Imperial College Carbon Management Programme

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1 Imperial College Carbon Management Programme (CMP) Page 1

2 Contents Foreword from Rector 4 Foreword from the Carbon Trust 5 Management Summary 6 1 Introduction Carbon Management Programme Our achievements to date Definition of Scope 11 2 Carbon Management Strategy Context and drivers for Carbon Management Our low carbon vision Strategic themes Targets 17 3 Emissions baseline and projections Scope Sources of data Assumptions Baseline Projections and Value at Stake 23 4 Carbon Management Projects Summary of all projects identified Key Carbon reduction projects identified Projects completed in Phase 1 academic year 2009/ Projects in progress 2009/ Projected achievement towards target Further projects to achieve targets Aspirational 2020 target 39 5 financing Assumptions Benefits / savings Financial costs and sources of funding Additional funding required 44 6 Actions to Embed Carbon Management at Imperial Corporate Policy Responsibility Data Management Communication and Awareness Procurement 51 Page 2

3 7 Programme Management of the CM Programme The Programme Board ion planning for key roles Project prioritisation & implementation Ongoing stakeholders management Annual Progress review 57 8 Conclusion 59 Appendix A: Carbon Management Matrix - Embedding 60 Appendix B: Typical costs for carbon reduction projects 61 Appendix C: Definition of Projects 62 Appendix D: Residences Heating Policy 94 Appendix E: Annual Projects Planner 98 Page 3

4 Foreword The College s Carbon Management Programme commits us to a 20% reduction by 2014 in our CO2 emissions across all our activities. It is a key stage towards deeper and more radical cuts required by Hefce and the government of 34% by This commitment underpins in a practical way many of Imperial s research themes around climate change, carbon capture and clean energy and shows us to be leading in the most positive way possible by example. I am proud to endorse this challenging target and to see the College playing its part in reducing the risks of damaging climate change. I hope that Imperial will become a showcase not just for leading research but in demonstrating that low carbon emissions need be no barrier to institutional success. A great deal of work has been undertaken by our Energy Team and our Carbon Management Steering Group in identifying how our carbon footprint is made up and the scope and potential for reduction. The benefits of this programme will be felt not just in terms of global CO2 impact but on reduced energy costs a direct and significant benefit to the College. We at College level will do our best bit in terms of infrastructure and maintenance priorities but in the end we must all play our part in working towards this goal. We will capture ideas and initiatives from the whole College community as we begin to implement this ambitious programme and we shall, of course, report on progress on a regular basis. Sir Keith O Nions Rector Imperial College Page 4

5 Foreword from the Carbon Trust Cutting carbon emissions as part of the fight against climate change should be a key priority for Higher Education Institutions - it's all about getting your own house in order and leading by example. The UK government has identified the university sector as key to delivering carbon reduction across the UK inline with its Kyoto commitments and the Higher Education Carbon Management programme is designed in response to this. It assists universities in saving money on energy and putting it to good use in other areas, whilst making a positive contribution to the environment by lowering their carbon emissions. Imperial College was selected in 2009, amidst strong competition, to take part in this ambitious programme. Imperial College partnered with the Carbon Trust in order to realise substantial carbon and cost savings. This commits the University to a target of reducing CO 2 by 20% by 2014 in absolute terms from a baseline year of 2008/9. If the University takes no action (business as usual or BAU) it will see an increase in emissions and so the reduction target relative to BAU is 30% and this underpins potential financial savings over BAU to the organisation of around 4.3m per year by that date. There are those that can and those that do. Universities can contribute significantly to reducing CO 2 emissions. The Carbon Trust is very proud to support Imperial College in their ongoing implementation of carbon management. Richard Rugg Head of Public Sector, Carbon Trust Page 5

6 Management Summary This (CMP) is the output of Imperial College s participation in Phase V of the Carbon Trust s Higher Education Carbon Management Programme. This initiative is fully supported by Imperial s senior management team as a key means to demonstrate a commitment to reduce carbon emissions. By implementing the CMP, Imperial College will aim to reduce the CO 2 emissions from its buildings, owned fleet, waste and water, by 20% compared to the 2008/9 baseline, by August 2014 and against the business as usual growth (BAU) of the College. The case for action: In addition to the moral imperative to take action to limit the effects of human induced climate change Imperial faces a number of drivers that make the CMP necessary and timely A. Reduce the College s carbon emissions HEFCE requires a sector cut in emissions of 34% against a 2005/6 baseline by 2020 and is linking capital funding to carbon reduction performance B. Safeguard against future legislation Imperial College is captured by the mandatory cap and trade carbon emissions trading scheme starting in April 2010 C. Contain rising costs related to utilities: Currently around 16.9 million for 2008/9 and predicted to rise to around 21.5million by 2013/14 D. Enhance the reputation of Imperial College: Imperial has risen up the Green League from 108 th in 2008 to 62 nd in 2009 and has ambitions to be in the top 10 E. Improve staff and student satisfaction levels. Through ensuring that buildings are operating in an energy efficient manner whilst also meeting comfort levels expected by its users CO2 emissions due to energy use by site 3.6% 6.4% 1.8% 12.7% 0.4% Charing Cross 1.0% 1.3% 3.4% Clayponds Silwood South Kensington Sports Grounds St. Mary's Wye Royal Brompton 69.7% Hammersmith Chelsea & Westminster In 2008/9 Imperial College s carbon footprint resulting from electricity, gas, steam and oil used in its buildings, owned vehicles, waste and water was 84,026 tonnes of CO 2 (tco 2 ) with a financial cost of around 16.9m. This baseline has allowed the College to forecast future emissions and their likely costs in terms of energy bills. Page 6

7 Imperial has set its own CO 2 reduction target which acknowledges the HE Sector target set by HEFCE Imperial College will reduce its carbon emissions from buildings, owned vehicle fleet, water and waste by 20% from the 2008/9 baseline by August 2014 in absolute terms. With an aspirational target of: 34% against the 2008/9 baseline by 2020 Objectives of the Plan To ensure that all our buildings use building services and process technologies efficiently whilst meeting the needs of our users. To deliver long term savings from managing carbon emissions through strategic investment To embed carbon saving into a low carbon culture and as part of the College s Corporate Social Responsibility To further integrate carbon management into College Corporate Procurement To develop the required skills in our graduates and research needed to grow the low carbon economy To raise awareness to staff and students about carbon emissions and cost to run the College The Plan has identified College wide projects that will contribute to reducing carbon emissions. Total validated and quantified emissions savings of 17,443 tco 2 have been identified which equate to a 20.8% reduction against the baseline year 2008/9. However against the business as usual growth in emissions of the College, this represents only a 10.4% reduction by August If no action is taken the level of emissions in 2014 will be 10.4% higher than the baseline year. 100,000 A comparison of the 2008/9 base year carbon footprint, the projected growth of these emissions at 2% BAU growth and the projected carbon reduction opportunities identified in the Plan to achieve a 20% reduction in absolute terms by August ,772 90,000 84,026 80,000 70,000 emissions (tonnes) 60,000 50,000 75,329 67, /9 base year carbon footprint BAU emissions Emissions in Plan CO 40,000 30,000 Target emissions 20,000 10, /9 2009/ / / / /14 With respect to funding, 25.28million worth of investment during the CMP s timeframe is outlined, saving the College around 11.7million by the end of the Plan in The source of this funding along with expected carbon saving is shown below: Page 7

8 current fuel costs ( M) fuel costs incl. inflation ( M) Carbon Savings (tco2) Capital Source Capital ( M) Energy & Environmental Initiatives ,215 Capital Replacement Maintenance Capital Replacement ICT ,735 Unallocated Budget ,524 Engineering Budget Utilities Budget ,443 Further carbon reduction projects, equating to 7,738tCO 2, have been identified through energy audits of College buildings and support from the Carbon Trust and are currently being confirmed and validated by the FM team. The inclusion of these projects into the plan would meet 98.6% of the BAU target (target is 25,551tCO 2 ) at an estimated further cost of 2million and savings of 1.2million. It is understood that any request for funding would need to have a full business case approved by College finance. The remaining 1.4% equates to around 370tCO 2. The average cost to save a tonne of CO 2, after low cost measures have been implemented, is 450 thus potential extra funding required could be around 170k. It is expected that other measures and technologies will present themselves over the 5 years of the plan to achieve the extra 1.4% emissions reduction. The Hammersmith upgrade of the steam network is a project that has been costed at 3million and currently does not have an allocated budget. This measure is required for maintenance at the site and will have associated carbon savings over a 1000tCO 2 per annum. The College may look towards external sources of funding such as Salix Finance for this measure. The Ethos waste pyrolysis and heat recovery system is estimated to cost around 550,000 with carbon savings of around 400tCO 2 per annum and a payback of 3 years. These two schemes are currently included in the Unallocated Budget above. The EEI fund is currently 166k over allocated budget, however, it is felt that this is where extra funding requests would be directed to. Under a Business as Usual scenario, taken as 2% growth, annual emissions could reach 92,772tCO 2 by 2014 costing around 21.5million. Under the target emissions scenario, the 2014 energy costs are predicted to be around 13.4million which equates to a value at stake (BAU minus target cost) of 8million in the final year of the Plan. It should be noted that there is no constant relationship between the level of CO2 emissions and the cost of the energy that is provided for that amount of emission. This is due to the fact that CO2 emission factors and costs per KWh for electricity and gas services are significantly different. The ratio of gas to electricity use by the college changes as we progress through our and this gives rise to cost values indicated on the graph below in 2013/14 not having a common relationship in respect of the cost per tonne of CO2 emitted. Page 8

9 Comparison of the cost of utilities, assuming a 2% pa increase in BAU emissions growth and annual increase in costs expected against the 20% target and the measures identified in the Plan 25,000,000 20,000, m 21.5m 15,000,000 10,000, m 13.4m Actual cost BAU cost Target cost Cost in plan 5,000, /9 2009/ / / / /14 Failure to achieve the required carbon reductions targets will give rise to the following risks: The College s ability to maximise capital funding from HEFCE Cost and reputation with the Carbon Reduction Commitment Energy Efficiency Scheme Exposure to increasing energy costs. A Carbon Management Steering Board has been set up that reports to the Senior Management Team and College Council to ensure the programme is driven through. There will be an annual review to assess the progress of the plan to take account of changes in baseline, achievements in emissions reduction and to take mitigation measures where required. The College aims to embed carbon management through: Senior Management and Academic commitment to CO 2 saving A high profile awareness and communications campaign Carbon Desktop: a web based tool to show carbon and cost profiles for all College buildings A network of carbon champions Clear guidance on heating and cooling policies across its estate Adopting sustainable procurement policies These actions will go towards ensuring that the opportunities identified in the CMP are embedded into the culture of the College. Imperial College aims to become the leading UK academic institution in applied energy efficiency and utility management, demonstrating sound environmental governance and global citizenship, and providing a showcase low carbon heritage estate. Page 9

10 1. Introduction The purpose of this is to present a five year plan to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide by the College in absolute terms by 20% against the baseline year of 2008/9. This represents a reduction of 30% against business as usual (BAU) growth. The plan uses a baseline established for the 2008/9 Academic Year and also predicts the BAU scenario based on the projections of growth going forward over the next 5 years. Our carbon reduction programme will be implemented over the period 2009/10 to 2013/ Carbon Management Programme The College has taken part in the Carbon Trust s Higher Education Carbon Management Programme Phase V along with 11 other Universities. The primary focus is to quantify and reduce emissions associated with the College such as buildings, transport, landfill waste and use of water. Participating Universities benefit from consultant support in the form of workshops and limited dedicated support tailored around the five step process outlined below. This process guides Universities through a systematic analysis of their carbon footprint, the value at stake and the opportunities available to help manage carbon emissions in a strategic manner. Page 10

11 1.2 Our achievements to date Imperial College has one of the largest estates in the UK at 570,326m 2 and due to the nature of its research and teaching in science, medicine and engineering, energy use is intensive. Prior to our involvement in the Carbon Management Programme Imperial College had already been working on carbon reduction including energy management initiatives. Key achievements to date. In 2000 Imperial College installed two 4.4MWe combined heat and power engines (CHP) at its South Kensington Campus last year the College generated over 15 million kwh of low carbon electricity as well as providing heating to the majority of its buildings Over the last 3 years the College has invested over 1.2 million in sub metering at the South Kensington campus. A web enabled application, Carbon Desktop, is under development that will enable a detailed understanding of energy and cost profiles in our buildings Engaged in a process of continuous commissioning or better control of building services. This has, through working with the Academic community during the period Jan 2004 to December 2009 accumulated carbon savings of around 1,894tCO 2 and cost savings to the College of 381,335 Issued a green procurement guide for stationary Working with Sustain and the Mayor s Office to develop local clusters when purchasing raw materials for our Catering operations. This includes developing local sources of supply for all of the food that we purchase to minimise our impact Installed a CO 2 chiller for the data centre which has been nominated for an environmental award for sustainable IT due to its high efficiency All new buildings to be BREAM Good which ensures sustainability standards are met First UK University signed up to reduce construction waste to landfill by 50% by Definition of scope and Higher Education sector performance The World Resources Institute (WRI) developed a classification of emissions sources into three scopes 1 (descriptions of scopes are in the table below). The calculation of the carbon footprint for the College is based on Scope 1, 2 and some Scope 3 emissions and this approach is widely used by the UK Government. This is discussed further in Section 3. The table shows total CO 2 emissions attributable to the HE sector for 1990 and This data is included as it shows the impact of the sector and its growth. 2005/6 is the year that HEFCE require sector targets to be benchmarked against which is discussed further in Section The Greenhouse Gas Protocol A corporate accounting and reporting standard (World Resources Institute 2004) Page 11

12 WRI Scope definitions and HE sector emissions Page 12

13 2. Carbon Management Strategy 2.1 Context and drivers for Carbon Management The main context and drivers for Carbon Management within the College are: a) Reduce the College s carbon emissions b) Safeguard against future legislation c) Contain rising costs related to energy d) Enhance the reputation of Imperial College e) Improve staff and student satisfaction levels a) Reduce the College s carbon emissions If the world continues emitting greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide at today s levels, then average global temperatures could rise by up to 6 C by the end of this century. This is enough to make extreme weather events like floods and drought more frequent and increase global instability, conflict, public health related deaths and migration of people to levels beyond any of our recent experience. The UK emitted about 560 million tonnes CO 2 in The public sector was responsible for about 8% of these emissions, with the Higher Education sector accounting for 2.1 million tonnes. To avoid the most dangerous impacts of climate change, average temperatures must rise by no more than 2 C and that means global emissions must start falling before 2020 and then fall to at least 80% below 1990 levels by b) Safeguard against future legislation The UK is the first country in the world to set legally binding targets. In the 2008 Climate Change Act the Government committed to: a long term carbon reduction target of 80% by 2050 against 1990 levels. an interim target of a 26% reduction by The 2009 budget increased this to 34% by A further increase up to 42% has been recommended by the Committee on Climate Change (CCC). Carbon budgets have been allocated to each Government department to ensure that these reductions are achieved. The Secretary of State for Innovation, Universities and Skills has tasked the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) with implementing these reductions across the sector. Page 13

14 Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) HEFCE has adopted the Government targets as set out above and plans to implement these on a sector wide basis. Further, the Secretary of State for Innovation, Universities and Skills requested in HEFCE's 2009 grant letter that: Institutions will be required to have carbon management plans and performance against these plans will be a factor in capital allocations from HEFCE consulted on the process of how to link funding to carbon reduction and Imperial participated in that consultation. This carbon management plan will go towards fulfilling HEFCE s requirements, but they are likely to request, at some future date, amendments to this plan to incorporate 2005 baseline data as outlined in the requirements below. This carbon management plan is currently related to a baseline year of 2008/09 as this provides the most reliable historic data upon which to measure carbon reduction performance going forward. What are HEFCE requirements? 2 1. A carbon management policy or strategy. 2. A carbon baseline for 2005 that covers all scope 1 and 2 emissions. 3. Carbon reduction targets. These must: cover scope 1 and 2 emissions, although institutions may choose to set additional targets for wider aspects be set against a 2005 baseline. Institutions may choose to set their reductions in context by setting additional targets against an alternative baseline year be set to 2020, because this is the timescale for interim government targets be publicly available 4. An implementation plan to achieve absolute carbon emissions reductions across scopes 1, 2 and 3 including timescales and resources. These may cover capital projects and actions to embed carbon management within the institution, for example, through corporate strategy, communication and training. 5. Clear responsibilities for carbon management 6. A commitment to monitor progress towards targets regularly and to report publicly, annually 7. The carbon management plan and targets must be signed off by the governing body HEFCE will be asking HEI s in June 2010 to confirm they have carbon management plans in place which meet the requirements set out above. 2 Carbon management strategies and plans: A guide to good practice HEFCE January 2010 Page 14

15 Carbon Reduction Commitment Energy Efficiency Scheme (CRC) This is a mandatory Cap & Trade emissions trading scheme for organisations whose total annual electricity bill was greater than 6,000mWh or approximately 500k in If an organisation falls within the CRC scheme criteria, all electricity and fuels are covered. From 2011 onwards, poorly performing organisations will be financially penalised depending on their position in a CRC league table. The College is likely to have to buy carbon credits at a rate of 12 per tonne CO 2 emissions for the first 2 years of the scheme. This is likely to cost the college about 1 million initially (based upon 2008/9 emissions of 84,026 tonnes CO 2 ) with subsequent repayment to the College being in whole or part based upon performance in the league table. Initially (first 2 years) this bonus or penalty will be up to +/- 10% of the payment. However this will rise to +/- 50% by year five of the scheme. Thus there is potentially a maximum of 500k at stake at current prices for credits. This could increase to over 2million if the carbon price were to increase to, say, 50 per tonne. If carbon emissions performance does not improve, this could greatly impact cash flow and present a significant risk to College finances. Display energy certificates As part of the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (2002/91/EC) the College is required to publicly display Display Energy Certificates (DECs)) showing the annual energy consumption of the building. These are graded A to G. The College has 41 buildings which qualify for DECs. Annual renewal is required and improvements in energy efficiency can lead to improvement in grade achieved. The College also makes this information publicly available on its website and this will track the progress of carbon reduction on a building by building basis. As an example, the DEC for the main library is shown adjacent. c) Contain rising costs related to energy Energy costs are another real driver and Imperial, in common with most other Universities, has seen steep rises in gas, electricity and oil prices over the past years that show little sign of abating in the long term. The historic data from Inenco 3 and predicted prices over the duration of this plan (for an intermediate oil price scenario) are shown in the graph below. 3 Inenco procure gas, electricity and water for the College Page 15

16 Inenco historic data plus forecast for oil, coal, power (electricity) and gas prices from 2010 to Inenco are predicting that, by 2015, the average price of electricity will be per MWh and p/th for gas, approaching the prices at the peak in There are therefore clear economic incentives for reducing energy usage and these are being reinforced by the CRC mentioned above and the linking of the Climate Change Levy (a tax on each unit of energy purchased) to inflation. Reducing College energy demand will help to future proof against rising energy costs. d) Enhance the reputation of Imperial College Imperial College is recognised as one of the world s leading Universities for Science, Engineering and Medicine and is host to the Grantham Institute for Climate Change and the Energy Futures Laboratory. Our students and staff expect the College to be at the forefront of research into tackling global climate change issues as well as taking action to reduce our own carbon impact. Increasingly, students are referring to league tables to help choose which university to attend and are including sustainability in their criteria. People and Planet s Green League attempts to measure the commitment of Universities to addressing environmental issues, including carbon reduction. The College has improved its performance from 108 th place in 2008 to 62 nd place in Taking further action to reduce carbon emissions should help to continue to improve upon this position. e) Improve staff and student satisfaction levels Improved control of building heating and cooling systems will result from the implementation of projects contained within this plan. This will reduce energy consumption and lead to a healthier and more comfortable working and study environment, which in turn will increase the levels of efficiency and satisfaction among both staff and students. 2.2 Our low carbon vision Imperial College London is a world-class teaching and research institution providing scientific and technical excellence, innovation and solutions for the global needs of the 21st Century. Best practice in carbon management will become increasingly important in support of this position. Page 16

17 The College aims to become the leading UK academic institution in applied energy efficiency and utility management, demonstrating sound environmental governance and global citizenship, and providing a showcase low carbon heritage estate. 2.3 Strategic themes The College must embed into its DNA, through staff and students, the need to take ownership of its carbon emissions and other environmental impacts. Thus the main strategic themes relate to how those impacts can be addressed: The Colleges strategic objectives in support of these themes are: To raise awareness to staff and students about the carbon emissions and cost to run the College To ensure that all our buildings are using efficient building services and process technologies and that they are matching the needs of our users To deliver long term savings from managing carbon emissions through strategic investment To embed carbon saving into a low carbon culture and as part of the College s Corporate Social Responsibility To further integrate carbon management into College Corporate Procurement To develop the required skills in our graduates and research needed to grow the low carbon economy 2.4 Targets This (CMP) aims to support three current targets: A 5 year absolute reduction target against a baseline academic year To relate the absolute target to the expected Business as Usual growth in emissions forecasted An aspirational medium term emissions reduction target as required by HEFCE Absolute emissions reduction target Imperial College will aim to reduce the CO 2 emissions from its buildings, owned fleet, waste and water, in absolute terms by 20% compared to the 2008/9 baseline, by August Page 17

18 Business as Usual (BAU) target The absolute target above must be viewed in context against the BAU growth in carbon emissions of the College due to its estate, student numbers and income continuing to increase. The BAU growth factor is taken as 2% and is discussed further in Section 3.5. In order to meet our absolute reduction target against the baseline academic year, whilst also taking into account predicted BAU growth over the period of the plan, we will need to make savings in emissions of approximately 30%. This is equivalent to 25,551tCO 2 in year 5 of the plan (2013/14). Aspirational medium term target HEFCE require that a target is set against a 2005 baseline year or in relation to an alternative baseline year. Thus it is proposed that Imperial College use the 2008/9 year as this is considered a more complete set of data. The College, through historic data and HEFCE guidance, will undertake an assessment of its 2005/6 baseline emissions. This will be used to determine the scale of the additional tonnes of carbon savings to be identified for the 2020 target. At this stage, the College is setting an aspirational target of a 34% reduction by 2020 against 2008/9 and realises that there will need to be significant further reduction opportunities identified if this is to be achieved. Therefore, new projects and opportunities will need to be found and the CMP updated in 2014 to meet the 2020 target. Page 18

19 3. Emissions baseline, projections & value at stake A baseline carbon footprint for academic year 2008/9 and the associated cost profile has been produced for the College. This allowed for the significance of the current sources of emissions to be assessed, projections of emissions in future years to be made and the data used to inform the development of projects to reduce those emissions. Progress can then be measured against these predictions in future years. The scope of the emissions sources that produce the baseline carbon footprint, the sources of that data and the assumptions used are outlined in the following sections. This section also explores the financial costs and carbon emissions at stake given the Business as Usual scenario against the target emissions committed to. 3.1 Scope The emissions sources included in the baseline carbon footprint are: energy related emissions from all academic buildings, sports centres and accommodation (electricity, gas, oil, and procured steam) fleet transport (mainly Union mini buses) water consumption from all academic buildings, sports centres and accommodation waste (sent to landfill or incinerated) from all academic buildings, sports centres and accommodation. Staff business mileage, commuting and emissions associated with students travelling to the College from outside the UK have been excluded as there is insufficient data available currently. However, these are potentially significant sources of emissions and further work to understand their significance may be required. 3.2 Sources of data The following table outlines the data and its source used to produce the 2008/09 baseline emissions footprint: Data type Building electricity consumption (grid electricity only) Building gas consumption (including gas purchased for CHP use) Building oil consumption WRI Scope Emissions Source Data used Scope 2 Inenco 97,300,655kWh Scope 1 Scope 1 HEFCE s 2008/9 Estate Management Statistics HEFCE s 2008/9 Estate Management Statistics Purchased Steam Scope 2 HEFCE s 2008/9 Estate Management Statistics Fleet data Scope 1 John Whitlow (Head Purchasing) 155,028,583kWh 542,143 kwh 10,070,822kWh Diesel: 5,159 litres LPG: 1,668 litres Petrol: 9,035 litres Page 19

20 Water consumption Scope 3 Inenco Residential: 75,851 m 3 Other: 583,507 m 3 Waste sent to landfill Scope 3 Nic Dent (Waste & Recycling Officer) 1,767 tonnes Waste incinerated Nic Dent (Waste & Recycling Officer) With heat recovery: 492 tonnes Without heat recovery: 34 tonnes The following table outlines the data and its source used to produce the cost profile associated with the baseline emissions footprint: Data type Source Data used Building electricity consumption Inenco Portfolio average for 2008/ p/kwh CHP Management ICL fee for management and maintenance of the college CHP plant. The fee is based upon the amount of energy generated by the plant for the college use. 858,264 Building gas consumption (including gas purchased for CHP use) Building oil consumption Inenco Portfolio average of 2008/9 Average of baseline 2008/9 oil costs (ICL) 3.18 p/kwh 5.84p/kWh Purchased Steam Average cost for Trust steam 3.44 p/kwh Fleet data John Whitlow (Head Purchasing) Diesel: 1.08/litre LPG: 0.558/litre Petrol: 0.985/litre Water consumption Inenco for baseline year 2008/ /m 3 Waste sent to landfill Nic Dent (Waste & Recycling Officer) /tonne Waste incinerated Nic Dent (Waste & Recycling Officer) 63.67/tonne 3.3 Assumptions The following table outlines the emissions factors used to produce the baseline emissions footprint and their source: Data type Emissions factor Source Building electricity kg CO 2 /kwh Carbon Trust toolkit Building gas consumption (including gas purchased for CHP use) kg CO 2 /kwh Carbon Trust toolkit Building oil consumption kg CO 2 /kwh Carbon Trust toolkit Purchased Steam kg CO 2 /kwh Estate Management Statistics Fleet data Diesel: kg/litre LPG: kg/litre Petrol: kg/litre Carbon Trust toolkit Page 20

21 Water consumption kg/m 3 Carbon Trust toolkit Waste sent to landfill 447 kg/tonne Carbon Trust toolkit Waste incinerated 3.4 Baseline 226 kg/tonne (no heat recovery) 0 kg/tonne (heat recovery) Carbon Trust toolkit The baseline carbon footprint for academic year 2008/9 for Imperial College is 84,026 tco 2. The following table illustrates the composition of the carbon footprint: Emissions source Emissions (tonnes CO 2 ) Building electricity 52,250 Building gas consumption (including gas purchased for CHP use) 28,676 Building oil consumption 136 Purchased steam 1,863 Fleet 37 Water consumption 266 Waste (sent to landfill and incinerated) 798 Total 84,026 The majority of the emissions (98.7%) are from the College s building energy consumption. The remaining 1.3% is from emissions associated with supply and treatment of water, waste and fleet as shown below Page 21

22 Percentage CO 2 emissions by source 0.3% 2.2% 0.16% 34.1% 0.04% 0.9% Building electricity Building gas consumption (including gas purchased for CHP) Building oil consumption Purchased steam Fleet 62.2% Water consumption Waste (sent to landfill and incinerated) The emissions tonnages figures included throughout this report have been assessed using The Carbon Trust KWh / KgCO2 conversion factors. In addition, the college also have to report to HEFCE for the annual Estates Management Statistics. There will be small differentials in the amounts of CO2 emissions reported to HEFCE compared to the figures included in this report as a consequence of HEFCE using different conversion factors to those advised by The Carbon Trust. The emissions from energy related sources (electricity and gas) clearly dominate the footprint and are further broken down by site in the following pie chart. South Kensington campus has by far the greatest level of emissions, which corresponds with its position of having the largest number of buildings as well as many of the highest energy consuming buildings. Page 22

23 CO2 emissions due to energy use by site 6.4% 1.8% 3.6% 12.7% 0.4% Charing Cross 1.0% 1.3% 3.4% Clayponds Silwood South Kensington Sports Grounds St. Mary's Wye Royal Brompton 69.7% Hammersmith Chelsea & Westminster 3.5 Projections and Value at Stake Business as Usual The table below demonstrates the extent of growth in student numbers, income and estate size over the last three full academic years. Figure for 2009/10 are not yet available but income is projected to be approx. 690 million which represents a significant slow down in the rate of growth. Similarly, it is anticipated that there will be a slowing in the growth of student numbers as a result of government funding availability. 2006/7 2007/8 2008/9 Total student numbers full + part time 13,024 13,355 14,013 Income ( '000) 556, , ,100 Estate (gross m²) 524, , ,326 Imperial College has acquired Woodlands, a 25,000m 2 site in London near to its Hammersmith campus which it plans to develop into a new campus. There are a range of development options on the table which include demolition and construction of two towers, construction of new halls of residence and/or refurbishment of existing buildings. This will increase the size of the estate of the College with implications for its carbon footprint. It will therefore be necessary to include the impact of these changes on the baseline emissions once the plans have been agreed and also to introduce appropriate mitigation measures. This will be undertaken in the annual review of the plan. An area of known growth is Block L, opening at Hammersmith in Autumn There may be other areas added to the college estate during the course of this plan (e.g. SEQ) and these will be incorporated as appropriate. Page 23

24 Thus, in the timeframe of this CMP it is not anticipated that the estate area will increase as quickly as it has done over the last 3 years. This, together with a slowing of income growth and student numbers, should result in a slowing in the rate at which CO 2 emissions from buildings has been increasing. This situation is assumed to continue through the five year period of the plan. As a result of the above, Business as Usual (BAU) growth in CO 2 emitted annually by the College will use a figure of +2%. The continuing applicability of this assumption will be reviewed annually. Carbon emissions at stake The projected carbon emissions for the BAU scenario have been calculated using the Carbon Trust toolkit baseline tool. This shows the carbon footprint for the baseline year 2008/9 and how, assuming a 2% BAU growth rate, the emissions will grow. This is also compared to the reduction in emissions required for the target scenario (which is a reduction in absolute terms by 20% compared to the 2008/9 baseline, by August 2014). This 20% reduction over the 5 years is based on a compound rate thus equates to an annual 4.4% reduction required. Both can be seen in the following graph. As can be seen from the above graph, if the target emissions are achieved, by 2013/14 the reduction in emissions relative to BAU growth will be 25,551 tonnes which is about 30% of the BAU emissions. Put another way, the 20% absolute reduction target against the baseline year is equivalent to a 30% reduction in emissions against the BAU scenario by the end of the Plan. Page 24

25 Financial costs at stake The effect of these scenarios should also be considered for energy, waste and water costs. The energy cost increases are assumed to be driven by rising oil prices over the period of the plan as outlined in section 2.1 and the Inenco 5 year forecast. Imperial has bought the majority of its energy for ahead and thus should be buffered against market price increases until 2011/12. Expected water costs increases are also provided by Inenco. Waste costs are expected to go down due to a change in disposal routes coming into effect in 2010/11 and these costs then expected to rise annually by a factor provided by the Carbon Trust. The total cost in 2008/9 to the College is based on the utility, water and waste sources below: Grid electricity Gaseous fuels Purchased steam Liquid fuels Transport owned fleet fuel Waste (landfill, incineration with heat recovery, incineration without heat recovery) Water Fees for CHP operation and management This equated to 16.9million, which includes costs at NHS Trust sites where Imperial operates. The expected utility price increases in subsequent budget years over the period of the plan are outlined below. The percentage increase in costs forecasted by Inenco for grid electricity, gaseous fuels and water are shown against the budget year 2009/10. The Carbon Trust toolkit provides an annual figure to use for expected increases in energy and waste costs. That annual increase figure (5.3%) is used for purchased steam, liquid fuels, waste and transport fuels and has been projected to show growth against the budget year 2009/10 to provide comparative data for all energy sources 2009/ / / / /14 Grid Electricity* Gaseous Fuels* In budget 0.76% 3.17% 15.7% 28.32% In budget -2.19% 1.15% 6.23% 15.67% Steam** In budget 5.3% 10.9% 16.8% 22.9% Liquid fuels** In budget 5.3% 10.9% 16.8% 22.9% Transport fuels** In budget 5.3% 10.9% 16.8% 22.9% Water* In budget 0.2% 0.6% 5.2% 5.7% Waste** In budget 5.3% 10.9% 16.8% 22.9% Expected increases in utility, transport fuels and waste costs over the 5 years of the Plan *Inenco: Percentages relate to the base budget year Aug -09 July 10 **Carbon Trust annual increase of 5.3% projected to show growth against the base year as above. Page 25

26 The 2009/10 total budget for utilities, transport fuels and waste for Imperial owned and Trust sites is 16.5million ( 2.9million for Trust sites). This figure has factored in growth in consumption from the baseline year 2008/9 as well as utility costs expected. The financial value at stake graph applies a 2% BAU year on year growth in consumption from the 2009/10 figure and applies the expected increase in costs. The target cost is only meant as a guide at this stage, particularly in respect of Year 1 of the plan. To achieve the 2009/10 target of 13.1million would require 100% of the projects identified in Phase 1 to have been implemented by the 1 st August 2009 which is clearly not the case. This Plan is due to be issued in June 2010 so capturing a full year of savings in the first year will not be achievable. The main purposes of this graph are to illustrate the value at stake (BAU costs vs. costs in the plan) if the college does not deliver the projects in the Plan and an estimate of predicted annual energy costs. Under a Business as Usual growth scenario, annual emissions would reach 92,772tCO 2 by 2014 costing around 21.5 million. Under the target scenario, the 2014 energy costs are predicted to be around 13.4million. This would be the estimated energy costs if target emissions of 67,221tCO2, were achieved. The cumulative savings identified in the plan have been subtracted from the BAU costs to show what the predicted utility costs (costs in plan) will be over the period of the Plan. This is shown in the graph below: value at stake against projects in plan The graph shows that the financial value at stake in Year 5, which is the amount of extra money the College would need to find if the measures in the Plan are not implemented, is 3.9million. Page 26

27 4. Carbon Management Projects This section details the carbon reduction projects identified to date and how they relate to the absolute reduction target of 20% against the 2008/9 baseline emissions. This is broken down as: A summary of all projects The key carbon reduction projects identified in the plan Those projects implemented to date Those projects in progress Progress towards target The carbon reduction projects have been broken down into a 5 year plan in phases from 2009/10 to 2013/14 as shown below: Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase 4 Phase / / / / /14 The projects are a mix of: Behavioural awareness based e.g. Communications strategy Retrofit measures e.g.: Continuous commissioning of buildings Planned maintenance e.g. ICT replacement equipment cycle 4.1 Summary of all projects identified The CMP has so far identified carbon reduction opportunities that equate to a total of 17,443tCO 2. This is made up of all projects programmed to be implemented within the time frame of 2009/10 to 2013/14. The table below summarises: the identified carbon reduction projects along with their estimated annual carbon savings at the completion of the plan capital costs over the period of the Plan the time it will take the project to payback based on cost savings in years. the equivalent project cost to save 1tCO 2 the year in which the project will be implemented the source of funding key as shown below: Key Source of funding EEI M ICT E UB U Energy & Environmental Initiatives Fund Maintenance capital plant replacement ICT Capital plant replacement Engineering Unallocated budget Utilities budget Page 27

28 Summary table of emission reduction projects identified and validated in the CMP Page 28

29 As the table above shows, there is a significant range in payback period. This is because some projects are focused on carbon reduction while others, such as PC replacement, result in less energy consumption only as a by-product of measures taking place in any case. The impact of these projects with respect to identified carbon reduction is represented below in the pie chart and clearly shows the major impact of awareness campaigns and continuous commissioning , ,073 1, ,903 4,140 1,986 Awareness, Metering, DEC's IT projects Continuous Commissioning Lighting Controls & Upgrades Voltage Optimisation CHP & Main Boiler plant Steam Network Fume Cupboards Plant replacement Insulation Waste The chart above shows estimated annual savings in tco 2 for all projects The chart below shows annual savings in tco2 identified by funding source 1, , Energy & Environmental Initiatives Fund Capital Replacement Maintenance Capital Replacement ICT Unallocated Budget Engineering Budget Utilities Budget 13,215 Details of all projects are in Appendix C Definition of Projects. Implementation and sign off procedures are discussed further in the Programme Management section. Page 29

30 4.2. Key carbon reduction projects identified The key carbon reduction projects identified to meet the absolute reduction target are shown below together with the estimated carbon savings in tonnes and as a percentage of the overall planned savings. Project Estimated identified savings (tco 2 ) Cost /tco 2 saved Percentage of target emissions Awareness Campaign & Automatic Metering & Targeting 4, % Continuous Commissioning 4, % Awareness Campaign and Automatic Metering & Targeting (AM&T) Awareness of the College s commitment to reducing CO 2 can lead to behaviour change that can contribute up to a 10% reduction in energy use 4. However, it is not necessarily easy and the messages need to be reinforced (particularly to new cohorts of students). An Awareness Campaign has been developed by central communications and has been launched at the start of the current summer term. More detail on the approach can be found in section 6.4. AM&T is the process of using automatic metering to pick up actual energy consumption and then to use that data in the context of targets set. By doing this, we will be able to identify when and where expected consumption levels are exceeded so that they can be investigated and necessary actions implemented. AM&T is in place at the South Kensington campus and its effectiveness will be monitored as to whether it is extended to other campuses. A field trial by the Carbon Trust found that organisations that switched to using AM&T identified 12% carbon savings and achieved cost savings of 5% through reduced utility consumption 5. The high quality data available through AM&T will allow Imperial staff and students to understand carbon emissions and costs associated with operating the College buildings. This area is discussed in more detail in sections 6.3 The College sees Awareness and AM&T as fundamental to delivering the. To decide how effective these two approaches are with respect to reducing energy use, the College has taken note of Carbon Trust advice together with what other Universities have done in their Carbon Management Plans. In conclusion, the College has decided on a combined 5% saving target against the total gas and electricity consumption in 2008/9 baseline year. These target savings are broken down over 4 years as the campaign and metering will not be fully in place until Phase 2 (year 2010/ 2011) of the Plan. It is assumed that in Year 5 of the Plan, Awareness and AM&T will achieve 5% savings against the baseline year emissions. 4 HEFEC CMP Guidance January CTC714 Advanced Metering for SME s: Carbon and Cost Savings, Carbon Trust May 2007 Page 30

31 Continuous Commissioning Continuous Commissioning provides a strategic approach to managing buildings and reducing energy consumption, carbon emissions and operating costs while delivering safe and productive business environments. This involves a range of measures such as: Plant running times for heating, ventilation and cooling to match occupancy Set point temperatures for summer cooling and winter heating to avoid over cooling or over heating buildings Night set back regimes of plant to better match out of hours use of the College Optimisation of air handling and cooling plant to run more efficiently Imperial College has invested heavily in new buildings and refurbishment, providing state-of-the-art research and teaching facilities. Research development now demands stringently controlled environments, relying on plant & infrastructure rather than natural ventilation, to maintain operational parameters and prevent experimental contamination. When new facilities are handed to the users, operational controls are set at parameters originally signed-off at the design stage. Plant & services continue in this condition, without considering changes in academic practice, occupation or the need to reduce carbon emissions. Working with consultants, contractors, maintenance and building users, Facilities Management initiated a programme of Continuous Commissioning (ConCom) which is based on targeting avoidable waste using the 3 steps of Variance Analysis : Step 1. Determine what is required of the buildings and their services, while meeting business needs of occupants and minimising energy consumption to address such needs effectively. (Ideal provision) Step 2. Review the existing energy consumption obtaining an understanding of the existing services/systems and the maintenance and operation strategies in place. (Actual provision) Step 3. Implement strategies to eliminate variance between Ideal and Actual provision eradicating avoidable waste. This process has been underway since 2004 and the most recent success has been with the Flowers building; a case study of which is shown below. The first stage of the project was completed in October 2009 which should achieve savings of around 239tCO2 annually. Stage 2 will look to achieve the further 76tCO 2 of identified savings. Page 31

32 Case Study: Flowers Building Working with building users and ABS Consulting, Imperial College s Facilities Management team recommissioned the Flowers building at their South Kensington campus and delivered annual savings; 447,720 kwh, 38,290 & 239 Tonnes CO2 This was achieved by: reviewing the buildings original design philosophy, assessing how academic operational and occupational practices had changed, modifying the existing service delivery. changing user s philosophy on how environmental conditions should be maintained. The graphs below show the electricity consumption of Flowers over seven days. The graph on the left is the profile before commissioning and shows the base load, indicated by the dotted line. The graph on the right shows the base load reduced following re-commissioning. By its very nature continuous commissioning is an ongoing process. Any revised operating schedules etc. will be done in conjunction with the relevant College Maintenance Teams and Quantum, who have central control for the building management systems, so that savings are maintained if plant needs to go out of service for repairs or scheduled maintenance.. Page 32

33 4.3 Projects completed in Phase /2010 The table below shows those carbon reduction projects completed so far in Phase 1 along with estimated carbon savings and financial savings. Payback refers to the number of years it will take to recover the capital costs through reduced utility costs. Page 33

34 Page 34

35 4.4 Projects in progress 2009/10 The carbon reduction projects listed below are being implemented The project schedules above show that to date in Phase 1 of the Plan, projects generating a total of 1,696t CO 2 savings have been either implemented (792t) or are in progress (904t) against the absolute target reduction figure of 3,288 t CO 2 for the year. This figure is discussed further in the next section. 4.5 Projected achievement towards target With respect to the absolute savings target, Imperial College has identified 17,443 TCO 2 against an absolute target of 16,805TCO 2 (20% multiplied by 84,026 = 16,805). This equates to 20.7% reduction on the baseline year but does not account for any Business as Usual growth in emissions. Projects will be implemented throughout each academic year and for the purpose of the plan, the annual predicted savings are used along with the year in which the savings are likely to start. The table below outlines the following: College target emissions (20% reduction over 5 years), Anticipated BAU emissions in the Plan Identified carbon savings for each phase of the plan Cumulative carbon savings over the plan duration College emissions expected (BAU less cumulative carbon savings) These are set against the 2008/9 baseline year emissions of 84,026tCO 2. It will be imperative that, at appropriate intervals throughout each Phase of the plan, progress towards achieving the predicted annual improvements in CO2 emissions is audited. The audit process will review savings achieved by completed projects to compare actual results with pre delivery predictions. In progress projects will also be reviewed to update predictions of costs and savings as required. By Page 35

36 adopting an incremental approach to plan reviews, we would hope to avoid issues with under achievement in terms of both cost and CO2 savings at the end of each Phase, and, wherever necessary, take the opportunity to implement any remedial actions necessary. In the first instance we anticipate that quarterly reviews / audits will be sufficient to address the number of projects being implemented at any one time. A B C D E Year Target emissions (tco 2) BAU emissions (tco 2) Identified carbon projects (tco 2) Cumulative carbon savings (tco 2) College emissions in plan B-D (tco 2) 2009/10 80,359 85,707 3,288 3,288 82, /11 76,852 87,422 4,625 7,913 79, /12 73,497 89,170 5,151 13,064 76, /13 70,289 90,953 2,325 15,389 75, /14 67,221 92,772 2,054 17,443 75,329 The graph below shows carbon emissions against the planned projects for Phases 1-5 compared to the BAU path and the target emissions as a pictorial representation of the tabulated data above. How the College arrived at the 2% BAU growth figure was discussed earlier in Section 3.5. BAU 30% reduction Absolute 20% reduction Page 36

37 The graph shows that, against the College Business as Usual growth prediction, emissions are reduced to 75,329t CO 2, This equates to approximately 10.4% reduction against the baseline year emissions of 84,026t CO2. If no carbon management plan were to be implemented, the level of emissions in 2014 is predicted to rise to 92,772t CO2. This is, by coincidence, 10.4% higher than the baseline year as a result of predicted Business as Usual growth. To achieve the target emissions by 2013/14, the reduction in emissions relative to BAU growth would need to be 25,551 tonnes which is 30% of the BAU emissions. This has identified and validated around 68% of that target. Thus, further carbon reduction projects will need to be identified and implemented. This is discussed in the next section. 4.6 Further projects to achieve the CMP target emissions Imperial College has had energy audits carried out on all its buildings over a 1000m 2. These have been analysed by the Carbon Trust to evaluate the scale of savings and to consider other opportunities for carbon reduction. This exercise has identified around 7,738tCO 2 of further savings with equivalent annual financial savings of around 1.2million. The estimated capital costs have been assessed at 2million giving a payback of 1.6 years. If these further opportunities are implemented in the 5 year life of the plan it would equate to identified carbon savings of 25,181tCO 2 or 98.6% of the BAU target (25, 551tCO 2 ) Below is the list of the further projects so far identified and analysed: 1. Loft Insulation: Clayponds 2. Draught proofing 3. Boiler house operational reviews 4. Expand continuous commissioning 5. Non LED lighting upgrades 6. Photovoltaics 7. Woodchip heating Silwood 8. Building rationalisation 9. Increase connections to district heating system 10. Heat recovery 11. Timers on catering fridges 12. Procurement Standards 13. Fan upgrades 14. Solar shading 15. Install additional VSD s 16. Adiabatic cooling 17. Biodiesel for vehicles 18. Zone controls and thermostatic radiator valves 19. Time switches for hot water heaters 20. Profile steam distribution pressures based on demand 21. Lecture theatre optimisation The remaining carbon reduction required to achieve the Business as Usual target equates to around 370tCO 2. It is expected that further projects will be identified and new technologies will arise which will enable the BAU target over the course of the 5 year plan to be reached. Page 37

38 The most significant opportunities identified to date in the list above are: building rationalisation, expanding building continuous commissioning and lecture theatre optimisation. These are explained further below. Buildings rationalisation Building rationalisation is linked to space utilisation and this opportunity is about optimising the space the College has to better match timetabling requirements. This includes measures such as ensuring that the number of serviced buildings open out of hours is minimised which will enable the College to limit the hours of building use with consequent savings in energy consumption. There is specific reference to space management in HEFCE s 6 carbon strategy document. HEFCE will seek to understand better how institutions are performing and to maintain focus on space management through the Capital Investment Framework. The initial analysis offers significant savings estimated at 4000tCO 2 and 750k annually for an investment of 750k giving a 1 year payback. This would equate to 16% of the BAU target. Expand building continuous commissioning Currently continuous commissioning projects are planned for 61% of estate by floor area. There is scope to extend to the remaining estate and add potentially an additional 25% savings relative to first phase projections. Savings would be less than pro-rata due to reduced carbon emission intensity of the remaining buildings. Estimated annual savings of 950tCO 2 and 160k with an associated initial capital cost of 60k would give a payback of 0.4years. This would equate to a further 3.8% of the BAU target. Lecture theatre optimisation Lecture theatres are significant consumers of energy and ideally ventilation, heating and cooling should be linked to occupancy and number of users. Optimisation of lecture theatres would look to retrofit existing areas to ensure plant and lighting is only used when necessary. Estimated annual savings of 575tCO 2 and 74,000 with an associated cost of 370k would give a payback of 5years. This would equate to a further 2.3% of the BAU target. These projects are in the process of being validated by the College FM team to assess which should be further investigated for the Plan and likely implementation and associated request for funding would start in Phase 3 or 2011/12 The remaining 1.4% of the BAU target equates to around 370tCO 2. To address this, the College will be involved in an ongoing process to identify carbon saving opportunities and assess new low carbon technologies where appropriate. Based on analysis of projects funded by Salix Finance 7 the typical cost per tonne to save CO 2 is around 450. Therefore to hit the BAU target it is likely that more funding would be required. This could be around 166k and is discussed in the Finance section below. 6 Carbon reduction target and strategy for higher education in England, January Salix Finance is a Carbon Trust spin off company that was set up to provide match funding to the public sector for carbon reduction projects. Page 38

39 4.7 Aspirational 2020 Target The College has set an aspirational target of a 34% reduction against 2008/9 baseline by This is a challenging target and requires thinking outside of the box: Two projects that are underway and could provide significant carbon savings in the medium term are: South East Quadrant (SEQ)Development 1851 Carbon Reduction Master Plan SEQ The South East Quadrant (SEQ) is a programme of works with a vision to provide: Shared world class flexible teaching and research facilities, embracing Aeronautics, Mechanical Engineering, Civil Engineering, Computing and an expanded Business School A flexible green building A show case space for Imperial College on Exhibition Road A greater capacity to work across disciplines, transcend traditional boundaries and address ever more effectively world problems, such as those connected with energy, water, sustainability, security and ageing issues It will be employing state of the art ground source heating and cooling technologies that will utilise the aquifer below the campus. A potential project is to explore dropping further bore holes to capture waste heat generated in by the CHP in the summer, stored and then used in the winter Carbon Reduction Master Plan As part of the Colleges membership of the 1851 Club which includes Royal Albert Hall, Victoria & Albert Museum, Natural History Museum, Science Museum and Royal College of Music there is a Carbon Reduction Master Plan being produced by Fulcrum and Cynergin Consulting. Its outline brief is to Create a ground breaking and Holistic Master Plan for achieving carbon neutrality through the achievements of the following objectives: Deliver near term energy saving and reduction in carbon emissions To lay the foundations of achieving a zero carbon operation at SK Campus Deliver a mechanism of counting the carbon impact of all aspects of the operation including public access and offices Establish methodologies for appraisal and reduction of the carbon footprint for waste Provide a model of opportunities for reducing the carbon impact in the urban environment through communal systems and demand offsets The projects outlined above, together with constantly reviewing new technologies for improved carbon efficiency across the College estate, should enable the 2020 reduction target of 34% to be achieved. Page 39

40 5. financing The financial benefits accruing to the College from implementing the are significant. The savings are based on reduced utility consumption achieved through the carbon reduction projects identified. These savings are linked to gas, electric, fuel, water and waste prices over the next 5 years. This section looks at: The assumptions used in the plan to assess financial benefits What capital is secured from existing College budgets and what funding will be required to deliver the carbon management projects identified Further capital that may be required to fund the carbon projects not yet identified to hit the BAU target 5.1 Assumptions In forecasting the savings for Phase 1 and 2 of the Plan, the College has bought ahead the majority of its energy and therefore the unit prices are deemed fixed until Phase 3 (2011/12). After this point, the annual review of the Plan (see Section 7.5) will incorporate the revised unit prices so that projects implemented in Phase 3 onwards will reflect correct tariff costs at that time. Average unit prices across the whole of the College buildings portfolio are higher than those at the South Kensington campus due to the volumes of energy consumed. At the moment, for the purposes of the Plan, the unit prices for gas, electricity and oil are assumed to be the same across all Phases as shown below. Utility 2009/10 South Kensington price (p/kwh) Gas 2.068p Electricity 7.806p Oil 5.84p The benefits of using the lower South Kensington rate are: the majority of projects focus on the South Kensington campus as it accounts for 70% of carbon emissions as this is the college s lowest unit rate, it will mean payback periods for projects implemented across other campuses are likely to be slightly conservative no account is being taken here of inflation in the price of utilities throughout the duration of the plan (see above). Earlier commentary identified anticipated cost increases based on information from Inenco and The Carbon Trust which indicates that, by Phase 5, the majority of utilities will be in excess of 20% more expensive than current levels. Adopting this approach to the pricing of saved energy will under value the actual level of financial savings that we will make in later years. Subsequent annual reviews of the plan will incorporate revised unit prices as necessary Page 40

41 5.2 Benefits / savings Estimated savings shown below are for each year of the Plan and demonstrate incremental growth in the savings as projects develop throughout the duration of the Plan. These savings are mainly derived from reduced energy consumption and will thus be reflected in reduced utilities costs. Savings are also made up from other sources such as reduced hire charges for waste disposal technology used. In Year Financial savings from each phase of CMP and total saving made by end of Phase 5 Savings under the Utilities Budget line are from increased use of the College CHP which although means that more gas must be procured, less electricity is required from the grid. The total identified financial savings for the College are estimated to be 9.19 million over the 5 year plan. (Based upon the price of Utilities shown above) 5.3 Financial costs and sources of funding Funding relating to projects that have an associated carbon reduction has been allocated under the 5- Year Capital Plan and is made up of 5 sources: FM Energy & Environmental Initiatives (EEI) Fund FM Capital Replacement Maintenance Budget ICT Replacement Equipment Budget Engineering Budget Utilities Budget Unallocated Budget The table below shows how funding is distributed across College budgets. The Energy & Environmental Initiatives Fund is a dedicated investment fund while the other budget sources achieve carbon savings as a by-product of installing more efficient plant/kit. The Utilities Budget figure relates to the extra gas consumption for the increased running hours of the College CHP and costs are based on Inenco s predicted rises in gas costs. Funding only for the lifespan of the CMP is included. Capital allocation for each phase of the CMP and total spend by end of Phase 5 Page 41

42 The unallocated budget refers to the Hammersmith Steam to MPHW project Ref. 18 ( 3M) and Ethos Pyrolysis equipment project Ref. 23 ( 550K) The Energy & Environmental Initiatives funding is deemed to be committed for the 5 year period of the plan. The EEI fund will deliver the majority of carbon savings and is examined in more detail in the next section. The pie chart below illustrates the capital budgets breakdown tabulated above. Cumulative costs and source for CMP funding ( M) 7.25m Energy & Environmental Initiatives Fund 3.55m 0.035m Capital Replacement Maintenance Capital Replacement ICT 2.27 Unallocated Budget Engineering Budget 2.66m Utilities Budget 9.51m Energy & Environmental Initiatives (EEI) Fund The EEI fund is a dedicated fund for measures that reduce the environmental impact of the College. Generally, measures will need to have a payback within 5 years but this can take into consideration reduced maintenance costs or reduced costs through diverting waste streams from more expensive disposal routes. The Fund is examined in detail as it will finance the majority of identified carbon projects. The table below shows the expected capital costs required to deliver the EEI fund projects outlined in the. Page 42

43 EEI Fund project status and budget implications The overspend impact is discussed in the next section: Additional funding required. Page 43

44 5.4 Additional funding required There are two budgets where extra funding is required to deliver the carbon management projects outlined and validated in this plan: 1. Energy & Environmental Initiatives Fund 2. Planned maintenance budgets unallocated to date Energy & Environmental Initiatives (EEI) Fund Extra funding The EEI fund identified and validated projects equate to emissions reductions of 13,215 tco2 with an associated cost of 2.66m. However, allocated funds currently total 2.5m. In order to meet the BAU reduction target (to identify an equivalent 30% reduction taking into account BAU growth) additional projects will need to be identified and implemented that equate to around 7,976tCO2 and additional financing will be required. This is explored below. From the work carried out with the Carbon Trust (section 4.6) approximately 7,738tCO2 of further (to be validated) savings have been identified with associated cost savings of 1.2million. At an estimated cost of 2m, these projects would be funded from the EEI budget as there is a projected direct payback of 1.6years. The remaining carbon reduction required to achieve the Business as Usual target totals around 370tCO2. The average sector cost, after quick wins such as awareness and continuous commissioning are removed, to save a tonne of CO 2 is around 450 (see Appendix B) therefore a figure of 167k has been calculated for potential extra funding required. This information is shown below: Source of carbon savings Annual Carbon reduction Identified cost savings Funding allocated in College 5 yr plan Further funding required Payback period Identified & validated in EEI fund Further projects identified Further projects required 13,215tCO m 2.5m 0.16m 0.3yrs* 7,738tCO 2 1.2m 0 2m 1.6yrs 370tCO 2 tbc m tbc Total 21,323 (TBC) 2.5m 2.33m Carbon savings and estimated further funding requirements *This payback period is short as the carbon savings associated with awareness campaigns and AM&T are significant for relatively little capital. It is recognised that a business case would need to be submitted to the College Finance team for any request for extra funding. Any financial business case would also need to demonstrate there is sufficient manpower to implement measures. There are a number of estimated costs in the Plan so the College will aim to work to the allocated budgets in Phase 1 and 2 and make an assessment at the end of Phase 2 to request extra funding. Page 44

45 Planned maintenance budget unallocated to date The projects identified below will require funding to be sourced from the PRB at some future date. At present, estimated funding has been included in the plan in Phase 3 (2011/2012) for these projects. The Hammersmith Steam project has a long payback period compared to other projects included in the plan. It may be more appropriate to seek funding for these projects on the basis of cost savings from other projects or due to their necessity for College operations. Source of carbon savings Identified savings from projects (tco 2 ) Identified cost savings Estimated funding required Payback period Hammersmith Steam to MPHW and CHP Ethos Waste to Heat ( gas Pyrolysis) 1, m 3m 20yrs m 0.55m 3yrs Total 1, m 3.55m N/A Unallocated Budget projects indicating anticipated costs and savings It is recognised that a business case would need to be submitted to the College Finance team to seek agreement for any extra funding required. Page 45

46 6. Actions to embed carbon management at Imperial At the start of the HECM programme, the College assessed the level to which carbon management was integrated into the College s operations and management using the Carbon Trust s Management Embedding Matrix. Generally the College scored around 3 out of a potential 5 and the detail is in Appendix B. A summary of the areas assessed is shown below: 1. Policy- corporate strategy 2. Responsibility 3. Data management 4. Communication & training 5. Finance & investment covered in section 5 6. Procurement 7. Monitoring & evaluation covered in section Corporate Policy - embedding CO 2 saving across the organisation The Chief Operating Officer has expressed strong support for the HECM programme and for this. This commitment is on our website and will be formally re-launched when the is completed in June. The College recognise that becoming a Low Carbon College will potentially involve a large scale change to existing practise and policy. Our approach to the engagement of our stakeholders aims to ensure that the ethos of CO 2 saving is effectively embedded across the organisation. The College will do this by: Gaining senior management support and buy-in: Senior representatives have been involved throughout the CM Programme. Communicate with staff right from the outset of the programme Identify key individuals, carbon champions and groups within the College to support the programme Build participation in planning and the implementation of change Establish a Sense of Urgency by highlighting the costs of doing nothing Empower our Steering Board to take action Identify and deliver quick wins in terms of carbon reduction projects using a Business Case approach Ensure that the required changes and improvements are institutionalised within our culture The College has recently developed a heating policy for residences and a cooling policy which will guide new build and refurbishment projects. Extracts of the cooling policy are shown below and the heating policy for residences is shown in Appendix D Page 46

47 As a general rule the University will not fund the installation and running costs of cooling systems unless they are required: By regulation or enforceable code of practice, By specific items of equipment such as server rooms Because natural ventilation is insufficient to remove heat gains and / or provide the necessary changes of air Because occupants and / or equipment consistently raises the ambient temperature to above 28 C for a minimum period of two hours Cooling will not be installed in any residential building with the exception of office areas in such building, providing they meet the installation criteria. Where areas are overheating, a thorough appraisal should be carried out to ensure that all alternative options have been considered before air conditioning is installed. These will include: Ensuring any other heat gains to the space are mitigated ie heating is not operating in the area, hot pipes are insulated and heat producing equipment s use is managed Providing window blinds and / or desk or ceiling fans The installation of window film and / or solar shading devices The college also has an environmental policy which covers 8 key areas of its impacts as shown in the table below: The College has an environmental policy which has guidance and targets for: 1. Energy consumption and CO 2 emissions (Buildings account for 98% of emissions) 2. Mains water consumption 3. Waste to landfill 4. Pollution 5. Local ecology and biodiversity 6. Transport 7. Supply chain 8. Community involvement Looking forward there is scope to improve the transport policy to collate better data for business mileage associated with commuting and staff travel as this is likely to have more significance over the coming years with respect to carbon reporting. Page 47

48 6.2 Responsibility being clear that CO 2 saving is part of everyone s job Carbon managment is a full time responsibility of the College Energy & Environmental Manager. From the start of the Academic Year 2009/10 all new staff at the College will have a paragraph on sustainabiity included in their contract. This is shown below and applies formally for all staff that have joined the College since Extract from Imperial College Core Terms & Conditions of employment Carbon Champions There is already a network of Green Representatives that sit on the Wardens Committee for each of the Halls of Residences which represent green issues for around 3,000 students. The College is keen to role out a similar network of Carbon Champions within the College Academic and Support Serivices staff. 6.3 Data Management measuring the difference, measuring the benefit The College collate annual carbon emissions figures for buildings, transport and waste and this is internally reviewed. Our gas, water and electricity are procured by an energy bureau (Inenco) thus is externally validated to arrive at our carbon footprint. Automatic Monitoring & Carbon Desktop Over the last 3 years over 1.2m has been spent at the South Kensington campus on automatic monitoring and targeting (AM&T) meters. These are in the process of being integrated into a desktop monitoring package called Carbon Desktop which is due to be launched in the spring term of This will enable Day + 1 carbon and cost data to be viewed by all College staff for those buildings with AM&T meters in place. If the building does not have automatic meters installed then the last months consumption and cost will be summed. This information will then be presented as a traffic light status to show whether the carbon and costs profile associated with academic and residential buildings is increasing or decreasing. Page 48

49 Screen shot from Carbon Desktop 6.4 Communication and Awareness ensuring everyone is aware Communications campaign To achieve its target of cutting carbon emissions by 20% by 2014 the College needs engagement from all staff and students. Raising awareness of the College s target and encouraging the whole community to play their part in saving energy are key aims of a communications campaign that will be launched to support the Carbon Management Programme. Desired outcomes from the communications campaign are that staff and students: - understand and appreciate the progress the College has made in cutting carbon emissions, and how much further it wants to go - understand that the College wants to behave (and be seen to behave) as a responsible sustainable organisation should - are engaged and encouraged to support this goal by taking ownership of the sustainability agenda - change behaviours to enable the College to achieve its aim of reducing carbon emissions - work together to achieve common objectives, strengthening the sense of community at Imperial Campaign structure The campaign was launched in April 2010, with the first phase encouraging staff and students to share their examples of wasteful energy use at the College and ideas for making efficiencies. The aim is to engage the community and to compile a list of ideas (whether local to a department or building or to the whole College) that could help Imperial to reduce its carbon emissions. Page 49

50 Future phases of the campaign will focus on steps that staff and students can take to help the College save energy, which will include: - Turning off computers when they are not in use - Informing Facilities Management if the heating in a building means the temperature is too high - Switching off lights wherever possible - Taking the stairs, rather than the lift - Recycling Communications tools to be used during the campaign Methods to raise awareness will include: - Articles in the College s newspaper, Reporter, and the students newspaper, Felix - Messages and announcements in the regular sent to all staff, staff briefing - T-shirts that highlight the key messages of the campaign which will be worn on specific days by Facilities Management staff and others across the College, and will be on sale in the Union shop - Posters and LCD screens - Social media including Twitter, Facebook and YouTube - Green giveaways - Appointing green champions in every department Other opportunities that will be explored include: - Establishing a series of lectures that showcases green research - Holding a green day every term, to be run jointly by the College and the Students Union - Competitions, for example rewarding buildings that make particular progress in saving energy or challenging students to produce a film which shows their ideas for making Imperial more sustainable - Tapping into wider green initiatives, for example Earth Day or Earth Hour Campaign identity The campaign s main wordphrase needs to imprint a memorable set of linked messages, be simple and widely applicable, speak to individuals, and be jargon free. The title agreed for the campaign is StepChange for the following reasons: - Steps suggest slow but sure progress towards an end goal - cutting carbon emissions by 20% by 2014 from the baseline. - Steps imply breaking down the problem into manageable parts. There is not one solution to cutting carbon emissions but many different actions combined will make a difference. - Everyone has taken a first step in their lives it is a concept that all will understand. - Step change suggests a dramatic difference, which the College hopes to achieve in cutting its carbon emissions. The phrase sounds appropriately aspirational, but also sets a challenge for all staff and students. The strapline is: Stamp down your carbon footprint Page 50

51 6.5 Procurement understanding the environmental impact of purchasing decisions The College purchasing policy addresses this issue as it sets out that staff involved in the procurement of goods and services should be aware of the impact they have on the environment. In particular our staff should where possible use environmental responsibility as a factor in their purchasing decisions. The advice given to our buyers about reducing the College s impact include: Identifying if the purchase is really necessary (to reduce consumption and the carbon foot print). Consider the whole life cost of equipment purchases. Try and purchase products which may have a high recycled content. Where possible purchase goods and services which may be manufactured, used and disposed of in an environmentally responsible way. Use Preferred Suppliers to purchase their goods, these suppliers already have been assessed for their environmental policies. Support Supplier and College recycling schemes. Where possible recycle and re-used specific items (e.g. glassware). Reduce the use of volatile organic compounds where possible. Reduce the use of materials containing heavy metals where possible. Minimise the use of virgin materials. Control the discharge to air, land and water. Furthermore, within our purchasing processes we are taking the following steps: During the tendering process assess all potential suppliers on their environmental policies e.g. BS7750, EMAS, ISO4001. Continually monitor our major suppliers on their environmental policies and practices. Work with major suppliers to develop and share, where appropriate environmental policies. Where possible, offer environmentally friendly products as alternatives. Facilitate with the support of our major suppliers and other departments recycling arrangements across the college. Minimise the supplier base to reduce the college s carbon foot print. Page 51

52 7. Programme Management of the CM Programme In order for the CMP to succeed, the College recognises the need for good Programme governance which will encourage: senior, strategic ownership of the carbon reduction target; bringing together, in one place, the diverse set of projects across the College oversight of the Programme to encourage delivery by the identification and removal of blockages project owners coming together to ensure coherence and coordination of carbon reduction activity 7.1 The Programme Board strategic ownership and oversight Strategic governance & reporting Carbon Management is integrated within the existing governance structure for Health & Safety. The Carbon Management Steering Board Team will report to the Health & Safety Management Committee who in turn reports to the Management Board and provides to the Council / Audit Committee a termly report on the College s Carbon Management performance. Reporting lines Page 52

53 The Carbon Management Steering Board has been created by the Imperial College Health & Safety Committee to achieve anticipated benefits from undertaking the Carbon Management Programme. The Carbon Management Steering Board is comprised of the following staff and Chaired by Chris Gosling. 7.2 ion planning for key roles In the event of either the Project Sponsor, Project Leader or the Project Manager leaving the College the following measures would be put into place: Project Sponsor If the Project Sponsor was to leave the responsibility would pass to the Rector of the College. Project Leader If the Project Leader leaves the College the responsibility would pass to the Deputy Project Leader who will take responsibilities of this role until a new Director of Facilities Management was in post. Project Manager If the Project Manager leaves the College the responsibility would pass to the Deputy Project Leader until a new Energy & Environmental Manager was in post. Other significant risks to the plan - College CHP The College CHP engines at the South Kensington campus enable low carbon electricity to be generated on site while providing waste heat to the steam boilers. Over the last two years there have been technical failiures which have meant the availability of the engines has been severely reduced. The reliance on these engines being available for the running hours projected in the plan has a significant effect on the carbon footprint. Increasing the running hours by about 2,000 hours should deliver CO 2 emissions savings of about 360 tonnes CO 2. If the electricity and waste heat provided by the CHP system had to be replaced by grid electricity, with its associated higher emissions factor, this would result in a minimum 1,110 tonnes of CO 2. Page 53

54 7.3 Project prioritisation & implementation All projects identified for the CMP will be assigned a Project Manager responsible for delivering the project. Those projects that are specifically funded from the Energy & Environmental Initiatives fund will require sign off by the Energy Manager, Head of Building Operations and Head of Maintenance and these projects are discussed at regular meetings. Projects generally need to payback within 5 years through direct energy savings however if there are extra advantages ie through reduced maintenance costs then these costs can be factored into the payback period. Simple payback can be used to prioritise projects as shown in the graph below. Payback for range of carbon reduction projects identified in the CMP Projects will also be assigned a cost per tonne CO 2 value derived the capital cost of the project divided by the annual carbon savings. An example of the project sign off sheet is shown on the next page: Page 54

55 Project: Reference: Project Manager Department Description A short description of project Name of the person responsible for delivering the project Which part of the organisation the project sits within A short description of the project, no more than a paragraph Benefits Financial savings: [x] Payback period: [x] years CO 2 Emissions reduction: [x] tonnes of CO 2 Cost /tco 2 Funding Project cost, e.g. the initial cost of implementing the project Operational costs, e.g. annual maintenance or running costs Source of funding: internal, external, investment criteria to be met etc. Say how /when decision on funding will be made Resources Additional resource (e.g. people) requirements to enable delivery and where these will come from If this project will be delivered within current resources, say so Ensuring Key success factors, or things that will need to happen for this project to succeed Principal risks: technical, financial (eg what happens if the project is insufficiently resourced), etc. Measuring Metrics for displaying performance or achievement When success will be measured / evaluated Timing Milestones / key dates e.g. Notes o start date: dd/mm/yyyy o completion date (when it will deliver savings): dd/mm/yyyy o interim deliverable / decision points [you could also lay these out as a milestone chart for ease and clarity] APPROVALS Head of Energy & Environment Head of Maintenance Head of Building Operations Director of Facilities Management Date Date Date Date Page 55

56 7.4 Ongoing stakeholder management The Imperial College CMP is fully supported by Council and senior officers. The table below shows what the key messages and communication channels should be for the range of Stake holders at Imperial. Stakeholder Name/Group Council and Executive Issues Need to build awareness of cause and local effects both operational and reputational; more likely to sell on potential cost savings Key Messages Capital Investment required but with strong business case; HEFCE funding linked to carbon performance against CMP and relative to other HE's; reputational standing Means of Communication Executive Member reports Sponsor Staff Bulletins College Intranet, Reporter Timetable Ongoing Responsibility Project Leader & Corporate Communications Rector, Vice Rector, Chief Operating Officer Need to secure support for information and awareness to cascade Becoming a strong corporate priority; link to HEFCE funding, energy price rising, small actions make a big collective difference Reports up from Carbon Management Steering Board, Rectors Weekly Bulletin To be visible Project Leader & from launch of relevant Steer members CMP Key Heads of Services Commercial/Soft/S ecurity ect Need to secure support for information and awareness to cascade. Need their specialist input to generate actions Becoming a strong corporate priority; link to HEFCE funding, energy price rising, small actions make a big collective difference Support Services Ongoing Committee meetings to update how activities in their service are supporting the CMP Carbon Management Steering Board to ensure messages to Heads of Service All Staff Need for buy in across the board. Need for info to be attractive, honest, relevant both to work and home environmental Overall success depends on staff involvement Regular articles in Reporter, Staff Induction, Intranet To developed as soon as possible Project Leader & relevant Project Team members working with Corporate Communications Academic Departments/Staff Pressures on finances, efficiency measures should be welcome, student expectation, huge scope to change behaviours Link to HEFCE funding, overall success depends on all staff involvement, Facilities can support research objectives while reducing energy consumption and extending life of equipment Head of Department meetings (HOD's), Road Shows, Building User Groups (BUG meetings) Ongoing Project Leader & Corporate Communications Page 56

57 7.5 Annual Progress review An annual review of the CMP will be published to formally review progress against the plan. The review will take place in January as this will ensure that a full set of energy data is compiled for the previous academic year. The review will be presented to the Carbon Management Steering Board and it will be compiled by the Energy & Environmental Manager. Format for the annual review A document will be produced, for approval by Senior Management and made publically available (ie on the College website). The document will include: What the annual target was for: o total carbon emissions from buildings, fleet, waste and water o total utilities bill What the actual total carbon emissions and costs were for the year Any particular unusual circumstances to be taken into account Progress against planned projects o o o o carbon savings cost savings capital expenditure impact of changes in tariff for utilities Assess if the projected BAU growth is still appropriate Outcomes of validation exercise for further carbon reduction opportunities to meet target Mitigation measures for unplanned circumstances Less quantifiable benefits, such as influencing the student body / local community Agree actions for implementing any amendments required The table below shows the review dates and College carbon emissions to be reviewed against. Expected emissions in plan are based on the projects identified in the Plan being implemented against the BAU scenario growth. The target emissions are an absolute figure based on a reduction in the 2008/9 baseline year. Review Date Academic Year being reviewed Expected emissions in plan (tco 2 ) Target emissions in plan (tco 2 ) January /10 82,419 80,359 January /11 79,509 76,852 January /12 76,106 73,497 January /13 75,564 70,289 January /14 75,329 67,221 Page 57

58 With regards to validating the predicted emissions with actual emissions, the following points should be noted: Projects will be implemented throughout the year thus full annual savings may not be achieved until the following year Other projects not currently captured in the Plan will achieve further carbon savings not yet included. In addition to the annual review, there will be further incremental reviews undertaken quarterly throughout the year to check on the progress being made with the implementation of projects and the CO2 savings being generated as a result. The review will assess actual performance against anticipated expenditure and target emissions savings each year included in the Plan. Please also refer to Appendix E which summarises the current projects identified in the plan with anticipated annual costs and savings data. This information could be used as an initial basis upon which to assess actual against planned performance. Page 58

59 8. In conclusion: Through the implementation of this : The College aims to become the leading UK academic institution in applied energy efficiency and utility management, demonstrating sound environmental governance and global citizenship, and providing a showcase low carbon heritage estate. Page 59

60 working with Appendix A: Carbon Management Matrix - Embedding POLICY RESPONSIBILITY DATA MANAGEMENT COMMUNICATION TRAINING & FINANCE & INVESTMENT PROCUREMENT MONITORING EVALUATION & 5 BEST SMART Targets signed off Action plan contains clear goals & regular progress reviews Strategy launched internally & to community CM is full-time responsibility of a few people CM integrated in responsibilities of senior managers VC support Part of all job descriptions Quarterly collation of CO 2 emissions for all sources Data externally verified M&T in place for: o Buildings o Waste All staff & students given formalised CM: o Induction o Training Plan o Communications CM matters regularly communicated to: o External community o Key partners Granular & effective financing mechanisms for CM projects Finance representation on CM Team Robust task management mechanism Ring-fenced fund for carbon reduction initiatives Senior purchasers consult & adhere to ICLEI s Procura+ manual & principles Sustainability comprehensively integrated in tendering criteria Whole life costing Area-wide procurement Senior management review CM process Core team regularly reviews CM progress Published externally on website Visible board level review 4 SMART Targets developed but not implemented CM is full-time responsibility of an individual CM integrated in to responsibilities of department managers, not all staff Annual collation of CO 2 emissions for: o o o Buildings Transport waste Data internally reviewed All staff & students given CM: o o Induction Communications CM communicated to: o o External community Key partners Regular financing for CM projects Some external financing Sufficient task management mechanism Environmental demands incorporated in tendering Familiarity with Procura+ Joint procuring between HEIs Core team regularly reviews CM progress: o Actions o Profile & Targets o New opportunities quantification 3 Draft policy Climate Change reference CM is part-time responsibility of a few people CM responsibility of department champions Collation of CO 2 emissions for limited scope i.e. buildings only Environmental / energy group(s) give ad hoc: o o Training Communications Ad hoc financing for CM projects Limited task management No allocated resource Whole life costing occasionally employed Some pooling of environmental expertise CM team review aspects including: o Policies / Strategies o Targets o Action Plans 2 No policy Climate Change aspiration CM is part-time responsibility of an individual No departmental champions No CO 2 emissions data compiled Energy data compiled on a regular basis Regular poster/awareness campaigns Staff & students given ad hoc CM: o Communications Ad hoc financing for CM related projects Limited task coordination resources Green criteria occasionally considered Products considered in isolation Ad hoc reviews of CM actions progress 1 Worst No policy No Climate Change reference No CM responsibility designation Not compiled: o CO 2 emissions Estimated billing No communication or training No internal financing or funding for CM related projects No Green consideration No life cycle costing No CM monitoring Page 60

61 working with Appendix B: Typical capital costs to save a tonne of CO2 based on Salix Finance projects completed Page 61

62 working with Appendix C: Definition of Projects Page 62

63 working with Project: Reference:1 Project Manager Department Description Benefits Awareness Campaigns, Automatic Metering & Targeting (AM&T) & Display Energy Certificates (DEC s) Renewal Nick Roalfe, Henry Muss College Wide Tackling carbon emissions is very much a battle to win hearts & minds for staff and students to take responsibility for the environmental impact of their activities with respect to energy water and waste. Whether turning off a light or a specialist piece of research equipment or turning the heating down rather than opening a window - significant savings are achievable from a well managed, drip fed, led from the top and College wide campaign. This project is combined with Automatic Metering & Targeting in which considerable sums of money and time have been invested in a network of automatic metering of utilities. These are mainly across the South Kensington Campus and a software platform Carbon Desktop is under development that will enable energy profiles to be generated for College buildings to show progress against targets. Display Energy Certificates must be displayed by law on all buildings over a 1000m2 at Imperial and they are within this project as they support awareness campaigns. Staff & students know what is expected from them by Imperial as campaigns are visible, well communicated and their objectives clear. Awareness and automatic metering are combined here as integral approach the key strands to the campaign a 1% saving against baseline emissions for AM&T and 4% for a focussed college wide awareness campaign. Financial savings estimate : 550k over 5 years Payback period: Less than 1 year months CO 2 Emissions reduction: around 4,140 tonnes of CO 2 Costs/TCO 2 : 48 Funding Awareness Campaigns: Phase 1: 20,000. Phases ,000 per year: operational costs for campaigns, awareness raising materials ect DEC Renewals: Phase 1: 6,336, Phases ,000 per year Resources Ensuring Measuring Timing Support from central communications and the Union Maintain fresh campaigns relevant to audience Carbon Desk Top and metering infrastructure being maintained Bottom line carbon savings based on building metering Phase /10 will be to develop Carbon Desktop/Campaign Brand and Marketing Materials Phase 2-5 expects carbon savings to be achieved Each Term to have at least one simple theme Page 63

64 working with Project: Reference: 2 Project Manager Department Description Cavity Wall Insulation Kevin Cope, Henry Muss FM Building Management & Energy Manager Silwood Park has been identified as a campus for Cavity Wall Insulation in the following buildings: Reactor Building, Hamilton Building, Munro Building, Lees Building and Kennedy Building. Surveys have been carried out buy Lowe Build and ICL are in the process of sourcing two further quotes. Benefits Reduced heat loss in the winter and heat gain in the summer. Typical payback for cavity wall insulation is 3-6 yrs (GPG 312 Invest to Save) and a 5 year payback is assumed here. Financial savings estimate : 8,419 Payback period: 5 yrs CO 2 Emissions reduction: 75 tonnes of CO 2 Costs/TCO 2 : 559 Funding Project cost 42,096 To be funded through the Energy & Environment Initiatives budget as part of the capital Operational costs: none Resources Ensuring Measuring Timing This will be delivered by the Building Managers at Silwood Park Metering and user feedback Metering from site Expect Phase 1: 2009/10 installation Notes Page 64

65 working with Project: Reference: 3 Project Manager Department Description CHP Profile Raised to 6000hrs running from 4073hrs (2008/9) Brian D Lassalle, Henry Muss FM Increased running profile of CHP Benefits The extra running hrs predict a reduction in CO 2 of around 362tCO 2 These workings have been validated by Inenco (ICL Utilities Procurement) Financial savings: 183,424 Payback period: This is not a capital measure but relates to procurement of energy supplies and annual costs of electric and gas in line with Inenco estimates have been calculated to show the effect on savings CO 2 Emissions reduction: Based on electricity only so conservative 362 tco 2 saved annually Cost/tCO2 : n/a Funding Resources Ensuring Measuring Timing Notes Utilities budget Estates Team with consultants to assess opportunity Availability of CHP engines Reduced grid electric It is hoped the hours can be achieved in Phase 1 given current issues with availability of both engines This is dependent on engine availability Page 65

66 working with Project: Reference: 4 Project Manager Department Description Benefits Energy Efficiency Review of South Ken Main Boiler Room Chas Guirey, Henry Muss FM Review of how boiler plant is managed to identify operational and technical carbon saving opportunities Boilers gas estimate based on previous years ratio of CHP engine gas to boiler consumption and then taking into consideration revised running profile CHP/Boiler Gas consumption CHP Gas Boilers Gas 2008/09 97,826,000 44,803,000 53,023, /10 predicted 118,885,471 65,571,784 53,313, to 6000 running hrs Financial savings based on a 5% reduction in boiler gas through improved energy efficiency Financial savings: Phase 1 55,133 Payback period: 1.3 years CO 2 Emissions reduction: 5% of boiler gas consumption amounting to 493tCO 2. Cost/tCO 2 : 142 Funding Project Costs: 70,000 - Based on Phase 1 study Phase 2 Estimated cost of measures: 40,000 Operational costs: none Source of funding: Energy & Environmental Initiatives Budget Resources Ensuring Measuring Timing Estates Team with consultants to assess opportunity EDF must take on board any suggestions as they run the boiler plant currently Through AMR metering then degree day analysed Appoint consultant team in April 2010 Camco & TB& A approached Notes Page 66

67 working with Project: Reference: 4a Project Manager Department Description Increasing low grade heat recovery off the CHP Engines Colin Ward, Henry Muss FM To improve the amount of low grade heat recovery from the CHP engines. The works include the service and maintenance to the waste heat plate heat exchanger and all associated control & isolation valves. A high limit isolating valve is also to be installed, to protect the CHP engine s cooling water circuits from overheating. In addition valves are to be installed in the primary recovery circuit to allow extension of the recovery system in a later phase. Benefits Financial savings: Approx 9,093 Payback period: 3.3 years CO 2 Emissions reduction: Based on 302kW of heat available estimated at 81tCO 2 Cost/tCO 2 : 430 Funding What will total cost of this project be: approximately 35,000 From the Engineering team budget Resources Ensuring Measuring Timing Engineering Team Metering of waste heat in place Support from EDF Phased in for 2010/11 given current issues with availability of both engines Notes Page 67

68 working with Project: Reference: 5 Project Manager Department Description Benefits Continuous Commissioning (Con Comm.) Optimising plant and infrastructure providing environmental services in buildings Kevin Cope, Henry Muss FM Buildings Management Team & Energy Manager The College has a sophisticated building management system (TREND) that controls building services such as heating, cooling, ventilation and specific plant operating set points and hours of operation. There is considerable scope to improve the commissioning or set up of these systems and the College has already had success in Flowers with night set back regimes for ventilation in Laboratories. Programme: ICL have identified potential savings of around 25% on building energy consumption through commissioning but for the purpose of projected savings a conservative figure of 14% of electricity consumption is used. This figure is also quoted as typical continuous commissioning savings achievable Phase 1 savings are currently either identified or in the process of implementation. Saving Capital ( ) Saving (kwh) (CO2) Savings ( ) Phase /10 SAF& Chem Phase 1 1,572, Flowers 586, Faculty 110, Sub Total 90,000 2,270,352 1, ,229 Phase /11 Commonwealth 624, SAF& Chem Phase 2 1,572, Mech Eng 268, Biochemistry 349, Sub total 250,000 2,815,327 1, ,771 Phase /12 Huxley 524, Blackett 375, St.Mary's 854, Burlington Danes 502, Sub total 200,000 2,256,686 1, ,162 Phase /13 RSM 364, Elec Eng 319, Wolfson Old 58, Wolfson New 35, Bone 4,536 2 Bessemmer 201, Sub total 100, , ,813 Phase /14 Library 230, ACE 150, RCS1 188, Sherfield 234, Sub total 100, , ,756 Financial savings estimate : 712,731 Payback period: about 1 year Total 740,000 9,130,278 4, ,731 CO 2 Emissions reduction: 4,903 tonnes of CO 2 Cost/tCO 2 : 151 Potential extended life of plant Funding Project cost 0.74M over 5 years as commissioning can involve upgrade of existing plant to enable control as well as extra work for consultants and reconfiguration of the BMS. Quantum have been contracted to provide 35 days annually to this initiative at a cost of 14,000 per year and these costs are absorbed into the capital aspect of this project. To be funded from Energy & Environment Initiatives budget Operational costs - no reoccurring costs Page 68 Resources The College is working with 3 consultants; Quantum, ABS and Trilon who have all demonstrated an understanding and expertise in identifying and implementing with the support of users and the Colleges own Maintenance teams significant carbon reduction measures.

69 working with Ensuring To deliver such demanding targets will be dependent upon, staff and students accepting that we need to make changes to the way our buildings are currently set-up to deliver controlled environments We will also have to try and deliver this using more than one contractor / consultant in tandem because there will need to be significant discussions with local building users prior to instigation, I would therefore want to check any proposal before it is implemented Measuring Timing The effectiveness of these changes can be assessed over a short timescale, usually several weeks pre and several weeks post commissioning. The most effective means of validating the savings is from the recorded BMS data evaluated over the study period and analysed with other important relevant data, e.g. ambient temperatures and profiles for the equipment usage Work is ongoing and the proposed Phasing is shown above Notes Page 69

70 working with Project: Reference: 6 Reduction of waste to landfill through alternative methods and increased recycling: Food Composter Project Manager Department Description Nick Dent Soft Services Reducing waste to landfill through: Food waste composting recycling initiative. Benefits Financial savings in the region of 80,000 per annum when project is complete reduced costs of disposing waste to landfill and rental costs for compactors Payback period: 1.5 year after the start of the project CO 2 Emissions reduction: Approx 25 tco 2 per annum Cost/tCO 2 : 4,863 Funding Project cost, 123,900 Operational costs, e.g. annual maintenance or running costs Source of funding: Energy Initiatives Budget 2008/9 Resources Training will be delivered to staff to ensure proper use of the Composter Ensuring Measuring Principal risks: Likely to be technical and from user awareness. Will monitor waste streams and amount of compost generated to understand fully the improved environmental and financial benefits to the College Timing Installed in Jan 2009 Notes Page 70

71 working with Project: Reference:7 Project Manager Department Description Better Fume Cupboard Awareness Anton De Paiva, Henry Muss H&S, FM Around 20% of the Fume Cupboards at ICL are variable air volume (VAT) cupboards which will regulate air flow depending on whether the sash is open or the fume cupboard on. Given that a VAV fume cupboard with poor sash management can emit around 3 tco 2 per year and with perfect sash management this figure is reduced to 0.2tCO 2 the scope for savings is excellent. It is proposed to work with H&S on an awareness campaign that focus s on good fume cupboard practice. Benefits Electric (kwh) Gas (kwh) Emissions (TCO2) ( ) 20% of fume cupboards VAV (135 FC's) 68,850 1,910, ,891 15% become perfect sash manangement (20 FC') 59,490 1,651, ,794 Savings 9, , ,097 Financial savings annually: 6,097 Payback period: under a month CO 2 Emissions reduction: 53 tonnes of CO 2 Cost/tCO 2 : 9 Funding 500 from Energy & Environment Initiatives Budget for materials Resources Work with Lab Users and H& S to develop appropriate messages and understand user issues Ensuring Spot checks of Labs at the end of day to assess sash management Use of green champions to support reinforce message Measuring Timing Notes Spot checks on Labs at the end of the day by Lab Managers The campaign will be developed over Phase /10 to be implemented in Phase /11 of the programme Page 71

72 working with Project: Reference:8 Project Manager Department Description Retrofit of constant air volume (CAV) to variable air volume (VAV) fume cupboards Roy Dickerson/Henry Muss Engineering & FM The College has around 675 Fume Cupboards of which circa 80% are constant volume i.e. whether the sash is open or closed or the fume cupboard on or off a similar rate of supply and extract air is maintained. The project will aim to establish the costs of retrofitting existing CAV to VAV systems. Benefits VAV cupboards are 50-90% more efficient to run depending on sash management and typical costs to run a CAV fume cupboard are 500 per year. Savings elect (kwh) Savings Gas (kwh) Savings ( ) Capital ( ) Carbon (TCO2 Phase 1: 2009/10 Phase 2: 2010/11 Phase 3: 2011/12 Phase 4: 2012/13 Phase 5: 2013/14 Financial savings: 23,271 study on understanding costs/payack 10, Fume Cupboards Retrofitted 5, ,530 3,325 16, Fume Cupboards Retrofitted 10, ,040 6,649 33, Fume Cupboards Retrofitted 10, ,040 6,649 33, Fume Cupboards Retrofitted 10, ,040 6,649 33, Total 23, , Payback period: To be determined in Phase 1 CO 2 Emissions reduction: Around 203 tonnes of CO 2 Cost/tCO 2 : 622 Funding Project cost: Initial cost will be for the consultant survey to establish retrofit costs in a typical lab Source of funding from Energy Initiatives Budget A notional capital funding based on a 5 year payback has been assigned and will need to be clarified Resources Consultant support and Engineering and Maintenance Ensuring The first phase will determine the financial viability of the retrofit option Principal risks are the age and diversity of existing systems in place and unknown issues such as asbestos which may change the financial payback viability. Measuring Timing Manchester Metropolitan Contact Local metering where possible Year /10 will commission a study to establish feasibility of programme to retrofit and confirm potential savings and cots Michael Simpson has experience of retrofitting CAV to VAV Page 72

73 working with Project: Reference:9 Project Manager Department Description Improved Windows PC power saving John Shemilt/Okan Kibaroglu ICT ICT introduced automatic power saving for Windows PCs some three years ago. Due to various technical constrains this has not been applicable to all systems. The aim of the project is to improve the take up by improving functionality by increased support for users like wake-up on LAN for the PCs and improve the ability for automatic power off by improved infrastructure such as Windows 7 along with better reporting. Benefits Financial savings: Around 170,244 per annum when project is complete based on 2,180,938 kwh savings Payback period: under 1 year after the start of the project CO 2 Emissions reduction: 1,171 tonnes of CO 2 per annum Cost/tCO 2 : 44 Funding Project cost, will be minimal as it will make use of existing ICT infrastructure upgrade projects. Major cost will be staff time of the order of one person year. Around 26k annually based on human resource and PC system charges Operational costs, ongoing cost in maintaining and reporting on the system one person month per annum Source of funding: ICT budget Resources Staff time, one person year to implement improvements and then 1 person month per annum to maintain. Ensuring Project is dependent on the functionality delivered in Microsoft SCCM and the improved power saving features of Windows 7and this performing as advertised Principal risks: are the availability of staff time and the willingness of the users to change their current working practice. Currently over 3000 people have opted out of the automatic power saving for various reasons. Measuring Increase in the number of Windows Desktop PCs utilising the power off and that less than 4,000 have to remain on. The effectiveness of the project will be measured in April 2013 Timing Milestones o General availability of Windows 7 o Availability of remote wake-up for PCs May 2010 Notes Savings assume that the efficiency of the PCs does not improve. Page 73

74 working with Project: Reference:10 Project Manager Department Description Virtualisation of Computer Room Servers Okan Kibaroglu/John Shemilt ICT ICT has virtualised 210 servers out of a total 723 ICT-owned servers, so far. The aim of this project is to virtualise all those that can be virtualised and new ones as they are required. Despite virtualisation the number of servers required will continue to increase. Benefits Financial savings: Around 42,671 per annum when complete There will be an additional 10,000 in hardware and software costs which will be used to offset inflation increases. Payback period: normal replacement cycle therefore no extra cost CO 2 Emissions reduction: 294 tonnes of CO 2 per annum Savings are based on one virtual server being equivalent to 10 standard servers hence a reduced number of servers are required Cost/tCO 2 : 4,088 Funding Project will be funded as part of the server replacement cycle Operational cost are the same as physical machine Source of funding: ICT capital equipment budget: 300k per annum Resources Same resources will be used as for physical systems and therefore no extra staffing will be required other than training. Ensuring For the project to succeed will require careful management of the allocation of and recover of virtual machines to prevent them proliferating unnecessarily. Principal risks: None known Measuring Percentage of virtual machines increases from the current 30% of all servers are virtual to 60% of all servers are virtual ICT will monitor the total number of servers and the ration of servers on a monthly basis as the project proceeds Timing Milestones / key dates e.g. o start date: 1/1/10 o completion date 31/12/13 Notes As noted in the description the number of servers is increasing at the rate of 110, therefore though this project will save and continue to save CO 2 the amount produced will not be reduced indefinitely. Page 74

75 working with Project: Reference: 11 Project Manager Department Description Desktop PC Replacement Paul Allatt ICT Over the next five years of the PC renewal cycle ICT will aim to purchase replacement PCs that are forecast by suppliers to become 40% more efficient than the PCs they are replacing today. It will also aim to encourage Finance to ensure that purchases purchased outside the central College renewal scheme are energy efficient. Benefits Saving: 503,360kWh per year at end of 2013/14 Financial savings: around 39,293 per year Payback period: normal replacement cycle therefore no extra cost CO 2 Emissions reduction: 270 tonnes of CO 2 Cost/tCO 2 : 11,099 Funding This project is part of the normal replacement cycle but ICT will use this as an opportunity to purchase increasingly energy efficient systems therefore there will be no additional cost. Resources As part of the normal replacement cycle; there will be no additional costs IT Budget: 1.5milion per annum Ensuring College maintains funding for the PC replacement cycle Manufacturers produce more energy efficient PCs College negotiates contracts for energy efficient PCs Measuring PCs purchased in 2014 will be 40% more efficient than the PCs purchased in Power consumption of a standard desktop will be measured for the standard 2009 model and the then standard 2014 model in 2014 over an average week. Timing Milestones / key dates e.g. o start date: 01/12/2009 o completion date: 31/07/2014 Continuous improvement over the period Notes Efficiency over the five year old systems of:- 25% in 2010/11 30% in 2011/12 35% in 2012/13 40% in 2013/14 Benefit calculation assumes that PCs are only powered on during working day. Extra efficiency is made up of technology changes in the PCs, improvements in the operating systems and a migration from desktops towards laptops. Page 75

76 working with Project: Reference:12 Project Manager Department Description Benefits Lighting Upgrades Kevin Cope, Henry Muss FM Building Management & Energy Manager The College is always conscious of validating new technologies as they emerge an area of technology improvement is in lighting which can typically account for 10-15% of total electricity consumption. A number of projects are underway in piloting LED upgrades in lighting and it likely that this area of opportunity will continue to grow. This project stream will consider all suitable lighting upgrades. Capital ( ) Savings (kwh) Carbon savings (TCO2) Savings ( ) Ensuring Page 76 Faculty Ramp 8,737 36, ,834 Faculty Bike Store 9,772 14, ,134 sub total 18,509 50, ,968 Other tbd 11,491 29, ,298 expected total 30,000 80, ,266.7 Then 30K per year on upgrade opportunities Sherfield Elec Eng Mech Eng Library sub total 30,000 66, ,193 Commonwealth Wolfson Old Wolfson New St.Mary's sub total 30,000 66, ,193 Bone Blackett Burlington Danes Huxley sub total 30,000 66, ,193 Bessemmer RSM ACE RCS1 sub total 30,000 66, ,193 Total 150, , ,037 Financial savings estimate : 27,037 Payback period: 5.6 years CO 2 Emissions reduction: 186 tonnes of CO 2 Cost/tCO 2 : 806 Funding Project cost: The projects cost are in the region of 150,000k Resources Operational costs: none Working with the maintenance teams and suitable suppliers of light fittings The College is in the process of working with a consultant ABS to carry out an objective analysis of the LED Imperial: lighting upgrade a showcase in the lobby low carbon of the 2nd university Floor of the Sherfield Building. This programme should be achievable providing we have the cooperation of the academic departments, and that LED is seen as an acceptable option across College.

77 working with Measuring Timing Notes ABS will be taking actual readings before and after installation and generally if there is existing metering to lighting circuits then readings for consumption will be taken. Otherwise it will be based on a business case for each installation based on the known current operating hours. Rolling programme see above Suggest we align the buildings in phases 2 to 5 with the controls below. It would make sense to do both in tandem. Some of the capital will need to be committed to re-wiring as well as replacement lights, so we can then incorporate controls more effectively. Page 77

78 working with Project: Reference:13 Project Manager Department Lift Upgrades Rak Patel, Henry Muss FM Maintenance Team Description The College is currently engaged in a Lift Upgrade programme and in 2008/9 upgraded 13 lifts. The process is a complete upgrade of lift, lifts motors, cabling ect and has associated energy savings through more efficient and better controlled motors. Benefits No. Of lifts Savings (kwh's) Savings (TCO2) Savings ( ) Capital Phase 1: 2009/ , , Phase 2: 2010/11 4 9, Phase 3: 2011/12 4 9, Phase 4: 2012/13 4 9, Phase 5: 2013/14 4 9, Total 24 56, ,383 6,700,000 Financial savings estimate : 4,383 Payback period: n/a as part of Maintenance capital replacement budget CO 2 Emissions reduction: 30 tonnes of CO 2 Cost/tCO 2 : 222,230 Funding Project cost: The budget for 2008/9 was 2 million and for the purpose of the Carbon Management Plan this is to be a rolling programme of investment in which the carbon savings will be captured Operational costs: Resources Ensuring Measuring Timing Notes Contractors Working closely with contractors to ensure the programme is delivered The Maintenance team will aim to demonstrate manufacturer s claims on lift energy consumption prior and post upgrade and are working with the Engineering team. Rolling Programme see above Page 78

79 working with Project: Reference:14 Project Manager Department Description Benefits Automatic Lighting Controls Kevin Cope, Henry Muss FM Building Managers & Energy Management Team The FM team worked with Security who carried out an out of hours survey and identified over 1000 rooms with lights left on at the South Kensington campus. A programme to introduce automatic controls based on occupancy, which also link to natural light levels will be rolled out. The process is underway and typically for a building around 30k worth of controls opportunities have been identified with a 5 year payback. In Faculty there are existing daylight controls for all light fittings however they were never commissioned. The costs and savings for Faculty are based on 3 days commissioning work that will enable around 1000 light fittings to turn off when natural light levels are sufficient. Phase 1 Capital ( ) Saving (kwh) Saving ( ) Saving (CO2) 2009/10 RSM 30,000 66,519 5, Faculty 1,500 36,400 2, Commonwealth 35,000 77,605 6, St.Mary's 30,000 66,519 5, Hamilton 10,000 22,173 1, Munro 10,000 22,173 1, RCS1 15,000 33,259 2, Skempton 30,000 66,519 5, Huxley 19,800 43,902 3, Southside 15,000 33,259 2, Contingency (rewiring) 30,000 sub total 226, ,329 36, Phase 2 ACE 30,000 66,519 5, /11 SAF 35,000 66,519 5, Elec Eng 19,800 43,902 3, Business School 15,000 33,259 2, Biochemistry 19,800 43,902 3, Garden & Weeks Hall 15,000 33,259 2, Contingency (rewiring) 15,000 sub total 149, ,361 22, Phase 3 Library 19,800 43,902 3, /12 Blackett 19,800 43,902 3, Mech Eng 19,800 43,902 3, St.Marys 35,000 77,605 6, Chemistry 30,000 66,519 5, Clinical Research Building 19,800 43,902 3, Evelyn Gardens 15,000 33,259 2, Contingency (rewiring) 15,000 sub total 174, ,993 27, Phase 4 Wolfson Education Centre 30,000 66,519 5, /13 Bone 19,800 43,902 3, Sherfield 19,800 43,902 3, Silwood Buildings 30,600 67,849 5, Roderick Hill 19,800 43,902 3, MRC Cyclotron 19,800 43,902 3, Comparitive Biology Block 19,800 43,902 3, Pembridge Gardens 15,000 33,259 2, Contingency (rewiring) 20,000 sub total 194, ,140 30, Phase 5 Bessemmer 30,000 66,519 5, /14 Burlington Danes 35,000 77,605 6, Flowers 19,800 43,902 3, Roderick Hill 19,800 43,902 3, Reynolds Building 30,000 66,519 5, IRB Building 19,800 43,902 3, Beit & Wilson House 15,000 33,259 2, Contingency (rewiring) 20,000 sub total 189, ,608 29, Total 934,100 1,871, , Financial savings estimate : 146,088 Payback period: 6.4 years CO 2 Emissions reduction: 1,005 tonnes of CO 2 Cost/tCO 2 : 929 Page 79

80 working with Funding Project cost: 934,100 The funding will come from the Energy & Environment Initiatives budget a rolling programme of investment in which the carbon savings will be captured Operational costs: none Resources Ensuring Measuring Timing Building Mangers will help to verify with users appropriate levels of controls for specific areas User buy in and commissioning of all controls Where possible if there is floor or local metering to pick up lighting circuits before and after installation of controls this will be used Rolling Programme see above Notes Page 80

81 working with Project: Reference:15 Project Manager Department Description Plant and Distribution Lagging Rolling Programme Chas Guirey, Henry Muss FM Maintenance Identification of lagging opportunities across plant and distribution network all campus s Benefits Based on initial SMH survey of Blackett typical opportunity per building of 2,500 with a 2-3 year payback for MTHW and Steam lagging opportunities. Actioned Captial ( ) Saving (kwh) Carbon (TCO2) Saving ( ) Blackett* 2,168 35, Red Team 10, , ,516 Beit 474 5, sub total 11, , ,362 Huxley 2,500 40, RSM 2,500 40, Elec Eng 2,500 40, Mech Eng 2,500 40, sub total 10, , ,358 Bessemmer 2,500 40, Library 2,500 40, ACE 2,500 40, Main Boiler Room Sken 2,500 40, sub total 10, , ,358 Reynolds 5,000 81, ,679 Bone 2,500 40, Sherfield 2,500 40, Burlington Danes 2,500 40, sub total 12, , ,197 Commonwealth 5,000 81, ,679 Wolfson Old 2,500 40, Wolfson New 2,500 40, sub total 10, , ,358 Total 53, , ,634 Financial savings: around 17,634 Payback period: 3 yrs as mostly steam distribution CO 2 Emissions reduction: 158 tco 2 Cost/tCO 2 : 342 Funding Project Costs: 53,679 Resources Ensuring Operational costs: none Source of funding: Energy & Environmental Initiatives Spie Mathew Hall will carry out surveys and will be sense checked by ICL Maintenance teams other frame work contractors will also be asked to quote Allowing access Page 81

82 working with Measuring Through reduced gas consumption picked up with metering Timing Started from 2009/10 Academic year Blackett installed to date quotes received for Red Team Notes Page 82

83 working with Project: Reference:16 Project Manager Department Description Toilet Refurbishments Kevin Cope, Alan Jones FM Building Management & Energy Manager The College is currently carrying out a rolling programme of toilet upgrades and refurbishment which includes upgrading the lighting and introducing occupancy controls to flushing of urinals. Typical savings from lights not being constantly on as well as water will support the The benefits shown are based on average toilet refurbishments ie typical number of fittings replaced, Benefits No. of toilets Saving (kwh) Saving ( ) Saving (CO2) captial Phase 1: 2009/ ,348 5, ,000 Phase 2: 2010/ ,196 5, ,000 Phase 3: 2011/ ,196 5, ,000 Phase 4: 2012/ ,196 5, ,000 Phase 5: 2013/ ,196 5, ,000 Total ,132 27, ,500,000 Financial savings estimate : 27,566 Payback period: n/a CO 2 Emissions reduction: 190 tonnes of CO 2 Cost/tCO 2 : 7,910 Funding Project cost This is from an allocated funding stream (capital replacement maintenance budget) thus not incorporated into funding required to implement the Operational costs: none Resources Ensuring Measuring Timing Notes Minor Works Manager will be coordinating the delivery of this programme It is recommended that the water savings are calculated annually based on number of urinals upgraded with presence detection as at this stage not possible to estimate A summary to be provided that indicates the exact number of fittings and specification will enable a more accurate figure for carbon savings Rolling programme see above One thing to get agreement on at an early stage is the use of LED s in toilet areas this could potentially offer further savings as savings above are based on switch start to High Frequency fluorescents Page 83

84 working with Project: Reference:17 Project Manager Department Description Liquid Pool Cover - Ethos Nick Roalfe, Henry Muss FM Liquid pool covers are a proven method of achieving similar levels of energy savings in commercial pools but where there are limitations with space for motorised or manual covers Benefits Reduces pool water evaporation and thus humidity levels thus fresh air handling plant and space temperatures can be reduced overnight Financial savings estimate : 27,749 Payback period: less than 1 year CO 2 Emissions reduction: 45 tco 2 once all phases installed. Cost/tCO 2 : 207 Funding Project cost Install: 400, BMS 2,500, Product first year: 1,300 4,200 1 st year capital Operational costs around 1,300 per annum for automatic dosing of liquid Typically pay for 5 years then over to commercial services Resources Ensuring Measuring Will be important to demonstrate carbon savings as there is an ongoing cost to the liquid Monitor savings in reduced gas and air handling with local metering Timing 2009/10 Notes Page 84

85 working with Project: Reference:18 Project Manager Department Description Steam to MTHW system at Hammersmith Campus Kevin Cope, Henry Muss FM Building Management & Energy Manager The College is replacing its steam network at the Medical campus in Hammersmith to run as a Medium Temperature Hot Water system with the incorporation of combined heat & power. This offers considerable carbon and cost savings to the College. Benefits Financial savings estimate : 146,749 Payback period: n/a as part of capital replacement maintenance budget CO 2 Emissions reduction: 1,124 tonnes of CO 2 Cost/tCO 2 : 2,669 Funding Project cost: The projects cost are in the region of 3million and are considered allocated budget not part of the capital requirements this is a project where possible Salix Funding would be considered Operational costs: tbd Resources Consultant support from Hoare Lea Ensuring Measuring Timing Notes Reduced gas and electricity from the grid as part of the project installs a CHP engine Phase 3: 2011/12 project Relies on Hoare Lea report and likely to require external funding Page 85

86 working with Project: Reference:19 Project Manager Department Description Steam Trap Survey all Campus s Chas Guirey FM Spirax currently carrying out steam trap survey of all campuses will identify failed and then replace. Benefits Financial savings: 67,756 Payback period: under 1 year CO 2 Emissions reduction: 606 tco 2 of savings identified Cost/tCO 2 : 57 Funding Project Costs: Survey costs 12,866 + replacement of traps around 21,577 = total costs of 34,443 inc VAT Operational costs: none Source of funding: Energy & Environmental Initiatives Budget Resources Ensuring Measuring Timing Estates Team with consultants to assess opportunity Compliant with Investment with manufacturers specification and guarantees Through AMR metering for those sites where installed otherwise through estimated reads adjusted annually then degree day analysed Underway Notes Page 86

87 working with Project: Reference:20 Project Manager Department Description Voltage Reduction By Transformer Tap Changing Chas Guirey/Henry Muss Estates Projects Engineering Team and Energy Team Where ICL own HV /LV Power Transformers there is usually scope to reduce the voltage from a nominal 240V to a 230V system, resulting in lower energy consumption the magnitude of which will be dependent on the characteristics of the connected load. With the exception of the three indicated below, all South Kensington campus sub-stations now operate at a reduced voltage. Sites with HV transformers owned by Supply Companies would offer similar advantages if those Companies were prepared to allow this work to proceed. Benefits Energy savings with negligible capital outlay. Programme: The magnitudes of savings are based on a conservative 5% of annual consumption. Capital costs are contingency funding as the measures itself requires no capital but there may need other remedial measures to enable the tap down. Savings (5% of annual electricity) kwh Contingency ( ) Savings ( ) Savings (TCO2) Phase /10 SAF 369,508 10,000 28, Burlington Danes 179,611 10,000 16, sub total 549,119 20,000 42, Phase /11 Commonwealth 222,925 10,000 17, Wolfson Old 9,047 5, Wolfson New 7,578 5, sub total 239,549 20,000 18, Phase /12 Library 82,315 10,000 6, Mech Eng: Data Centre 350,333 10,000 27, sub total 432,647 20,000 33, Phase /13 St.Marys 305,162 10,000 23, sub total 305,162 10,000 23, Phase /14 Guy Scadding 80,935 5,000 6, Emmanual Kaye 44,082 5,000 3, sub total 125,017 10,000 9, Total 1,651,493 80, , Financial savings estimate : 128,919 Payback period: under 1 year subject to detailed studies CO 2 Emissions reduction: 887 tonnes of CO 2 Cost/tCO 2 : 90 Potentially lower transformer losses Potential extended life of electrical equipment Funding Project contingency costs: 80,000 Energy & Environmental Initiatives Operational costs - no reoccurring costs Page 87

88 working with Resources Ensuring Measuring Timing The work would be resourced from existing ICL Engineering Staff & contracted sources e.g. EDF. Assistance and support in extracting and manipulating the necessary data for monitoring and analysis, as well as negotiations with the relevant Supply Companies, may be required from the FM Energy Team. The principle has been established at the ICL South Kensington Campus The effectiveness of these changes can be assessed over a short timescale, usually several weeks pre and several weeks post the tap down. The most effective means of validating the savings is from the recorded energy data evaluated over the study period and analysed with other important relevant data, e.g. ambient temperatures and profiles for the equipment usage The execution of this work would take place after suitable assessment by ICL Project Engineering Staff Notes Page 88

89 working with Project: Reference:21 Project Manager Department Description Voltage Optimisation Equipment (VOE) Chas Guirey, Henry Muss Engineering/FM Reduction of energy using VOE technology by voltage reduction, harmonic suppression & voltage balancing. Equipment supplied by approved manufacturer who would also carry out a cost benefit study and offer guarantees. Once confident with the VOE equipment then specific MCCC Boards can be looked at to introduce VOE to estimated at 3 opportunities per year and a 5 year estimate on payback Benefits Proven benefits as below, magnitudes to be determined Savings (% of annual electricity) kwh Capital cost ( ) Savings estimate ( ) Savings (TCO2) Phase /10 Silwood Park 141,953 64,000 11, Phase /11 3 Opportunities 51,241 20,000 4, Phase /11 3 Opportunities 51,241 20,000 4, Phase /12 3 Opportunities 51,241 20,000 4, Phase /13 3 Opportunities 51,241 20,000 4, Total 346, ,000 27, Financial savings for Phase 1 are estimated at 10% of the Gardenwood and Stable block transformer which is expected to rise. Block Transformers installed with VOE. Total estimate of savings at 27,081 Payback period: 5.3 years CO 2 Emissions reduction: 186 tonnes of CO 2 Cost/tCO 2 : 773 Funding Estimated funds of 144,000 FM Energy & Environment Initiatives Budget Resources Estates Projects Engineering Team with contracted manufacturer and installer. Assistance and support from FM Energy Team. Ensuring Investment case with manufacturers guarantees Ensure that the issues around the Reactor power supply are investigated for voltage optimisation. If rejected, savings estimate would require adjustment. Measuring Timing Notes BMS monitoring pre & post installations together with corresponding climate and plant utilisation data Phase 1 Voltage Optimisation Equipment has been ordered for the Gardenwood Transformer and a 40 month payback period estimated. Savings are proportional to site electricity consumption which will be monitored as a number of facilities are under review Page 89

90 working with Project: Reference: 22 Project Manager Department Description Planned Plant Replacement Programme Chas Guirey FM Approximately 2m is spent annually on Plant replacement of which the majority will result in more energy efficient plant. Good examples of this are replacement of old boilers with condensing boilers where improvements in boiler efficiency can be in the order of 20%. The projects here are therefore just a snapshot of the total savings in carbon likely from the Maintenance budget replacement. Benefits 2 projects that have been highlighted are the replacement of gas boilers for Fischer Hall and Emmanual Kaye. Savings over the 5 yr life of the programme are based on further boiler replacements each year Project Current Annual (kwh) 15% saving on boiler efficiency (kwh) Emissions (TCO2) Cost Saving nominal cost Phase /10 Fischer Hall Boiler Replacement 752, , , ,000 Mary Flowers Boiler Replacement 29,412 4, ,364 Emmanual Kaye 942, , , , ,587 5,348 Phase /11 Further Boiler replacements 513,503 77, , ,485 Phase /12 Further Boiler replacements 513,503 77, , ,485 Phase /13 Further Boiler replacements 513,503 77, , ,485 Phase /14 Further Boiler replacements 513,503 77, , , , ,069 1,313,302 Financial savings: around 17,069 Payback period: generally not applicable as Plant replacement budget CO 2 Emissions reduction: 105 tonnes of CO 2 Cost/tCO 2 : 12,258 Funding FM Planned Plant Replacement Budget - 1,313,302 Resources Ensuring Measuring Timing Notes Estates Maintenance Team with contracted manufacturer and installers. Compliant with Investment with manufacturers specification and guarantees Through AMR metering for those sites where installed otherwise through estimated reads adjusted annually then degree day analysed Rolling Programme Page 90

91 working with Project: Reference: 23 Project Manager Department Description Ethos Waste System Gasification & Pyrolysis Plant Kevin Cope, Graham Watson FM Building Management & Soft Services The College is exploring the installation of a waste to heat incineration unit that would be on site and would provide an alternate route to landfill for College Clinical and domestic waste with the added benefit of generating steam. Benefits Financial savings estimate: main savings are based on diverting clinical waste and domestic waste via landfill: 185,000 in total including 45,000 energy savings. Payback period: Has been estimated at 3 years CO 2 Emissions reduction: For every tonne of material disposed of through this route the manufacturers claim 160kg of CO2 savings at 10hrs a day usage and 200days this would equate to around 32tonnes of CO 2 annually. Further savings through utilising the waste heat are estimated to be around 370 giving total annual savings of CO 2 of 400tCO 2 Cost/tCO 2 : 1,375 Funding Project cost: The projects cost would be funded out of a different budget to the energy initiatives fund (Capital cost 550,000) Operational costs will be covered out of the original budget Resources Ensuring Measuring Timing Notes Head of Buildings & Soft Services will co-ordinate Working closely with supplier and understanding most appropriate location and waste streams Through audit of the type and volume of waste will enable CO 2 savings to be established as well as reduced waste stream to landfill and alternate methods of waste disposal Phase : will be initial quote given different scenario of waste volumes Installation would be earliest Phase /11 once appropriate site There could be scope for multiple installations currently SAF and Hammersmith are considered viable Page 91

92 working with Project: Reference:24 Improvement in efficiency of Data Centre Operations in Mechanical Engineering and Huxley Project Manager Department Description Chas Guirey / Steve Lawlor FM/IT The data centre in Mechanical Engineering comprises around 2000 servers and is cooled from 2 York Chillers and 2 CO 2 chillers. Currently the annual energy consumption for the area is around 7 million kwhs annually. This project will look at the cooling and IT strategy to derive energy savings There is also a data centre in level 2 of Huxley which is assumed to consume around a third of the energy of the MechEng Data Centre. Benefits Financial savings: estimate based on 5% of total cost of energy equivalent to 466,667kWh and 36,429 Payback period: 2.5yrs years CO 2 Emissions reduction: Based on 5% estimate 251tCO 2 Cost/tCO 2 : 363 Funding Resources Ensuring Measuring Timing Energy & Environmental Initiatives Budget if 5% savings can be achieved then a budget of 3 times the estimated annual savings is proposed or around: 91,000 which includes the Phase 1 study. Estates Team with consultants to assess opportunity and work with IT Monitor and work with consultants closely as well as IT Through AMR metering for those sites where installed otherwise through estimated reads adjusted annually then degree day analysed Phase /10: Consultant Report on holistic energy savings to the data centre approx 6K Phase /11: Implement Recommendations Notes Page 92

93 working with Project: Reference: 25 Project Manager Department Description Extra Projects Identified FM Team to Validate/Henry Muss FM Range of extra projects identified in early Feb with the help of Carbon Trust Loft Insulation Clayponds Draught proofing Boilerhouse operational reviews Expand continuous commissioning Non LED lighting upgrades Photovoltaics Woodchip heating Silwood Heat recovery Plug timers to Catering fridges Procurement Standards Adiabatic cooling Biodiesel for vehicles Zone controls TRV s Time switches for hot water heaters Profile steam distribution pressures based on demand Lecture theatre optimisation Capital cost 2.03 million Saving 7,738 tonnes CO 2 Cost saving 1.2 million Payback period 1.7 years. Benefits Funding Resources Ensuring Measuring Timing The above projects will be validated in Phase 1 of the CMP Notes Page 93

94 working with Appendix D: Residences Heating Policy RESIDENTIAL HEATING POLICY General Imperial College is committed to reducing its impact on the environment and actively pursuing a low energy, low carbon emission approach to all its activities wherever possible. The College has developed a, included within this are the agreed heating temperature settings for Residential Buildings during occupied and unoccupied hours with the objective to conserve energy. The Policy supports the College s sustainability goals and will result in - Reduced levels of C02 emissions - Reduced energy consumption and operating costs Heating Season For the purpose of the Policy the heating season is from mid-october to late April. There might be days when the heating is not provided out of the heating season even though the outside temperature may require this. The current heating provision with the Halls of Residences are as follows :- Term Time Only Monday to Friday to hours to hours * Wednesday Only* to hours to hours Saturday and Sunday to hours Out of Term (Excludes Summer Vacation Period) Monday to Sunday to hours Space Temperatures All residential buildings will have the space temperatures targeted for between 20 C to 22 C during the occupied hours, with the temperatures set back or with frost protection during the night to reduce energy consumption and improve sleeping conditions. In implementing this, all spaces will be maintained as close to the set points as possible, however due to the age of heating systems within some of the residential buildings and the inability to control Page 94

95 working with individual rooms, occupants may experience a range of temperatures that are a few degrees either side of the set point. Use of space heaters As a policy space heaters are prohibited due to fire and health and safety considerations and energy conservation mandates. Facilities Management Department will approve current PAT- tested space heater units, only in those limited instances where the building systems can not provide temperatures within acceptable variations of the ranges stated above. Page 95

96 working with Appendix E: Annual Projects Planner Page 96

97 working with Page 97

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