1 GenePix Personal 4100A MICROARRAY SCANNER User s Guide Part Number Rev E August 2005 Printed in USA Copyright 2005 Axon Instruments / Molecular Devices Corp. No part of this manual may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, microfilming, recording, or otherwise, without written permission from Axon Instruments / Molecular Devices Corp. QUESTIONS? See Axon's Knowledge Base:
3 i Please read!!!!! SAFETY There are important safety issues that you must take into account when using this instrument. Please carefully read the safety warnings starting on page 29 before you use this instrument. WARNING If this equipment is used in a manner not specified by the manufacturer, the protection provided by the equipment may be impaired. DISCLAIMER This equipment is not intended to be used, and should not be used, in human experimentation or applied to humans in any way. COPYRIGHT The information in this Guide is copyrighted and must not be reproduced in any form whatsoever without written permission from Axon Instruments / Molecular Devices Corp. VERIFICATION This instrument is extensively tested and thoroughly calibrated before leaving the factory. Nevertheless, researchers should independently verify the basic accuracy of the instrument using suitable test samples. Warning, Disclaimer, Copyright, Verification
5 Table of Contents iii Table of Contents Chapter 1 Introduction... 1 Chapter 2 Installation... 3 Computer Requirements... 3 Preparing to Install your GenePix Scanner... 3 Quick Overview of Hardware and Software Installation... 4 Installing the SCSI Card... 5 Installing the GenePix Pro Software... 6 Connecting the GenePix Scanner to the Computer... 6 Windows 2000 and Windows XP... 7 Connecting the Security Key (Dongle)... 7 Starting GenePix Pro... 8 Troubleshooting Installation... 9 SCSI Card Installation Problems... 9 Chapter 3 Operation Inserting a Slide Proper Use of Slide Holder Functional Checkout Moving or Shipping the Scanner Chapter 4 Imaging System Hardware Discussion of Hardware Components Optics Mechanical Table of Contents
6 iv Table of Contents Electronic Performance Factors Spatial Resolution Dynamic Range and Detection Limit Specifications Technical Assistance Important Safety Information Declaration of Conformity Warranty and Service Licensing Notice Index GenePix 4100A User's Guide, Copyright 2005 Axon Instruments / Molecular Devices, Corp.
7 Introduction 1 Chapter 1 Introduction About This User s Guide This User s Guide focuses on the technical and theoretical aspects of the GenePix Personal 4100A hardware. We recommend that you use this Guide in conjunction with the GenePix Pro Software User s Guide, and the on-line Help within GenePix Pro (press <F1>). Chapter 1
8 2 Introduction GenePix Personal 4100A Features Axon Instruments has consulted widely among the scientific pioneers of microarray techniques to produce an instrument that fulfills all their image acquisition and primary analysis needs. The GenePix Personal 4100A scanner has the same high-performance quantitative imaging as the benchmark GenePix 4000B scanner. Key features of the 4100A are: Scans microarray slides sequentially at up to two wavelengths. Has precisely controlled laser temperature and pixel-by-pixel laser correction to compensate for normal variation in laser intensity. Uses 16-bit digitization. Has a dynamic detection range of four orders of magnitude. Has two standard filters, and capacity for up to six custom filters. Includes line-averaging mode for enhanced signal-to-noise ratio. Offers two scanning modes: Preview Scan at 40-µm resolution and Data Scan at 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100-µm resolutions. Full integration with GenePix Pro software. GenePix 4100A User's Guide, Copyright 2005 Axon Instruments / Molecular Devices, Corp.
9 Installation 3 Chapter 2 Installation Computer Requirements Please refer to the Axon Instruments website (www.axon.com) for up-to-date information. Should you choose to purchase your own computer, Axon recommends that due consideration be made for the selection of a quality supplier and/or components. Preparing to Install your GenePix Scanner If you have purchased a GenePix Personal 4100A scanner without the optional host computer please follow all of the instructions below. If you purchased your GenePix scanner with a bundled host computer, the necessary hardware and software are already installed. If so, skip to Connecting the GenePix scanner to the Computer on page 6. Chapter 2
10 4 Installation Quick Overview of Hardware and Software Installation For users who require a minimal level of detail, the following outlines the steps necessary to install GenePix hardware and software. Detailed instructions follow immediately after. Caution: If you do not follow the instructions in the order specified below you may damage your instrument. Important: Initially, do not attach the GenePix scanner to your computer. If you have purchased a GenePix scanner without the optional host computer: 1. Install the SCSI card. 2. Turn on the computer. 3. Install GenePix Pro. For all users: 4. Shut down the computer. 5. Attach the GenePix scanner to the computer with the SCSI cable. 6. Attach the power cord to the GenePix scanner. 7. Turn on the GenePix scanner. 8. Attach the security key (dongle) to the USB or parallel port of your computer. 9. Turn on the computer. 10. Windows will automatically find the scanner and install the appropriate driver. 11. Start GenePix Pro using the GenePix Pro icon on the desktop. 12. Start scanning! GenePix 4100A User's Guide, Copyright 2005 Axon Instruments / Molecular Devices, Corp.
11 Installation 5 Installing the SCSI Card Included with your GenePix scanner is a SCSI card for your host computer. This card is used to transfer data and instructions between the host computer and the GenePix hardware. The SCSI card that is included with your GenePix scanner is a PCI-based Plug-n- Play card that will install easily on most computers. We recommend that you use the included SCSI card. To install the SCSI card: 1. The computer must have an available PCI slot. 2. Turn off computer and unplug the power cord. Remove the computer cover according to the computer manufacturer s instructions. 3. Remove the AdvanSys SCSI card from bag; do not touch the metal traces or contacts, and carefully insert into the open PCI slot. Do not force into place, it should go in with a gentle push. Screw the endplate to the chassis. 4. Replace computer cover, plug in power cord and turn on the computer. Do not connect your GenePix scanner yet. 5. Plug-n-Play operating systems such as Window 2000 and Windows XP will automatically recognize the Advansys SCSI card and install the correct driver. For additional information, please refer to the manufacturer s instructions included with the card. If you already have a SCSI card installed on your host computer and do not want to replace it with the included SCSI card, you must verify that it is SCSI-2 and Win- ASPI compliant. You must also ensure that you have the proper cabling to connect the SCSI card to the GenePix scanner. While it is possible that an existing SCSI card may work with the GenePix scanner, technical support is provided only for the SCSI card that is bundled with the GenePix scanner. Chapter 2
12 6 Installation If you are using the GenePix scanner on a computer with multiple SCSI devices please ensure that there are no SCSI ID conflicts. At the factory, the GenePix scanner SCSI ID is set to 4, permanently. If there is more than one SCSI device attached on the same SCSI bus, either the ID of the conflicting device must be changed or the device must be removed. Installing the GenePix Pro Software First, to be able to install GenePix Pro under Windows 2000 or Windows XP, a user must be logged on as the Administrator. The latest version of the GenePix Pro software is on the included CD-ROM. Simply insert the CD-ROM into your computer and the installation program automatically starts. If the installation program does not start automatically, perhaps because you have the autorun feature of Windows disabled, you can manually start the installation by running the Setup.exe program file on the CD-ROM. This file is found in the GenePix subdirectory on the CD-ROM. When the installer has finished, you will be given the choice of restarting or shutting down your computer. Select the Yes, I want to shut down my computer now and install the hardware option. Once your computer has shut down, proceed below to Connecting the GenePix scanner to the Computer. Connecting the GenePix Scanner to the Computer Caution: Failure to follow these instructions in the correct order can lead to damage to your instrument. Before connecting the GenePix scanner to your computer, please ensure that both your computer and GenePix scanner are turned off. Once the computer has been turned off, connect the 50-pin SCSI cable between the SCSI card of your computer GenePix 4100A User's Guide, Copyright 2005 Axon Instruments / Molecular Devices, Corp.
13 Installation 7 and the GenePix hardware. The SCSI connector and power connector are located at the back of the GenePix scanner. Once the SCSI connection has been made, check that the power is turned off, and then connect the power cord to your GenePix scanner. First turn on your GenePix scanner, and then turn on your computer. Windows 2000 and Windows XP If the connections have been made correctly, when you restart your computer Windows will show a message that indicates that New Hardware has been detected. Windows will automatically install the necessary driver for the GenePix scanner. If Windows does not automatically find the driver, you can manually select the driver using the Add New Hardware Wizard. This wizard starts any time a new Plug-n-Play device is detected. Working through the wizard, select the option to Search for the best driver for your device. Press Next. Select the CD-ROM as one of the locations to search for the driver. Press Next. Windows will now find the correct driver for the GenePix scanner. If you are connecting the GenePix scanner to a computer that was purchased with the GenePix scanner, the driver is already installed. Connecting the Security Key (Dongle) The GenePix Pro software requires a security key to operate. If the key is absent you will be able to open images in GenePix Pro, but you will not be able to save your settings files or save your analysis results. In addition, you can analyze only 1000 features without a key. To install the GenePix Pro key, please consult the instructions in the GenePix Pro manual. Chapter 2
14 8 Installation Starting GenePix Pro After the successful installation of the software, you will find the entry Axon Laboratory / GenePix Pro in your list of Programs in the Start menu, containing a variety of GenePix Pro program icons. There are GenePix Pro, and GenePix Pro (Analysis Only) entries in your Axon Laboratory group, and a shortcut icon to GenePix Pro on your desktop. Both the GenePix Pro and GenePix Pro (Analysis Only) icons will start GenePix Pro. The only difference between the two is that the Analysis Only version does not interact with the scanner hardware in any way. All the image and data analysis functionality is fully usable in both versions. Even if you are connected to a scanner, if you are just analyzing data and are not doing any image acquisition then you should typically use the Analysis Only version, as the instrument is inactive in this mode and hence laser lifetime will be extended. For image acquisition, select GenePix Pro. After the software has completed loading and the scanner has successfully initialized, you will see a message in the bottom left corner of the software that indicates Eject position the slide may be removed. This message indicates that the GenePix scanner has been initialized and you can insert your first slide! Note: A user must belong to the Administrator or Power User group (also known as Standard user ) in order to run Internet Explorer (IE) scripts from the Reports Tab in GenePix Pro. If a user does not have Standard user access, i.e., if they have guest or restricted user access, the Windows environment does not allow such users access to the scripting library required by IE, and therefore will encounter a Library not registered error when running scripts in GenePix Pro. GenePix 4100A User's Guide, Copyright 2005 Axon Instruments / Molecular Devices, Corp.
15 Installation 9 Troubleshooting Installation SCSI Card Installation Problems If you followed the above instructions and still require further assistance on installation of the included SCSI card, contact Technical Support. If you are using a SCSI card that was not provided with your GenePix scanner, you should contact the supplier of that SCSI card for technical support. GenePix Pro automatically detects the GenePix Personal 4100A scanner. If this does not occur please verify the following items: The scanner power was turned on before booting the computer. The SCSI cable between the computer and the scanner is securely connected. The GenePix scanner has power (the green power light at the front of the scanner will be glowing). The SCSI card is properly seated in the computer. The GenePix SCSI ID 4 does not conflict with any other SCSI devices that you may have connected to the same SCSI bus. Chapter 2
17 Operation 11 Chapter 3 Operation Inserting a Slide Standard microscope slides (1" 3"; mm) can be used in GenePix scanners. To scan a slide, first lift the door. The slide holder will move to its forward-most position for loading. Gently lift the tab on the front of the slide holder to raise the top half. With one finger, hold open the adjustment arm on the inside left edge of the slide holder. Insert the slide face down into the slide holder frame with the top edge towards the hinge of the slide holder. The slide should be supported by the three sapphire balls on the frame. A slight flick of the adjustment arm will ensure proper positioning of the slide. Do not push the slide into position. Gently close the slide holder lid until it snaps shut, and close the door. You are now ready to scan your sample. See Image Acquisition in the Tutorial section of the GenePix Pro User s Guide for scanning instructions. Proper Use of Slide Holder The slide holder retracts into the scanner when the scanner door is closed. Opening the door will return the slide holder to the loading position. It takes a few moments to fully eject the slide holder; do not open the slide holder before it has come to a Chapter 3
18 12 Operation complete stop as this can cause misalignment. This type of misuse is evident when scrapes or even paint from the scanner enclosure are found on the slide holder. Misalignment of the slide holder caused by prematurely opening the slide holder while the stage is still in motion can result in deterioration of scanner performance and may require servicing. The slide holder is a precision component designed to ensure proper focusing and field uniformity. Never touch the slide holder while it is moving. Never force the slide holder closed, or apply significant pressure to it for any reason. Do not rub or scratch the sapphire balls. Functional Checkout The Functional Checkout procedure is to help you confirm that your GenePix Personal 4100A microarray scanner is performing according to the specifications set by Axon Instruments, Inc. A similar, but much more detailed procedure was performed at the factory prior to shipping this unit to you. We recommend that you follow the procedure once upon receiving the scanner and then again any time you wish to check the performance of the scanner. The GenePix 4100A microarray scanner has been designed to provide robust, longlived microarray scanning for years of normal use. However, if the images you acquire on the GenePix scanner do not appear correct and if you believe there is a problem with the scanner, it is important to follow these instructions before contacting Technical Support: 1. Start the GenePix Pro software and click the Report tab. 2. Click the Functional Checkout link. 3. Follow the Functional Checkout procedure. GenePix Pro automatically logs hardware performance into the Hardware Diagnostics Report every two hours during operation. GenePix 4100A User's Guide, Copyright 2005 Axon Instruments / Molecular Devices, Corp.
19 Operation 13 Moving or Shipping the Scanner The scanning mechanism must be secured to protect it from damage prior to moving or shipping the scanner. To park the scanner, follow these instructions: a) Go to the Start/Programs/Axon Laboratory/GenePix Pro folder and select GenePix Utilities as shown. b) When it opens you will see the following screen: Select Park Scanner for Shipping Chapter 3
20 14 Operation c) A new pane will pop up that says Parking the scanner, please wait while the slide holder is being parked: d) When the slide holder is parked, a new window will appear stating that the scanner has been parked. Click OK GenePix 4100A User's Guide, Copyright 2005 Axon Instruments / Molecular Devices, Corp.
21 Operation 15 e) Close GenePix Utilities. Your scanner should now be parked. To verify that the scanner has actually been parked, open the door to the scanner and check that the slide holder is all the way to the back as shown below. Parked Scanner Unparked Scanner Once the scanner is parked, tape the slide door closed. The scanner can now be turned off for moving or shipping. Once parked, do not open up the GenePix Pro software or power cycle the scanner. Either of these actions will automatically unpark the scanner. The scanner is now ready to be moved. If you are planning on shipping the scanner, we also recommend the following: a) Wrap the scanner in a plastic bag for protection. b) Ship the scanner in its original packaging. If you have insufficient packaging material it can be ordered from Axon for a nominal charge. The Axon packaging materials have been tested and shown to provide suitable protection for Axon scanners. To unpark the scanner when you are ready to use it again, simply power it on and open GenePix Pro as you would normally do to begin scanning. The scanner will automatically unpark when powered up. Chapter 3
23 Imaging System Hardware 17 Chapter 4 Imaging System Hardware The GenePix Personal 4100A scanner is one of the most sensitive scanners currently available. This chapter introduces some of the fundamental hardware concepts needed to understand the operation of the GenePix scanner. Discussion of Hardware Components When discussing the hardware components of the GenePix scanner it is convenient to reduce the system to its optical, mechanical and electrical components. Optics Fundamentally, the GenePix scanner uses a laser-excitation-based fluorescence scanning and imaging system. The optical system can be considered in terms of excitation light, mirrors, lenses, filters and photodetection. The optical lens is located beneath the slideholder, therefore the specimen must be placed feature-side-down into the slide holder. GenePix Pro software automatically displays the image as if you were viewing the specimen from the top view; i.e., the upper-left corner of the slide is also the upper-left corner in the acquired image. Chapter 4
24 18 Imaging System Hardware Excitation In the GenePix scanner, laser excitation is provided by individual 635 nm and 532 nm lasers. These wavelengths correspond to the wavelengths used to excite the fluorophores Cy3 and Cy5 (Amersham Biosciences) respectively, which are currently the most widely used fluorescent dyes for microarray imaging. The individual lasers have been selected because of their superior optical performance and reliability. Since the performance of such lasers is often sensitive to external temperature fluctuations, the GenePix scanner uses an active temperature stabilization design to minimize temperature-based laser fluctuations. Furthermore, each laser has a feedback system to compensate for normal variations in laser intensity. Laser excitation sources are often used in scanning systems instead of conventional wide-band white light sources such as a xenon or mercury light source. The reasons for this are quite simple: conventional wide-band light sources do not deliver high enough photon density at the appropriate wavelength to a sample in a scanning system. In addition, it is often difficult to use optical filters to obtain spectrally pure, narrow-band excitation light, which is essential for having an optimal depth of field. Optical Path Excitation laser light is directed onto the slide after passing through a series of filters and mirrors. While laser light is by definition very narrow band, the GenePix scanner employs additional optical filters to ensure that no spurious excitation light is directed onto the slide. If the laser light impinges on an appropriate fluorophore bound on the slide, emission light of a longer wavelength is emitted (the difference between the emission and excitation wavelengths is called the Stokes shift). These emission photons are directed back through the optical system where they pass through another set of bandpass filters (see Emission filters ) before reaching the photodetector. GenePix 4100A User's Guide, Copyright 2005 Axon Instruments / Molecular Devices, Corp.
25 Imaging System Hardware 19 Emission Filters Light from the slide is filtered before reaching the photodetectors, to ensure that as far as possible, the detectors measure only emission photons from the appropriate fluorescent dye. The filter s window is matched as closely as possible to the peak emission spectrum of the selected dye to maximize acceptance of the desired emission light and at the same time exclude stray laser excitation light, and light emitted by non-target fluorescence (autofluorescence, reagent background etc.). The GenePix scanner comes with two emission filters installed; one optimized for the emission spectrum of the dye Cy5, and the other optimized for Cy3. The factory-installed Cy5 ( red ) filter is classified as 670DF40 meaning a Discriminating Filter, with pass-band centered on a wavelength of 670 nm, and full bandwidth of 40 nm. This is ideal for selecting the emission photons of the red dye Cy5, which has an emission spectrum centered on 667 nm, and excluding light from the 635 nm laser and the Cy3 dye. Likewise, the Cy3 ( green ) filter is classified as 575DF35. The spectra for the emission filters in the GenePix scanner have very sharp cut-on and cut-off wavelengths, so the transmission coefficient is close to 1 within the entire specified band, and close to zero outside it. You might have purchased additional filters for your scanner particularly if you use dyes with emission spectra different from Cy3 and Cy5. The GenePix Personal 4100A scanner has capacity for six custom filters in addition to the standard factory filters. If you decide to use different dye and/or filter combinations, it is important to match the optical characteristics of filter, dye, and laser. The pass-band of the filter should be centered as close as possible to the emission peak of the chosen dye, and must be narrow enough to exclude light from the laser, other dyes, etc., but not so narrow that too many emission photons are excluded, otherwise sensitivity will be lost. Photodetection The GenePix 4100A uses a high-sensitivity, low-noise photo multiplier tube (PMT) to detect the emitted fluorescent light. PMTs are optical Chapter 4
26 20 Imaging System Hardware components that convert incident photons into electrons via the photoelectric effect. When an incident photon impinges on the active surface of the PMT (the photocathode), an electron is generated. This electron flows through a series of electron multipliers (dynodes) to the anode. The amount of current that flows from the anode is directly proportional to the amount of incident light at the photocathode. The amount of amplification that a PMT can produce depends on the number of dynodes in the PMT, and the voltage that is applied to the PMT. With PMTs it is possible to achieve a signal amplification of When you increase the PMT gain setting in the GenePix Pro software, you are increasing the signal amplification of the PMT. Note: It is important to realize that when you increase the voltage of the system, you are also increasing the sensitivity to non-specific fluorescence, as well as increasing the electronic noise in the system. The increase in noise can often be overcome by line averaging but the cost is decreased acquisition speed and increased photobleaching. In general, the signal-tonoise ratio is not improved by increasing the PMT voltage. The output of a PMT is typically linear over a wide range of incident light intensities. However, there is a very non-linear relationship between the voltage of the PMT and the PMT output. Therefore, a slide scanned at a PMT voltage of 800 V will not be twice as bright as the same slide scanned at 400 V. The PMT in the GenePix scanner meets two essential criteria for highquality imaging. First, since different photocathodes have varying sensitivities to specific wavelengths of light (quantum efficiency), the PMT has been chosen for the typical wavelengths of fluorescence emission light produced by arrays. Second, the PMT has been further selected for its reliability and optimal signal-to-noise performance. GenePix 4100A User's Guide, Copyright 2005 Axon Instruments / Molecular Devices, Corp.
27 Imaging System Hardware 21 Signal amplification by the PMT is controlled by adjusting the PMT gain in the Hardware Settings dialog box. The PMT gain is related to the PMT voltage by a calibration constant such that: PMT gain = PMT voltage / calibration constant The calibration constant is derived by performing the system calibration in Hardware Diagnostics and will ensure that the scanner performance is matched to other calibrated scanners and is self-consistent over time. For an uncalibrated scanner the constant will be Mechanical The GenePix scanner is a mechanical device. Its laser-based scanning system uses a patented mechanical design. The GenePix scanner operates by slowly scanning the slide in the y-direction, and rapidly scanning in the x-direction. The design of the GenePix Personal 4100A scanner allows a dual wavelength scan of a 26 mm 76 mm slide at 5-µm resolution in about 25 minutes. When using such a mechanical device, one must be able to monitor the variability in the performance of its mechanical components. The GenePix scanner has been designed with a number of optimizations to ensure that variability in the mechanical performance is monitored in real time during acquisition, and corrected. The utmost attention has been given to selecting and implementing components to create a highly reliable, high-performance instrument. Electronic While the optical components of the GenePix scanner are indispensable for generating the electrical current from PMT, the electronic components are just as important. They govern the operation of the PMT and the conversion of its analog current signals into a digital signal that can be processed by the host computer. Axon Instruments is the world leader in the design and construction of low-noise amplifiers. Our amplifiers are used around the world by researchers in the Chapter 4
28 22 Imaging System Hardware neuroscience community. We have over 20 years of expertise creating low-noise amplifiers and high-performance computer hardware to digitize these signals. Our expertise in this area has been applied to the GenePix scanner. Integrated with the GenePix scanner is not only our high-performance analog-digital converter, but also the experience and knowledge to create low-noise, high-performance amplifiers. We have employed a unique design to ensure that the PMT in the GenePix scanner is linear over a wide dynamic range, and that the signal-to-noise level exceeds all other currently available microarray scanners. Performance Factors Spatial Resolution The GenePix Personal 4100A is a scanning instrument. This means that a single beam of light is rapidly scanned across the microarray, and a composite pixilated image is created from the digitized signals from the PMT. The spatial resolution of the system refers to the size of the pixel. It determines the minimum distance that can be distinguished between two points of light. In the GenePix scanner, the highest spatial resolution is 5 microns. It is possible to change the resolution of Data Scans by changing the pixel size setting in the Hardware Settings dialog of the GenePix Pro software. It is important to note that this does not change the size of the scanning beam. The GenePix scanner implements changes in resolution by increasing the y-direction step size and averaging the x-direction samples over multiples of 5-µm spots. For example, to change the pixel size from 5 µm to 10 µm the instrument only scans every second x-direction line (by increasing each y-direction step from 5 to 10 µm consequently a 10-µm scan is twice as fast as a scan at 5-µm) and outputs the average of each adjacent pair of 5-µm spots in the x-direction as the value of a single 10-µm pixel. Similarly, a scan at 20-µm pixel size is implemented by scanning every fourth x-direction line (and so is four times faster than at 5 µm) and GenePix 4100A User's Guide, Copyright 2005 Axon Instruments / Molecular Devices, Corp.
29 Imaging System Hardware 23 using the average of four contiguous 5-µm spots on each x-direction line as the value of a 20-µm pixel. Data Scan pixel size can be increased beyond 20 µm in increments of 20 µm, but the scanning pattern (and therefore scan duration) remains the same. Every fourth x-direction line is scanned and the spots within the larger pixel size are averaged. For example, a 60-µm data scan will average the values of thirty-six 5-µm spots (three x-direction lines contribute twelve 5-µm spots each) to calculate the value for each 60-µm pixel. This is illustrated schematically in the figure below. Changing the resolution of a Data Scan may often be useful if you have large features and you do not need to scan at maximum resolution. As you decrease the resolution, you will decrease the final image size (in megabytes). However, keep in mind that you need to acquire enough pixels for each feature in order to make accurate measurements. For a Preview Scan, the same 5-µm spots are scanned. However the y-direction step size is increased to 40 µm, and each 40-µm Preview Scan pixel is an average of eight contiguous 5-µm spots in the x-direction. This speeds image acquisition for balancing the PMT gains while minimizing photobleaching. A) 5-µm Data Scan B) 10-µm Data Scan C) 20-µm Data Scan Chapter 4
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