1 D A N I J E L A T R Š K A N ARAB WORLD IN THE SUBJECTS OF HISTORY, GEOGRAPHY AND SLOVENE LANGUAGE IN ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN SLOVENIA Slovenian National Commission for UNESCO
3 Contribution to Euro-Arab Dialogue in the 21st Century
4 ARAB WORLD IN THE SUBJECTS OF HISTORY, GEOGRAPHY AND SLOVENE LANGUAGE IN ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN SLOVENIA Author: Danijela Trškan Reviewers: Bojan Balkovec, Božo Repe English translation: Furocat d.o.o. Published by: Slovenian National Commission for UNESCO Layout and cover design by: Beton & Vrbinc Co. First edition Ljubljana, 2013 Slovenian National Commission for UNESCO, 2013 Translation and digital edition of the publication have been made possible by the Office of the Slovenian National Commission for UNESCO (Ministry of Education, Science and Sport). Cover photograph shows contemporary textbooks for History, Geography and Slovene Language. Author of the photograph is Danijela Trškan (24 July 2013). CIP Kataložni zapis o publikaciji Narodna in univerzitetna knjižnica, Ljubljana :908(=411.21) :908(=411.21) (497.4):908(=411.21) TRŠKAN, Danijela Arab world in the subjects of history, geography and Slovene language in elementary and secondary schools in Slovenia / Danijela Trškan ; [English translation Furocat]. - 1st ed. - Ljubljana : Slovenian National Commission for UNESCO, 2013 Dostopno tudi na: private/unesco/arabcountriesinslovenecurriculaandtextbooks.pdf ISBN ISBN (pdf)
5 D A N I J E L A T R Š K A N ARAB WORLD IN THE SUBJECTS OF HISTORY, GEOGRAPHY AND SLOVENE LANGUAGE IN ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN SLOVENIA Slovenian National Commission for UNESCO Ljubljana 2013
7 5 C O N T E N T S INTRODUCTION 7 CHAPTER 1: 10 ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN SLOVENIA CHAPTER 2: 17 THE ROLE OF HISTORY, GEOGRAPHY AND SLOVENE LANGUAGE IN ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS CHAPTER 3: 21 ARAB WORLD IN ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOL CURRICULA FOR HISTORY, GEOGRAPHY AND SLOVENE LANGUAGE 3.1 Arab World in Elementary School Curricula for History, Geography and Slovene Language Arab World in Secondary School Curricula for History, Geography and Slovene Language History, Geography and Slovene Language in General Secondary School Curricula History, Geography and Slovene Language in Secondary Technical School Curricula 32 CHAPTER 4: 34 ARAB WORLD IN ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOL TEXTBOOKS FOR HISTORY, GEOGRAPHY AND SLOVENE LANGUAGE 4.1 Arab World in Elementary School Textbooks for History, Geography and Slovene Language History in Elementary School Geography in Elementary School Slovene Language in Elementary School Arab World in Secondary School Textbooks for History, Geography and Slovene Language History in Secondary School Geography in Secondary School Slovene Language in Secondary School 56 CONCLUSION 66 BIBLIOGRAPHY 71 SUBJECT AND NAME INDEX 78
9 7 I N T R O D U C T I O N The publication is dedicated to Euro-Arab dialogue in the 21st century, since it contains an analysis and evaluation of the role of History, Geography and Slovene Language subjects in the Republic of Slovenia, with emphasis on the incorporation of the history, geography and literature of today s Arab countries in the elementary and secondary school curricula and textbooks for History, Geography and Slovene Language in Slovenia. In the case of the above-mentioned subjects the aim was to determine whether history includes the history of today s Arab countries, whether geography includes the natural and social geographical descriptions of today s Arab countries, whether under literature the subject of Slovene language includes Arabic literature or authors of literary works in the area of today s Arab countries, and which content relates to the history, geography or literature of today s Arab countries. Today s Arab countries are: Algeria, Bahrain, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Yemen, Jordan, Qatar, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine (the Palestinian Autonomous Area), Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Syria, Sudan, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates 1 (also Western Sahara, which is today occupied by Morocco under international law). 1 The Arab States region is taken from the specific UNESCO definition, which does not forcibly reflect geography. It refers to the execution of regional activities of the Organization: UNESCO regions Arab states: (12th October 2013).
10 8 I N T R O D U C T I O N Table 1: Surface Area and Number of Inhabitants of Arab Countries 2 Country Surface area in km 2 Number of inhabitants (2010) Algeria Bahrain Djibouti Egypt Iraq Yemen Jordan Qatar Kuwait Lebanon Libya Mauritania Morocco Oman Palestine (the Palestinian Autonomous Area) Saudi Arabia Somalia Syria Sudan Tunisia United Arab Emirates Western Sahara Chapter 1 presents the education system of the Republic of Slovenia and Chapter 2 the role of history, geography and Slovene language in elementary and secondary schools. In order to make the publication interesting for today s Arab countries, the main focus lies on a demonstration of the teaching of history, geography and literature of today s Arab countries. For this purpose all elementary and secondary school curricula were analysed (Chapter 3), as well as the textbooks for history, geography and Slovene language. The results are presented in Chapter 4. Three publications that show the incorporation of the history of Arab countries in contemporary history textbooks and curricula for 2 Data are taken from: Senegačnik, Jurij (2012). Svet: geografija za 2. letnik gimnazij. [World: Geography for the 2nd Year of General Secondary School]. Ljubljana: Modrijan. Data for the Palestinian Autonomous Area are taken from Jewish Virtual Library: (6th October 2013).
11 I N T R O D U C T I O N 9 elementary and secondary schools have been published recently. The first one was published in the Slovene language in 2011 under the title Pregled zgodovine današnjih arabskih držav v slovenskih učbenikih za zgodovino [Overview of the History of Today s Arab Countries in Slovene History Textbooks]. The second publication was published in the English language with the title Overview of the History of Today s Arab Countries in Slovene History Textbooks: Report for the Project Euro-Arab Dialogue: Comparative Study of School Textbooks in The third one was published in 2012 also in the English language with the title History of Today s Arab Countries in Slovenia. The second and third publications were published by the Slovenian National Commission for UNESCO. All publications can be accessed at: DANIJELA/DIDAKTIKAZGODOVINE/UNESCO.htm. In its conclusion the publication gives suggestions for translating different publications into Slovene to encourage Euro-Arab cooperation in the field of education in the Republic of Slovenia. For advice offered during the research I thank the reviewers, Bojan Balkovec, Ph.D., and Božo Repe, Ph.D. For the English translation I thank Furocat d.o.o., especially the translator Urška Žitnik. For financial support and guidance I thank Marjutka Hafner, Director of the UNESCO Office of the Slovenian National Commission for UNESCO, Gašper Hrastelj and Barbara Urbanija, also from the Office of the Slovenian National Commission for UNESCO. Ljubljana, October 2013 Danijela Trškan, Ph.D.
12 10 C H A P T E R 1 ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN SLOVENIA The fundamental values of education in the Republic of Slovenia are derived from the common European heritage of political, cultural and moral values, which are all based on human rights and the corresponding duties and principles of plural democracy, tolerance, solidarity and the rule of law. 3 The Minister for Education, Science and Sport, Jernej Pikalo, Ph.D., has stated that studies were never merely about being educated for a profession, but something more; they are what shapes us and marks us for our entire lives. 4 Therefore elementary and secondary school is of great importance for the further education of young people for obtaining a profession and for becoming acquainted with and respecting other nations and cultures in the 21st century. In Slovenia the education system consists of: 1. Pre-primary education (ages 1 5) provided by autonomous public pre-school institutions, organisational units of pre-school units at basic schools or private pre-school institutions; 2. Basic education; a single structure of primary and lower secondary education (ages 6 14) provided by basic schools; 3. Upper secondary education (ages 15 18) consisting of: short vocational education (120 ECTS) provided by upper secondary vocational schools (poklicne šole), 3 Bela knjiga o vzgoji in izobraževanju v Republiki Sloveniji 2011 [The White Book on Education in the Republic of Slovenia]. (2011). (eds. Janez Krek and Mira Metljak). Ljubljana: Zavod RS za šolstvo, p. 13: (5th October 2013). 4 The official letter of Minister Jernej Pikalo, Ph.D., at the beginning of the 2013/14 school year: 7dac86f4c040ce8c8/ (4th October 2013).
13 E L E M E N T A R Y A N D S E C O N D A R Y S C H O O L S I N S L O V E N I A 11 vocational education provided by upper secondary vocational and technical schools (poklicne šole and srednje strokovne in tehniške šole), technical education provided by upper secondary technical schools (srednje strokovne in tehniške šole), vocational and technical education provided by upper secondary vocational and technical schools (poklicne šole and srednje strokovne in tehniške šole), general education (four years) provided by general upper secondary schools (gimnazije); 4. Short tertiary (higher vocational) education (120 ECTS) provided by higher vocational colleges; 5. Higher education provided by public and private universities, faculties, art academies and professional colleges. It consists of three cycles: First-cycle professional or academic ( ECTS), Second-cycle masters studies ( ECTS), Third-cycle doctoral studies (180 ECTS). 5 Specific parts of the system are: music and dance education, adult education and special needs education. Slovenia is a Central European country with a population of , of which are men and are women (on 1st April 2013). 6 5 Structures of Education and Training Systems in Europe. Slovenia, 2009/10 Edition, pp. 7 8: 041_SI_EN.pdf (2nd August 2012). 6 Population, Slovenia, 1st April 2013 final data: aspx?id=5637 (4th October 2013).
14 12 C H A P T E R 1 Table 2: Population in Slovenia aged 15 or more by educational attainment 7 1st January 2011 Total Men Women % % % Total No education Incomplete basic Basic Short-term vocational upper secondary Vocational upper secondary Technical, general upper secondary Short-term higher (former), higher vocational st cycle of higher, professional higher (former) etc nd cycle of higher, professional higher (former) etc Magisterij (master s) of science (former) etc Doctorate of science In 2011, 24.7% of the adult population (aged 15 or more) have attained elementary education qualification or less, 53.3% have attained secondary education qualification, and almost 17.4% of the adult population have attained higher education qualification. 8 Elementary education is compulsory and free of charge. Pupils aged 6 enter the nine-year elementary school. 9 Elementary education is also for adults and is organised at elementary schools for children and at adult education centres. There are also international schools for foreign citizens. Elementary education is carried out according to the nine-year elementary school programme. It is divided into three cycles: the first cycle from grades 1 to 3 (ages 6 8), the second cycle from grades 4 to 6 (ages 9 11) and the third cycle from grades 7 to 9 (ages 12 14). Compulsory school subjects are: in the first cycle of education: the mother tongue (Slovene, Hungarian and Italian in areas with these nationalities), mathematics, art, music, environmental studies and physical education; 7 Educational attainment, Slovenia, 1st January 2011 final data: _prikazi.aspx?id=4412 (4th October 2013). 8 Ibid. 9 In the Republic of Slovenia upbringing and education begin with pre-school education, which is not compulsory and is carried out in public and private kindergartens.
15 E L E M E N T A R Y A N D S E C O N D A R Y S C H O O L S I N S L O V E N I A 13 in the second cycle of education: the mother tongue (Slovene, Hungarian and Italian in areas with these nationalities), mathematics, foreign language, art education, music education, society, geography, history, natural sciences, natural science and technics, technics and technology, home economics, physical education and class community; in the third cycle of education: the mother tongue (Slovene, Hungarian and Italian in areas with these nationalities), mathematics, foreign language, art education, music education, geography, history, civic education and ethics, physics, chemistry, biology, technics and technology, physical education, elective subjects and class community. The compulsory part of the programme also includes extramural activity days: culture, science, technical and sports days. The extended programme offers children a choice of various extra-curricular activities (sports activities, sports competitions, school newspaper, chorus, etc.). Schools provide special lessons for very talented children, as well as for those with learning difficulties. Special help is also provided for children with deficits in specific learning domains, and children with disabilities (deaf, blind and visually impaired, children with long-term illness or physical disability). In addition schools organise morning care (before classes start) and after-school care classes, the content of which is determined in the concept of work in after-school classes. 10 At the beginning of the 2012/13 school year pupils were enrolled in elementary schools with a regular curriculum, pupils were enrolled in elementary schools with an adapted curriculum and pupils were enrolled in elementary schools with a special curriculum. Compulsory elementary education was carried out by 785 schools and their branches and by 57 schools and institutions for pupils with special educational needs in Slovenia Slovene Education System Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow. (2007). Ljubljana: Ministry of Education and Sport, p Basic education for youth and adults in Slovenia at the end of the 2011/12 school year and at the beginning of the 2012/13 school year: (4th October 2013).
16 14 C H A P T E R 1 Table 3: Teaching staff at the end of the 2011/12 school year 12 Total Men Women Number of pupils per teacher in FTE (Teachers in daily extension are not included in the pupils/teacher ratio.) Total 16,458 2,003 14, Basic schools: 15,585 1,855 13, Teachers in the first and second educational cycles 6, , Teachers in the third educational cycle 7,068 1,464 5, Teachers in daily extension 2, ,105 (data not available) Basic schools and institutions with a special curriculum: Teachers in the first and second educational cycles Teachers in the third educational cycle Teachers in daily extension Basic schools for adults At the end of the 2011/12 school year there were teachers at elementary schools. 13 Secondary education is free of charge and not compulsory. There are different types of secondary education: General secondary education years of age (4 years), Secondary technical education years of age (4 years), Secondary vocational technical education years of age (3 + 2 years), Secondary vocational education years of age (3 years), Short-term vocational education years of age (2 years), Matura course (one year), Vocational courses (one year) Ibid. 13 Ibid. 14 Slovene Education System Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow. (2007). Ljubljana: Ministry of Education and Sport, p. 79.
17 E L E M E N T A R Y A N D S E C O N D A R Y S C H O O L S I N S L O V E N I A 15 Table 4: Students enrolled in secondary education at the end of the 2011/12 school year 15 Type of programmes Enrolled total men women Total 77,741 39,613 38,128 Short-term vocational Vocational 11,273 11,273 3,477 Technical: 34,006 34,006 15,640 Technical (4-year programmes) 29,833 29,833 14,265 Vocational technical programmes 3,938 3,938 1,228 Vocational courses General: 31,682 31,682 18,790 General and professional secondary school 31,084 31,084 18,415 Matura course At the end of the 2011/12 school year there were students and adults enrolled in secondary education programmes. 16 General secondary education is carried out by general secondary schools, which are of three types: general, classical (with Latin and Greek), and professional. Professional schools have three specialisations, namely: technical, art, and economics. Compulsory four-year subjects are: Slovene language, mathematics, first and second foreign language, history and physical education. Compulsory subjects are also: geography, biology, chemistry, physics, music and art education, psychology, sociology, philosophy and information science. All general secondary schools finish with a leaving examination (matura), which is a general condition for admission to the higher education. Matura consists of five subjects. Three are compulsory subjects: the mother tongue, the foreign language (English or German), and mathematics. In addition, two elective subjects are required. History and Geography are elective subjects. 15 Upper secondary education for youth and adults, Slovenia, end of the 2011/12 school year and beginning of the 2012/13 school year final data: aspx?id=5449 (4th October 2013). 16 Ibid.
18 16 C H A P T E R 1 Secondary vocational and technical education offers: short-term vocational education (lasting two and a half years), secondary vocational education (three years), secondary technical education (four years, or two years after completing a three-year programme vocational technical programme, or a one-year vocational course after completing general secondary education) or post-secondary vocational education (two years). 17 Compulsory four-year subjects in secondary technical schools are Slovene language, mathematics, foreign language and physical education. Compulsory subjects are also geography, history, art, chemistry, biology, physics, information science and psychology. 17 Slovene Education System Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow. (2007). Ljubljana: Ministry of Education and Sport, p. 69.
19 17 C H A P T E R 2 THE ROLE OF HISTORY, GEOGRAPHY AND SLOVENE LANGUAGE IN ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS In elementary school Slovene Language is the most important subject and is included in all the grades. The official language of instruction is Slovene. In the Hungarian-speaking area, bilingual instruction in Hungarian and Slovene is compulsory. In the Italian-speaking area there are Italian schools, where Slovene language is a compulsory subject, and Slovene schools, where Italian is a compulsory subject. 18 History and Geography are independent and compulsory subjects in elementary schools in the final four years. But historical and geographical contents are also included in Social Sciences in the fifth grade. Table 5: Weekly Timetable of the 9 Year Elementary School 19 Subjects / Number of lessons per week 1st year 2nd year 3rd year 4th year 5th year 6th year 7th year 8th year 9th year Total number of lessons per subject Slovene Language Mathematics Foreign Language Visual Arts Music Social Sciences Geography History Civic and Patriotic Education and Ethics Environmental Education Physics Ibid., p Organisation of the education system in Slovenia. 2008/09, p. 69: education/eurydice/documents/eurybase/eurybase_full_reports/si_en.pdf (2nd August 2012). Also in: Trškan, Danijela (2012). History of Today s Arab Countries in Slovenia. Ljubljana: Slovenian National Commission for UNESCO, p. 10.
20 18 C H A P T E R 2 Subjects / Number of lessons per week 1st year 2nd year 3rd year 4th year 5th year 6th year 7th year 8th year 9th year Total number of lessons per subject Chemistry Biology Natural Sciences Natural Sciences and Techniques Techniques and Technologies Home Economics Sports Education Elective subjects 2/3 2/3 2/3 204/306 The table below shows the total number of lessons (one lesson equals 45 minutes): 1,631.5 lessons per year for the subject of Slovene language, 239 lessons for History and lessons per year for Geography. Table 6: Annual Number of History, Geography and Slovene Language Lessons with Regard to the Age of Pupils in Elementary Schools Age of elementary school pupils Number of lessons of History Number of lessons of Geography Total number of history lessons Number of lessons of Slovene Language History and Slovene Language are compulsory subjects in all four years of general secondary schools, while Geography is compulsory in three years.
21 T H E R O L E O F H I S T O R Y, G E O G R A P H Y A N D S L O V E N E L A N G U A G E I N E L E M E N T A R Y 19 Table 7: Weekly Timetable of the 4-Year General Secondary Schools 20 Subjects /Number of lessons per week 1st year 2nd year 3rd year 4th year Total number of lessons per subject Slovene Language Mathematics First Foreign Language Second Foreign Language History Physical Education Music * Arts * Geography Biology Chemistry Physics Psychology 2 70 Sociology 2 70 Philosophy 2 70 Information Science 2 70 Core elective subjects Compulsory elective contents The table below shows that the number of annual lessons (one lesson equals 45 minutes) varies among different types of general secondary schools. Table 8: Annual Number of History, Geography and Slovene Language Lessons in General Secondary Schools Types of general secondary schools / General schools Classical schools Professional schools Total number of lessons Total number of history lessons Total number of geography lessons Total number of Slovene language lessons *Lessons are included in the compulsory elective contents. Table 7 is from: Structures of Education and Training Systems in Europe. Slovenia. 2009/10 Edition, p. 25: 041_SI_EN.pdf (2nd August 2012). Also in: Trškan, Danijela (2012). History of Today s Arab Countries in Slovenia. Ljubljana: Slovenian National Commission for UNESCO, pp
22 20 C H A P T E R 2 Slovene Language is a basic compulsory subject in secondary technical schools (476 lessons), 21 in secondary vocational schools (213 lessons) 22 and in secondary vocational-technical schools (276 lessons). 23 History is a compulsory subject only in secondary technical schools, where students have 103 history lessons in the first year. 24 The same applies to Geography, where students have 68 lessons. 25 On the other hand, secondary vocational schools incorporate historical and geographical contents into other subjects. Short-term vocational schools offer the subject Social and Natural Sciences, comprising 248 lessons, of which social science and humanistic contents are allocated 155 lessons and natural science contents 93 lessons. 26 Secondary vocational schools offer the subject Social Sciences, comprising 132 lessons; 66 lessons in the first year and 66 lessons in the second year, with one-third of the lessons intended for historical contents and one-third intended also for geographical contents connected with the Slovene territory Secondary Technical Education. Knowledge Catalogue. Slovene Language. (2007): (5th October 2013). 22 Secondary Vocational Education. Knowledge Catalogue. Slovene Language (213 lessons). (2007): doc (5th October 2013). 23 Secondary Vocational-Technical Education. Knowledge Catalogue. Slovene Language (276 lessons). (2007): pti_slo_276.doc (5th October 2013). 24 Secondary Technical Education. Vocational Technical Education. Knowledge Catalogue. History. (2007): (5th October 2013). 25 Secondary Technical Education. Vocational Technical Education. Knowledge Catalogue. Geography. (2007): kz_geo_ssi_pti_68.doc (5th October 2013). 26 Short-Term Vocational Education. Knowledge Catalogue. Social and Natural Sciences. (2007): nar.doc (5th October 2013). 27 Secondary Vocational Education. Knowledge Catalogue. Social Sciences. (2007): mss.edus.si/msswww/programi2013/programi/spi/kz-ik/spi_kz_dru_132.doc (5th October 2013).
23 21 C H A P T E R 3 ARAB WORLD IN ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOL CURRICULA FOR HISTORY, GEOGRAPHY AND SLOVENE LANGUAGE 3.1 ARAB WORLD IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CURRICULA FOR HISTORY, GEOGRAPHY AND SLOVENE LANGUAGE The subject of history acquaints students with the most important historical events, phenomena and processes from local, regional, Slovene, European and world history. 28 It is important that the subject of history develops their ability to understand and respect different cultures, religions, races and communities; / / tolerance in contacts and relationships with one another, respect of difference and diversity, mutual cooperation, respect of human rights and democratic citizenship. 29 The history curriculum also foresees a connection with the learning objectives and contents of the subject of geography, especially under those historical topics that require good spatial orientation (e.g. lands of the Ancient East, great geographical discoveries, both World Wars, decolonisation, globalisation etc.). Likewise, it foresees a connection with the subject of Slovene language, since literary passages with a historical background, which shed light on historical topics, are also read during history lessons. 30 Below is a presentation of the contents from the 6th to 9th grades of elementary school, with emphasis on the contents that refer to the history of today s Arab countries. In the 6th grade pupils learn about history, historical time, the first records, the construction of human dwellings through historical periods, inventions through the periods, the family through the centuries, the life 28 Curriculum: Programme of Elementary School Education. History. (2011). Ljubljana: Ministry of Education and Sport: The National Education Institute of the Republic of Slovenia, p. 4: UN_zgodovina.pdf (5th October 2013). 29 Ibid., p Ibid., p. 42.
24 22 C H A P T E R 3 and diet of people in the countryside and in towns, about cultural heritage and about the customs and habits of people. Under two elective topics (Origins of Science, Art and Beliefs; Cultural Heritage of the Ancient Civilisations of Egypt, Mesopotamia and the Near East), pupils learn about mummification, the origins of medicine, mathematics, astronomy and art, and about the beliefs in ancient Egypt. Furthermore, they become acquainted with pyramids, temples and hieroglyphs in ancient Egypt and compare the beliefs, architecture and writings of the civilisations of the ancient East. In the 7th grade pupils learn about the way of life and beliefs in prehistory and about the archaeological sites in Slovenia; become acquainted with the characteristics of the ancient civilisations of America, India and China; the development of ancient Greece and the Roman state; the characteristics of ancient culture and economy; when discussing the Middle Ages they learn about the migration of peoples and the creation of European states and about mediaeval life; outside of Europe, they become acquainted with India, China and the Mongol Empire in the Middle Ages. Under the compulsory topic of Ancient Egypt and the Civilisations of the Ancient East they revise the knowledge they assimilated in the 6th grade, with emphasis on the characteristics of the social order, architectural achievements and science. Under the elective topic The Mediterranean A Space of Cooperation and Conflicts between Cultures they become acquainted with Arabs or the creation of the Arab state for the first time. In the 8th grade pupils learn about geographical discoveries, about Humanism and the Renaissance, about the Reformation and Protestantism in Europe and in Slovenia, about the exploration of Africa, the spreading of the Ottoman Empire, peasant revolts in Europe and in Slovenia, the Enlightenment and the political development of France and England, about the Hapsburg Monarchy during Mary Theresa and Joseph II, about the formation of the USA, the revolution in France, the Napoleonic Wars, the characteristics of the Baroque, about industrialisation, about Europe and the Slovenes in the 19th century, about Japan and the USA in the 19th century, about art, the labour movement, the status of children and women in the 19th century etc. Under the elective topic Travels into the Mysterious Sites of Asia and Africa, they are taught about the exploration of inland Africa.
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