Chapter 1 Introducing Sport and Exercise Psychology

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1 Chapter 1 Introducing Sport and Exercise Psychology INTRODUCTION Sport and exercise are complex and involve many sub-disciplines in the sport sciences, including sport and exercise psychology Sport and exercise psychology has made major advances throughout the world as a legitimate scientific and applied discipline and is an important component of the sport sciences in Canada o A core discipline in undergrad kinesiology and phys ed programs THE NATURE OF SPORT AND EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY Some professionals may see sport and exercise psychology more as a sub-discipline of psychology, much like health psychology or abnormal psychology o Sport and exercise psychology is a science in which the principles of psychology are applied in a sport or exercise setting Sport and exercise psychology has been shaped by theoretical and methodological influences of both kinesiology and psychology Academic home of sport and exercise psychology has become increasingly complex since it is recognized within both the Canadian Psychological Association (CPA) and the American Psychological Association (APA) Division 47 Sports and Exercise Psychology: a Multidimensional Perspective Integrate both sport science an psychological knowledge, but it integrates many areas of psychology All areas of psychology are influenced by developments in other academic disciplines, including computer science, sociology, medicine, education, family studies, and women s studies Search for knowledge regarding human challenges goes beyond arbitrary, human-defined, academic boundaries Canadian researchers and practitioners are cognizant of the fact that many human health and wellness challenges require a Transdisciplinary approach Positive Psychology in Sport and Exercise In recent years there has been renewed interest in the field of positive psychology, an area of psychology concerned primarily with understanding what makes normal life more fulfilling Seligman and Csikszentmihalyi suggested that positive psychology can be thought of as an examination of the subjective experience: well-being, satisfaction, fulfillment, pleasure, and happiness Mush of the research in sport and exercise psychology is directed toward enhancing performance, social and physical well-being, and positive emotion Psychologists often work with athletes to improve performance and life satisfaction Peak performance in athletics and exercise is all about psychological, physical, and emotional strength Many studies in sport and exercise psychology research devoted to such key factors as optimistic disposition, flow states, enjoyment, satisfaction, psychological growth, and challenge

2 CAREERS IN SPORT AND EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY Teaching Courses may range from introductory sport and exercise psychology to more specialized courses such as applied sport psychology, mental training, motivational counselling, developmental and lifespan sport and exercise psychology, and behavioural medicine Some sport and exercise psychologists also provide educational services to community and sport organizations Teaching situations may involve increasing the awareness of sport and exercise psychology, teaching basic principles of sport and exercise psychology, helping athletes to develop and use psychological skills to enhance performance, or working with clients to enhance exercise behaviour and well-being Research Primary responsibility of sport and exercise psychology specialists working in universities to advance knowledge Through specialized training, researchers are able to design, conduct, and evaluate many research questions Sport and exercise psychology researchers not only conduct research but also present their findings at conferences and in refereed journals and books Presentations and publications allow scholars to engage in discussions and debates about the strengths and limitations of various theories, methods, and paradigms Consulting Third major role of the sport and exercise psychology specialist is to help individuals, teams, and organizations improve performance, change physical activity behaviour, manage sport and life demands, and enhance personal well-being Specialists providing consulting services might be licensed sport psychologists, other specialists providing services might be individuals who have strong knowledge of educational and psychological skills but who are not formally licensed In Canada, many professional sport teams and national sport organizations employ sport psychology consultants. In US, many major universities have FT consultants, not the case in Canada o Increasing number of Canadian universities to use sport psychology consultants on a limited basis Consultants working in the fitness industry, in rehab settings, and progressively more in the business community In Canada, there are very few individuals who many their living as FT sport and exercise psychology consultants Sport and exercise psychology consultants tend to play 3 general roles o Educational consultants teach psychological skills to facilitate performance, increase exercise, and enhance well-being o Counselling consultants help with developmental concerns, adjustment, and challenges

3 o Clinical psychology consultants assist clients in educational and counselling areas, also have special training in psychopathology Both counselling and clinical psychologists might also provide educational services in physical activity settings TRAINING TO BE A SPORT AND EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY SPECIALIST Training required to be a sport and exercise psychology specialist is source of constant debate Increasing number of students and academics are interested in applied sport and exercise psychology Working in applied settings requires different set of competencies than that required in academic settings What kind of training required? No easy answer! o To large extent, educational training depends on what career path a persona chooses. Multiple career tracks that combine teaching, research, performance enhancement, and the provision of clinical/counselling services o APA provides some guidance on grad training and career possibilities in sport and exercise psychology 2 general training orientations: Sport Science Education, Clinical and Counselling Sport and Exercise Psychology Sport Science Education Most sport and exercise psychology specialists work in university and college settings and thus require strong teaching and research skills o Extensively trained in the sport sciences and in research methods and take additional courses in psychology and/or counselling Trends toward more interdisciplinary training that combines the sport sciences and psychology Wide range of academic programs that provide varied learning experiences are available to students Clinical and Counselling Sport and Exercise Psychology Closely associated fields Clinical psychology training typically focuses on the assessment and rehab of serious psychological dysfunctions Counselling trainings tends to focus more on helping people wit adjustment or development problems o Significant overlap in the training Training is well grounded in psychological theory, assessment, intervention, research methods, and ethics and often requires supervised internship Usually have completed grad courses or supplementary training in the sport sciences Specific training for clinical psychologists is linked to the registration (licensing) standards of individual provincial and territorial regulatory bodies Courses and Programs for Undergraduate Students Earn into either a sport science or psychology grad program often requires very different undergrad coursework

4 Ideally, student should take double major in sport sciences and psychology. Background would allow the greatest flexibility in pursuing grad work o If not possible then the student should combine a major and a minor in an undergrad degree Exact program and courses will be determined by the career path and the entrance requirements of various sport science or psychology (clinical and counselling) programs Hoped that, in the near future, more universities will create opportunities that will allow students greater flexibility to pursue academic programs in both the sport sciences and psychology LICENSING OF SPORT AND EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGISTS Many individuals providing performance enhancement services to athletes are called sport psychologists by the media In Canada, provincial and territorial laws regulate the use of the term psychologist o Laws enacted to protect people from being exploited, possibly by untrained individuals. In most cases, psychologists must complete specific types of educational training and pass examinations set by psychological licensing boards Number of professional who are well trained in sport sciences, exercise motivation counselling, psychology, and performance enhancement techniques, but they are not licensed sport psychologists unless meet exemption criteria, should not call themselves sport and exercise psychologists CPS, Canadian Sport Psychology Association (CSPA), and AASP have been proactive in identifying necessary standards and competencies required for providing sport and exercises psychology services to athletes STANDARDS OF CONDUCT AND PRACTITIONER COMPETENCIES IN SPORT AND EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY Style in which each individual consultant works with an athlete or a team will probably differ considerably form one consultant to another Number of basic standards of conducts and service always apply when a sport and exercise psychology consultant interacts with clients Ethics is concerned with matters of right and wrong as they relate to human behaviour. Also refers to the nature, terms, and parameters of the relationship between the consultant and the client Consultants provide a service, but they must be mindful that this service can be both beneficial and harmful to clients. Consultants have an ethical responsibility to assist athletes and to do no harm o Consultants often find themselves face with situations in which the right course of action is far from clear Number of professional organizations have drawn up codes of ethics, or guidelines, that govern the relationship between a practitioner and a client o 3 of the codes relevant to sport and exercise psychology consultant working in Canada are: Ethics Code AASP Ethical Principles and Standards CSPA Code of Ethics COA Canadian Code of Ethics for Psychologists

5 SPORT AND EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY IN CANADA AND THE UNITED STATES Post WWII expansion of universities in the US had important impact on sport and exercise psychology. Several universities established labs in motor learning and behaviour, seeking to determine how people learned motor skills and how practice and feedback influenced learning Dr. Franklin Henry, faculty member at University of California, Berkeley, became strong advocate of scholarly and scientific approach to physical education studies. 2 graduates of Dr. Henry s lab became prominent pioneering sport psychology researchers in Canada Sport psychology began to grow in Canada and the US during the 1960s and 1970s o Limited specialization in exercise psychology Teaching of sport psychology courses became widespread, and grad training programs began to appear in major universities In Canada, Dr. Rikk Alderman (U of Alberta) developed the first PhD program considered one of the modern parents of sport and exercise psychology in Canada 2 major scholarly professional organizations established in US and Canada o North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity (NASPSPA) formed in 1967 reflected close ties between training of specialists in motor learning and in sport psychology in 1960s. Focused on improving quality of research and teaching in psychology of sport, motor development, and motor learning and control o Canadian Society for Psychomotor Learning and Sport Psychology (SCAPPS) had its beginning in 1969, but founded in 1977 main objectives similar to those of NASPSPA, with primary focus on research In late 1970s and 1980s were periods of consolidation in sport psychology as it separated from its motor learning parentage Many universities had specialists in sport psychology, more grad programs established, and quality research flourished In US, Olympic Committee developed a sport psychology advisory board around 1980, organized a sport psychology registry, and hired a FT sport psychologist in s witnessed growth of exercise psychology in Psychology to bring together psychologists interested in this area In Canada, sport psychology practices were included in National Coaching Certification Program (NCCP) 3 prominent sport psychology journals established o Journal of Sport Psychology (1979), The Sport Psychologist (1986), Journal of Applied Sport Psychology (1989) Key event was formation of the Association for the Advancement of Applied Sport Psychology (AAASP), then dropped the Advancement to become AASP largest organization devoted to promotion of applied sport (and exercise) psychology Since 1990s, been tremendous growth in sport and exercise psychology in North America

6 Practitioners are also working with major organizations to provide sport organizations and athletes with better access to certified mental or psychological skills consultants SPORT AND EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY AROUND THE WORLD Sport and exercise psychology is the best developed in the wealthiest economic regions such as North America, Europe, the UK, Australia, and Japan Former Soviet Union boasted one of the first sport psychology programs in the world o Around 1919, Institute for the Study of Sport and Physical Culture was established developed systematic approach to the application of sport sciences In the rest of Europe there was little significant support for and development of sport psychology before 1960 o 2 major events happened in 1960s that played significant roles in establishment of sport psychology First, World Congress Sport Psychology held in Rome in 1965 led to formation of the International Society of Sport Psychology (ISSP) Second, the European Federation of Sport Psychology/Federation Europeenne de Psychologie des Sports et des Activites Corporelles (FEPSAC) Unfortunately, academic and professional development has been slow in many poorer areas of the world (e.g. Africa, and Central America). Sport and exercise psychology organizations are working with dedicated professionals in these regions to improve educational and professional opportunities in sport and exercise psychology PREDICTED TRENDS AND ISSUES IN CANADA Increased Specialization and Diversification Federal and provincial/territorial health initiatives and policies, combined with knowledge development, will drive increased specialization and diversification There will be continued expansion of sport and exercise psychology principles in clinical settings, e.g. study and treatment of cancer, stroke, spinal cord injuries, and Parkinson s disease Increased Research and Teaching Opportunities Most Canadian universities and colleges offer sport and exercise psychology courses Number and types of courses will continue to grow at both the undergrad and grad level. Research opportunities will increase as major funding agencies Recognize the quality and applicability of sport and exercise psychology research Increased Demands for Training in Clinical and Counselling Psychology Students will demand and require counselling training and possibly clinical psychology training. Canadian, and US, universities have been slow to respond to this demand Kinesiology and exercise science programs largely focus on research and teaching, and few psychology departments offer sport and exercise psychology programs

7 Leaves students with 2 choices o First, students in kin programs can supplement their training by making appropriate counselling opportunity available for supervised internships in applied sport and exercise psychology o Second, students can do a grad degree in clinical or counselling psychology Interdepartmental Collaboration in Teaching, Research, and Practice As field of sport and exercise psychology expands, there will be need for faculty to collaborate across departments of sport science, psychology, education, public health, and rehab sciences Major challenge, however, is determining the necessary requisite courses and experiences for specific careers at undergrad and grad levels Ethics and Competencies Will be increased pressure on practitioners to adhere to professional standards of conduct when working with clients Regulatory bodies likely to become more vigilant in monitoring the use of the title sport psychologist or exercise psychologist as well as the practices of sport and exercise psychology consultants Will need to acquire and demonstrate competencies to work with specific populations in sport and exercise Working in Performance Enhancement Teams Beginning to be an increased demand for applied sport and exercise psychology services by national and provincial sport organizations Sport psychology consultants are asked to be accountable for the effectiveness of their services: consultants must find a way to measure the effectiveness of their consulting Second demand is for the consultants to work in collaboration with other sport science professional, including biomechanists, nutritionists, and physiologists Online Consulting and Service Provision Attempts to service more athletes and exercisers, particularly those outside of urban centers, there is growing trend toward online consultation and service provision Must be especially vigilant that what they want to communicate is being received correctly, that they adhere to an ethical code, that they are not misrepresenting their competencies, and, most importantly, that the privacy and confidentiality of the client are being upheld Consulting with Athletes and Exercisers with Disabilities Government health initiatives are on the rise as activity levels of Canadians continue to decline and obesity rates increase Will be increased demand on sport and exercise psychologists to involve individuals with disabilities in sport and exercise programs in order to improve overall health Profile of the Paralympics, both in Canada and on the world stage, is rapidly increasing now held immediately following Olympic Games Will likely result in increased government funding, sponsorship, and demand for sport psychology services Knowledge Translation

8 Critical need to bridge the gap between research evidence and professional practice in sport and exercise psychology. Knowledge must be accessible, understandable, and useful for practitioners such as applied sport psychologists, physical educators, coaches, rehab specialists, and fitness specialists Partnership among researchers, educators, and practitioners are required

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