New York City Fire Code & Energy Storage Systems

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1 New York City Fire Code & Energy Storage Systems Winnie Lei on behalf of Tamara Saakian, P.E. Director of Engineering & Technology Management Technology Management Unit Bureau of Fire Prevention Fire Department City of New York CUNY Solar Installer Workshop March 19, 2015

2 2008 & 2014 NYC Fire Codes Regulated Battery Systems 2008 NYC Fire Code Sections 608 & 609 Flooded lead acid > 50 gallons Valve-regulated lead acid > 50 gallons 2014 NYC Fire Code Section 608 Flooded lead acid > 50 gallons Valve-regulated lead acid > 50 gallons Flooded nickel cadmium > 50 gallons Lithium-ion > 1000 pounds Lithium metal polymer > 1000 pounds

3 Section 602: Fire Code Battery System Definitions Stationary storage battery - A storage battery designed for use in a stationary installation, in which electrochemical cells are interconnected to supply a nominal voltage of direct current power. The nominal voltage rating of a stationary storage battery is a function of the number of cells connected in a series, and the discharge capacity is a function of the size of the cells. Stationary storage batteries are characterized by their ability to be restored to a fully charged condition by reversing the flow of the electric current after discharge. Nonrecombinant battery - A storage battery in which, under conditions of normal use, hydrogen and oxygen gases created by electrolysis are vented into the air outside of the battery. Vented (flooded) lead-acid battery - A lead-acid battery consisting of cells that have electrodes immersed in liquid electrolyte. Flooded lead-acid batteries have a provision for the user to add water to the cell and are equipped with a flame-arresting vent which permits the escape of hydrogen and oxygen gas from the cell in a diffused manner such that a spark, or other ignition source, outside the cell will not ignite the gases inside the cell. Nickel cadmium (Ni-Cd) battery - An alkaline storage battery in which the positive active material is nickel oxide, the negative active material contains cadmium, and the electrolyte is potassium hydroxide.

4 Section 602: Fire Code Battery System Definitions (continued) Recombinant battery - A storage battery in which, under conditions of normal use, hydrogen and oxygen gases created by electrolysis are converted into water inside the battery instead of venting into the air outside of the battery. Lithium-ion battery - A storage battery in which an electrical current is generated by lithium ions embedded in a carbon graphite or nickel metal-oxide substrate placed in a highviscosity carbonate mixture or gelled polymer electrolyte. Valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery - A lead-acid battery consisting of sealed cells furnished with a valve that opens to vent the battery whenever the internal pressure of the battery exceeds the ambient pressure by a set amount. In VRLA batteries, the liquid electrolyte in the cells is immobilized in an absorptive glass mat (AGM cells or batteries) or by the addition of a gelling agent (gel cells or gelled batteries). Lithium metal polymer battery - A storage battery in which an electrical current is generated by the interaction between lithiated positive active material electrically separated from metallic lithium or lithiated negative active material, and nonaqueous liquid or polymerized electrolytes.

5 Section 608: Stationary Storage Battery Systems Applicable purposes: Facility standby power Emergency power Uninterruptible power supply (UPS) Fire protection measures: Safety caps Required for flooded vented lead acid, flooded nickel cadmium, other non-recombinant batteries VRLA requires self-resealing, flame-arresting safety vents Thermal runaway protection Required for VRLA, lithium metal polymer NEEDS TO BE REVISITED FOR LITHIUM-ION AND OTHER BATTERIES WITH THERMAL RUNAWAY POSSIBILITY Room design/construction Open rack allowed if battery system in separate room Only VRLA, lithium-ion and other sealed, non-venting batteries in occupied areas; requires non-combustible cabinet Also consult NYC Building Code Chapter 5 Spill control Not required for VRLA, lithium-ion, lithium metal polymer and batteries with immobilized electrolyte

6 Section 608: Stationary Storage Battery Systems (continued) Fire protection measures (continued): Neutralization Required for flooded lead acid, nickel cadmium and batteries with free flowing electrolyte Not required for lithium-ion and lithium metal polymer Room ventilation Not required for lithium-ion and lithium metal polymers Hydrogen concentration limited to 1% of total volume of room Ventilation rate not less than 1 CFM per square foot Also consult NYC Mechanical Code Cabinet ventilation Required when VRLA batteries installed in cabinet Hydrogen concentration and ventilation rate requirements Ventilation systems supervised by central station or on-site location Smoke detection Required for all regulated battery systems Also consult NYC Building Code Chapter 9 Battery room and cabinet signage Must comply with Table 608.1: Battery Requirements

7 Table 608.1: Battery Requirements

8 Section : Certificate of Fitness (C of F) General supervision (e.g., visual inspection) of energy storage/battery systems by C of F holder Applies to all battery systems, regardless of installation date, regulated by Section 608 of 2014 NYC Fire Code C of F Exam B-29 administered at FDNY Headquarters (9 Metrotech Center, Brooklyn) beginning September 15, 2014 Exam study material available at Renewed every 3 years

9 Sections & 104.9

10 Technology Management Application for Review (TM-1 Form)

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12 Thank You

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