2 STANDARDIZATION ROADMAP. Published by VDE ASSOCIATION FOR ELECTRICAL, ELECTRONIC & INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES

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2 Published by VDE ASSOCIATION FOR ELECTRICAL, ELECTRONIC & INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES as the umbrella organization of DKE German Commission for Electrical, Electronic & Information Technologies of DIN and VDE Stresemannallee 15 D Frankfurt Phone: Fax: Internet: Issue date: STANDARDIZATION ROADMAP

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4 6 Recommendations for action in the standardization of Industrie General recommendations (AE) Recommendations on standardization strategy (NoS) Recommendations on the area of system architecture (SA) Recommendations on the area of use cases (UC) Recommendations on the area of fundamentals (GL) Recommendations on the area of non-functional properties (NE) Recommendations on the area of reference models (RM) Recommendations on the area of development and engineering (RE) Recommendations on the area of technologies and solutions (TL) Links Relevant standards and specifications ISO / CEN / DIN IEC / CENELEC / DKE VDI/VDE Consortium specifications Abbreviations Working group Standardization concept for industrie 4.0 in division 9 of the DKE Image directory Figure 1 Communication between CPSs (Source: Fraunhofer IAO) Figure 2 The four life cycles in industrial manufacturing (Source: ARC, with additions by Fraunhofer IPA) Figure 3 Innovation from standardization Figure 4 From the need for standardization to the standard STANDARDIZATION ROADMAP

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6 2 INTRODUCTION 2.1 Future project Industrie 4.0 Germany has one of the most competitive manufacturing industries in the world and is a global leader in the manufacturing equipment sector. This is in no small measure due to Germany s specialization in research, development and production of innovative manufacturing technologies and the management of complex industrial processes. These introductory sentences from the implementation recommendations of the Industrie 4.0 working group formed by the Industry and Science Research Union (see chapter 7) accurately reflect the importance of this field of industry to the Federal Republic. They apply equally to many other industrial regions in Europe. The outstanding quality of manufacturing industry is also essentially based on highquality production technology. It is necessary to defend and build upon that position within the context of international competition. The future project Industrie 4.0 presented by the German Federal Government is intended to reflect the importance of manufacturing technology and the ICT sector which supports it. The Federal Ministries of Education and Research (BMBF) and Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) are coordinating their funding activities in this regard. These are supported and monitored by the Industrie 4.0 platform established by the associations ZVEI, VDMA and BITKOM, and the Scientific Advisory Board. From the point of view of manufacturing, i.e. of the users of the new technologies, it is still by no means sure whether this will be a further revolution or rather an evolution of the existing concepts. It is however generally recognized that the introduction of the new technologies and corresponding new concepts is necessary if the increasing complexity and granularity with rising demands for quality and flexibility are to be mastered in the environment of volatile markets. 2.2 Objectives of Industrie 4.0 The fundamental objective is to utilize the progress achieved in information and communications technologies and that expected in the near future for the benefit of manufacturing enterprises. Preparation therefore has to be made for the increasing and consistent embedding of those technologies in production systems and that in ever smaller partial systems and components. Additional communications capability and (partial) autonomy in reactions to external influences and internally stored specifications are transforming mechatronic systems into Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS). The objectives derived from that transformation are developments and adjustments in ICT for manufacturing applications: robustness, resilience, information security and real time capability. 6 STANDARDIZATION ROADMAP

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8 2.4 Aspects of implementation The semi-finished products and parts involved in the manufacturing process are to possess artificial intelligence, or at least information on themselves and suitable means of communication, and therefore themselves constitute cyber-physical systems. These smart products are to be embedded in the process as a whole and in extreme cases control not only their own logistical path through production, but rather the entire production workflow that concerns them. Decentralization of the digitally stored information will consequently be followed by a decentralization of control systems. Today s bit by bit programming will no longer be practicable with the further increase in complexity. Current production systems are already pushing against the limits of programmability. The taking into account of sensor information, available in increasing quantities and resolutions, and the reliable coordination of several actuators in real time can no longer be tested in all function sequences. The variety of tests can be further increased in simulations, but it has already become necessary to abandon absolute control. Programming will in future be replaced by a system of rules which the partial systems will follow flexibly within the limits specified for them and the current situations signalled by the other partial systems. As a further highly important aspect, it is to be remembered that, in contrast to the early concepts of automation, human beings are not to be optimized out of the production processes, but rather to be given an increasingly important role: The CPPSs are to supply them with compressed information suitably derived from the complex interrelationships and communicated in a personalized manner as the basis for their intervention in the process. In this way, not only a new form of cooperation between machines and parts of machines, but also one of cooperation between machines and human beings arises. Figure 1 shows an example of a situation with various contributions between (partly) autonomous CPSs (mechatronic and human) which are to be controlled by the system as a whole in real time by the application of rules. Figure 1 Communication between CPSs (Source: Fraunhofer IAO) I ll top up the magazine. Sorry, I can t work on Saturday. Magazine empty. Please fill it! Customer order: 50 gearboxes by Monday Switch me off! Booked up to capacity until Friday! I can work this Saturday. I ve got to be in the shipping area in 2 hours! 8 STANDARDIZATION ROADMAP

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10 As a result of the large number of IT solutions now available, many sectors of industry have experienced a serious problem of constantly rising costs, often difficult to justify in commercial terms, for maintenance, updating, modifications and new implementations. Tools with a wide range of data models, countless interface protocols and versions necessarily lead to a lack of transparency and thus to greater and greater problems with the stability of the systems as a whole. It cannot of course be the solution to prescribe a uniform global data model or harmonized interfaces. A solution has to be developed which on the one hand ensures the greatest possible room for development and on the other hand alleviates the problems described above. One promising concept for this is service-oriented architecture, in which the above-mentioned rule-based and situation-controlled cooperation between machines and human beings is organized. 10 STANDARDIZATION ROADMAP

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12 4 THE CURRENT STANDARDIZATION ENVIRONMENT 4.1 Standardization as a driving force for innovation Standards create a secure basis for technical procurement, ensure interoperability in applications, protect the environment, plant and equipment and consumers by means of uniform safety rules, provide a future-proof foundation for product development and assist in communication between all those involved by means of standardized terms and definitions. Standardization is of central importance for the success of the future project Industrie 4.0. Industrie 4.0 requires an unprecedented degree of system integration across domain borders, hierarchy borders and life cycle phases. This is only possible if it proceeds from standards and specifications based on consensus. Close cooperation between researchers, industry and the standardization bodies is required to create the necessary conditions for sweeping innovation: methodical soundness and functionality, stability and security of investments, practicability and market relevance. Figure 3 Innovation from standardization Industrial support Methodology Practical relevance Market Research Innovation Functionality Stability Security of investment Standardization A prompt firming-up of concepts by a standardization process based on consensus and accompanying research is also essential for rapid implementation in industrial practice. 12 STANDARDIZATION ROADMAP

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14 The alternative routes are shown in figure % of national standards in the field of electrical engineering are now based on international standards from IEC. IEC standards are agreed in parallel during the compilation process on the European level (CENELEC 5 ) and on the international level, and then adopted nationally in Germany as DIN standards (Dresden Agreement 6 ). There is a comparable procedure at ISO and CEN 7 under the terms of the Vienna Agreement 8. Figure 4 From the need for standardization to the standard Environment (e.g. laws) Technological development Technological development Research, strategic projects Need for standardization National adoption DIN, DKE European adoption CEN, CENELEC ETSI International standardization IEC, ISO, ITU (DKE, DIN) Consortium standardization (Consortiums) Consensus-based standardization (Associations) DIN standards EN standards ISO, IEC standards Consortium standard National standard Development of products and services Application in practice It has become apparent in recent years that the development and elaboration of proposals for and contents of standards by the responsible standardization committees themselves is increasingly meeting its limits. In many cases, the time available to the voluntary members of the committees is insufficient. For that reason, the alternative route of extensive preparation of standards by consortiums and professional associations has become established in many areas. As a result, the committees responsible for standardization are more and more taking on the functions of reviewing, facilitation, support, consultation and integration. They ensure that the interested groups are informed of the contents and the planned procedures, and that the standardization process is based on consensus. Together with these functions and the day to day administrative and editorial tasks, standardization committees are increasingly taking on an important role in analysing the existing standardization landscape and initiating and coordinating standardization projects in strategically important areas. 5 CENELEC Comité Européen de Normalisation Électrotechnique, European Committee for electronic Standardization 6 Dresden Agreement: See CENELEC Guide 13, 7 CEN Comité Européen de Normalisation, European Committee for Standardization 8 Vienna Agreement: 14 STANDARDIZATION ROADMAP

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16 4.3 The national standardization landscape in automation The important associations and standardization bodies involved in the compilation of standards in the national German environment include the following: VDI/VDE guidelines (GMA) NAMUR recommendations (NAMUR) VDMA standard sheets (VDMA) Preliminary DIN standards (DIN and DKE) Technical reports (DIN and DKE) In addition, the standardization organizations VDE/DKE and DIN provide opportunities to make specifications available to the market rapidly in the form of a DIN SPEC or VDE code of practice. For questions of procedure and organizational arrangements, guidelines such as BITKOM guidelines (BITKOM) ZVEI guidelines (ZVEI) The professional groups behind these bodies are staffed with experienced teams of experts who ensure rapid development of high-quality specifications and standards. Typically, the amount of free time available to the experienced experts who work voluntarily on the committees is limited. The projects should therefore be prioritized and organized up to the time at which they go forward for international standardization. GMY: VDI/VDE Society for Measurement and Automatic Control NAMUR: International User Association in Process Industries VDMA: German Engineering Federation DIN: German Institute for Standardization DKE: German Comission for Electrical, Electronic and Information Technologies of DIN and VDE BITKOM: Federal Association for Information Technology, Telecommunications and New Media ZVEI: Central Association of the Electrical and Electronics Industry 16 STANDARDIZATION ROADMAP

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18 4.5 Standardization in information technology In the IT world, specifications are typically developed and pursued by open communities which act internationally. One example is the W3C Consortium. In spite of their worldwide acceptance and importance, these specifications are not always adopted as de jure standards. When they are, this is often done by the ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee JTC 1, Information Technology. That committee deals with a large number of standardization topics in information technology: ISO/IEC JTC 1 Information Technology JTC 1/WG 7 Sensor networks JTC 1/SWG 5 Internet of Things (IoT) JTC 1/WG 8 Governance of IT JTC 1/SC 2 Coded character sets JTC 1/SC 6 Telecommunications and information exchange between systems JTC 1/SC 7 Software and systems engineering JTC 1/SC 17 Cards and personal identification JTC 1/SC 22 Programming languages, their environments and system software interfaces JTC 1/SC 23 Digitally Recorded Media for Information Interchange and Storage JTC 1/SC 24 Computer graphics, image processing and environmental data representation JTC 1/ SC 25 Interconnection of information technology equipment JTC 1/ SC 27 IT security techniques JTC 1/ SC 28 Office equipment JTC 1/ SC 29 Coding of audio, picture, multimedia and hypermedia information JTC 1/ SC 31 Automatic identification and data capture techniques JTC 1/ SC 32 Data management and interchange JTC 1/ SC 34 Document description and processing languages JTC 1/ SC 35 User interfaces JTC 1/ SC 36 Information technology for learning, education and training JTC 1/ SC 37 Biometrics JTC 1/ SC 38 Distributed application platforms and services (DAPS) JTC 1/ SC 39 Sustainability for and by Information Technology 18 STANDARDIZATION ROADMAP

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20 5 OBJECT AREAS WITH A NEED FOR STANDARDIZATION FOR INDUSTRIE Subject area SA: System architecture Overall architecture As discussed above, the relevant models of classical architecture are to be integrated and rounded off for Industrie 4.0. A reference model for the overall architecture is first to be developed. Architecture models to date, where developed in partial areas, are mostly function and technology-driven. An architecture which is neutral in terms of technology is however required for such an extensive concept as Industrie 4.0. With today s highly advanced state of the art, it can be assumed that the necessary technologies for implementation of the architecture concept are available. The new architectural approach focuses on service-orientation, autonomy, adaptivity and cooperativity. As standardization has also up to now been extensively technology-driven, the standardization processes themselves are also to be adapted to take account of this new procedure. Owing to its fundamental importance, system architecture is to be regarded as a subject area in its own right with a special need for standardization. 5.2 Subject area UC: Use cases Use cases For clarification of the domain-specific need for development and standardization, Use cases from which the characteristic demands of the fourth stage of industry on the existing system landscape are to be identified. Consensus among all those involved on the relevance and representativeness of the identified use cases is of decisive importance. For that reason, the use cases themselves should be developed and published in the course of a consensus-based standardization process. Industrial automation is characterized by the endeavour to achieve commercially justifiable quantities of automation components by covering as much of the various industries as possible. On the one hand, this requires compromises, and on the other hand variable options, which, however, often lead to a number of adjustable or changeable parameters which customers find overwhelming. With regard to the hardware of such components, the customer requirements range from the greatest possible degree of robustness ( military quality ) and the lowest possible price ( consumer price ). At the development stage it is often difficult to combine the two, but this is made easier by the application of standards. The use cases are to be compiled against this background. For the reasons stated, there also cannot be any closed collection of use cases, as the variety of sectors precludes any blanket automation of industry. The use cases therefore have to be limited to generic types, but can form the basis of implementation for specific technologies and specific projects. 20 STANDARDIZATION ROADMAP

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22 5.4 Subject area NE: Non-functional properties 9 The target systems of Industrie 4.0 are industrial production systems. In addition to their actual function, these have to possess a series of non-functional properties to fulfil the operational requirements for efficient, safe and robust production. Non-functional properties are typically cross-cutting properties. Both the individual elements and the nature of their interaction in the interconnected system as a whole contribute to their fulfilment. The non-functional properties are already an important area for standardization. This concerns the definition and demarcation of the property itself, and the stipulation of quantitative limits for uniform classification and of methods to ensure that those limits are actually maintained. It is a necessity and an objective for the systemic and systematic consideration of the non-functional properties also to be applied to the new concepts of Industrie 4.0. The integral involvement of the worldwide information network, the cross-domain consideration of production chains and the inclusion of the business process level in that consideration result in a new system architecture (subject area SA), which has to be aligned with the concepts of the non-functional properties. This is an essential condition for implementation in operational practice. 9 Each functional unit not only has the capability of performing its primary useful function (functional properties), but also other administrative and workflow-related properties. In automation technology, these are termed nonfunctional properties. 22 STANDARDIZATION ROADMAP

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24 5.6 Subject area RL: Reference models of the instrumentation and control functions Control Signalling Alarms Archiving Monitoring The I&C functions are a core area of automation technology. The corresponding terms are standardized in the IEV. They are elaborated by the manufacturers of the control systems, who supply the I&C functions as system services. They are therefore only partly standardized, as this was not necessary in the context of practical use of the control systems. In an extended consideration of the systems, the I&C functions are however not only interesting on the process control level, but can be made available in a generalized form to all participants on all levels as uniform system functions. For that purpose, they are to be explicitly described as reference models and standardized. 5.7 Subject area RB: Reference models of the technical and organizational processes Diagnosis Maintenance Life cycle management System migration Optimization Coexistence management of wireless applications Security management The structuring and organization of the technical and organizational business processes has up to now been the domain of the users, application suppliers and tool manufacturers. Accompanying the procedures stipulated by the tools, the user organizations and enterprises have developed codes, regulations and best practice rules, etc., to make these processes efficient. In order to secure this knowledge and make it available to users in a concentrated form for integration in the general business processes, it appears appropriate to group the essential elements of the technical and organizational business processes together in standards. 24 STANDARDIZATION ROADMAP

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26 5.11 Subject area SB: Standard libraries Characteristics Element libraries Services libraries The detailed stipulation of terminology and syntax is a basic requirement for interoperability. The success of Industrie 4.0 will essentially depend on the availability of standardized characteristic libraries, element libraries or descriptive languages for equipment and functional modules, and services libraries Subject area TL: Technologies and solutions Communications platform Service systems Workflow systems Programming languages On fundamental aspect of standardization is the stipulation of the actual mapping of the individual concepts to the available technologies. This is the basis of products and industrial solutions. These standards require constant further development and adaptation to reflect the technical background conditions. Many of the existing standards combine the conceptual findings with the mapping to technological solutions (OPC-UA, SOA, PROFIBUS, FDI...). 26 STANDARDIZATION ROADMAP

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28 In the field of industrial automation, there are a large number of existing standards which have proven their worth in practice. The new requirements of the Industrie 4.0 landscape are however expected to make extensions and upgrading necessary. In many cases, substantive reorganization may also be required to make the standards landscape more compact, more robust and freer from overlaps. In any case, the existing international standards will form the central reference point for development. Recommendation AE-3: Support for the established standardization committees by additional experts If they are to be familiar with and influence the relevant core standards in IEC and ISO, the existing technical committees and national mirror committees in DKE and DIN must be staffed by the leading experts and be endowed with sufficient resources. Only in that way will it also be possible for the German experts, manufacturers and users to contribute their knowledge and raise their concerns in the international standardization work of ISO and IEC. An appeal is therefore made to German industry to facilitate participation by its experts in national and international committees, to support them and to document their requirements for standards. The standardization committees should also be used to provide support for the implementation of the standards and specifications in practice across industry and internationally. Recommendation AE-4: Training The contents of the existing standards cannot be grasped intuitively. Training courses are an appropriate method of providing an efficient introduction to the existing concepts and solutions, especially for young people in research, industry and the committees. A first step would be the compilation of training documents on the individual standards. The overviews produced, for example, on IEC 62264, Enterprise-control system integration are a good example to be followed in that respect. Recommendation AE-5: Research and development requirements for emergent systems The fundamental drafting of system standards which, for example, describe the development of procedures and specifically their chronological dynamics, should be prepared for and supported by research and development projects. 28 STANDARDIZATION ROADMAP

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30 Recommendation NoS-4: Explicit standardization of the core models Core models (model universals), as models generally regarded as true, are really laws and not stipulations requiring standardization. (F = m g does not, for example, require stipulation in a standard.) In the field of information models, however, there are not so many of these laws. In order to strengthen the common model base for Industrie 4.0, the relevant core models are to be explicitly described and published as standards. Recommendation NoS-5: Formally correct and complete description of the reference models The objective of standardization is the correct and complete description of the reference models. Different concepts, strategic interests or histories can lead to different reference models. It is to be ascertained in individual cases whether agreement on a single reference model can be achieved. If not, the existence of several reference models is to be accepted, as long as they are correctly formulated and apt as descriptions of the matter at hand. Recommendation NoS-6: Functions and roles of human beings in Industrie 4.0 Starting with the new functions and roles of human beings in Industrie 4.0, the need for technical support, especially in the area of human-machine interfaces, is to be described. 10 Recommendation NoS-7: Separate description of the conceptual and technological stipulations A sustainable, long-term development of Industrie 4.0 can only be successful if it is based on general, stable concepts which are extensively neutral in terms of technology. In reverse, no innovation is possible if mapping to the currently available technologies is not stipulated by standards. Against this background it appears expedient for the description of the conceptual stipulations in the standards to be clearly separated from the technological stipulations. It must be mentioned once again that both types of stipulation are necessary. 10 Fraunhofer study: 30 STANDARDIZATION ROADMAP

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32 6.4 Recommendations on the area of use cases (UC) Recommendation UC-1: Standardized description template Use cases should be described on the basis of a standardized template. This serves to improve comprehension, comparability and the uniform usability of the use cases. The description must contain the objectives of the use case, the background conditions on which it is based and an at least partially formalized description of the content. The descriptive template is to be standardized. Stipulations in the Smart Grid field can be drawn upon for that purpose. Generic fundamentals for the description of use cases in templates and their export to UML are currently being defined in IEC/TC 8 WG 5, Methodology and Tools (IEC 62559) 11. Application for Industrie 4.0 should be investigated. For the work of the standardization organizations, use cases are in particular to be used in developing a common viewpoint across committees and organizations for the examination of complex system topics. This will then serve as the basis for further standardization projects. Some use cases may also be included in standards, if, for example, they support interoperability and testability. Recommendation UC-2: Reference list of important use cases for characterization of the term Industrie 4.0 Use cases can be compiled for a wide range of purposes. It is recommended that a set of representative use cases be compiled, in which typical tasks and scenarios in the Industrie 4.0 environment are described. That set of use cases should be standardized as a reference basis. The selected use cases should be coordinated in terms of breadth, depth and degree of abstraction, and shed light on the entire field of Industrie 4.0. Recommendation UC-3: Use cases to illustrate the need for standardization in the area of non-functional properties In practice, there are many misunderstandings and domain-specific interpretations of the nonfunctional properties. In order to clarify the importance of the terminology and to explain the specific need for standardization, it is recommended that a set of specific use cases be developed for each non-functional property. 11 IEC 62559, Use case methodology, in preparation 32 STANDARDIZATION ROADMAP

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34 Recommendation GL-3: Specification of the modelling languages to be used in standards Languages for model description are familiar and widespread in information technology and automation. In many cases, however, they are oriented towards software systems and cannot be applied on a 1:1 basis to the modelling of technical problems. Nevertheless, they are popular in practice and applied intuitively. One typical example is the singling out of various constructs from the UML class diagram for the description of technical metamodels. For the normative description of technical systems, there is a great need to standardize descriptive languages which can then be drawn upon. These descriptive languages should be concise and not overly expressive, lend themselves to correct intuitive use, and follow the existing solutions both in their structure and in their notation. 6.6 Recommendations on the area of non-functional properties (NE) Recommendation NE-1: Define terminology for the non-functional properties The concept of non-functional properties is increasingly gaining in importance even beyond the field of automation technology. The underlying terminology is to be reviewed and new terminology developed where required (see also Recommendation GL-1). Recommendation NE-2: Clear addressing of the non-functional properties in separate standards The description of the non-functional properties, their objectives and the resulting requirements for regulation, the equipment manufacturers, the integrators, the operators and the users is a demanding task and should be formulated in detail and unambiguously. The objective is to be to describe each non-functional property in its own standard (or several standards). The basic safety standards for description of functional safety are a very good approach in this regard, as they consider the aspect of functional safety independently of context and can therefore in principle be generally applied. 34 STANDARDIZATION ROADMAP

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