr 0,0 MVA r 0,0 MVAr TBK G1 TB K G2 81,5 MVA 81,5 MVA 0,1 p.u. 0,1 p.u. 0,2 p.u. 0,2 p.u. BR2-TBK 25,0 MVA A L ALLOY bundle 165,0 km A L ALLOY bundle 165,0 km Leitung SLM 220A SLM 220B BR 1-SLM BR 2-SLM 25,0 MVA 25,0 MVA ST_TBK-B 10,8 % EGYPT 5000,0 MVA 0,1 p.u. Protection System Review New: with protection system fingerprints from SIGUARD PSA Analogy: Magnetic Resonance Scan Imaging Diagnosis & Treatment Network and Protection Model Protection Simulation Weak point visualization Analysis & Countermeasures Automated protection performance assessment for relevant operating & fault scenarios Improved settings Prevention of supply interruptions Page 10

11 SIGUARD PSA Example: Urban Network Page 11

12 SIGUARD PSA Example: Simulation Leitungen L-West-Grünwinkel L-Grünwinkel-Süd L-West-Mitte L-West-StoraEnso L-West-Heide L-Süd-Oberwald Lines L-Ost-Uni L-Ost-Oberwald L-Ost-Mitte L-Ost-Blöße L-Nord-Uni L-Nord-Heide L-Nord-Blöße L-G Fault Ik1E.dat - - Fehlerwiderstand Ohm relative Länge in % (Fehlerort) Rel. line length in % Fault resistance < 25 Ohm 24 Ohm < 23 Ohm 22 Ohm < 21 Ohm 20 Ohm < 19 Ohm 18 Ohm < 17 Ohm 16 Ohm < 15 Ohm 14 Ohm < 13 Ohm 12 Ohm < 11 Ohm 10 Ohm < 9,0 Ohm 8,0 Ohm < 7,0 Ohm 6,0 Ohm < 5,0 Ohm 4,0 Ohm < 3,0 Ohm 2,0 Ohm < 1,0 Ohm 0,0 Ohm Successful fault clearance Schutzgeräte an dem zu schützenden Betriebsmittel lösen korrekt aus Page 12 Schutzgeräte an dem zu schützenden Betriebsmittel sollten in der zweiten Zone auslösen, lösen ab bereits in der ersten Zone aus - und umgekehrt Protection trips to fast Schutzgeräte an dem zu schützenden Betriebsmittel lösen erst in der dritten Zone, oder einer höheren Zone, aus Protection trips delayed bei einem Fehler auf dem zu schützenden Betriebsmittel löst mindestens Protection overfunction Siemens ein nachgeordnetes AG Schutzgerät All mit aus rights (Überfunktion) reserved. Protection nicht aus (Unterfunktion) underfunction mindestens ein Schutzgerät an dem zu schützenden Betriebsmittel löst

13 SIGUARD PSA Example: Network area with 80 lines and 300 relays original protection fingerprint Namen und Leitungslängen Detaillierte Informationen über Schutzverhalten Lines Objective: Selectivity selectively coordinated network Fault location (% Line length) Variables ColorCoding Relays - Protection behavior presented in layers - New relay coordination only done where needed - Change of protection scheme if required performance cannot be achieved by setting improvement alone - New devices - Verification of improvements - Usage as training simulator - Certification of protection system Page 13 L-G fault

14 SIGUARD PSA Example: Network area with 80 lines and 300 relays Relay Error Rate Page 14

15 Overview diagram for all relays (300) Relay Error Rate for 1-phase fault Relay Error Rate for original protection settings Relay Error Rate for improved protection settings SIGUARD PSA makes the improvements measureable Page 15

16 Content Field Examples Protection System Review: classical and new The Solution: SIGUARD The Protection Security Assessment SIGUARD PSA References Page 16

17 SIGUARD The family of Power System Security Solutions SIGUARD is an innovative solution that helps ensure reliable power supply at all times. SIGUARD DSA: Dynamic Security Assessment for evaluation of the impact of contingencies on power system stability and it s improvement SIGUARD PDP: Phasor Data Processor for acquisition, management and analysis of PMU measurements SIGUARD PSA: Protection Security Assessment for evaluation, auditing and improvement of the protection system Page 17

18 Content Field Examples Protection System Review: classical and new The Solution: SIGUARD The Protection Security Assessment SIGUARD PSA References Page 18

19 SIGUARD PSA - Data Aggregation Cockpit Page 19

20 SIGUARD PSA Open Software Structure, same application platform as for DSA SCADA Snapshot Steady-State Network Interface Energy Trade, Renewable and Load Forecast Dynamic Network Database SIGUARD PDP PMU Data Stream Dynamic PMU Interface Contingencies & Measures Scenarios Automatic Contingencies & Measures Protection Database SETUP, CONFIGURATION Margins & Criteria Index Selection Protection Speed Computation Engine Application Platform Protection Selectivity Evaluation and Fault Pattern Analysis Protection Security PSS Suite Contingencies, Measures Interface Result Database SCADA SIGUARD PSA RDC SCADA SIGUARD PDP Monitoring Page 20 Visualization & Reporting

21 SIGUARD PSA Easy to Connect Future Integration with Spectrum Power Standalone with any SCADA Page 21 PSS PSS /E /E PSS /E PSS /E files Steady-state snapshopts Micro-Topology

22 Content Field Examples Protection System Review: classical and new The Solution: SIGUARD The Protection Security Assessment SIGUARD PSA References Page 22

23 SIGUARD PSA Customers SIGUARD PSA Customers GridCo (Ghana) CTSO (Cyprus) Karlsruhe, Münster, Unna (Germany) - Transmission system - Island system - City distribution system PSS Software Suite Customers Number of Customers: ~ 1500 Thereof TSOs: ~ 150 Share of customers with M&S: ~ 60% Countries: ~ More than 60 years of experience in power system simulation software development Page 23

24 Thank you for your attention! Prof. Dr.-Ing. Rainer E. Krebs Head of Protection and Control System Studies Principal Expert for Power Technologies Phone: Fax: Mobile: Dr.-Ing. Thomas Bopp Consultant SIGUARD PSA Phone: Fax: Mobile: Siemens AG, Freyeslebenstrasse Erlangen Germany Page 24

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