p l a s t i c i n j e c t i o n m o l d i n g p a r t 1 p r o c e s s, m o l d a n d m a c h i n e e r i k d e l a n g e

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "p l a s t i c i n j e c t i o n m o l d i n g p a r t 1 p r o c e s s, m o l d a n d m a c h i n e e r i k d e l a n g e"

Transcription

1 p l a s t i c i n j e c t i o n m o l d i n g p a r t 1 p r o c e s s, m o l d a n d m a c h i n e e r i k d e l a n g e H R O R o t t e r d a m B r n o U T j o i n t p r o j e c t 1

2 plastic injection molding = + + Kč 40 / kg 1,50 / kg Kč (for an old one) Kč Kč H R O R o t t e r d a m B r n o U T j o i n t p r o j e c t 2

3 Whose property you think a mold is? In most cases, it s them who own the mold! H R O R o t t e r d a m B r n o U T j o i n t p r o j e c t 3

4 lecture contents industrial product tool (=mold) design design of injectionmolded products mold engineering manufacture injection molding process mold manufacturing H R O R o t t e r d a m B r n o U T j o i n t p r o j e c t 4

5 lecture contents Today Process, mold and machine Getting your product out of the mold Tomorrow Guidelines for designing plastic products H R O R o t t e r d a m B r n o U T j o i n t p r o j e c t 5

6 concept design drawings, CAD-files, production plans designer mechanical engineer mold engineer parts molds assembly department parts production department H R O R o t t e r d a m B r n o U T j o i n t p r o j e c t 6

7 For product designers, having a thorough knowledge in the field of of mold engineering and injection molding is extremely useful! - it prevents throwing over the wall work flow - it helps to design parts with the mold in mind, saving time and money it enables them to: - speak the language of the mold engineer - negotiate with the mold engineer H R O R o t t e r d a m B r n o U T j o i n t p r o j e c t 7

8 lecture outline product tool (=mold) design design of injectionmolded products mold engineering manufacture injection molding process mold manufacturing H R O R o t t e r d a m B r n o U T j o i n t p r o j e c t 8

9 sand casting giant cast-iron ball joints of storm surge barrier in waterway near Rotterdam, cast by Škoda foundries, Plzeň H R O R o t t e r d a m B r n o U T j o i n t p r o j e c t 9

10 annual production volumes > 3 million/year > 12 million/year H R O R o t t e r d a m B r n o U T j o i n t p r o j e c t 10

11 annual production volumes > 500 million/year > 1 billion/year H R O R o t t e r d a m B r n o U T j o i n t p r o j e c t 11

12 metal versus plastic Metal melts and becomes liquid: low viscosity Plastic becomes plastic, not liquid: high viscosity Consequently: A. Casting will take too much time B. Plastic won t fill the corners and small details molten metal plastic H R O R o t t e r d a m B r n o U T j o i n t p r o j e c t 12

13 metal versus plastic To speed up the filling process, the plastic is forced into the mold under high pressure. ( MPa) H R O R o t t e r d a m B r n o U T j o i n t p r o j e c t 13

14 process H R O R o t t e r d a m B r n o U T j o i n t p r o j e c t 14

15 process H R O R o t t e r d a m B r n o U T j o i n t p r o j e c t 15

16 process ejector pins core cavity H R O R o t t e r d a m B r n o U T j o i n t p r o j e c t 16

17 process H R O R o t t e r d a m B r n o U T j o i n t p r o j e c t 17

18 machine clamping mechanism granulate funnel hopper plasticizing and injection unit, melts the granulate and injects it H R O R o t t e r d a m B r n o U T j o i n t p r o j e c t 18

19 machine hydraulic cylinder, providing the clamping force movable platen fixed platen hole for injection unit tiebars, guiding the movable platen H R O R o t t e r d a m B r n o U T j o i n t p r o j e c t 19

20 machine the molding cycle: close the mold inject the plastic into the cavity keep the mold closed until the plastic is cooled and ready for ejection open the mold eject the product the cycle time depends on the wall thickness: thin part (for instance 2,5 mm): 5 secs thick part (for instance 10 mm): 1 min H R O R o t t e r d a m B r n o U T j o i n t p r o j e c t 20

21 mold cooling Due to the hot plastic (for example, 220 C), the mold will get hotter every shot. The time to solidify will become longer and longer; and so will the cycle time. That s why cooling is necessary. cooling channels H R O R o t t e r d a m B r n o U T j o i n t p r o j e c t 21

22 part shaping The simplest type of mold has only two product-shaping parts, often called core and cavity. This is called a straight pull mold. ejector pins core cavity H R O R o t t e r d a m B r n o U T j o i n t p r o j e c t 22

23 part shaping The simplest type of mold has only two product-shaping parts, often called core and cavity. This is called a straight pull mold. ejector pins core cavity H R O R o t t e r d a m B r n o U T j o i n t p r o j e c t 23

24 part shaping The simplest type of mold has only two product-shaping parts, often called core and cavity. This is called a straight pull mold. ejector pins core cavity H R O R o t t e r d a m B r n o U T j o i n t p r o j e c t 24

25 part shaping During solidification, the product shrinks by a few percent. To facilitate the product s ejection from the core, the walls should make an angle of at least 2 with the line of draw. 2 line of draw core cavity H R O R o t t e r d a m B r n o U T j o i n t p r o j e c t 25

26 part shaping Many shapes would get locked in a straight pull mold: undercut This part will draw from the core, but won t draw from the cavity, due to undercuts. H R O R o t t e r d a m B r n o U T j o i n t p r o j e c t 26

27 part shaping This product requires a mold with side actions. side action line of draw side action H R O R o t t e r d a m B r n o U T j o i n t p r o j e c t 27

28 part shaping Schematic of a side-action mold. H R O R o t t e r d a m B r n o U T j o i n t p r o j e c t 28

29 part shaping Schematic of a side-action mold slide slide K2010.exe H R O R o t t e r d a m B r n o U T j o i n t p r o j e c t 29

30 part shaping cavity core H R O R o t t e r d a m B r n o U T j o i n t p r o j e c t 30

31 part shaping H R O R o t t e r d a m B r n o U T j o i n t p r o j e c t 31

32 part shaping What if the part has internal undercuts? Exercise: try to make a sketch of a mold from which the part will release. H R O R o t t e r d a m B r n o U T j o i n t p r o j e c t 32

33 part shaping Angled ejection pins H R O R o t t e r d a m B r n o U T j o i n t p r o j e c t 33

34 part shaping Angled ejection pins H R O R o t t e r d a m B r n o U T j o i n t p r o j e c t 34

35 exercise cross section of louvered vent H R O R o t t e r d a m B r n o U T j o i n t p r o j e c t 35

36 exercise H R O R o t t e r d a m B r n o U T j o i n t p r o j e c t 36

37 exercise slide H R O R o t t e r d a m B r n o U T j o i n t p r o j e c t 37

38 exercise parting line (PL) slide H R O R o t t e r d a m B r n o U T j o i n t p r o j e c t 38

39 parting planes The parting line is visible on the product. As a designer, you might have certain ideas where you would like to locate this line. Parting lines can also be curved. This makes the mould more expensive. H R O R o t t e r d a m B r n o U T j o i n t p r o j e c t 39

40 part shaping A side action mold is far more expensive than a single draw mold. How can the costs be kept low? H R O R o t t e r d a m B r n o U T j o i n t p r o j e c t 40

41 part shaping A side action mold is far more expensive. How can the costs be kept low? H R O R o t t e r d a m B r n o U T j o i n t p r o j e c t 41

42 part shaping A side action mold is far more expensive. How can the costs be kept low? H R O R o t t e r d a m B r n o U T j o i n t p r o j e c t 42

43 part shaping A side action mold is far more expensive. How can the costs be kept low? H R O R o t t e r d a m B r n o U T j o i n t p r o j e c t 43

44 part shaping A side action mold is far more expensive. How can the costs be kept low? H R O R o t t e r d a m B r n o U T j o i n t p r o j e c t 44

45 part shaping Tapered shut-offs should make an angle of at least 5 with the line of draw, for two reasons: to avoid collision to avoid clearance, which would cause flash tapered shut-off H R O R o t t e r d a m B r n o U T j o i n t p r o j e c t 45

46 part shaping The minimum angle of shutoff planes impacts the shape of your product. In our case, it influences the size of the holes. 5 H R O R o t t e r d a m B r n o U T j o i n t p r o j e c t 46

47 determining the appropriate draft angle Draft may spoil the perfect shape you had in mind as a designer. Which factors determine the required draft angle? 0,2º 4º H R O R o t t e r d a m B r n o U T j o i n t p r o j e c t 47

48 determining the appropriate draft angle Materials having a large shrinkage percentage need a larger draft angle. Also, stickier materials, having a larger coefficient of friction, need a larger draft angle. PVC PS PP HD-PE LD-PE Nylon 66 Nylon 6 PVDF PTFE PMMA Acetaal ABS shrinking percentages (min-max) 0% 1% 2% 3% 4% 5% 6% 7% 8% H R O R o t t e r d a m B r n o U T j o i n t p r o j e c t 48

49 part shaping Surfaces that are being shaped bij the core, need a larger angle than ones being shaped by the cavity. core cavity example: Lego blocks (exaggerated) H R O R o t t e r d a m B r n o U T j o i n t p r o j e c t 49

50 determining the appropriate draft angle core pin Products may even have cores on the cavity side of the mold, around which the plastic will shrink: cavity plate core H R O R o t t e r d a m B r n o U T j o i n t p r o j e c t 50

51 determining the appropriate draft angle Some other factors are: product texture and mold roughness; the deeper the roughness valleys are, the larger the draft angle must be whether or not you are willing to accept scratches on the product; how many ejector pins you want to use. H R O R o t t e r d a m B r n o U T j o i n t p r o j e c t 51

52 determining the appropriate draft angle You can negotiate (sjednávat) with mold makers about the draft angle. With special measures very small draft angles are possible. special measures can be a stripper ring and additional ejection pins. H R O R o t t e r d a m B r n o U T j o i n t p r o j e c t 52

53 filling the mold runner gate gate sprue bushing H R O R o t t e r d a m B r n o U T j o i n t p r o j e c t 53

54 filling the mold De runner is uitgefreesd in de achterste The runner vormholteplaat, has been milled of in in beide the vormholteplaten core plate, alternatively, in both plates. runner in core plate only A-A A A runner in both plates; better, more expensive H R O R o t t e r d a m B r n o U T j o i n t p r o j e c t 54

55 filling the mold A fraction of the plastic solidifies in the filling sytem. In some cases it can be ground and re-used. runner gate sprue cone 4-fold runner H R O R o t t e r d a m B r n o U T j o i n t p r o j e c t 55

56 filling the mold Advantages: multiple cavities possible gating on the parting line causes a modest vestige Disadvantages: manual separation of parts and runner loss of plastic due to the runner hard to make perfectly round products in this way H R O R o t t e r d a m B r n o U T j o i n t p r o j e c t 56

57 filling the mold Spuitneus komt rechtstreeks in de holte uit Advantages: simple and low-cost central gating ensures round products to stay perfectly round Disadvantages: only one cavity sprue cone needs to be manually removed leaves a clearly visible vestige on the product H R O R o t t e r d a m B r n o U T j o i n t p r o j e c t 57

58 central gating and multiple cavities Spuitneus komt rechtstreeks in de holte uit If you would like to have central gating AND multiple cavities, a three plate mold is necessary. This has two parting planes, the second one serving to release the runner. H R O R o t t e r d a m B r n o U T j o i n t p r o j e c t 58

59 filling the mold: heated filling system Spuitneus komt rechtstreeks in de holte uit heated sprue heated runner hot runner H R O R o t t e r d a m B r n o U T j o i n t p r o j e c t 59

60 filling the mold: heated filling system heated filling systems have numerous advantages: only a pinpoint vestige no loss of material central gating possible also in multiple-cavity molds Spuitneus komt rechtstreeks in de holte uit Disadvantages costly (hot runner manifold > Kč / 5000) will clog if granulate contains impurities H R O R o t t e r d a m B r n o U T j o i n t p r o j e c t 60

61 submarine gating Spuitneus komt rechtstreeks in de holte uit idea When the mold opens: the product will stay on the core (goes to the left) the small steel triangle (which is part of the cavity plate) separates the product from the runner, cutting through the small conical gate. H R O R o t t e r d a m B r n o U T j o i n t p r o j e c t 61

62 submarine gating Spuitneus komt rechtstreeks in de holte uit H R O R o t t e r d a m B r n o U T j o i n t p r o j e c t 62

63 submarine gating Spuitneus komt rechtstreeks in de holte uit Pin acting as a sprue-puller H R O R o t t e r d a m B r n o U T j o i n t p r o j e c t 63

64 submarine gating Spuitneus komt rechtstreeks in de holte uit H R O R o t t e r d a m B r n o U T j o i n t p r o j e c t 64

Plastic Injection Molds

Plastic Injection Molds Training Objective After watching the program and reviewing this printed material, the viewer will become familiar with the variety, design, and productive use of plastic injection molds. Mold components

More information

What is a mold? Casting. Die casting. Injection Molding Machine. Injection Molding. 2.008 Design & Manufacturing II. Spring 2004

What is a mold? Casting. Die casting. Injection Molding Machine. Injection Molding. 2.008 Design & Manufacturing II. Spring 2004 2.008 Design & Manufacturing II What is a mold? From Webster: a cavity in which a substance is shaped: as (1) : a matrix for casting metal (2) : a form in which food is given a decorative shape Spring

More information

Mould and Die Standard Parts

Mould and Die Standard Parts Mould and Die Standard Parts Tampere University of technology - Tuula Höök Mould standard parts can be divided into the following groups: Standard mould set with guide bars, guide sleeves and other guiding

More information

6 Design of Gates. 6.1 The Sprue Gate

6 Design of Gates. 6.1 The Sprue Gate 6 Design of Gates 6.1 The Sprue Gate The sprue gate is the simplest and oldest kind of gate. It has a circular cross-section, is slightly tapered, and merges with its largest cross-section into the part.

More information

Kursus i Produktions- og materialeteknologi

Kursus i Produktions- og materialeteknologi Kursus i Produktions- og materialeteknologi Plastsprøjtestøbning / Injection Molding Basics Short history of plastics 1862 first synthetic plastic 1866 Celluloid 1891 Rayon 1907 Bakelite 1913 Cellophane

More information

Plastic Injection Molding

Plastic Injection Molding Training Objective After watching this video and reviewing the printed material, the student/trainee will understand the principles and physical operations of the plastic injection molding process. An

More information

Single Cavity Mould. Basic Mould Construction. Ejection System. Multi Cavity Mould

Single Cavity Mould. Basic Mould Construction. Ejection System. Multi Cavity Mould Basic Mould Construction Basic mould construction: Core plate and Core (moving) Cavity plate and cavity (fixed) Other features include Guide pillars / guide bush Sprue bush Locating ring Single Cavity

More information

3D Printed Injection Molding Tool ("PIMT") Guide. Objet Ltd.

3D Printed Injection Molding Tool (PIMT) Guide. Objet Ltd. 3D Printed Injection Molding Tool ("PIMT") Guide Objet Ltd. 2 Injection molding is a high speed, automated and versatile process that can produce high precision complex three dimensional parts from a fraction

More information

INJECTION MOULD DESIGN: MARPLEX PVC RESINS

INJECTION MOULD DESIGN: MARPLEX PVC RESINS MACHINE RECCOMENDATIONS PVC requires reciprocating screw injection moulding machine with a plasticising screw to produce homogeneous melt. It is recommended that a shot weight of the part should take two

More information

CHAPTER 2 INJECTION MOULDING PROCESS

CHAPTER 2 INJECTION MOULDING PROCESS CHAPTER 2 INJECTION MOULDING PROCESS Injection moulding is the most widely used polymeric fabrication process. It evolved from metal die casting, however, unlike molten metals, polymer melts have a high

More information

Injection molding equipment

Injection molding equipment Injection Molding Process Injection molding equipment Classification of injection molding machines 1. The injection molding machine processing ability style clamping force(kn) theoretical injection volume(cm3)

More information

MIT 2.810 Manufacturing Processes and Systems. Homework 6 Solutions. Casting. October 15, 2015. Figure 1: Casting defects

MIT 2.810 Manufacturing Processes and Systems. Homework 6 Solutions. Casting. October 15, 2015. Figure 1: Casting defects MIT 2.810 Manufacturing Processes and Systems Casting October 15, 2015 Problem 1. Casting defects. (a) Figure 1 shows various defects and discontinuities in cast products. Review each one and offer solutions

More information

Glossary of Terms Used in Plastic Injection Mold Manufacturing

Glossary of Terms Used in Plastic Injection Mold Manufacturing Acceptable Runner/Cavity Ratio: Runner systems designed for high pressure drops to minimize material usage and increase frictional heating in the runner. Annealing: The process of relieving internal stresses

More information

Part and tooling design. Eastman Tritan copolyester

Part and tooling design. Eastman Tritan copolyester Part and tooling design Eastman Tritan copolyester Part and tooling design Process Part design Tooling design High cavitation considerations Process Process Project development flow chart Concept OEM generates

More information

General Injection Mould Specifications KONGSBERG AUTOMOTIVE GROUP

General Injection Mould Specifications KONGSBERG AUTOMOTIVE GROUP KONGSBERG AUTOMOTIVE GROUP Edition 3 19.06.2013 A: GENERAL STATEMENT B: STEEL/COLUMN/STANDARD ELEMENTS STEEL COLUMN STANDARD ELEMENTS C: TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS I- MOULD BASE GENERAL CONTENT II- MOULD

More information

TECHNICAL DATA SHEET GRILON BG-15 S

TECHNICAL DATA SHEET GRILON BG-15 S TECHNICAL DATA SHEET GRILON BG-1 S Grilon BG-1 S is a heat stabilised PA6 injection moulding grade with 1% glass fibres. Grilon BG-1 S has the following important properties: Excellent surface finish Easy

More information

Solid shape molding is not desired in injection molding due to following reasons.

Solid shape molding is not desired in injection molding due to following reasons. PLASTICS PART DESIGN and MOULDABILITY Injection molding is popular manufacturing method because of its high-speed production capability. Performance of plastics part is limited by its properties which

More information

Craft and Design Application of Injection Moulding (Mobile Phone)

Craft and Design Application of Injection Moulding (Mobile Phone) Craft and Design Application of Injection Moulding (Mobile Phone) 5700 Summer 1999 HIGHER STILL Craft and Design Application of Injection Moulding (Mobile Phone) Support Materials This Support Material

More information

Injection Molding. Materials. Plastics 2.008. Outline. Polymer. Equipment and process steps. Considerations for process parameters

Injection Molding. Materials. Plastics 2.008. Outline. Polymer. Equipment and process steps. Considerations for process parameters Outline 2.008 Polymer Equipment and process steps Injection Molding Considerations for process parameters Design for manufacturing, tooling and defects 1 2.008 spring 2004 S. Kim 2 Materials Solid materials

More information

Injection molding overview

Injection molding overview Injection molding overview This injection molding overview is designed to help our customers understand the process of injection molding and mold-making. Please read it fully as it helps to define what

More information

Effects of the MuCell Molding Process

Effects of the MuCell Molding Process Effects of the MuCell Molding Process Molding MuCell versus Solid Shot size is reduced Final mold fill is completed with cell growth Little or no Hold Time or Pressure Reduced molded-in stress Less warp

More information

DIE CASTING. This process if for high volume, high detail, and value added economically priced cast parts. HOW IT WORKS

DIE CASTING. This process if for high volume, high detail, and value added economically priced cast parts. HOW IT WORKS DIE CASTING PROCESS This process if for high volume, high detail, and value added economically priced cast parts. HOW IT WORKS A metal tool is built and attached to a furnace of molten metal Then molten

More information

1. Injection Molding (Thermoplastics)

1. Injection Molding (Thermoplastics) 1. Injection Molding (Thermoplastics) l Molding: Injection (thermoplastics) INJECTION MOLDING of thermoplastics is the equivalent of pressure die casting of metals. Molten polymer is injected under high

More information

Zinc pressure die Casting Processes 1

Zinc pressure die Casting Processes 1 Zinc pressure die Casting Processes Pressure die casting is a process in which molten metal is injected at controlled high velocity and pressure into the cavity of a mould (die) which is usually made of

More information

3D PRINTED INJECTION MOLDS

3D PRINTED INJECTION MOLDS 3D PRINTED INJECTION MOLDS CAN YOUR BUSINESS BENEFIT? MARK BASHOR 1 STRATASYS / COMPANY OVERVIEW WE ARE THE 3D PRINTING SOLUTIONS COMPANY 2 STRATASYS / COMPANY OVERVIEW FROM SYSTEMS TO SERVICE 3 STRATASYS

More information

AN OVERVIEW OF GAS ASSIST

AN OVERVIEW OF GAS ASSIST GAS ASSIST INJECTION MOLDING AN OVERVIEW OF GAS ASSIST April 2010 www.bauerptg.com GAS ASSIST INJECTION MOLDING TECHNOLOGY It is a fact that packing force must be applied and maintained to an injection

More information

Mechanical Design. CATIA - Mold Tooling Design 2 (MTD) CATIA V5R18

Mechanical Design. CATIA - Mold Tooling Design 2 (MTD) CATIA V5R18 Mechanical Design CATIA - Mold Tooling Design 2 (MTD) CATIA V5R18 Mechanical Design CATIA - Mold Tooling Design Design of Complex Molds, together with associated drillings, in a highly productive and intuitive

More information

Session 13 Design for Injection Moulding

Session 13 Design for Injection Moulding Session 13 Design for Injection Moulding Lecture delivered by Prof. M. N. Sudhindra Kumar Professor MSRSAS-Bangalore 1 Session Objectives At the end of this session the delegate would have understood Applying

More information

1. Injection Molding. 1.1 Injection machine. 1.2 Selection of injection machine. 1.2.1 Select by injection volume

1. Injection Molding. 1.1 Injection machine. 1.2 Selection of injection machine. 1.2.1 Select by injection volume 1. Injection Molding 1.1 Injection machine The injection machine is a machine that melt plasticize the molding material inside the heating cylinder and inject this into the mold tool to create the molded

More information

Die casting Figure M2.3.1

Die casting Figure M2.3.1 Die casting Die casting is a moulding process in which the molten metal is injected under high pressure and velocity into a split mould die. It is also called pressure die casting. The split mould used

More information

Why Plastic Flows Better in Aluminum Injection Molds

Why Plastic Flows Better in Aluminum Injection Molds Why Plastic Flows Better in Aluminum Injection Molds An investigative study directly comparing melt flow characteristics of general purpose resins in QC-10 aluminum molds and P20 steel molds. By: David

More information

Using Injection Molding Process for Manufacturing a HDPE Mini Wheel

Using Injection Molding Process for Manufacturing a HDPE Mini Wheel J. Eng. Technol. Educ. (2013) 10(4): 450-466 December 2013 Using Injection Molding Process for Manufacturing a HDPE Mini Wheel Thi Truc-Ngan Huynh* Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Kaohsiung

More information

INJECTION MOLDING COOLING TIME REDUCTION AND THERMAL STRESS ANALYSIS

INJECTION MOLDING COOLING TIME REDUCTION AND THERMAL STRESS ANALYSIS INJECTION MOLDING COOLING TIME REDUCTION AND THERMAL STRESS ANALYSIS Tom Kimerling University of Massachusetts, Amherst MIE 605 Finite Element Analysis Spring 2002 ABSTRACT A FEA transient thermal structural

More information

MOLD STANDARDS. Auburn Hills, Michigan, USA. 421 Page 1 6/28/11 Rev: 11/20/02

MOLD STANDARDS. Auburn Hills, Michigan, USA. 421 Page 1 6/28/11 Rev: 11/20/02 MOLD STANDARDS Auburn Hills, Michigan, USA 421 Page 1 6/28/11 Rev: 11/20/02 REVISION RECORD Original Release Date 10/17/99 Revised Release Date 08/19/02 Revised Release Date 11/20/02 Revised Release Date

More information

4 Understanding the Basics of the Injection Mold

4 Understanding the Basics of the Injection Mold 9 4 Understanding the Basics of the Injection Mold 4.1 Design Rules There are many rules for designing molds. These rules and standard practices are based on logic, past experience, convenience, and economy.

More information

General Guidelines for Building Aluminum Production Injection Molds

General Guidelines for Building Aluminum Production Injection Molds General Guidelines for Building Aluminum Production Injection Molds Using 7000 series Aluminum Mold Plate By David Bank Aluminum Injection Mold Company Rochester, New York 1 Introduction This high strength

More information

DIESEL EFFECT PROBLEM SOLVING DURING INJECTION MOULDING

DIESEL EFFECT PROBLEM SOLVING DURING INJECTION MOULDING RESEARCH PAPERS FACULTY OF MATERIALS SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN TRNAVA SLOVAK UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY IN BRATISLAVA 2014 Volume 22, Special Number DIESEL EFFECT PROBLEM SOLVING DURING INJECTION MOULDING

More information

NYLON 6 RESINS CORRECTING MOLDING PROBLEMS A TROUBLE SHOOTING GUIDE

NYLON 6 RESINS CORRECTING MOLDING PROBLEMS A TROUBLE SHOOTING GUIDE NYLON 6 RESINS CORRECTING MOLDING PROBLEMS A TROUBLE SHOOTING GUIDE A. TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE FOR INJECTION MOLDERS. I. INTRODUCTION The source of problems in injection molding of nylon resins can depend

More information

CLASSIFICATIONS OF INJECTION MOLDS

CLASSIFICATIONS OF INJECTION MOLDS CLASSIFICATIONS OF INJECTION MOLDS General Notes The following classifications are guidelines to be used in obtaining quotations and placing orders for uniform types of molds. It is our desire, through

More information

Investigation of process parameters for an Injection molding component for warpage and Shrinkage

Investigation of process parameters for an Injection molding component for warpage and Shrinkage Investigation of process parameters for an Injection molding component for warpage and Shrinkage Mohammad Aashiq M 1, Arun A.P 1, Parthiban M 2 1 PGD IN TOOL & DIE DESIGN ENGINEERING-PSG IAS 2 ASST.PROFESSOR

More information

Injection Molding Design Guide. Table of Contents

Injection Molding Design Guide. Table of Contents Injection Molding Design Guide 400 Injection Molding Design Guide Table of Contents Injection Mold Tooling Process Comparison...2 Size Limitations...3 Straight Pull Design...4 Other Geometric Considerations...5

More information

Unit 6: EXTRUSION. Difficult to form metals like stainless steels, nickel based alloys and high temperature metals can also be extruded.

Unit 6: EXTRUSION. Difficult to form metals like stainless steels, nickel based alloys and high temperature metals can also be extruded. 1 Unit 6: EXTRUSION Introduction: Extrusion is a metal working process in which cross section of metal is reduced by forcing the metal through a die orifice under high pressure. It is used to produce cylindrical

More information

Injection Molding. Design Guide. Design Considerations for Rapid Manufacturing of Plastic Parts Using Injection Molding

Injection Molding. Design Guide. Design Considerations for Rapid Manufacturing of Plastic Parts Using Injection Molding Design Guide Design Considerations for Rapid Manufacturing of Plastic Parts Using Table of Contents 1 Injection Mold Tooling Process Comparison 3 2 Size Considerations 4 3 Considerations for Undercuts

More information

Design and manufacturing of plastic injection mould

Design and manufacturing of plastic injection mould Design and manufacturing of plastic injection mould Content Design and manufacturing of plastic injection mould... 1 1 Injection molding... 3 1.1 History... 3 1.2 Equipment... 3 1.3 Injection molding cycle...

More information

CARL HANSER VERLAG. Herbert Rees. Mold Engineering 2nd edition 3-446-21659-6. www.hanser.de

CARL HANSER VERLAG. Herbert Rees. Mold Engineering 2nd edition 3-446-21659-6. www.hanser.de CARL HANSER VERLAG Herbert Rees Mold Engineering 2nd edition 3-446-21659-6 www.hanser.de 45 4 General Mold Design Guidelines 4.1 Before Starting to Design a Mold he mold designer starts with the design

More information

NetShape - MIM. Metal Injection Molding Design Guide. NetShape Technologies - MIM Phone: 440-248-5456 31005 Solon Road FAX: 440-248-5807

NetShape - MIM. Metal Injection Molding Design Guide. NetShape Technologies - MIM Phone: 440-248-5456 31005 Solon Road FAX: 440-248-5807 Metal Injection Molding Design Guide NetShape Technologies - MIM Phone: 440-248-5456 31005 Solon Road FAX: 440-248-5807 Solon, OH 44139 solutions@netshapetech.com 1 Frequently Asked Questions Page What

More information

Injection moulding LFT Long Fibre Thermoplastics

Injection moulding LFT Long Fibre Thermoplastics Injection moulding LFT Long Fibre Thermoplastics Grilamid LVL (PA 12) Grivory HTVL (aromatic PA) Grivory GVL (partially aromatic PA) Grilon TSGL (PA 66+6) Long glass fibre or long carbon fibre reinforced

More information

Philosophy of Troubleshooting Injection Molding Problems

Philosophy of Troubleshooting Injection Molding Problems PLASTICS ENGINEERING COMPANY SHEBOYGAN, WISCONSIN 53082-0758 U.S.A 3518 LAKESHORE ROAD POST OFFICE BOX 758 PHONE 920-458 - 2121 F A X 920-458 - 1923 Philosophy of Troubleshooting Injection Molding Problems

More information

Quick Guide to Injection Molding

Quick Guide to Injection Molding Quick Guide to Injection Molding Amodel polyphthalamide (PPA) Equipment Amodel PPA resins can be processed on conventional injection molding equipment. Estimated clamp tonnage of 5.5 kn/cm 2 (4 T/in 2

More information

Design Guide. Performance And Value With Engineering Plastics

Design Guide. Performance And Value With Engineering Plastics Design Guide Performance And Value With Engineering Plastics Table of Contents Overview of Design Principles 2 Dimensional Stability 4 Shrinkage 6 Design Guidelines 8 Wall Thickness 8 Warpage 10 Ribs

More information

MSci PolySci-Lab Modul P104 P & Injection molding. Injection molding machine Arburg 320 S (Neue Materialien Bayreuth GmbH)

MSci PolySci-Lab Modul P104 P & Injection molding. Injection molding machine Arburg 320 S (Neue Materialien Bayreuth GmbH) MSci PolySci-Lab Modul P104 P Poollyym meerrm maatteerriiaalliieenn & & P Poollyym meerrtteecchhnnoollooggiiee Injection molding 1 Introduction Figure 1: Injection molding machine Arburg 320 S (Neue Materialien

More information

Injection Molding. 2.810 T. Gutowski. D. Roylance

Injection Molding. 2.810 T. Gutowski. D. Roylance Injection Molding 2.810 T. Gutowski D. Roylance Short history of plastics 1862 first synthetic plastic 1866 Celluloid 1891 Rayon 1907 Bakelite 1913 Cellophane 1926 PVC 1933 Polyethylene 1938 Teflon 1939

More information

Gas-Assist Injection Molding: An Innovative Medical Technology

Gas-Assist Injection Molding: An Innovative Medical Technology COVER STORY >> MOLDING Gas-Assist Injection Molding: An Innovative Medical Technology In certain medical device applications, gas-assist molding can provide solutions that conventional injection molding

More information

Fundamentals of Design for Plastic Injection Molding. Kelly Bramble

Fundamentals of Design for Plastic Injection Molding. Kelly Bramble Fundamentals of Design for Plastic Injection Molding Kelly Bramble 1 Fundamentals of Design for Plastic Injection Molding Copyright, Engineers Edge, LLC www.engineersedge.com All rights reserved. No part

More information

Understanding Plastics Engineering Calculations

Understanding Plastics Engineering Calculations Natti S. Rao Nick R. Schott Understanding Plastics Engineering Calculations Hands-on Examples and Case Studies Sample Pages from Chapters 4 and 6 ISBNs 978--56990-509-8-56990-509-6 HANSER Hanser Publishers,

More information

DESIGN OF PLASTIC INJECTION MOLD FOR AN AIR VENT BEZEL THROUGH FLOW ANALYSIS (CAE) FOR DESIGN ENHANCEMENT

DESIGN OF PLASTIC INJECTION MOLD FOR AN AIR VENT BEZEL THROUGH FLOW ANALYSIS (CAE) FOR DESIGN ENHANCEMENT DESIGN OF PLASTIC INJECTION MOLD FOR AN AIR VENT BEZEL THROUGH FLOW ANALYSIS (CAE) FOR DESIGN ENHANCEMENT Jitendra Dilip Ganeshkar 1, R.B.Patil 2 1 ME CAD CAM Pursuing, Department of mechanical engineering,

More information

Casting. Training Objective

Casting. Training Objective Training Objective After watching the program and reviewing this printed material, the viewer will learn the essentials of the various metal casting processes used in industry today. The basic principles

More information

Glossary. 3D Animation Using computer software to create and animate a three-dimensional representation of image data.

Glossary. 3D Animation Using computer software to create and animate a three-dimensional representation of image data. Glossary # 2D Control Drawing A line drawing showing various views of a product with details such as material, surface finish, volume, tolerances and critical dimensions. 3D Animation Using computer software

More information

How to reduce the cure time without damaging the rubber compound during injection molding?

How to reduce the cure time without damaging the rubber compound during injection molding? How to reduce the cure time without damaging the rubber compound during injection molding? 0Introduction This article aims at analyzing the rubber injection process and highlighting the limits that prevent

More information

Troubleshooting Guide. PS Injection moulding. Splay marks. Burning (Black streaks) Cool feed zone. Dry material, check source of moisture.

Troubleshooting Guide. PS Injection moulding. Splay marks. Burning (Black streaks) Cool feed zone. Dry material, check source of moisture. Troubleshooting Guide PS Injection moulding Splay marks Trapped air that contains moisture Raise nozzle and front zone temperature. Cool feed zone. Wet feed Dry material, check source of moisture. Irregular

More information

Verification Experiment on Cooling and Deformation Effects of Automatically Designed Cooling Channels for Block Laminated Molds

Verification Experiment on Cooling and Deformation Effects of Automatically Designed Cooling Channels for Block Laminated Molds International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology (IJEAT ISSN: 2249 8958 Volume-4 Issue-5 June 2015 Verification Experiment on Cooling and Deformation Effects of Automatically Designed Cooling

More information

APPLYING RAPID TOOLING FOR INJECTION MOLDING & DIE CASTING From a RT users perspective

APPLYING RAPID TOOLING FOR INJECTION MOLDING & DIE CASTING From a RT users perspective APPLYING RAPID TOOLING FOR INJECTION MOLDING & DIE CASTING From a RT users perspective Glenn Anderson Senior Engineer, Research and Development Southco, Inc. RPA/SME Technical Forum on Rapid Tooling 20

More information

A Systematic Approach to Diagnosing Mold Filling and Part Quality Variations

A Systematic Approach to Diagnosing Mold Filling and Part Quality Variations VOL. 3 NO. 2 A Systematic Approach to Diagnosing Mold Filling and Part Quality Variations www.beaumontinc.com A Systematic Approach to Diagnosing Mold Filling and Part Quality Variations Applying Fundamental

More information

PRECISION PROTOTYPING THE ROLE OF 3D PRINTED MOLDS IN THE INJECTION MOLDING INDUSTRY

PRECISION PROTOTYPING THE ROLE OF 3D PRINTED MOLDS IN THE INJECTION MOLDING INDUSTRY By Lior Zonder, Applications Team Leader Nadav Sella, Solutions Sales Manager, Global Field Operations Injection molding (IM) the process of injecting plastic material into a mold cavity where it cools

More information

Geon Rigid Vinyl Molding Compounds Processing Guide

Geon Rigid Vinyl Molding Compounds Processing Guide Technical Service Report No. 71 - Page 1 of 6 Geon Rigid Vinyl Molding Compounds Processing Guide Introduction This guide will assist you in setting up your press for molding Geon Rigid Vinyl molding compounds.

More information

Two-Shot Silico e Thermoplastic Medical Molding

Two-Shot Silico e Thermoplastic Medical Molding Two-Shot Silico e Thermoplastic Medical Molding Author: Sarah J. Voss, Product Specialist, Medical Co-Authors: Mark Simon, Ph. D. Research & Development Manager Danny Ou, Ph D. Research & Development,

More information

CONCEPTUAL DESIGN OF TWO-PLATE INJECTION MOLD FOR UMP'S KEYCHAIN AZHAR BIN YUSOP

CONCEPTUAL DESIGN OF TWO-PLATE INJECTION MOLD FOR UMP'S KEYCHAIN AZHAR BIN YUSOP CONCEPTUAL DESIGN OF TWO-PLATE INJECTION MOLD FOR UMP'S KEYCHAIN AZHAR BIN YUSOP A report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of degree of Mechanical Engineering Faculty of

More information

Copyright 1998 Society of Manufacturing Engineers FUNDAMENTAL MANUFACTURING PROCESSES PLASTIC BLOW MOLDING NARRATION (VO): NARRATION (VO):

Copyright 1998 Society of Manufacturing Engineers FUNDAMENTAL MANUFACTURING PROCESSES PLASTIC BLOW MOLDING NARRATION (VO): NARRATION (VO): FUNDAMENTAL MANUFACTURING PROCESSES PLASTIC BLOW MOLDING SCENE 1. CG: EXTRUSION BLOW MOLDING white text centered on black SCENE 2. tape 401, 07:25:29-07:25:41 zoom in, extrusion process tape 401, 07:08:50-07:09:06

More information

cellulosic plastics Injection molding

cellulosic plastics Injection molding cellulosic plastics Injection molding Plastics made from wood pulp a renewable resource Introduction This publication deals with methods of injection molding Tenite acetate, Tenite butyrate, and Tenite

More information

How t o to do do E ffective Effective Color Changes Changes

How t o to do do E ffective Effective Color Changes Changes How to do Effective Color Changes Presented by Know Your Process Understanding colorants & pigments Polymer flow & color type Equipment design Melt viscosity Planning for effective color change Process

More information

Design Considerations for the Cosmetics of Injection-Molded Plastic Parts

Design Considerations for the Cosmetics of Injection-Molded Plastic Parts Design Considerations for the Cosmetics of Injection-Molded Plastic Parts Compiled by the Customer Engineering Staff of Proto Labs, Inc. Many factors affect the cosmetic appearance of injection-molded

More information

Pre Destining the Quality of Plastic Parts Produced By Injection Molding Method Using Computer Simulation Techniques

Pre Destining the Quality of Plastic Parts Produced By Injection Molding Method Using Computer Simulation Techniques International Journal of Emerging Trends in Science and Technology Pre Destining the Quality of Plastic Parts Produced By Injection Molding Method Using Computer Simulation Techniques Authors Madhu Kumar

More information

Chapter 2 Mold Design

Chapter 2 Mold Design Chapter 2 Mold Design 2.1 Molding Parts Molding parts refer to those in direct contact with plastics to form the shape of plastic parts, wherein those constituting the contour of the plastic parts are

More information

How to Effectively Move from 3D Printing to Injection Molding. Tony Holtz Technical Specialist, Proto Labs

How to Effectively Move from 3D Printing to Injection Molding. Tony Holtz Technical Specialist, Proto Labs How to Effectively Move from 3D Printing to Injection Molding Tony Holtz Technical Specialist, Proto Labs Overview 3D Printing CNC Machining Injection Molding Design Considerations for Injection Molding

More information

WORKSHOP P I M. Powder Injection Moulding

WORKSHOP P I M. Powder Injection Moulding WORKSHOP Mikkelissä ke 22. 5. 2013 P I M Powder Injection Moulding Definition of PIM PIM MIM Injection moulding of metal powders Wittmann Group Injection moulding of powders CIM Injection moulding of

More information

POURING THE MOLTEN METAL

POURING THE MOLTEN METAL HEATING AND POURING To perform a casting operation, the metal must be heated to a temperature somewhat above its melting point and then poured into the mold cavity to solidify. In this section, we consider

More information

ARMSTRONG MOLD GRAPHITE DIE CASTING DIVISION

ARMSTRONG MOLD GRAPHITE DIE CASTING DIVISION ARMSTRONG MOLD CORPORATION GRAPHITE DIE CASTING DIVISION Getting Started The Evolution of GDC The GDC technology was developed as a hybrid of traditional permanent mold, graphite mold and the die casting

More information

Lecture slides on rolling By: Dr H N Dhakal Lecturer in Mechanical and Marine Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Plymouth

Lecture slides on rolling By: Dr H N Dhakal Lecturer in Mechanical and Marine Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Plymouth Lecture slides on rolling By: Dr H N Dhakal Lecturer in Mechanical and Marine Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Plymouth Bulk deformation forming (rolling) Rolling is the process of reducing

More information

Lecture 7. Plastic Part Manufacture, Injection Molding Thermosets Examples Unsaturated Polyesters Epoxies and Resins Elastomers

Lecture 7. Plastic Part Manufacture, Injection Molding Thermosets Examples Unsaturated Polyesters Epoxies and Resins Elastomers 1 Lecture 7. Plastic Part Manufacture, Injection Molding In the last 30 years, plastics have become the most dominant engineering material for most products. We take a brief look at the most common types

More information

PROCESSING OF FREE-FLOWING THERMOSETTING COMPOUNDS

PROCESSING OF FREE-FLOWING THERMOSETTING COMPOUNDS PROCESSING OF FREE-FLOWING THERMOSETTING COMPOUNDS I. INJECTION MOULDING 1. Injection Moulding Machines Thermosetting moulding compounds may be processed on all standard injection moulding machines equipped

More information

ALUMINUM CASTING PROCESS COMPARISON CHARTS. Copyright 2002 Austin Group, LLC. All rights reserved.

ALUMINUM CASTING PROCESS COMPARISON CHARTS. Copyright 2002 Austin Group, LLC. All rights reserved. ALUMINUM CASTING COMPARISON CHARTS A Qualitative Comparison of Several Competing Processes for the Production of Aluminum Castings The following charts are intended to provide a relative guide to compare

More information

DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL INJECTION MOULDING MACHINE FOR FORMING SMALL PLASTIC ARTICLES FOR SMALL-SCALE INDUSTRIES

DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL INJECTION MOULDING MACHINE FOR FORMING SMALL PLASTIC ARTICLES FOR SMALL-SCALE INDUSTRIES Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Vol. 5, No. 1 (2010) 17-29 School of Engineering, Taylor s University College DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL INJECTION MOULDING MACHINE FOR FORMING SMALL PLASTIC ARTICLES

More information

the runnerless types of molds are explained post molding operations are described the basic methods of applied decoration methods are examined

the runnerless types of molds are explained post molding operations are described the basic methods of applied decoration methods are examined Training Objectives After watching the video and reviewing this printed material, the viewer will gain knowledge and understanding of the various plastic finishing processes used in industry and their

More information

Removing chips is a method for producing plastic threads of small diameters and high batches, which cause frequent failures of thread punches.

Removing chips is a method for producing plastic threads of small diameters and high batches, which cause frequent failures of thread punches. Plastic Threads Technical University of Gabrovo Yordanka Atanasova Threads in plastic products can be produced in three ways: a) by direct moulding with thread punch or die; b) by placing a threaded metal

More information

INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION. to DIE CASTING NORTH AMERICAN DIE CASTING ASSOCIATION

INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION. to DIE CASTING NORTH AMERICAN DIE CASTING ASSOCIATION INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION to DIE CASTING NORTH AMERICAN DIE CASTING ASSOCIATION Item# 101BK Although great care has been taken to provide accurate and current information, neither the author(s) nor the

More information

INJECTION MOLDING PROCESSING GUIDE Polymer

INJECTION MOLDING PROCESSING GUIDE Polymer FOAMAZOL Chemical Foaming Agents INJECTION MOLDING PROCESSING GUIDE Polymer Foaming Agent INJECTION MOLDING WITH CHEMICAL FOAMING AGENTS Introduction The injection molding of structural foam molded parts

More information

Copyright Warning & Restrictions

Copyright Warning & Restrictions Copyright Warning & Restrictions The copyright law of the United States (Title 17, United States Code) governs the making of photocopies or other reproductions of copyrighted material. Under certain conditions

More information

A Modified Vince Gingery Plastic Injection Molding Machine

A Modified Vince Gingery Plastic Injection Molding Machine A Modified Vince Gingery Plastic Injection Molding Machine By R. G. Sparber Copyleft protects this document 1. Contents Introduction... 2 What s it for?... 2 How does it work?... 2 The initial Design...

More information

TOTAL TPE SOLUTIONS. Offices in The Netherlands and Hong Kong 011 31 113 551 093 phone (Netherlands) 011 (852) 2690 5330 phone (Hong Kong)

TOTAL TPE SOLUTIONS. Offices in The Netherlands and Hong Kong 011 31 113 551 093 phone (Netherlands) 011 (852) 2690 5330 phone (Hong Kong) North American Headquarters 833 Ridgeview Drive McHenry, Illinois 60050 U.S.A 1-815-385-8500 phone 1-800-457-8777 toll-free 1-815-385-8533 fax email: info@glscorp.com www.glscorp.com Offices in The Netherlands

More information

Equipment & mould design GATES Experience has shown that full round runner of the following diameter gives good performance: Runner less than 125 mm long:...6 mm diameter Runners more than 125 mm, but

More information

Technical Brief. Thermoforming Processes. Vacuum Forming and Methods

Technical Brief. Thermoforming Processes. Vacuum Forming and Methods Processes The process of forming a thermoplastic sheet into a three dimensional shape by clamping the sheet in a frame, heating it to render it soft, then applying differential pressure to make the sheet

More information

Streets ahead of Injection Molding

Streets ahead of Injection Molding One-meter long strips in ABS with a Y cross-section and end caps (photos: IB Steiner) Streets ahead of Injection Molding Exjection. A newly-developed process combines the advantages of extrusion and injection

More information

PEEK tm. A Practical Design Guide For Injection Molded Components. www.performanceplastics.com. 4435 Brownway Avenue Cincinnati, OH 45209 513.321.

PEEK tm. A Practical Design Guide For Injection Molded Components. www.performanceplastics.com. 4435 Brownway Avenue Cincinnati, OH 45209 513.321. PEEK tm A Practical Design Guide For Injection Molded Components www.performanceplastics.com 4435 Brownway Avenue Cincinnati, OH 45209 513.321.8404 Warranty Disclaimer No information supplied by Performance

More information

Characterization of an Injection Molding Process for Improved Part Quality

Characterization of an Injection Molding Process for Improved Part Quality Characterization of an Injection Molding Process for Improved Part Quality A. Ghose, M. Montero, D. Odell Berkeley Manufacturing Institute, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering University of California - Berkeley

More information

Study of Moulding Defects in Automobile Relay Cover Dr. Shajan Kuriakose, Sunny K. George, Prisley Varghese Mathew

Study of Moulding Defects in Automobile Relay Cover Dr. Shajan Kuriakose, Sunny K. George, Prisley Varghese Mathew Study of Moulding Defects in Automobile Relay Cover Dr. Shajan Kuriakose, Sunny K. George, Prisley Varghese Mathew Abstract Automobile relay covers are used to protect various parts of the relay including

More information

Somos Materials. Injection Molding Using Rapid Tooling

Somos Materials. Injection Molding Using Rapid Tooling Somos Materials Injection Molding Using Rapid Tooling Introduction Testing a new design before costly tooling is created can save companies time and money. For many years, the only process available to

More information

Injection moulding and modelling on a micro scale

Injection moulding and modelling on a micro scale Injection moulding and modelling on a micro scale Technology Update Injection moulding and welding of plastics 11 November 2014 Research Projects (National / European) Micro/Nano/Multimaterial Manufacturing

More information

DIAMOND Retractable Rodding Robot Model SPRAYROD-R

DIAMOND Retractable Rodding Robot Model SPRAYROD-R 2004-12-21 2 1 (23) DIAMOND Retractable Rodding Robot Model SPRAYROD-R 2004-12-21 2 2 (23) Table of contents 1 TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION...4 1.1 MAIN DETAILS...5 1.2 COMPONENTS DESCRIPTION...5 1.2.1 Pneumatic

More information

Influence of material data on injection moulding simulation Application examples Ass.Prof. Dr. Thomas Lucyshyn

Influence of material data on injection moulding simulation Application examples Ass.Prof. Dr. Thomas Lucyshyn TRAINING IN THE FIELD OF POLYMER MATERIALS / PLASTICS Influence of material data on injection moulding simulation Application examples Ass.Prof. Dr. Thomas Lucyshyn 24 th April 2014 Otto Gloeckel-Straße

More information

Copyright 1999 Society of Manufacturing Engineers. FUNDAMENTAL MANUFACTURING PROCESSES Die Casting NARRATION (VO): UTILIZED. NARRATION (VO): THE DIE.

Copyright 1999 Society of Manufacturing Engineers. FUNDAMENTAL MANUFACTURING PROCESSES Die Casting NARRATION (VO): UTILIZED. NARRATION (VO): THE DIE. FUNDAMENTAL MANUFACTURING PROCESSES Die Casting SCENE 1. CG: Die Casting Machines white text centered on black SCENE 2. tape 445, 12:06:10-12:06:19 zoom out, horizontal die casting machines tape 443, 09:11:47-09:11:55

More information