Voice over IP. Sieťové architektúry 2013 Matúš Pleva

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1 Voice over IP Sieťové architektúry 2013 Matúš Pleva

2 Definícia VoIP Voice over Internet Protocol, tiež nazývané VoIP, IP Telefónia, Internetová telefónia, je duplexný prenos komunikácie uskutočňovanej ľudským hlasom cez Internet alebo inú sieť založenú na protokole IP. Protokoly používané na prenos hlasových signálov cez IP sieť = VoIP protokoly Základ - Network Voice Protocol (1973) navrhnutého pre sieť ARPANET

3 Výhody VoIP Prichádzajúce telefónne hovory môžu byť automaticky smerované na VoIP telefón, nezávisle na tom, kde sa nachádzate. Je k dispozícii bezplatne použiteľné telefónne číslo (pre príchodzie hovory). Pracovníci call centier môžu pri použití VoIP pracovať z ľubovoľného miesta, kde je k dispozícii dostatočne stabilné internetové pripojenie. VoIP telefóny dokážu spájať viacero služieb dostupných cez Internet vrátane videokonferencií, prenosu dát popri hovore, správy telefónnych a adresových zoznamov a oznamovania online dostupnosti zvolených komunikačných partnerov.

4 Spôsoby spojenia VoIP ATA analógový terminálový adaptér IP Phone môže byť integrovaný v rôznych zariadeniach (mobil/tv/tablet,pc,...)

5 VoIP Protokoly Dva najhlavnejšie súperiace štandardy pre VoIP sú Session Initiation Protocol (SIP), vyvinutý pod hlavičkou organizácie IETF, a štandard ITU s označením H.323. Na počiatku bol populárnejším H.323, čo je štandard vychádzajúci z telekomunikačného prostredia, v súčasnosti je už v popredí SIP, IAX (Inter Asterisk exchange), MGCP, H.248 (Megaco) a uzavreté protokoly ako Skype, Google Talk, MSN (MS kúpil Skype a MSN dal do útlmu), Yahoo...

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12 Voice codecs 64kbit PCM? 8Bit 8kHz 12 bit sampling compressed to 8bit using A-law Miroslav Voznak VŠB Ostrava lectures pdf

13 Miroslav Voznak VŠB Ostrava lectures pdf

14 SIP The SIP (Session Initiation Protocol) is a text-based protocol, similar to the HTTP and SMTP, designed for initiating, maintaining and terminating of interactive communication sessions between users. Such sessions include voice, video, chat, interactive games, and virtual reality. Adress:

15 The SIP defines and uses the following components: UAC (User agent client) client in the terminal that initiates SIP signalling UAS (User agent server) server in the terminal that responds to the SIP signalling from the UAC UA (User Agent) SIP network terminal (SIP telephones, or gateway to other networks), contains UAC and UAS Proxy server receives connection requests from the UA and transfers them to another proxy server if the particular station is not in its administration Redirect server receives connection requests and sends them back to the requester including destination data instead of sending them to the calling party Location Server receives registration requests from the UA and updates the terminal database with them.

16 All server sections (Proxy, Redirect, Location) are typically available on a single physical machine called proxy server, which is responsible for client database maintenance, connection establishing, maintenance and termination, and call directing. Basic messages sent in the SIP environment: INVITE connection establishing request ACK acknowledgement of INVITE by the final message receiver BYE connection termination CANCEL termination of non-established connection REGISTER UA registration in SIP proxy OPTIONS inquiry of server options

17 Answers to SIP messages are in the digital format like in the http protocol. Here are the most important ones: 1XX information messages (100 trying, 180 ringing, 183 progress) 2XX successful request completion (200 OK) 3XX call forwarding, the inquiry should be directed elsewhere (302 temporarily moved, 305 use proxy) 4XX error (403 forbidden) 5XX server error (500 Server Internal Error, 501 not implemented) 6XX global failure (606 Not Acceptable)

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19 H.323 vytvorený pre mediálnu komunikáciu (videokonferencie a pod), robustný dokáže reagovať na chyby sieťových zariadení na transport dát využíva RTP/RTCP, SRTP na vytvorenie spojenia využíva UDP SIP vytvára relácie medzi dvoma bodmi neodstraňuje poruchy sieť. zar. na transport dát využíva RTP/RTCP, SRTP na vytvorenie spojenia využíva UDP podporuje kodeky registrované v IANA

20 STUN Session Traversal Utilities for NAT

21 STUN Simple Traversal of UDP through NATs (STUN), is a network protocol allowing a client behind a NAT (Network Address Translator) to find out its public address, the type of NAT it is behind and the internet-side port associated by the NAT with a particular local port. This information is used to set up UDP (User Datagram Protocol) communication between two hosts that are both behind NAT routers. The protocol is defined in RFC 3489.

22 IAX IAX2 is a VoIP protocol that usually carries both signalling and data on the same path. The commands and parameters are sent binary and any extension has to have a new numeric code allocated. Historically this was modeled after the internal data passing of Asterisk modules

23 IAX IAX2 uses a single UDP data stream (usually on port 4569) to communicate between endpoints, both for signaling and data. The voice traffic is transmitted inband, making IAX2 easier to firewall and more likely to work behind network address translation. This is in contrast to SIP, H.323 and Media Gateway Control Protocol which are using an out-of-band RTP stream to deliver information.

24 IAX IAX2 supports trunking, multiplexing channels over a single link. When trunking, data from multiple calls are merged into a single set of packets, meaning that one IP datagram can deliver information for more than one call, reducing the effective IP overhead without creating additional latency. This is a big advantage for VoIP users, where IP headers are large percentage of the bandwidth usage.

25 SIP vs IAX ports IAX uses only one port (4569) to send signalling and data of all the calls. To do it IAX use a trunking system. IAX multiplexes signaling and multiple media streams over a single User Datagram Protocol (UDP). SIP, otherwise, uses one port (5060) for signalling and 2 RTP ports for each audio connection (at least 3 ports). For example, if we have 100 simultaneous calls we should use 200 RTP ports and one port for signalling (5060). IAX uses only one port for everything (4569)

26 SIP vs IAX BW If SIP is using a server signaling messages always pass through the server but audio messages (RTP flow) can travel end to end without passing through the server. In IAX, signaling and data must pass always through IAX server. This increases the bandwidth need by the IAX servers when there are many simultaneous calls.

27 Voice over ATM

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32 VoIP na TUKE

33 Zdroje cisco.netacad.net - J. Peterka wikipedia.org Vlastný rozum

34 VPN Virtual Private Network organizácie zvyšovanie možností rozsahu siete (dosahu, zahraničie aj súkromní provideri) znižovanie finančných nákladov umožnujú bezpečné videokonferencie, zdieľanie súborov,... spôsob komunikácie vytvorenie komunikačného tunela medzi koncovými užívateľmi prostredníctvom verejnej (internet) alebo privátnej siete (intranet) výhody VPN: finančné úspora výdajov na prenajaté linky úspora výdajov na telefónne spojenia iné finančné úspory (zariadenia,...)

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36 VPN - rozšíriteľnosť rozšíriteľnosť VPN: realizácia vlastého prenajatého sieťového priestoru môže byť rentabilná v prípadoch, ak ide o malé siete (pr. Prepojenie dvoch pobočiek) v prípade 4 pobočiek bybolo nutné prepojiť ich 6 cestami (6 pobočiek = 15 ciest, atď. ) VPN využívajú prepojenie prostredeníctvom Internetu => jednoduchá rozšíriteľnosť limity VPN: použitie VPN si vyžaduje znalosť sieťovej bezpečnosti (inštalácia sieťových zariadení, ich konfigurácia na zabezpečenie prístupu do VPN v rámci verejnej siete) spoľahlivosť a pôsobenie Internet-based VPN nie je priamo pod kontrolou, konkrétnej organizácie, ktorá ho využíva, ale zabezpečuje to provider VPN produkty a riešenie kompatibilné s technológiu (štandardom) nemusia byť kompatibilné medzi sebou

37 VPN remote access princíp klient/server komunikácie Vzdialený host (klient) sa prihlási z verejnej siete (Internet) Host iniciuje VPN spojenie s firemným VPN serverom Po úspešnej autentifikácií vytvorené spojenie, pridelená firemná IP a zmenená rútovacia tabuľka podľa firemných pravidiel (špecifické služby rútované cez firemnú sieť firemný /voip/zdieľanie dát, zvyšok môže používať verejnú sieť napr. bežný web) Vzdialený host/klient musí mať nainštalovaný VPN client software Používa aj tuke - https://nastavenia.tuke.sk/vpn/ používa openvpn pre klientov

38 VPN - LAN to LAN Prepojenie lokálnej a vzdialenej LAN aby sa tvárili ako jedna (prepojenie routrov), pripojené zariadenia sa tvária ako keby boli v jednej sieti

39 VPN zdarma a ľahko Hamachi či iná služba, po nainštalovaní umožní že PC pripojený v tej istej virtuálnej miestnosti sa vidia navzájom v rámci lokálnej subsiete

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41 Rozdiel medzi VLAN and VPN A VLAN is a virtual local area network. A VPN is a virtual private network. A VLAN is used on an IOS switch to separate switch ports into separate broadcast domains. A VPN is used to gain private access your network from a remote location through the internet.

42 VLAN rozdelenie zariadení do LAN sietí je ovplyvnené fyzickou lokalizáciou zariadení VLAN siete: rozdelenie zariadení do VLAN sietí by malo zodpovedať pracovným skupinám = zariadenia, ktoré majú spoločné pracovné záujmy neobmedzené fyzickým rozmiestnením zariadení

43 VLAN segments Partitioning a local network into several distinctive segments for e.g. production Voice over IP network management storage area network (SAN) guest network demilitarized zone (DMZ)

44 VLAN VLAN sú rozpoznávané na úrovni linkovej vrstvy podľa MAC adresy alebo obsahu z L3 podľa nálepky - tagu funkciu VLAN definuje: IEEE 802.1Q preferuje nálepky tagging každý rámec je vo svojej VLAN označený nálepkou spracovanie rámca podľa nálepky má prednosť pre iným spracovaním údajov (filtering, forwarding,...)

45 Static VLANs are also referred to as port-based VLANs. Static VLAN assignments are created by assigning ports to a VLAN. As a device enters the network, the device automatically assumes the VLAN of the port. If the user changes ports and needs access to the same VLAN, the network administrator must manually make a port-to- VLAN assignment for the new connection. Dynamic VLANs are created through the use of software. With a VLAN Management Policy Server (VMPS), an administrator can assign switch ports to VLANs dynamically based on information such as the source MAC address of the device connected to the port or the username used to log onto that device. As a device enters the network, the switch queries a database for the VLAN membership of the port that device is connected to.

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