This Lecture. NWEN 403 Advanced Network Engineering. Network Management. Outline. Network management. Qiang Fu

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1 This Lecture Network management NWEN 403 Advanced Network Engineering Qiang Fu School of Engineering and Computer Science Victoria University of Wellington 22/04/2015 NWEN403: Advanced Network Engineering 2 Network Management goals: introduction to network management motivation major components Internet network management framework MIB: management information base SMI: definition language SNMP: protocol for network management security and administration presentation services: ASN.1 Outline What is network management? Internet-standard management framework Structure of Management Information: SMI Management Information Base: MIB SNMP Protocol Operations and Transport Mappings Security and Administration ASN.1 22/04/2015 NWEN403: Advanced Network Engineering 3 22/04/2015 NWEN403: Advanced Network Engineering 4

2 What is network management? autonomous systems (aka network ): 100s or 1000s of interacting hardware/software components other complex systems requiring monitoring, control: jet airplane nuclear power plant others? What is network management? Some scenarios: Detecting failure of an interface card Host monitoring Monitoring traffic for resource deployment Detecting rapid changes in routing tables Monitoring for SLAs Intrusion detection "Network management includes the deployment, integration and coordination of the hardware, software, and human elements to monitor, test, poll, configure, analyze, evaluate, and control the network and element resources to meet the real-time, operational performance, and Quality of Service requirements at a reasonable cost." 22/04/2015 NWEN403: Advanced Network Engineering 5 22/04/2015 NWEN403: Advanced Network Engineering 6 What is network management? Infrastructure for network management ISO model five areas of network management: Performance management Fault management Configuration management Accounting management Security management definitions: managing entity managing entity network management protocol agent s contain managed objects whose is gathered into a agent Management Information Base (MIB) agent agent 22/04/2015 NWEN403: Advanced Network Engineering 7 22/04/2015 NWEN403: Advanced Network Engineering 8

3 Network Management standards Outline OSI CMIP Common Management Information Protocol designed 1980 s: the unifying net management standard too slowly standardized SNMP: Simple Network Management Protocol Internet roots (SGMP) started simple deployed, adopted rapidly growth: size, complexity currently: SNMP V3 de facto network management standard What is network management? Internet-standard management framework Structure of Management Information: SMI Management Information Base: MIB SNMP Protocol Operations and Transport Mappings Security and Administration ASN.1 22/04/2015 NWEN403: Advanced Network Engineering 9 22/04/2015 NWEN403: Advanced Network Engineering 10 SNMP overview: 4 questions What is being monitored and/or controlled? Management Information Base (MIB) What is the form of the information that will be reported and/or exchanged? Structure of Management Information (SMI) What is the communication protocol for exchanging this information? Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) What are security and admin capabilities? SNMPv3 SNMP overview: 4 key parts Management information base (MIB): distributed information store of network management MIB objects MIB modules a group of related MIB objects Structure of Management Information (SMI): definition language for MIB objects SNMP protocol convey manager<->managed object info, commands security, administration capabilities major addition in SNMPv3 22/04/2015 NWEN403: Advanced Network Engineering 11 22/04/2015 NWEN403: Advanced Network Engineering 12

4 SNMP overview: modular design SMI: definition language Protocol independent definition language MIB independent protocol Purpose: syntax, semantics of management welldefined, unambiguous base types: straightforward, boring OBJECT-TYPE type, status, semantics of managed object MODULE-IDENTITY groups related objects into MIB module Basic Data Types INTEGER Integer32 Unsigned32 OCTET STRING OBJECT IDENTIFIER IPaddress Counter32 Counter64 Guage32 Time Ticks Opaque 22/04/2015 NWEN403: Advanced Network Engineering 13 22/04/2015 NWEN403: Advanced Network Engineering 14 SNMP MIB SMI: Object, module examples MIB module specified via SMI MODULE-IDENTITY (more than 200 standardized MIB modules, more vendor-specific) MODULE OBJECT TYPE: OBJECT TYPE: OBJECT TYPE: objects specified via SMI OBJECT-TYPE construct OBJECT-TYPE: ipindelivers ipindelivers OBJECT TYPE SYNTAX Counter32 MAX-ACCESS read-only STATUS current DESCRIPTION The total number of input grams successfully delivered to IP userprotocols (including ICMP) ::= { ip 9} MODULE-IDENTITY: ipmib ipmib MODULE-IDENTITY LAST-UPDATED Z ORGANZATION IETF SNPv2 Working Group CONTACT-INFO Keith McCloghrie DESCRIPTION The MIB module for managing IP and ICMP implementations, but excluding their management of IP routes. REVISION Z ::= {mib-2 48} 22/04/2015 NWEN403: Advanced Network Engineering 15 22/04/2015 NWEN403: Advanced Network Engineering 16

5 MIB example: UDP module SNMP Naming Object ID Name Type Comments UDPInDatagrams Counter32 total # grams delivered at this node UDPNoPorts Counter32 # underliverable grams no app at portl UDInErrors Counter32 # undeliverable grams all other reasons UDPOutDatagrams Counter32 # grams sent udptable SEQUENCE one entry for each port in use by app, gives port # and IP address 22/04/2015 NWEN403: Advanced Network Engineering 17 question: how to name every possible standard object (protocol,, more..) in every possible network standard?? answer: ISO Object Identifier tree: hierarchical naming of all objects each branchpoint has name, number ISO ISO-ident. Org. US DoD Internet udpindatagrams UDP MIB2 management 22/04/2015 NWEN403: Advanced Network Engineering 18 OSI Object Identifier Tree SNMP protocol Two ways to convey MIB info, commands: managing entity managing entity request response agent trap msg agent Managed device request/response mode Managed device trap mode Check out 22/04/2015 NWEN403: Advanced Network Engineering 20

6 SNMP protocol: message types SNMP protocol: message formats Message type GetRequest GetNextRequest GetBulkRequest InformRequest SetRequest Response Trap Function Mgr-to-agent: get me (instance,next in list, block) Mgr-to-Mgr: here s MIB value Mgr-to-agent: set MIB value Agent-to-mgr: value, response to Request Agent-to-mgr: inform manager of exceptional event 22/04/2015 NWEN403: Advanced Network Engineering 21 22/04/2015 NWEN403: Advanced Network Engineering 22 SNMP protocol: UDP vs TCP SNMP protocol: UDP vs TCP UDP is preferred 22/04/2015 NWEN403: Advanced Network Engineering 23 22/04/2015 NWEN403: Advanced Network Engineering 24

7 SNMP security and administration encryption: DES-encrypt SNMP message authentication: compute, send MAC(m,k): compute hash (MAC) over message (m), secret shared key (k) protection against playback: use nonce view-based access control SNMP entity maintains base of access rights, policies for various users base itself accessible as managed object! 22/04/2015 NWEN403: Advanced Network Engineering 25

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