Development and Operation of a Wind Power Based Energy System : Experiences and Research Efforts

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1 Development and Operation of a Wind Power Based Energy System : Experiences and Research Efforts Professor and Head of Center Jacob Østergaard Technical University of Denmark (DTU) (With acknowledgement to all contributors from DTU, DONG Energy and Energinet.dk) International Conference on Renewable Power Generation Beijing, October 2015

2 2 DTU Electrical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

3 The Electric Power System in Denmark (2013) Load Generation capacity Central power plants Local CHP plants Wind power Solar power 2,000 6,300 MW 5,000 MW 2,500 MW 4,800 MW 500 MW ~25% of the wind power capacity is offshore. Dato - Dok.nr. 3

4 DK power system right now 4 DTU Electrical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark Courtesy: Energinet.dk (http://energinet.dk/)

5 Wind Power in Denmark Year 2014 Danish wind power generation: 39.1% of the electricity consumption January 2014 Danish wind power generation: 63.3% of the electricity consumption December 21 th 2013 Danish wind power generation: 102% of the electricity consumption Single hour July 9 th 2015 Danish wind power generation: 140% of the electricity consumption March 11 th 2014 only 9 MW wind power generated out of installed 4,900 MW but 480 MW out of 580 MW solar units supplied the grid Source: Nord Pool Spot and Energinet.dk 5 DTU Electrical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

6 Ambitious Energy Policy by the DK Parliament Agreement & Target for % wind power in the electricity system No coal 100% RE in electricity and heating systems 100% RE (incl. power, heat, industry and transport) 6 DTU Electrical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

7 Strategy by DONG Energy Cost of offshore wind power is the key issue 7 DTU Electrical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

8 8 DTU Electrical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

9 Cost Drivers and Solutions Design, optimization, standardisation of system solutions and components. Verification and tuning of solutions before going offshore Examples of current research efforts: Superconducting generator Conventional generator Optimization of array cables by improved dynamic thermal models. Real-time test platform for verification and tuning of controllers. 9 DTU Electrical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

10 Strategy by Energinet.dk: Efficient integration of wind power A strong international transmission grid Market based mobilization of flexible resources Smart Grids , dok. nr Integration of Wind - Energinet.dk

11 Strong Interconnectors Nordic area Statnett Svenska Kraftnät 1000 MW 700 MW 740 MW 600 MW MW UK area National Grid 700 MW 400 MW 600 MW TenneT Continental Europe 50Hertz Dato - Dok.nr. 11

12 The Krieger s Flak Offshore Farm combining WPP connection and interconnection Denmark-Germany A step toward an offshore grid Important research challenges Coordinated protection and control of WPP. HVDC and grid connection Interaction between market and operation Optimal utilization of the grid 12 DTU Electrical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

13 Improve Utilization of the Grid - E.g. by Coordination of Controllable HVDC Connections Example: Power transfer W E Without coordination N-1 criterion, e.g. allow disconnection of one line 100 MW MW (capacity: 100 MW) Shared N-1 security Basic real-time coordination allows transfer of total 150 MW, i.e. increase by 50% In reality: Complex grid Different operational situation Other controllers in system Dynamics Time delays W 50 MW HVDC MW (capacity: 100 MW) 0 MW Zone A Zone B 100 MW MW (capacity: 100 MW) MW (capacity: 100 MW) 100 MW HVDC2 50 MW E 13 DTU Electrical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

14 Secure Operation of Sustainable Power Systems Conventional stabilizing resources (central power plants) are displaced The system operation becomes more dynamic How to efficiently ensure a secure operation where the operating point is heavliy fluctuating? Need for real-time stability assessment and corrective control Maintain stability margins Improve utilization of the grid (economic impact) 14 DTU Electrical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

15 Overall stability assessment in real-time by an elementwise approach 15 DTU Electrical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

16 Real-time method for assessment of aperiodic small-signal rotor angle stability 16 DTU Electrical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

17 Fast Real-time Security Assessment of Electric Power Systems (ms-range) Proximity-toinstability info Where and what Conventional approaches Off-line simulation-based analysis Assessment times of 5 15 minutes Insufficient for systems with high share of stochastic energy sources Detailed and accurate models needed Developed approach Analytical approach enables real-time assessment of aperiodic small-signal stability of individual generators PMU s provides system observability Assessment time 2.5 ms on 7917 nodes, 1325 gens 2003 SW-DK blackout -> 80 s warning; no blackout Optimal counteractions can easily and fast be identified analytically 17 DTU Electrical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark Refs: IEEE Transaction in Power Systems, 2015 Patent No , 2011 Patent No. EP , 2011

18 Balancing the Wind Power 8000 Year Energy per hour in DK (MWh/h) Wind Power Demand 18 DTU Electrical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

19 EcoGrid EU Large-scale Demonstration of a Prototype for European Smart Grids Co-funded by EU FP7. 2,000 active private and commercial customers EU fast-track to Smart Grids Period: Budget: 21 million Euro Integrated research and demonstration Best Sustainable IT-project, 2012 awarded by Sustainia 100 (Arnold Schwarzenegger et. al) IEA ISGAN Award of Excellence in smart grid systems "Consumer Engagement & Empowerment, DTU Electrical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark Refs: IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, and others.

20 TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT TESTING TRAINING DEMONSTRATION Bornholm island Living-Lab with 40,000 Inhabitants and 33% Wind Power Resources: - Wind power - Solar power - Biomass - Biogas - District heating - Combined heat and power - emobility - Active demand Features: - Nord Pool market - Islanding capability Bornholm 20 DTU Electrical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

21 Demand response to step in price (other effects excluded) Demand response for automated groups 0-50 Power [kw] IBM heat pumps IBM electric heating Siemens electric heating Time [Minutes] 21 DTU Electrical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

22 The Fundamendal EcoGrid EU Concept /market The market concept allows regulation of DER through price signal without direct measurement of the individual response * 22 DTU Electrical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark * Including flexible demand

23 EcoGrid EU 5 min real-time market implementation Optimize the demand and generation social welfare based on expected (forecasted) demand response. DA 1 max { λ Ω + α Ω Ω 2 t tt, tt, tt, tt, t t t t g ( λgt, Pgt, λgt, Pgt, ) The real-time market operates coordinated with existing markets. A baseline market run in parallel with the EcoGrid EU real-time market. } 23 DTU Electrical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

24 An example of obtained response in the EcoGrid EU demonstration DTU Electrical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

25 25 DTU Electrical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark Courtesy: Prof. Pierre Pinson

26 26 DTU Electrical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark Courtesy: Prof. Pierre Pinson

27 Nordhavn the future sustainable city Scandinavia s largest city development district Over the next 50 years, Nordhavn will develop into a new district with 40,000 residents and 40,000 jobs. Will be a role model of a future sustainable city, contributing to the City of Copenhagen's goal of becoming carbon-neutral by A living EnergyLab for real-life demonstration of smart energy solutions. Nordhavn is the only urban development area that has received the highest certification for sustainability - namely gold - in the DGNB certification system. 27 DTU Electrical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

28 EnergyLab Nordhavn Objective: To develop new methods and solutions for design and dimensioning of the future cost-effective multi-carrier energy system (electricity, thermal, transport), buildings based on Nordhavn as a globally visible real-life laboratory. Electricity Heating/cooling Transportation - Buildings New business models New integrated market designs Control and operation Flexible energy use and storage technologies April March m Euro 28 DTU Electrical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

29 Thank you for the attention! Jacob Østergaard Professor, Head of Center Center for Electric Power and Energy (CEE) Department of Electrical Engineering Technical University of Denmark Web: Tel: DTU Electrical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

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