Facts and Breaking Down the Barriers to Improve Gender Equity

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1 Facts and Breaking Down the Barriers to Improve Gender Equity California Perkins Joint Special Populations Conference Carolyn Zachry, Ed.D. California Department of Education CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Tom Torlakson, Presentation Goals Explore current research related to postsecondary education attainment Explore careers for non-traditional students including the STEM careers Contribute to the conversation by exploring barriers and strategies to surmount those barriers 2 The Facts Occupations requiring higher education attainment are projected to grow much faster than those with lower education requirements, with the fastest growth among occupations that require an associate s degree or post-secondary vocational award. Preparing the Workers of Today For the Jobs of Tomorrow, July 2009, Executive Office of the President, Council of Economic Advisers 1

2 In 2003, a quarter of American workers were in jobs that were not even listed among the Census Bureau s Occupation codes in 1967 and technological changes have only accelerated since then. Preparing the Workers of Today For the Jobs of Tomorrow, July 2009, Executive Office of the President, Council of Economic Advisers Environmental-related occupations, which are expected to experience tremendous growth over the next decade, did not exist in comparable data prior to Preparing the Workers of Today For the Jobs of Tomorrow, July 2009, Executive Office of the President, Council of Economic Advisers There are 29 million middle jobs in the United States that pay $35,000 or more on average and don t require a Bachelor s degree. Career and Technical Education: Five Way that Pay, Georgetown University, Center on Education and the Workforce, September

3 Middle-education jobs are those that require some postsecondary education and training, but do not require a Bachelor s degree. Middle-class earnings are earnings above $35,00 per year and below $95,000 per year. Middle jobs are occupations that require some postsecondary education and training, but not a Bachelor s degree, and have average earnings of $35,000 per year or more. Career and Technical Education: Five Way that Pay, Georgetown University, Center on Education and the Workforce, September Employerbased training Associate s Degree CTE Education and Training Postsecondary certificates Industry-based certificates Apprenticeships The Harvard study, Pathways to Prosperity (February 2011) states, The message is clear: in 21 st century America, education beyond high school is the passport to the American Dream. But how much and what kind of post-secondary is really needed to prosper in the new American economy? 3

4 Twenty-seven percent of people with post-secondary licenses or certificatescredentials short of an associate s degree-earn more than the average bachelor s degree recipient. These middle skill jobs include Electrician Dental hygienist Construction manager Paralegal Police officer Pathways to Prosperity (February 2011) The Harvard study implies that a focus on college readiness alone does not equip young people with all of the skills and abilities they need in the workplace, or to successfully complete the transition from adolescence to adulthood U.S. on time college completion rates % 10 0 Four-Year Schools Two-Year Schools Note: Two-year schools have a three year graduation window. Fouryear schools have a six-year window. Source: Higher-Ed info-nces/ipeds Graduation Survey 4

5 Behaving as though four-year college is the only acceptable route to success clearly still works well for many young adults... But it clearly does not work for many, especially young men. Pathways to Prosperity (February 2011) Gender Gap Women now account for 57% of college students. Career-focused pathways firmly linked to community college and four-year career majors may assist students in staying on course. 5

6 Students need to be aware of the multiple of programs offered at nonfour year institutions including community colleges, adult education, and certificate/licensure programs. 16 For too many youth, we have treated preparing for college versus preparing for career as mutually exclusive options. Pathways to Prosperity (February 2011) Activity 18 6

7 Women have made tremendous progress in education and the workplace during the past 50 years. Even in historically male fields such as business, law, and medicine, women have made impressive gains. In science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), however, women s progress has been slower, especially in engineering, computer science, and physics. Why So Few, AAUW 19 Gender Equity Issues Pay Gap Education attainment Course enrollment 20 Nearly 50 years after the passage of the Equal Pay Act of 1963, women continue to ear less than men do in nearly every occupation. Graduating to a Pay Gap, AAUW

8 When occupation, college major, employment sector, hours, and other factors associated with pay are controlled for, a pay gap still exists. Graduating to a Pay Gap, AAUW Explained Portion of Pay Gap College major choice Occupation Hours worked Economic Sector Graduating to a Pay Gap, AAUW When explained factors are controlled for, women still earn less than men Teaching: women earned 89% of what men earned Business and Management: women earned 86% of what men earned Sales Occupations: women earned 77% of what men earned Graduating to a Pay Gap, AAUW

9 Even when controlled for the same amount of hours worked, women earned 82%-84% of what men earned 25 Unexplained Pay Gap Gender Discrimination Increased claims files with Equal Employment Opportunity Commission and money paid in awards and settlements People continue to hold biases against women in the workplace Willingness and ability to negotiate salary Graduating to a Pay Gap, AAUW National Girls Collaborative Project K-12 Statistics Girls are taking high level mathematics and science courses at the similar rates as boys Performing well in these courses Not taking courses related to physics and engineering Gaps persist for minority and lowincome students NSF, Science and Engineering Indicators,

10 High School Mathematics Females Males 28 Boys performed slightly better than girls in mathematics Larger gap exist between students of difference racial/ethnic backgrounds and family income 29 High School Science Advanced Biology Physics Females Males 30 10

11 Males are 6 times more likely to have taken engineering (6% versus 1%) Engineering Females Males 31 Higher Education Course taking in science and engineering Gender disparities emerge, especially for minority women Participation in science and engineering differs significantly by field of study 32 STEM Workforce Greatest disparities occurring in engineering, computer science, and the physical sciences Males Females 33 11

12 Activity Women make up 47% of the overall workforce Males Females 35 AAUW study Why So Few? Social and environmental factors Believe that intelligence can expand with experience and learning Negative stereotypes regarding girls abilities in math Girls self-assessment Spatial skills 36 12

13 Why So Few? AAUW College environment Broader overview of the field in introductory courses Improve departmental culture to promote the integration of female faculty Mentoring programs and effective worklife policies Bias Implicit bias Women judged as less competent than men in male jobs If competent considered less likable 37 Detecting Bias Invisibility/Exclusion Stereotyping Imbalance/Selectivity Unreality Fragmentation/Isolation Linguistic Bias GESA Facilitator handbooks; Idaho s Vocational Education Equity Perspective; and Wisconsin Department of Public Information materials 38 Root Causes & Strategies Academic Proficiency Ability can be enlarged and expanded Math camps Create incentives Teach visual-spatial skills

14 Access to and participation in Math, Science, and Technology Utilize real-life teaching strategies Kindle and sustain interest in math Make other programs available such as after-school or weekend programs or summer camps Invite, involve, and educate parents 40 Bias-Free Curriculum Foster interest and curiosity, as well as skill, in math and science Correct bias in curricular and professional materials Instructional Strategies Provide comprehensive professional development relating to gender issues Incorporate student experience in the instructional process 41 School/Classroom Climate Schedule students in nontraditional programs in cohorts whenever possible Support nontraditional student clubs and after-school activities Support Services Provide tutoring, child care, transportation, and tuition assistance

15 Materials and Practices Educate career counselors about the changing composition of the workforce Feature both genders in work and accomplishments Provide more career guidance for boys Provide information about high-wage, high-skills jobs for women Early Intervention Target elementary and middle school students, especially for math interventions 43 Characteristics of an Occupation Provide comprehensive employment counseling that is sensitive to the unique needs of women Assist students in realistically assessing desired work/life balances Teach negotiation skills Family Characteristics Invite, involve, and education parents Involve parents in developing a career plan 44 Self-Efficacy Utilize real-life teaching strategies Provide training about self-efficacy Attribution Assess and retain attribution style Stereotype Threat Address the limited development of expressive traits in boys and instrumental traits in girls Media Emphasize the role of education

16 Role Models/Mentoring Provide training and support for mentors and mentees Ensure positive role models Choose the mentoring format that fits the educational setting Conduct nontraditional student support t groups and peer counseling Collaboration Factors for quality collaborations: leadership, communication, community development and sustainability 46 Breaking Down Barriers Spread the word about girls and women s achievements in math and science Expose girls to successful female role models in math and science Teach students about stereotype threat Why So Few? AAUW 47 Teach girls that intellectual skills, including math and science skills, grow over time Encourage and help girls to develop their spatial skills Help girls recognize their careerrelevant skills Actively recruit women into STEM majors 48 16

17 Encourage high school girls to take calculus, physics, chemistry, computer science, and engineering classes when available Teachers and professors can reduce reliance on stereotypes by making performance standards and expectations clear Why So Few? AAUW 49 Send an inclusive message about who makes a good science or engineering student Emphasize real-life applications in early STEM courses Raise awareness about bias against women in STEM fields Create clear criteria for success and transparency Why So Few? AAUW 50 Publicly recognize that pay gap is a problem Help students to pay attention to the salaries associated with college majors and occupations Support new legislation to modernize and strengthen federal equal pay laws Graduating to a Pay Gap, AAUW

18 Carolyn Zachry, Ed.D. Education Programs Consultant Career Technical Education Administration and Management Office California Department of Education

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