AMSC s Superconductor Cable Technologies for Electric Utilities

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1 International Workshop 2014 AMSC s Superconductor Cable Technologies for Electric Utilities Michael Ross, P.E. Managing Director of Superconductor Power Systems

2 AMSC Corporate Facts Headquartered in MA, USA Founded in 1987; IPO in 1991 Approximately 300 employees worldwide Sales & Service staff in N. & S. America, Europe, China, India, and Australia Wind Energy and T&D Solutions Provider

3 HTS Technology Overview

4 What is a Superconductor? Superconductors are materials that exhibit unique electrical characteristics: Very low impedance (low losses) High current density (high power) High electro-magnetic shielding (low EMF) These characteristics require: Cooling below a critical temperature Current levels below a critical current Magnetic field below a certain magnitude Above these critical levels the material quenches, and current must flow elsewhere Ceramic high temperature superconductor (HTS) material discovered in 1986 Requires less cooling; cost effective liquid nitrogen may be used 78% of the earth s atmosphere Development of HTS has enabled utility commercial applications 4

5 Superconductor AC Power Cables Unique Electrical Characteristics Very high power transfer capability compared to conventional cables solves many siting problems Thermal isolation eliminates de-rating, simplifies placement concerns, and minimizes right-of-way Optional fault current management capabilities eliminate need to upgrade existing equipment Minimal magnetic field Photo courtesy Long Island Power Authority Superconductor cables offer unique capabilities

6 HTS Cables for Today s Grid HTS AC/DC Transmission & Distribution Cable Systems

7 Key HTS Cable PHYSICAL Characteristics Unique Electrical Characteristics Very high power transfer capability Very low impedance Minimal magnetic field Elimination of heat HTS cables with fault current management Familiar Physical Characteristics Looks like conventional cable May be spliced May be placed in ducts or direct buried Liquid nitrogen cooling similar to conventional oil cooled cable systems No thermal constraints for placement HTS Cables offer unique capabilities in a familiar package

8 Superconductor Cable System Elements Main components of superconductor cable systems HTS Cable Cryostat Terminations Cryogenic Cooling Systems HTS Cable and Cryostat 8

9 HTS Cable System Designs Concentric phases Three phases in one cryogenic envelope Three separate phases MV Rated Voltage HV 9

10 Single Phase HTS Cable Courtesy of Nexans 10

11 HTS Triax Distribution Cable Phase 1 Superconductor Former Dielectric Phase 3 Superconductor Dielectric Cryostat Phase 2 Superconductor Dielectric Copper Neutral Photo courtesy of Southwire Conmpany 11

12 Examples of Standard Designs AC Transmission, AC Distribution & DC Transmission 150 MVA, 22.9kV, AC Cable (3 phases in 1 cryostat) 5 GVA, 200kV, DC Cable (Single Pole Shown) 1 GVA, 154kV, AC Cable (single phase shown) Courtesy of LS Cables 12

13 Cryogenic Cooling System Refrigeration system which ensures continuous flow of liquid nitrogen through the cable system Various refrigeration technologies (Sterling, Brayton Cycle, Turbo Brayton, etc.) exist from a variety of large, multinational firms Cooling system supplier supplies cold under an annual supply & maintenance contract with the utility Cryogenic Cooling Is a Widely Established Product and Service 13

14 Superconductor Cable Cryostat Superconductor Cable Incorporates HTS wire Available from a number of suppliers Available in ratings up to 220 kv AC (higher Levels achievable) and 4000A Cryostat Double-walled stainless steel jacket Vacuum between inner and outer walls provides thermal insulation N 2 flows within the cryostat Cryostats are widely used in commercial industrial, scientific, and medical applications Cable and N 2 flow here Vacuum Space 14

15 Cable Terminations and Installation Standard contractors can install HTS Cable Systems Cable terminations transition HTS cable to ambient temperature HTS cable may be direct buried or installed in ducts Self-contained thermal environments eliminates traditional spacing and backfill requirements 138 kv Termination 13.8 kv Termination Photo Courtesy of Nexans Photo Courtesy of Southwire Company 15

16 Cable Terminations Various Options from Multiple Manufactures Concentric phase style 89 x 39 x 18 in 98 x 20 x 20 in TRIAD Style 104 x 57 x 18 in 220 x 151 x 60 in (More compact than the 272 previous design) AMSC Proprietary and Confidential 16

17 Joints Typical Typical Joint Length feet AMSC Proprietary and Confidential 17

18 HTS Cable Applications for Electric Utilities

19 Power Transfer Equivalency of Superconductor Cables XLPE XLPE HTS Same Voltage, More Power Greatly increased power transfer capacity at any voltage level XLPE XLPE HTS XLPE XLPE HTS HTS Same Power, Lower Voltage New MV versus HV Siting Opportunity - MV Transmission - Ideal for NIMBY & ROW sparse environments * No XLPE cable de-rating factors applied. Superconductor rating based on conventional 4000A breaker rating HTS Cables provide transmission-level power at distribution voltages

20 Simplifying Transmission Siting One MV HTS Cable can replace: Many conventional underground circuits Overhead transmission line Photo courtesy Consolidated Edison HTS Cables Offer New Options to Siting Power Lines 20

21 HTS Power Cable Systems - HV 138kV Transmission Cable :Long Island Power Authority Utility required to meet increasing transmission demands in very limited ROW HTS cables solved overhead siting issues 70m 138kV HTS provided cost savings compared to upgrading to 345kV 575MW, 138kV, 1m ROW 2m Long Island is a densely populated portion of New York City extending to the east of the City AMSC Proprietary and Confidential 21

22 Superconductor Example: 138 kv, 575MW Capacity 70m 2m Self contained thermal envelope No thermal derating Minimal magnetic field No parallel line de-rating Lower Impedance Longer practical distance Simplify placement and offer new options to line siting 22

23 Long Island Power Authority Cable Energized in April 2008 World s first HTS transmission voltage cable system in the grid Longest, most powerful superconductor cable in the world Able to carry 574 MW of power in a four-foot-wide right of way Landmark cable installation proving high power, transmission level applications Over 15 years of superconductor cable experience

24 AEP/Bixby Cable System Energized in August 2006 World s first HTS tri-axial voltage cable system in the grid Rated 13.8kV, 60MVA, averages 70-80% of rated MVA Experienced over 40 through faults with no adverse effects Photo courtesy Ultera Long term, uneventful operation proven

25 Korea Electric Power (KEPCO) Icheon Substation Energized in August 2011, continuous operation with no events Rated 22.9kV, 1250A, (50MVA) 154kV AC and 80kV DC cable projects in process Photo courtesy KEPCO/LS Cable Operation assumed solely by KEPCO

26 Ampacity project in Essen, Germany Energization announced in May of 2014 Allows substantial amount of power to be brought into a dense urban environment at 10kV (replaces 110kV line) Includes HTS cable and series standalone HTS Fault Current Limiter 1km length includes a cable joint Figure courtesy of Nexans Project minimizes the expansion of an urban substation

27 ConEd Hydra System Energization planned for 2014 World s first fault current limiting cable tying together two substations Successfully tested proving 50% fault current reduction Rated 13.8kV Photo courtesy US DOE Oak Ridge National Laboratory Proprietary wire design provides unique capabilities

28 Fault Current Limiting Properties HTS is Inherently Fault Current Limiting Superconductor wire has zero resistance up to the critical current AMSC supplies a superconductor wire that instantly introduces high resistance above the critical current Immediate limitation of fault current magnitudes Insertion of resistance decreases X/R and fault asymmetry Load Current Fault Current Simplified View of Superconductor wire high resistance layer ~zero resistance superconductor layer high resistance layer switched high resistance superconductor layer 28

29 FCL Cable Operational Characteristics Fast Response Millisecond operation time First Peak Limiting RMS Limiting Photo: Courtesy U.S. Dept. of Energy, Oak Ridge National Laboratory Resistance builds as fault progresses Resistive Limiting Lowers X/R ratio, reducing DC offset *Please note disclaimer at end of this presentation 29

30 Resilient Electric Grids The Next Phase of FCL HTS Cables in Urban Grids

31 What is REG? Resilient Electric Grids (REG) are Distribution Voltage, HTS Cable Systems designed to be inherently Fault Current Limiting and are applied in Urban Areas to improve system Reliability and Load Serving capability. REG Systems take advantage of the following Key Characteristics of HTS Cables: Power Density: Transmission Power at Distribution Voltages Ease of Siting: 3-Phases in One Cable and Thermal Isolation make siting easier Fault Current Limiting: FCL capability allows for approaches not available with any other technology. REG Systems have the following Key Applications: Allow the networking of Urban Distribution Grids to increase reliability and load serving capability while managing fault currents. Allow the installation of small, cost effective urban substations that consist of a distribution bus only; bulk power is transported in at distribution voltages Development of HTS has enabled utility commercial applications 31

32 MV Resilient Electric Grid (REG) System Typical Urban Power System Transmission Bus Transmission Bus Transmission Bus Today s typicial urban grid: Networked at Transmission Level Reliability from N-1 to N-2 Distribution Bus Distribution Bus Distribution Distribution Bus Bus Distribution Bus Distribution Bus Each substation serves a specific area Limited ability to serve a area if the primary substation is lost; long duration blackouts Networking on distribution side made extremely difficult due to fault current Distribution Bus Distribution Bus Transmission Bus Distribution Bus Distribution Bus Transmission Bus AMSC Proprietary and Confidential 32

33 MV Resilient Electric Grid (REG) System Distribution Networking This REG system provides the utility: Increased reliability from N-2 to N-4 Transmission Bus Transmission Bus Transmission Bus Can serve load upon loss of all power supply to any substation Distribution Bus Distribution Bus Distribution Bus Increased load serving capacity without installing new power transformers Provides Fault Current Limiting Distribution Bus Transmission Bus Distribution Bus Transmission Bus AMSC Proprietary and Confidential 33

34 MV Resilient Electric Grid (REG) System Distribution Networking This REG system provides the utility: Increased reliability from N-2 to N-4 Transmission and/or Transformation Lost Transmission Bus Transmission Bus Transmission Bus Can serve load upon loss of all power supply to any substation Increased load serving capacity without installing new power transformers Distribution Bus Distribution Bus Distribution Bus Distribution Bus Load Served from Adjoining Substations Via REG Cables Distribution Bus Provides Fault Current Limiting Transmission Bus Transmission Bus AMSC Proprietary and Confidential 34

35 MV Resilient Electric Grid (REG) System Distribution Networking Distribution fault This REG system provides the utility: Transmission Bus Transmission Bus Transmission Bus Increased reliability from N-2 to N-4 Can serve load upon loss of all power supply to any substation Distribution Bus Distribution Bus Distribution Bus Increased load serving capacity without installing new power transformers Provides Fault Current Limiting Distribution Bus REG Cables become resistive and limit fault current from adjoining distribution Substations Distribution Bus Transmission Bus Transmission Bus AMSC Proprietary and Confidential 35

36 New Urban Substation Scenario How to serve growing Urban Loads Suburban Area Urban Area Transmission Transmission Transmission Distribution Distribution Distribution Loads Loads Loads Loads Loads Distribution Goal: Move these Loads to new Urban Substation Distribution Transmission Transmission

37 Traditional Solution: New Full Transmission/Distribution Urban Substation with Similar Transmission Connections Suburban Area Urban Area Transmission Transmission Transmission Distribution Distribution Distribution Loads Loads Loads Loads Loads Distribution New Distribution Bus Distribution New Transformers Transmission New Transmission Circuit New Transmission Circuit New Transmission Bus New Transmission Circuit Transmission

38 REG Solution: Transmission & Transformation in Suburban Area, Distribution Only substation in Urban Area Suburban Area Urban Area Transmission Transmission Transmission Distribution Distribution Distribution Loads Loads REG Cable Loads Loads Loads Distribution REG Cable REG Cable Distribution New Transformers New Distribution Bus Transmission New Transmission Bus Transmission

39 HTS Worldwide Utility Projects

40 Global HTS Cable Opportunities 19 cable projects underway or in discussion Netherlands 6km, TBD Germany 10kV, 2014 Others under study Russia DC cable, 2015 S. Korea 23 kv AC kV DC kV AC 2015 China 154kV cable 2015 Taiwan 69kV, TBD USA Hydra Multiple others India 220kV, 2016 Brazil Next Major Market? France 220kV, TBD Australia Various, in discussion Strong movement towards commercial activity AMSC Proprietary and Confidential 40

41 HTS Cost Improvements HTS equipment is expensive, but costs are falling World Wide Demand for HTS products is increasing rapidly Increased Volumes Reducing Prices Product Technology is Advancing toward Lower Costs Improved Manufacturing of HTS wire More efficient Cooling Systems Lower Cost Cryostats / Cabling Costs of Conventional Construction Increasing Cities becoming more dense, requiring more services more demand for space underground Value of Power Density is Increasing Fault Current Limiting provides Substantial Value Avoid Upgrading Breakers and Splitting Systems Allows networking of Distribution Systems Service Growing Loads While Also Increasing Reliability HTS Technology is becoming more competitive and will continue to reduce costs

42 Transmission Planning Support AMSC s team of engineers provide over 80 years of utility transmission planning and engineering experience. Experience with steady state load flow, dynamic and stability analysis, harmonic analysis

43 For More Information For more information contact: Michael Ross

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