Crime and Science 1/11/2015. What is physical evidence? What is forensic science? What is the goal of forensic science?

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1 Crime and Science Crime and Science What is forensic science? The application of science to criminal and civil laws that are enforced by police agencies in a criminal justice system. What is physical evidence? Any evidence that has size, shape, and dimension tends to support something or show that something is the case. What is the goal of forensic science? ULTIMATE GOAL How many forensic science disciplines did YOU count in the intro? CRIME SCENE RECONSTRUCTION Determine the actions surrounding the commission of a crime Hair Analysis Trace Analysis Latent Print Analysis Bloodstain Pattern Analysis Anthropology Pathology Drug Analysis DNA Alternate Light Source Crime Scene Measurements Cyanoacrylate Fuming Ballistics Firearms Fire Debris Explosives Castoff Study

2 ORGANIZATION OF THE CRIME LAB Congress Not one model best describes US system Issues: Rapid growth TWG FBI More than 0 public crime labs at various levels of the government No planning/coordination Influences Supreme Court decisions New technologies SWG No single agency has unlimited jurisdiction Public vs. Private Governor of Virginia Director of Virginia Department of Forensic Science History Of The Crime Lab System 80 Vidocq establishes lab in Paris 90 Roosevelt establishes FBI in USA 90 Locard establishes first crime laboratory in France 9 FBI lab established in USA First crime lab in US Los Angeles First university based forensic science program University of California at Berkeley First professional organization American Academy of Forensic Science Sherlock Holmes Character developed by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle (89 90) Observation Logic Deduction Edmond Locard Whenever objects come in contact with each other, a transfer of material will occur. Therefore, evidence can be used to associate people, places, and objects Paul Kirk Berkeley Chemist & Forensic Scientist First Case in 97 Manhattan Project Sam Sheppard Testimony 90 established first crime laboratory

3 Code of Hammurabi Circa 790 B.C. Anu and Bel called by name me, Hammerabi, The exalted prince who feared God, to bring about The rule of righteousness in the land Hsi yuan lu The Washing Away of Wrongs Sung Tz u 7 A.D. Model of legal and judicial reasoning Presumption of innocence Provision for evidence Among criminal matters none is more Serious than capital cases; in capital Cases nothing is given more weight than The initially collected facts; as to these Initially collected facts nothing is more Crucial than the holding of inquests. Hans Gross 87 9 The first treatise describing the application of scientific disciplines to the field of criminal investigation Edmond Locard Demonstrated how Gross s principles could be incorporated into the crime lab What Is Forensic Science at VCU? crime scene investigation analysis of physical evidence

4 crime scene investigation Preliminary evidence processing Documentation Evidence handling and packaging Physical evidence to the forensic lab latent print comparisons human hair vs. animal hair serology & DNA firearms and toolmarks impressions

5 paint chip analysis: microscopic & microchemical tests chemistry & toxicology

Forensic Test 1 Review: Mathieu Orfila (1738 1853) Father of Modern Toxicology 1814 wrote first treatise. (formal scientific work) Alphonse Bertillon

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