Introduction to programming

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1 Unit 1 Introduction to programming Summary Architecture of a computer Programming languages Program = objects + operations First Java program Writing, compiling, and executing a program Program errors 1.1 What is a computer? Hardware Processor Memory I/O units How does it work? Executes very simple instructions Executes them incredibly fast Must be programmed: it is the software, i.e., the programs, that characterize what a computer actually does 1.2 Components of a computer 1

2 2 UNIT Simplified architecture of a computer Keyboard Mouse Printer Modem I/O ports Disk controller Hard disk Floppy disk CD ROM/DVD CPU Videocard Monitor Central memory Soundcard Speakers Microphone Bus 1.4 Languages for programming a computer Machine language Assembler language iload intrate bipush 100 if_icmpgt interror High level programming languages if (intrate > 100) Programs Network adapter Other PC The programs characterize what a computer actually does. A program (independently of the language in which it is written) is constituted by two fundamental parts: a representation of the information (data) relative to the domain of interest: objects a description of how to manipulate the representation in such a way as to realize the desired functionality: operations To write a program both aspects have to be addressed. 1.6 Example: CallCenter Application: We want to realize a program for a call-center that handles requests for telephone numbers. Specifically, a certain client requests the telephone number associated to a certain person name in a certain city, and the operator answers to the request by selecting the telephone registry of the city and searching there the telephone number corresponding to the person name. Objects: client operator telephone registry telephone numbers, person names, cities - these are just character sequences (strings) Operations: 1. request for the telephone number of a given person name in a given city, done by a client 2. selection of the telephone registry of the requested city, done by the operator 3. search of the telephone number corresponding to the requested person name on the telephone registry The program has to represent all objects that come into play and realize all operations.

3 Introduction to programming Representation of the domain: objects group objects of the same type into classes establish the relations between the classes, i.e., how the objects of the different classes are connected to each other establish the properties of the objects belonging to each class realize the classes, the relationships between the classes, and the properties of the classes in the selected programming language 1.8 Class diagram To make the classes and the relationships between the classes explicit, we can use the class diagram: each class is denoted by a rectangle containing the class name; the relations between classes are denoted by arrows; such arrows represent relations between classes in a simplified form, as generic usage relations; the properties of classes are not shown. Example: class diagram of the CallCenter application. Telephone Client Operator Registry uses (calls) uses (searches in) Class diagrams are commonly used in software design. For example, the Unified Modeling Language (UML), which is the de facto standard formalisms for software design, allows one to develop quite sophisticated class diagrams. 1.9 Realization of operations: algorithms Usually, we realize an operation when we need to solve a specific problem. Example: given a person name, find the corresponding telephone number in a telephone registry. To delegate to a computer the solution of a problem, it is necessary to find an algorithm that solves the problem. Algorithm: procedure through which we obtain the solution of a problem. In other words, a sequence of statements that, when executed one after the other, allow one to calculate the solution of the problem starting from the information provided as input. An algorithm is characterized by: non ambiguity: the statements must be interpretable in a unique way by whom is executing them executability: it must be possible to execute each statement (in a finite amount of time) given the available resources finiteness: the execution of the algorithm must terminate in a finite amount of time for each possible set of input data Example of an algorithm: scan the person names, one after the other as they appear in the registry, until you have found the requested one; return the associated telephone number. Are there other algorithms to solve the same problem? Yes! Once we have found/developed an algorithm, we have to code it in the selected programming language Programming paradigms There are several programming paradigms, that differ in the emphasis they put on the two fundamental aspects: objects and operations. The main programming paradigms are:

4 4 UNIT 1 1. imperative: the emphasis is on the operations intended as actions/commands/instructions that change the state of the computation; the objects are functional to the computation; 2. functional: the emphasis is on the operations intended as functions that compute results; the objects are functional to the computation; 3. object oriented: the emphasis is on the objects, which as a whole represent the domain of interest; the operations are functional to the representation. Operations Objects Objects Imperative/functional Operations Object oriented Usually, in a program different programming paradigms are used. support (with different degrees) for the various paradigms. Hence, programming languages provide 1.11 Java In this course we will use the Java programming language. Java is a modern, high level, object oriented programming language, which supports also the imperative and the functional programming paradigms. General characteristics of Java: simple platform independent (the same program can be run on Windows, Unix, MacOS, etc.) comes equipped with a very rich set of well developed libraries designed for the use on Internet based on virtual machine (see later) safe (the virtual machine forbids undesired accesses to applications running via the Internet) 1.12 The first Java program import java.lang.*; public class First { public static void main(string[] args) { System.out.println("This is my first Java program."); The statements have the following meaning: import java.lang.*; request to use libraries of predefined classes/programs (in fact, the java.lang library is imported automatically, hence this statement can be omitted) public class First {... definition of a class/program called First public static void main(string[] args) {... definition of the main method (a method is the realization of an operation in Java) System.out.println("This is my first Java program."); statement to print a message on the video System.out predefined object/instance of the predefined class PrintStream println method of the class PrintStream applied to the object System.out

5 Introduction to programming 5 "This is my first Java program." object of the class String representing the sentence to display Note: Java is case-sensitive, i.e., there is a difference between lower-case and upper-case letters. E.g., class is different from Class Second program public class Second { public static void main(string[] args) { System.out.println("This is my second Java program..."); System.out.println("... and it will not be my last one."); The sequence of two statements means that the two statements will be executed in the order in which they appear in the program Write, compile, and execute a Java program 1. preparation of the program text 2. compilation of the program 3. execution of the compiled program 1. Preparation of the program text To prepare the program text we have to write a file containing the program. For a Java program, the name of the file has to be ClassName.java where ClassName is the name of the class defined in the program. E.g., First.java The program can be written with any program that allows one to write a text file (editor). E.g., NotePad, Emacs,... Example: 2. Compilation of the program The compilation of the program is necessary to translate the program into a sequence of commands that can be directly executed by the computer. The standard Java compiler, which is part of the Java Standard Development Kit (Java SDK), is javac. To use it, you have to execute the command: javac ClassName.java The compilation produces as a result a file called ClassName.class, which contains the command that can be directly executed by the computer. For example: javac First.java creates the file First.class.

6 6 UNIT 1 3. Execution of the compiled program A program can be executed only after it has been compiled, i.e., when we have the file ClassName.class. In Java the execution of a program is done through the command java ClassName (without.class). For example, the command java First causes the execution of the program First (or, more precisely, of the main method of the class First), and hence prints on the screen: This is my first Java program. Programming environment There are applications called programming environments, that allow one to carry out the various steps of program writing, compilation, and execution in an integrated way. Examples of Java programming environments are: JavaONE, JBuilder, JCreator, ecc. The following picture shows a screen-shot of BlueJ, a programming environment developed for teaching purposes by the University of Kent, by Deakin University, and by the University of Southern Denmark.

7 Introduction to programming From the source code to the executable program (summary) Editor Java source code Compiler Libraries Class file Java Virtual Machine Running program 1.16 Note on the portability of Java The Java compiler does in fact not produce code that can be directly executed by the computer. Instead it produces code that is independent of the specific computer and that is called Java bytecode. Hence, the result of the compilation of a Java program is platform independent. This requires the use of a specific program that is able to execute the bytecode: the bytecode interpreter, known as Java Virtual Machine, which is activated through the command java. To be able to execute a compiled Java program on some platform, it is sufficient to have the interpreter for the Java bytecode. This independence from the platform is one of the distinguishing features of Java that have led to a very quick diffusion of Java Errors The following program contains various errors: public class Errors { public static void main(string[] args) { System.out.println("These are my first Java errors...")

8 8 UNIT 1 Sistem.out.println("... and they will not be the last ons!!!"); Corrected program: public class Errors { public static void main(string[] args) { System.out.println("These are my first Java errors..."); System.out.println("... and they will not be the last ones!!!"); Types of errors: Syntax error, which is an error caused by a violation of the syntax rules for the language example: System.out.println(...) the final ; is missing syntax errors are detected by the compiler Semantic error, which is an error caused by the impossibility to assign a meaning to a program statement example: Sistem.out.println(...); there is a spelling error in the word System some of these errors are detected by the compiler (static semantic errors), some are detected only at runtime (dynamic semantic errors) Logical error, which is an error caused by the fact that the program realizes a different functionality than the expected one example: System.out.println("... and they will not be the last ons!!!"); the string to be printed is not correct logical errors can be detected only by analyzing the program or by testing it

9 Introduction to programming The edit-compile-verify cycle Yes Begin Program writing Program compilation Compiler errors? Yes No Runtime errors? Program testing No End

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