Burst Testing. New mobility standards and cloud-computing network. This application note will describe how TCP creates bursty

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Burst Testing. New mobility standards and cloud-computing network. This application note will describe how TCP creates bursty"

Transcription

1 Burst Testing Emerging high-speed protocols in mobility and access networks, combined with qualityof-service demands from business customers for services such as cloud computing, place increased performance demands on metro Ethernet networks. Specifically, these networks need to tolerate increasingly bursty transmission control protocol (TCP) traffic while maintaining high performance for real-time applications like voice and video. In the past, verifying Ethernet network key performance indicators (KPI) such as throughput, frame loss, latency, and packet jitter has been sufficient to validate network configuration and performance. Presently, and especially with the emergence of LTE/4G and virtualized computing, using only these metrics will not provide enough test coverage to ensure a highquality customer experience in the presence of bursty traffic. Best practices for Ethernet service activation need to include tests to verify explicitly network configuration and robustness in the presence of bursty traffic both at the Ethernet level and at the transmissionconvergence (TC) layer. An integrated burst-testing methodology offers carriers a solution for guaranteeing network configuration and performance in both mobility backhaul and business-services applications. Because poor performance can occur due to a wide variety of potential misconfigurations of different kinds of network equipment, optimal service-activation test methodologies will include tests to expose problems at both the Ethernet and TCP layers of the network. An integrated approach to burst testing will uncover the misconfiguration of Traffic policing in settings real networks and inadequate is bursty buffer due sizes to that the are nature common of problems TCP (75 at percent demarcation of all points Internet on the traffic). network edge. It will also uncover incorrect buffer sizes at aggregation points deeper in the New mobility standards and cloud-computing network. This application note will describe how TCP creates bursty applications make problems with traffic bursts even traffic, how Ethernet networks accommodate these data bursts, more detrimental to the user experience. and how an integrated burst test methodology with simple pass/ fail Traditional results can assurance expose and help standards fix the problems (RFC 2544 that and lead Y.1564) to a bad customer have overlooked experience. burst testing or label it as an option. Testing with only constant bit-rate traffic does not validate buffer and policer configuration. Application Note

2 Why Test Burst Traditional Ethernet service-activation test methodologies such as RFC 2544 focus on testing with constant bit rate traffic. Constant bit rate testing is an important step in testing Ethernet services because it can measure throughput, frame loss, latency, and packet jitter while the network is operating in steady state for a given rate of test traffic. While testing with constant bit-rate traffic can validate important KPIs, it does not validate how well the network will perform when transporting the expected traffic patterns which will likely consist of a mix of constant bit-rate voice and video traffic and bursty data traffic. Ensuring that this bursty data traffic can pass through the network without frame loss and without impacting other services are the two goals of burst testing. Viavi offers a truly integrated approach to burst testing. Committed burst size tests to identify misconfigurations in policing and buffer sizes. TCP TrueSpeed tests to validate service performance and eliminate finger pointing. Wireless Backhaul Wireless backhaul networks provide an interesting case study in the negative impacts of failing to test network reliability to bursty traffic. Figure 1 shows a simplified view of a wireless backhaul network where a wireless provider is contracting with a backhaul provider to transport their Ethernet traffic from a cell site to the location of their mobile telephone switching office (MTSO). In this example, data packets using TCP/ IP will be sent from wireless devices to a base transceiver station (BTS) using a wireless protocol such as universal mobile telecommunications system (UMTS) or long term evolution (LTE). The packets will then be transported to the wireless provider s MTSO over an Ethernet network. Figure 1. Mobility backhaul network As Figure 1 illustrates, any Ethernet frames carrying TCP traffic that are dropped in the Ethernet backhaul network will cause retransmissions over the wireless protocol. This occurs because, as a reliable protocol, TCP will retransmit datagrams that do not successfully traverse the network to ensure that all of the data requested will eventually arrive. In mobile networks, this causes additional stress on wireless spectrum, which can be the most congested part of the network. Wireless retransmissions not only lead to lower data throughput for individual users, but also degrades performance for all customers using the shared wireless spectrum. One of the biggest advantages of fourth-generation wireless protocols like LTE is the ability to support increased data-throughput rates. With higher throughput rates, data traffic becomes increasingly bursty because each datagram transfer can occur at a higher max rate and in a shorter period of time. This effect is then compounded by adding bursts from other users on the wireless network to create the traffic pattern that will be sent to the Ethernet backhaul network. If the Ethernet switches and routers are not configured properly to accommodate these bursts of traffic, the performance degradation will be even more noticeable to users who have become accustomed to higher-rate data services on their mobile devices. To ensure optimal performance for their wireless customers and reduce customer churn, mobile operators and their Ethernet backhaul partners should adopt a comprehensive burst-testing methodology. 2 Burst Testing

3 Cloud Computing The emergence of cloud computing, with virtualized computing and storage resources accessible to business customers via a metro Ethernet network interface, offers service providers massive new revenue opportunities. However, it also presents new operational challenges. Figure 2 illustrates a simplified network diagram where a business customer has two office locations connected to each other and to the public Internet via a service provider s metro Ethernet network. In addition, each office location has access to virtualized computing and storage resources located at either a service provider or third-party data center. In this scenario, the customer might use the cloud to provide additional computing capacity at peak times, increased service availability and reliability, or data backup for disaster recovery. Regardless of the application, the data sent to and from the virtual computing and storage resources will use TCP as the transport layer protocol, which will generate more bursty data traffic in the network. Figure 2. Business services with the cloud As illustrated in Figure 2, retransmissions in cloud-computing applications will slow data transfer speeds and reduce performance for the business applications which are running in the virtual environment. To make matters even worse, because the customer is charged based on usage, reduced application efficiency introduced by network problems translates directly into a higher cost for the customer. 3 Burst Testing

4 TCP Traffic Bursty by Nature As illustrated in Figure 3, common applications can be classified by the type of traffic that they produce either bursty traffic or constant bit rate traffic. Real-time applications such as voice and video tend to produce traffic that has a constant bit rate because the audio or video signals that need to be transported across the network are generally constant bit rate signals themselves. When transported across an IP network, realtime voice and video traffic typically utilize user datagram protocol (UDP) because reduced latency is of great importance and the application layer can account for some level of lost or out-of-order datagrams. Long delays and retransmissions cause noticeable performance degradation for the user. Figure 3. TCP vs. UDP By contrast, applications that primarily transfer data, such as HTTP, FTP, and , require high reliability, meaning that all segments transmitted across a network appear in order and without lost segments. These data-centric applications rely on TCP because it was designed to provide these features. To provide reliable data transfer at the highest speeds possible, TCP uses a variety of algorithms to maximize throughput while avoiding data loss. If a loss is detected, TCP will retransmit the lost data segment, but also will potentially change the rate at which it sends additional data. The result is a protocol that guarantees reliable transfer, but does so by creating burst traffic as illustrated in Figure 3. 4 Burst Testing

5 Bandwidth Profiles Committed Information Rate (CIR) and Committed Burst Size (CBS) Metro Ethernet networks employ sophisticated bandwidth profiles for each Ethernet virtual connection (EVC) so that both the user and the service provider agree which traffic conforms to their service level agreement (SLA) and which does not. To account for the bursty nature of data traffic, Ethernet bandwidth profiles define both a CIR and a CBS among other attributes 1. The CIR defines the average rate in bits-persecond of Ethernet service frames that the network will accept and deliver while meeting agreed-upon service performance objectives 2. If all network traffic traversed at constant bit rates, defining just a CIR would be sufficient to characterize the bandwidth profile. However, as illustrated in the previous section, data traffic transported via TCP tends to be bursty in nature. Along with a CIR, a bandwidth profile must also include a CBS, which is the maximum number of bytes available for burst at any rate up to and including the line rate while remaining CIR-conformant. For example, if the physical port is 1 Gbps, and the CIR is 100 Mbps, TCP will burst at 1 Gbps. Ethernet network equipment should be tested with line rate bursts because it should be able to handle a specific amount of burst in short time periods above the CIR. It is important to note that TCP will try to transmit bursts of data at the physical line rate and not at the contracted CIR. Figure 4 illustrates a common implementation for bandwidth profile enforcement known as the token bucket algorithm. This application note will focus on the committed or C bucket, which is used to determine CIR-conformant service frames. Conceptually, the C bucket is initially filled with CBS tokens where each token can be used to admit one byte of Ethernet service frame traffic into the network as CIR-conformant. When a new service frame enters the network, the length of the service frame in bytes is checked against the number of tokens remaining in the C bucket. If enough tokens are present, the service frame will be admitted to the network as CIR-conformant and the number of tokens left in the bucket will decrease by the number of bytes in the service frame. If there are not enough tokens present, the service frame is not CIR-conformant but may still be admitted to the network depending on the excess information rate (EIR) and excess burst size (EBS) attributes of the bandwidth profile. As illustrated in the diagram below, new tokens are added to the C bucket at a rate of CIR/8 times-per-second. Conceptually, the CBS is the size of the bucket, the CIR is that rate at which the bucket is filled with tokens, and the rate at which CIRconformant service frames are admitted to the network (the token usage rate) is the drain rate. 1. The other bandwidth profile attributes defined in MEF 10.2 EIR, EBS, coupling flag (CF), and color mode (CM) are outside the scope of this application note. 2. Common performance objectives are maximum frame loss, latency, and packet jitter. 5 Burst Testing

6 Figure 4. Token bucket algorithm The following examples will further illustrate the significance of CIR and CBS for a service that has a UNI line rate of 1 G, a CIR of 40 Mbps, and a CBS of 64 KB. Example 1 A user sends a 64 KB burst of service frames at line rate, which takes approximately ms 3, then the user stops transmitting for 12.3 ms before beginning another 64 KB burst. In this case, all of the service frames will be marked as CIR-conformant and admitted to the network. Initially, the C bucket was filled with 64 KB of tokens. As service frames arrived, 64 KB of tokens were depleted, but during the burst tokens were refilled at a rate of 5 MBps, leaving 2.56 KB at the end of the burst. During the subsequent idle period of 12.3 ms, the token bucket would have refilled to the initial level of 64 KB. So, a user can send a 64 KB burst of service frames at any rate up to and including the line rate every 12.8 ms and guarantee that every service frame will be CIR-conformant with a significant margin. Figure 5. Example 1 3. (64 KB * 8 bit/b) / 1 G = ms for simplicity, calculations disregard Layer 1 overhead, which is approximately accurate assuming large frame sizes. 6 Burst Testing

7 Example 2 A user sends a 135 KB burst of service frames at line rate, then stops transmitting for ms before beginning another 135 KB burst. In this case, approximately 69 KB 5 of the service frames will be admitted to the network as CIR-conformant while the rest of the service frames will be marked as not CIR-conformant and may or may not be dropped depending on EIR and EBS settings. Initially the C bucket contained 64 KB of tokens, which began to be depleted as the burst frames arrived. During the burst, which lasted 1.08 ms, the C bucket refilled with 5.4 KB of tokens. The 135 KB of burst frames is greater than the 69.4 KB of tokens available in the C bucket so some frames will be marked as non-circonformant. After being completely depleted during the burst, the C bucket will completely refill during the idle period so that it will be able to accommodate approximately 69.4 KB of the subsequent burst as CIR conformant with the remainder non-cir-conformant. Figure 6. Example 2 Testing Correct CBS Configuration Viavi Solutions has implemented a CBS test methodology in both SAMComplete Y.1546 and enhanced RFC 2544 automated service activation workflows. The following demonstrations will illustrate how these tests can be run using two T-BERD /MTS-6000A test sets equipped with Multi Service Application Modules (MSAM) in a network setup with a Cisco ME-3400 Metro Ethernet Switch and a delay element used to simulate a wide area network (WAN) environment. As shown in Figure 7, the ME Gbps Ethernet interfaces will be configured for a 40 Mbps CIR and a 64 KB CBS to match the configuration of the theoretical examples described above. The switch will be configured to drop any received frames that are non-cir-conformant. Figure 7. Test network diagram B + ( ms * 40 Mbps /8 bit/b) = 64 KB 5. The exact amount will depend on frame size 7 Burst Testing

8 In this test setup, the T-BERD/MTS-6000A labeled Near End will initiate a CBS test while the T-BERD/MTS-6000A labeled Far End will be automatically configured by the near-end device to loopback the test frames. Using the test network described above, the following tests will illustrate CBS testing from two different perspectives. The first test will show how a wireless operator who has contracted with an Ethernet backhaul provider for backhaul service will ensure that 64 KB bursts of service frames will traverse the backhaul network without any packet loss. The second test will show how an Ethernet service provider who has specific CIR and CBS values specified for an Ethernet service can verify that the policing settings are, in fact, correctly configured. These two tests will run as a part of the enhanced RFC 2544 test application. Note that a user can also run similar CBS tests as part of the Y.1564 SAMComplete application, which would be desirable for network interfaces supporting multiple classes of service. Test 1 Testing with a 64 KB Burst In the Enhanced RFC 2544 application, the Select Tests setup screen lets a user select which tests to run. The screen in Figure 8 shows that the user wants to run throughput and burst tests. Figure 8. Test 1 Select Tests setup screen 8 Burst Testing

9 The Utilization setup screen shown in Figure 9 lets a user configure both the bandwidth units and the maximum bandwidth, which have been configured for 40 Mbps for Layer 2, conforming to the CIR. Figure 9. Test 1 Utilization setup screen The Frame Lengths setup screen shown in Figure 10 lets a user configure each frame length to be used for both Throughput and CBS tests. This screen shows that frame lengths of 64 to 1518 bytes have been selected. Figure 10. Test 1 Frame Lengths setup screen 9 Burst Testing

10 The Burst Test setup screen in Figure 11 lets a user configure both the burst test type to run as well as the CBS value. This example shows that the Committed Burst Size test type has been selected and the CBS value is set to 64 KB. Figure 11. Test 1 Burst Test setup screen This test first checks network throughput using constant bit rate traffic at the specified CIR to validate proper network configuration. Figure 12 shows that based on this configuration setup, the test measured throughput for various frame lengths from 64 bytes to 1518 bytes and the test passed for all packet lengths, indicating that it was correctly configured. Note that the Layer 2 throughput measured 40 Mbps for all frame lengths and that the required Layer 1 throughput is higher for smaller frame lengths than for larger ones due to the fixed Ethernet overhead size. Figure 12. Test 1 Throughput Test results 10 Burst Testing

11 The Burst Test results screen shown in Figure 13 displays the parameters used in the CBS test and the results for each selected frame size. Note that the transmitted burst size for each frame length is exactly 64 KB for frame lengths that divide evenly into 64 KB and is as close to 64 KB as possible for those that do not divide evenly into 64 KB. The average received burst size indicates the size of the bursts received from the network (with the far-end T-BERD/MTS-6000A in loopback). For each packet length, the average number of bytes received matches the number transmitted with zero frame loss; therefore, the test passed, as the Pass/Fail column indicates. Figure 13. Test 1 Burst (CBS) Test results Test 2 Testing the Policer The CBS Policing test, shown in Figure 14, verifies that the ME-3400 policer is correctly marking service frames as either conforming or not conforming to the CIR by transmitting bursts of frames similar to those in Example 2. Policing tests are helpful for Ethernet backhaul carriers or Ethernet business services providers to ensure that policer settings are configured correctly to prevent customers from using more bandwidth than should be allowed. This policing test transmits bursts of frames that are significantly larger than the CIR and CBS settings will accommodate (taking token bucket refill into account) to induce the policer to admit some frames into the network and drop others. The test then estimates the CBS based on the number of frames that successfully traverse the network and compares that to the configured CBS to generate a pass/fail result for the test. For policing tests, the CIR and frame lengths are configured the same as in the previous test. In the Burst Test setup screen, the Burst Test Type is changed to CBS Policing while the CBS is still set to 64 KB. By default the tolerances for declaring a passing CBS are ±2 percent, which can be changed using the advanced settings. 11 Burst Testing

12 Figure 14. Test 2 Burst Test setup screen The Burst Test results screen, shown in Figure 15, now shows results from the burst policing tests, which mirrors Example 2. The Tx burst policing size is set to transmit bursts of approximately 135 KB for each frame size. The average Rx burst size shows the average number of service frame bytes that successfully traversed the network. For each frame size, approximately 69 KB of frames successfully traversed the network, matching the expectation from Example 2, which indicates that the policer is marking some of the frames as not CIR-conformant and drops them. The estimated CBS approximates the actual CBS value that is configured in the network element. In all cases, this value is close (within ±2%) to the expected 64 KB value, indicating that the policer is configured correctly and shows all frame sizes as passing the test. Note that the fixed Ethernet overhead size, the fact that only whole frames can be dropped, and the actual policer implementation (accuracy and resolution) cause slight differences in the estimated CBS value for each frame size. Figure 15. Test 2 Burst Test results 12 Burst Testing

13 Testing Performance with Bursty TCP The throughput and CBS test results described in the previous section validate that a network has been correctly configured for a 40 Mbps CIR and a 64 KB CBS. These tests, which are performed at the Ethernet layer (Layer 2), do not necessarily validate the performance that a user will experience when transferring data using TCP (Layer 4) because the CBS tests and policer tests do not exactly mirror the burst nature of TCP transfers. These tests are only meant to validate the correct configuration of CBS. Something else is needed to validate user application performance. Even though a CBS test passes, it does not necessarily mean that customer application throughput will be good and provide a high quality of experience. A proper Ethernet service verification test has two key components verifying network misconfigurations or provisioning issues and verifying service performance or quality of experience. It is not enough to know that the network can handle 64 KB burst. Is the 64 KB burst size sufficient to provide 100 percent quality application throughput? This is why Viavi recommends a two-pronged approach to testing burst using the CBS test to find buffer configuration problems and using RFC 6349 TrueSpeed to verify customer quality of experience. For a full discussion of RFC 6349 and the Viavi TrueSpeed test, see the Viavi RFC 6349 Testing with TrueSpeed application note. TrueSpeed Performance Test 1 The TCP performance test will use the same network setup described previously. In the setup screen for the TrueSpeed test, shown in Figure 16, the CIR is configured to 40 Mbps as before, the TCP port is set to 10004, the test pass threshold is set to 99 percent, the test time is set to 240 seconds, the MTU has been set to 1500 to match the network settings, and the IP TOS is configured to on both test sets. Figure 16. Truespeed setup 13 Burst Testing

14 To calculate the bandwidth delay product, the TrueSpeed test measures the round trip time (RTT) through the network. In this case (as seen in Figure 17), the RTT of slightly more than 54 ms indicates that the vast majority of the delay in the network is caused by the 54 ms delay element with only minimal delay introduced in the switch or the far-end T-BERD/MTS-6000A. Figure 17. RTT results The Walk the Window test measures the TCP throughput for 1, 2, 3, and 4 TCP connections with a 64 KB window size, which is a standard TCP window size for many operating systems. In this case, each TCP connection would ideally provide approximately 10 Mbps of throughput. Figure 18 illustrates measured performance relative to ideal performance for each number of connections used. In all four cases, measured performance falls short of ideal. Figure 18. Failing Walk-the-Window results 14 Burst Testing

15 In the TCP throughput test, shown in Figure 19, the test set attempts to achieve full CIR throughput with four TCP connections each using a 64 KB window size. Again, the results indicate that performance is significantly worse than ideal reaching only 13.5 Mbps when the ideal expected should be 38 Mbps. The TCP efficiency metric indicates that TCP retransmissions occurred during the test, which is likely the main contributor to poor performance. In contrast, the buffer delay metric indicates that average RTT differed from the baseline only slightly. Figure 19. Failing throughput results The throughput graphs show the actual TCP throughput achieved over time plotted against TCP retransmissions and the measured RTT. These graphs illustrate that TCP retransmissions account for the majority of performance loss, as the red line on the left in Figure 20 indicates significant TCP retransmissions over the course of the test. The green line on the right graph indicates that the RTT remained constant near the baseline throughout the test. Figure 20. Failing throughput graphs results The test failed because of TCP bursts that were larger than 64 KB. These bursts exceeded the CBS, causing the switch to mark some frames as non-cir-conformant and hence failing to admit them to the network by dropping them. 15 Burst Testing

16 TrueSpeed Performance Test 2 One potential solution is to increase the size of the CBS configured on the Ethernet switch while keeping all other network parameters the same. For this test, as Figure 21 shows, the CBS setting on the ME-3400 is increased to 275 KB and the TrueSpeed test is performed again with identical settings. Figure 21. Network setup 275 KB CBS As Figure 22 shows, the RTT remained approximately 54 ms as expected. Figure 22. RTT results 16 Burst Testing

17 The Walk the Window test showed very good performance for 1, 2, 3, and 4 connections using a 64 KB window size, as Figure 23 illustrates. Figure 23. Passing Walk-the-Window results Figure 24 shows that the TCP throughput tests passed, acheiving greater than 99 percent of ideal TCP throughput and 100 percent TCP efficiency. Figure 24. Passing throughput results 17 Burst Testing

18 Finally, the throughput graphs in Figure 25 indicate no retransmissions throughout the course of the test and minimal variation of the RTT. Figure 25. Passing throughput graphs The passing result in this TrueSpeed performance test indicates that increasing the CBS on the Ethernet switch allows the customer to achieve full TCP throughput. Please note that there are other potential solutions, such as applying traffic shaping at the customer premises, that are not considered by this application note. In any case, after making a change to CBS or CIR settings in a network element, Viavi recommends first preforming Throughput, CBS, and Policer tests (as described above) to ensure proper configuration of the new settings before running the TrueSpeed performance test. This step was omitted from this application note for brevity. 18 Burst Testing

19 Conclusion As Ethernet services continue to offer users higher bandwidths for mobile, business, and consumer applications, the bursty nature of TCP traffic poses a significant threat to seriously degrade the user experience. To ensure the highest-quality services for their users, network operators need to test both the configuration of their networks with a CBS test as part of their RFC 2544 or Y.1564 service activation test as well as the performance of the network with a TrueSpeed TCP performance test, as illustrated in Figure 26. The combination of these two tests will guarantee that services meet customer expectations, reduce trouble calls, and lower customer churn. Figure 26. Integrated burst testing methodology The CBS test and the TrueSpeed test described in this application note are integrated into the RFC 2544 and Y.1564 automated workflows on the T-BERD/MTS-5800 and the T-BERD/MTS-6000A and MSAM, shown here in Figure 27. Figure 27. The T-BERD/MTS product family 19 Burst Testing

20 Contact Us GO VIAVI ( ) To reach the Viavi office nearest you, visit viavisolutions.com/contacts Viavi Solutions, Inc. Product specifications and descriptions in this document are subject to change without notice. burstingtest-an-tfs-tm-ae viavisolutions.com

Best Practices for Testing Ethernet and Network Synchronization at the Cell Site

Best Practices for Testing Ethernet and Network Synchronization at the Cell Site Best Practices for Testing Ethernet and Network Synchronization at the Cell Site The explosive growth in the number of 4G mobile subscribers and ever-increasing mobile data usage is driving mobile operators

More information

Using TrueSpeed VNF to Test TCP Throughput in a Call Center Environment

Using TrueSpeed VNF to Test TCP Throughput in a Call Center Environment Using TrueSpeed VNF to Test TCP Throughput in a Call Center Environment TrueSpeed VNF provides network operators and enterprise users with repeatable, standards-based testing to resolve complaints about

More information

Bandwidth Profiles for Ethernet Services Ralph Santitoro

Bandwidth Profiles for Ethernet Services Ralph Santitoro Ralph Santitoro Abstract This paper provides a comprehensive technical overview of bandwidth profiles for Ethernet services, based on the work of the Metro Ethernet Forum (MEF) Technical Committee. The

More information

Bandwidth Profiles for Ethernet Services Ralph Santitoro

Bandwidth Profiles for Ethernet Services Ralph Santitoro Ralph Santitoro Abstract This paper provides a comprehensive technical overview of bandwidth profiles for Ethernet services, based on the work (as of October 2003) of the Metro Ethernet Forum (MEF) Technical

More information

RFC 6349 Testing with TrueSpeed from JDSU Experience Your Network as Your Customers Do

RFC 6349 Testing with TrueSpeed from JDSU Experience Your Network as Your Customers Do RFC 6349 Testing with TrueSpeed from JDSU Experience Your Network as Your Customers Do RFC 6349 is the new transmission control protocol (TCP) throughput test methodology that JDSU co-authored along with

More information

Improving Quality of Service

Improving Quality of Service Improving Quality of Service Using Dell PowerConnect 6024/6024F Switches Quality of service (QoS) mechanisms classify and prioritize network traffic to improve throughput. This article explains the basic

More information

Packet Capture and Expert Troubleshooting with the Viavi Solutions T-BERD /MTS-6000A

Packet Capture and Expert Troubleshooting with the Viavi Solutions T-BERD /MTS-6000A Packet Capture and Expert Troubleshooting with the Viavi Solutions T-BERD /MTS-6000A By Barry Constantine Introduction As network complexity grows, network provider technicians require the ability to troubleshoot

More information

Using & Offering Wholesale Ethernet Network and Operational Considerations

Using & Offering Wholesale Ethernet Network and Operational Considerations White Paper Using and Offering Wholesale Ethernet Using & Offering Wholesale Ethernet Network and Operational Considerations Introduction Business services customers are continuing to migrate to Carrier

More information

JDSU Ethernet Testing

JDSU Ethernet Testing Key Benefits of Probe/Instrument Integration Unique Test Capabilities The following sections detail how various test applications benefit from the interoperability of QT-600 probes and T-BERD/MTS instruments.

More information

APPLICATION NOTE 209 QUALITY OF SERVICE: KEY CONCEPTS AND TESTING NEEDS. Quality of Service Drivers. Why Test Quality of Service?

APPLICATION NOTE 209 QUALITY OF SERVICE: KEY CONCEPTS AND TESTING NEEDS. Quality of Service Drivers. Why Test Quality of Service? QUALITY OF SERVICE: KEY CONCEPTS AND TESTING NEEDS By Thierno Diallo, Product Specialist With the increasing demand for advanced voice and video services, the traditional best-effort delivery model is

More information

Frame Metering in 802.1Q Version 01

Frame Metering in 802.1Q Version 01 Frame Metering in 802.1Q Version 01 Stephen Haddock January 15, 2013 1 Overview Frame metering introduced in 802.1ad-2005 in conjunction with the DEI bit of the S-VLAN tag. The DEI bit was introduced to

More information

Customer White paper. SmartTester. Delivering SLA Activation and Performance Testing. November 2012 Author Luc-Yves Pagal-Vinette

Customer White paper. SmartTester. Delivering SLA Activation and Performance Testing. November 2012 Author Luc-Yves Pagal-Vinette SmartTester Delivering SLA Activation and Performance Testing November 2012 Author Luc-Yves Pagal-Vinette Customer White paper Table of Contents Executive Summary I- RFC-2544 is applicable for WAN and

More information

Distributed Systems 3. Network Quality of Service (QoS)

Distributed Systems 3. Network Quality of Service (QoS) Distributed Systems 3. Network Quality of Service (QoS) Paul Krzyzanowski pxk@cs.rutgers.edu 1 What factors matter for network performance? Bandwidth (bit rate) Average number of bits per second through

More information

The Data Replication Bottleneck: Overcoming Out of Order and Lost Packets across the WAN

The Data Replication Bottleneck: Overcoming Out of Order and Lost Packets across the WAN The Data Replication Bottleneck: Overcoming Out of Order and Lost Packets across the WAN By Jim Metzler, Cofounder, Webtorials Editorial/Analyst Division Background and Goal Many papers have been written

More information

www.careercert.info Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.

www.careercert.info Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark. 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. DESGN v2.0 3-11 Enterprise Campus and Data Center Design Review Analyze organizational requirements: Type of applications, traffic volume, and traffic pattern

More information

Service Definition. Internet Service. Introduction. Product Overview. Service Specification

Service Definition. Internet Service. Introduction. Product Overview. Service Specification Service Definition Introduction This Service Definition describes Nexium s from the customer s perspective. In this document the product is described in terms of an overview, service specification, service

More information

Effects of Filler Traffic In IP Networks. Adam Feldman April 5, 2001 Master s Project

Effects of Filler Traffic In IP Networks. Adam Feldman April 5, 2001 Master s Project Effects of Filler Traffic In IP Networks Adam Feldman April 5, 2001 Master s Project Abstract On the Internet, there is a well-documented requirement that much more bandwidth be available than is used

More information

Quality of Service (QoS) on Netgear switches

Quality of Service (QoS) on Netgear switches Quality of Service (QoS) on Netgear switches Section 1 Principles and Practice of QoS on IP networks Introduction to QoS Why? In a typical modern IT environment, a wide variety of devices are connected

More information

Performance of Cisco IPS 4500 and 4300 Series Sensors

Performance of Cisco IPS 4500 and 4300 Series Sensors White Paper Performance of Cisco IPS 4500 and 4300 Series Sensors White Paper September 2012 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information. Page 1 of

More information

Central Office Testing of Network Services

Central Office Testing of Network Services Central Office Testing of Network Services Rev 4 Application Note Ethernet is rapidly becoming the predominant method for deploying new commercial services and for expanding backhaul capacity. Carriers

More information

Application Level Congestion Control Enhancements in High BDP Networks. Anupama Sundaresan

Application Level Congestion Control Enhancements in High BDP Networks. Anupama Sundaresan Application Level Congestion Control Enhancements in High BDP Networks Anupama Sundaresan Organization Introduction Motivation Implementation Experiments and Results Conclusions 2 Developing a Grid service

More information

Evaluating Wireless Broadband Gateways for Deployment by Service Provider Customers

Evaluating Wireless Broadband Gateways for Deployment by Service Provider Customers Evaluating Wireless Broadband Gateways for Deployment by Service Provider Customers Overview A leading provider of voice, video, and data services to the residential and businesses communities designed

More information

This topic lists the key mechanisms use to implement QoS in an IP network.

This topic lists the key mechanisms use to implement QoS in an IP network. IP QoS Mechanisms QoS Mechanisms This topic lists the key mechanisms use to implement QoS in an IP network. QoS Mechanisms Classification: Each class-oriented QoS mechanism has to support some type of

More information

IP Marking, Metering, and Management

IP Marking, Metering, and Management ENSC 833 High Performance Networks IP Marking, Metering, and Management Jason Uy 953011932 Alison Xu - 200113578 April 14, 2003 Dr. Ljiljana Trajkovic Table of Contents TABLE OF CONTENTS... 2 LIST OF FIGURES...

More information

Network Simulation Traffic, Paths and Impairment

Network Simulation Traffic, Paths and Impairment Network Simulation Traffic, Paths and Impairment Summary Network simulation software and hardware appliances can emulate networks and network hardware. Wide Area Network (WAN) emulation, by simulating

More information

Congestion Control Review. 15-441 Computer Networking. Resource Management Approaches. Traffic and Resource Management. What is congestion control?

Congestion Control Review. 15-441 Computer Networking. Resource Management Approaches. Traffic and Resource Management. What is congestion control? Congestion Control Review What is congestion control? 15-441 Computer Networking What is the principle of TCP? Lecture 22 Queue Management and QoS 2 Traffic and Resource Management Resource Management

More information

Clearing the Way for VoIP

Clearing the Way for VoIP Gen2 Ventures White Paper Clearing the Way for VoIP An Alternative to Expensive WAN Upgrades Executive Overview Enterprises have traditionally maintained separate networks for their voice and data traffic.

More information

SUNYIT. Reaction Paper 2. Measuring the performance of VoIP over Wireless LAN

SUNYIT. Reaction Paper 2. Measuring the performance of VoIP over Wireless LAN SUNYIT Reaction Paper 2 Measuring the performance of VoIP over Wireless LAN SUBMITTED BY : SANJEEVAKUMAR 10/3/2013 Summary of the Paper The paper s main goal is to compare performance of VoIP in both LAN

More information

isam: Simplifying Ethernet Testing for Today s Network Reality

isam: Simplifying Ethernet Testing for Today s Network Reality isam: Simplifying Ethernet Testing for Today s Network Reality Marquis Dorais, Product Specialist T&D, EXFO THE BUSINESS REALITY As a result of ever-increasing competition in the telecom industry, service

More information

A Dell Technical White Paper Dell PowerConnect Team

A Dell Technical White Paper Dell PowerConnect Team Flow Control and Network Performance A Dell Technical White Paper Dell PowerConnect Team THIS WHITE PAPER IS FOR INFORMATIONAL PURPOSES ONLY, AND MAY CONTAIN TYPOGRAPHICAL ERRORS AND TECHNICAL INACCURACIES.

More information

Preparing Your IP Network for High Definition Video Conferencing

Preparing Your IP Network for High Definition Video Conferencing WHITE PAPER Preparing Your IP Network for High Definition Video Conferencing Contents Overview...3 Video Conferencing Bandwidth Demand...3 Bandwidth and QoS...3 Bridge (MCU) Bandwidth Demand...4 Available

More information

Improving Effective WAN Throughput for Large Data Flows By Peter Sevcik and Rebecca Wetzel November 2008

Improving Effective WAN Throughput for Large Data Flows By Peter Sevcik and Rebecca Wetzel November 2008 Improving Effective WAN Throughput for Large Data Flows By Peter Sevcik and Rebecca Wetzel November 2008 When you buy a broadband Wide Area Network (WAN) you want to put the entire bandwidth capacity to

More information

VOIP QOS. Thomas Mangin. ITSPA - Autumn Seminar 11th October 2012 LEEDS. Technical Director IXLeeds AND THE IXP THE CORE THE EDGE

VOIP QOS. Thomas Mangin. ITSPA - Autumn Seminar 11th October 2012 LEEDS. Technical Director IXLeeds AND THE IXP THE CORE THE EDGE VOIP QOS ITSPA - Autumn Seminar 11th October 2012 LEEDS THE EDGE THE CORE AND THE IXP Thomas Mangin Technical Director IXLeeds AGENDA NO AGENDA Agenda are good to let you known when to doze off There is

More information

Voice Over IP Performance Assurance

Voice Over IP Performance Assurance Voice Over IP Performance Assurance Transforming the WAN into a voice-friendly using Exinda WAN OP 2.0 Integrated Performance Assurance Platform Document version 2.0 Voice over IP Performance Assurance

More information

UNDERSTANDING BUSINESS ETHERNET SERVICES

UNDERSTANDING BUSINESS ETHERNET SERVICES UNDERSTANDING BUSINESS ETHERNET SERVICES EMPOWER YOUR BUSINESS TO MEET 21ST CENTURY DEMANDS INTRODUCTION The network is your business has been a mantra for many years indicating how businesses rely more

More information

Measure wireless network performance using testing tool iperf

Measure wireless network performance using testing tool iperf Measure wireless network performance using testing tool iperf By Lisa Phifer, SearchNetworking.com Many companies are upgrading their wireless networks to 802.11n for better throughput, reach, and reliability,

More information

Frequently Asked Questions

Frequently Asked Questions Frequently Asked Questions 1. Q: What is the Network Data Tunnel? A: Network Data Tunnel (NDT) is a software-based solution that accelerates data transfer in point-to-point or point-to-multipoint network

More information

Quality of Service. Traditional Nonconverged Network. Traditional data traffic characteristics:

Quality of Service. Traditional Nonconverged Network. Traditional data traffic characteristics: Quality of Service 1 Traditional Nonconverged Network Traditional data traffic characteristics: Bursty data flow FIFO access Not overly time-sensitive; delays OK Brief outages are survivable 2 1 Converged

More information

Implementing Cisco Quality of Service QOS v2.5; 5 days, Instructor-led

Implementing Cisco Quality of Service QOS v2.5; 5 days, Instructor-led Implementing Cisco Quality of Service QOS v2.5; 5 days, Instructor-led Course Description Implementing Cisco Quality of Service (QOS) v2.5 provides learners with in-depth knowledge of QoS requirements,

More information

Driving Service Delivery with SLA Performance Management

Driving Service Delivery with SLA Performance Management Driving Service Delivery with SLA Performance Management Providers #1 competitive advantage Service providers more and more depend on Ethernet services as the networks are evolving from traditional voice

More information

UNDERSTANDING BUSINESS ETHERNET SERVICES

UNDERSTANDING BUSINESS ETHERNET SERVICES EMPOWER YOUR BUSINESS TO MEET 21ST CENTURY DEMANDS INTRODUCTION The network is your business has been a mantra for many years indicating how businesses rely more heavily on being networked between their

More information

Applications. Network Application Performance Analysis. Laboratory. Objective. Overview

Applications. Network Application Performance Analysis. Laboratory. Objective. Overview Laboratory 12 Applications Network Application Performance Analysis Objective The objective of this lab is to analyze the performance of an Internet application protocol and its relation to the underlying

More information

File Transfer Protocol (FTP) Throughput Testing by Rachel Weiss

File Transfer Protocol (FTP) Throughput Testing by Rachel Weiss White Paper File Transfer Protocol (FTP) Throughput Testing by Rachel Weiss Introduction In today s complex networks it is often difficult to correlate different measurements that are reported by network

More information

How QoS differentiation enhances the OTT video streaming experience. Netflix over a QoS enabled

How QoS differentiation enhances the OTT video streaming experience. Netflix over a QoS enabled NSN White paper Netflix over a QoS enabled LTE network February 2013 How QoS differentiation enhances the OTT video streaming experience Netflix over a QoS enabled LTE network 2013 Nokia Solutions and

More information

Application Note. Windows 2000/XP TCP Tuning for High Bandwidth Networks. mguard smart mguard PCI mguard blade

Application Note. Windows 2000/XP TCP Tuning for High Bandwidth Networks. mguard smart mguard PCI mguard blade Application Note Windows 2000/XP TCP Tuning for High Bandwidth Networks mguard smart mguard PCI mguard blade mguard industrial mguard delta Innominate Security Technologies AG Albert-Einstein-Str. 14 12489

More information

"Charting the Course... ... to Your Success!" QOS - Implementing Cisco Quality of Service 2.5 Course Summary

Charting the Course... ... to Your Success! QOS - Implementing Cisco Quality of Service 2.5 Course Summary Course Summary Description Implementing Cisco Quality of Service (QOS) v2.5 provides learners with in-depth knowledge of QoS requirements, conceptual models such as best effort, IntServ, and DiffServ,

More information

Cisco Integrated Services Routers Performance Overview

Cisco Integrated Services Routers Performance Overview Integrated Services Routers Performance Overview What You Will Learn The Integrated Services Routers Generation 2 (ISR G2) provide a robust platform for delivering WAN services, unified communications,

More information

Quality of Service in ATM Networks

Quality of Service in ATM Networks Quality of Service in ATM Networks Components of a QoS Network 1. At network entrance: Policing and Shaping 2. Somewhere in the network: Admission Control 3. At switches: Classification, Scheduling 4.

More information

CHAPTER 2. QoS ROUTING AND ITS ROLE IN QOS PARADIGM

CHAPTER 2. QoS ROUTING AND ITS ROLE IN QOS PARADIGM CHAPTER 2 QoS ROUTING AND ITS ROLE IN QOS PARADIGM 22 QoS ROUTING AND ITS ROLE IN QOS PARADIGM 2.1 INTRODUCTION As the main emphasis of the present research work is on achieving QoS in routing, hence this

More information

Quality of Service Analysis of site to site for IPSec VPNs for realtime multimedia traffic.

Quality of Service Analysis of site to site for IPSec VPNs for realtime multimedia traffic. Quality of Service Analysis of site to site for IPSec VPNs for realtime multimedia traffic. A Network and Data Link Layer infrastructure Design to Improve QoS in Voice and video Traffic Jesús Arturo Pérez,

More information

IMPLEMENTING CISCO QUALITY OF SERVICE V2.5 (QOS)

IMPLEMENTING CISCO QUALITY OF SERVICE V2.5 (QOS) IMPLEMENTING CISCO QUALITY OF SERVICE V2.5 (QOS) COURSE OVERVIEW: Implementing Cisco Quality of Service (QOS) v2.5 provides learners with in-depth knowledge of QoS requirements, conceptual models such

More information

Quality of Service versus Fairness. Inelastic Applications. QoS Analogy: Surface Mail. How to Provide QoS?

Quality of Service versus Fairness. Inelastic Applications. QoS Analogy: Surface Mail. How to Provide QoS? 18-345: Introduction to Telecommunication Networks Lectures 20: Quality of Service Peter Steenkiste Spring 2015 www.cs.cmu.edu/~prs/nets-ece Overview What is QoS? Queuing discipline and scheduling Traffic

More information

Investigation and Comparison of MPLS QoS Solution and Differentiated Services QoS Solutions

Investigation and Comparison of MPLS QoS Solution and Differentiated Services QoS Solutions Investigation and Comparison of MPLS QoS Solution and Differentiated Services QoS Solutions Steve Gennaoui, Jianhua Yin, Samuel Swinton, and * Vasil Hnatyshin Department of Computer Science Rowan University

More information

CTS2134 Introduction to Networking. Module 07: Wide Area Networks

CTS2134 Introduction to Networking. Module 07: Wide Area Networks CTS2134 Introduction to Networking Module 07: Wide Area Networks WAN cloud Central Office (CO) Local loop WAN components Demarcation point (demarc) Consumer Premises Equipment (CPE) Channel Service Unit/Data

More information

THE IMPORTANCE OF TESTING TCP PERFORMANCE IN CARRIER ETHERNET NETWORKS

THE IMPORTANCE OF TESTING TCP PERFORMANCE IN CARRIER ETHERNET NETWORKS THE IMPORTANCE OF TESTING TCP PERFORMANCE IN CARRIER ETHERNET NETWORKS 159 APPLICATION NOTE Bruno Giguère, Member of Technical Staff, Transport & Datacom Business Unit, EXFO As end-users are migrating

More information

Quality of Service Testing in the VoIP Environment

Quality of Service Testing in the VoIP Environment Whitepaper Quality of Service Testing in the VoIP Environment Carrying voice traffic over the Internet rather than the traditional public telephone network has revolutionized communications. Initially,

More information

Technical Specification MEF 6.1. Ethernet Services Definitions - Phase 2. April, 2008

Technical Specification MEF 6.1. Ethernet Services Definitions - Phase 2. April, 2008 Technical Specification Ethernet Services Definitions - Phase 2 April, 2008 contain the following statement: "Reproduced with permission of the Metro Ethernet Forum." No user of this document is authorized

More information

APPLICATION NOTE 183 RFC 2544: HOW IT HELPS QUALIFY A CARRIER ETHERNET NETWORK. www.exfo.com Telecom Test and Measurement. What is RFC 2544?

APPLICATION NOTE 183 RFC 2544: HOW IT HELPS QUALIFY A CARRIER ETHERNET NETWORK. www.exfo.com Telecom Test and Measurement. What is RFC 2544? RFC 2544: HOW IT HELPS QUALIFY A CARRIER ETHERNET NETWORK Bruno Giguère, Member of Technical Staff, Transport and Datacom Business Unit Service providers worldwide are actively turning up new services

More information

Transport Layer Protocols

Transport Layer Protocols Transport Layer Protocols Version. Transport layer performs two main tasks for the application layer by using the network layer. It provides end to end communication between two applications, and implements

More information

Requirements of Voice in an IP Internetwork

Requirements of Voice in an IP Internetwork Requirements of Voice in an IP Internetwork Real-Time Voice in a Best-Effort IP Internetwork This topic lists problems associated with implementation of real-time voice traffic in a best-effort IP internetwork.

More information

Performance Evaluation of Linux Bridge

Performance Evaluation of Linux Bridge Performance Evaluation of Linux Bridge James T. Yu School of Computer Science, Telecommunications, and Information System (CTI) DePaul University ABSTRACT This paper studies a unique network feature, Ethernet

More information

Region 10 Videoconference Network (R10VN)

Region 10 Videoconference Network (R10VN) Region 10 Videoconference Network (R10VN) Network Considerations & Guidelines 1 What Causes A Poor Video Call? There are several factors that can affect a videoconference call. The two biggest culprits

More information

Lecture 16: Quality of Service. CSE 123: Computer Networks Stefan Savage

Lecture 16: Quality of Service. CSE 123: Computer Networks Stefan Savage Lecture 16: Quality of Service CSE 123: Computer Networks Stefan Savage Final Next week (trust Blink wrt time/location) Will cover entire class Style similar to midterm I ll post a sample (i.e. old) final

More information

Delivering Network Performance and Capacity. The most important thing we build is trust

Delivering Network Performance and Capacity. The most important thing we build is trust Delivering Network Performance and Capacity The most important thing we build is trust The Ultimate in Real-life Network Perfomance Testing 1 The TM500 Family the most comprehensive 3GPP performance and

More information

ANALYSIS OF LONG DISTANCE 3-WAY CONFERENCE CALLING WITH VOIP

ANALYSIS OF LONG DISTANCE 3-WAY CONFERENCE CALLING WITH VOIP ENSC 427: Communication Networks ANALYSIS OF LONG DISTANCE 3-WAY CONFERENCE CALLING WITH VOIP Spring 2010 Final Project Group #6: Gurpal Singh Sandhu Sasan Naderi Claret Ramos (gss7@sfu.ca) (sna14@sfu.ca)

More information

Latency on a Switched Ethernet Network

Latency on a Switched Ethernet Network Application Note 8 Latency on a Switched Ethernet Network Introduction: This document serves to explain the sources of latency on a switched Ethernet network and describe how to calculate cumulative latency

More information

H.323 Traffic Characterization Test Plan Draft Paul Schopis, pschopis@itecohio.org

H.323 Traffic Characterization Test Plan Draft Paul Schopis, pschopis@itecohio.org H.323 Traffic Characterization Test Plan Draft Paul Schopis, pschopis@itecohio.org I. Introduction Recent attempts at providing Quality of Service in the Internet2 community have focused primarily on Expedited

More information

STANDPOINT FOR QUALITY-OF-SERVICE MEASUREMENT

STANDPOINT FOR QUALITY-OF-SERVICE MEASUREMENT STANDPOINT FOR QUALITY-OF-SERVICE MEASUREMENT 1. TIMING ACCURACY The accurate multi-point measurements require accurate synchronization of clocks of the measurement devices. If for example time stamps

More information

Network Considerations for IP Video

Network Considerations for IP Video Network Considerations for IP Video H.323 is an ITU standard for transmitting voice and video using Internet Protocol (IP). It differs from many other typical IP based applications in that it is a real-time

More information

Per-Flow Queuing Allot's Approach to Bandwidth Management

Per-Flow Queuing Allot's Approach to Bandwidth Management White Paper Per-Flow Queuing Allot's Approach to Bandwidth Management Allot Communications, July 2006. All Rights Reserved. Table of Contents Executive Overview... 3 Understanding TCP/IP... 4 What is Bandwidth

More information

Analysis of IP Network for different Quality of Service

Analysis of IP Network for different Quality of Service 2009 International Symposium on Computing, Communication, and Control (ISCCC 2009) Proc.of CSIT vol.1 (2011) (2011) IACSIT Press, Singapore Analysis of IP Network for different Quality of Service Ajith

More information

Analysis and Simulation of VoIP LAN vs. WAN WLAN vs. WWAN

Analysis and Simulation of VoIP LAN vs. WAN WLAN vs. WWAN ENSC 427 Communication Networks Final Project Report Spring 2014 Analysis and Simulation of VoIP Team #: 2 Kadkhodayan Anita (akadkhod@sfu.ca, 301129632) Majdi Yalda (ymajdi@sfu.ca, 301137361) Namvar Darya

More information

Improving the Performance of TCP Using Window Adjustment Procedure and Bandwidth Estimation

Improving the Performance of TCP Using Window Adjustment Procedure and Bandwidth Estimation Improving the Performance of TCP Using Window Adjustment Procedure and Bandwidth Estimation R.Navaneethakrishnan Assistant Professor (SG) Bharathiyar College of Engineering and Technology, Karaikal, India.

More information

Data Networks Summer 2007 Homework #3

Data Networks Summer 2007 Homework #3 Data Networks Summer Homework # Assigned June 8, Due June in class Name: Email: Student ID: Problem Total Points Problem ( points) Host A is transferring a file of size L to host B using a TCP connection.

More information

The need for bandwidth management and QoS control when using public or shared networks for disaster relief work

The need for bandwidth management and QoS control when using public or shared networks for disaster relief work International Telecommunication Union The need for bandwidth management and QoS control when using public or shared networks for disaster relief work Stephen Fazio Chief, Global Telecommunications Officer

More information

Internet Quality of Service

Internet Quality of Service Internet Quality of Service Weibin Zhao zwb@cs.columbia.edu 1 Outline 1. Background 2. Basic concepts 3. Supporting mechanisms 4. Frameworks 5. Policy & resource management 6. Conclusion 2 Background:

More information

networks Live & On-Demand Video Delivery without Interruption Wireless optimization the unsolved mystery WHITE PAPER

networks Live & On-Demand Video Delivery without Interruption Wireless optimization the unsolved mystery WHITE PAPER Live & On-Demand Video Delivery without Interruption Wireless optimization the unsolved mystery - Improving the way the world connects - WHITE PAPER Live On-Demand Video Streaming without Interruption

More information

Troubleshooting LANs with Wirespeed Packet Capture and Expert Analysis

Troubleshooting LANs with Wirespeed Packet Capture and Expert Analysis Application Note Troubleshooting LANs with Wirespeed Packet Capture and Expert Analysis Introduction This application note is one in a series of local area network (LAN) troubleshooting papers from JDSU

More information

Encapsulating Voice in IP Packets

Encapsulating Voice in IP Packets Encapsulating Voice in IP Packets Major VoIP Protocols This topic defines the major VoIP protocols and matches them with the seven layers of the OSI model. Major VoIP Protocols 15 The major VoIP protocols

More information

TCP in Wireless Mobile Networks

TCP in Wireless Mobile Networks TCP in Wireless Mobile Networks 1 Outline Introduction to transport layer Introduction to TCP (Internet) congestion control Congestion control in wireless networks 2 Transport Layer v.s. Network Layer

More information

Application Note Telephony Service over Satellite

Application Note Telephony Service over Satellite Voice over Application Note Telephony Service over Satellite January 2012 Data Sells but Voice Pays In the early years of the industry, networks were deployed primarily for telephony services. As time

More information

Wireless Technologies for the 450 MHz band

Wireless Technologies for the 450 MHz band Wireless Technologies for the 450 MHz band By CDG 450 Connectivity Special Interest Group (450 SIG) September 2013 1. Introduction Fast uptake of Machine- to Machine (M2M) applications and an installed

More information

itvsense Probe M-301/M-304

itvsense Probe M-301/M-304 implementing next generation IT and communications solutions Service Assurance for Digital Video and IP-based Multiplay Networks itvsense Probe M-301/M-304 telecommunication networks it networks research

More information

An enhanced TCP mechanism Fast-TCP in IP networks with wireless links

An enhanced TCP mechanism Fast-TCP in IP networks with wireless links Wireless Networks 6 (2000) 375 379 375 An enhanced TCP mechanism Fast-TCP in IP networks with wireless links Jian Ma a, Jussi Ruutu b and Jing Wu c a Nokia China R&D Center, No. 10, He Ping Li Dong Jie,

More information

1. The subnet must prevent additional packets from entering the congested region until those already present can be processed.

1. The subnet must prevent additional packets from entering the congested region until those already present can be processed. Congestion Control When one part of the subnet (e.g. one or more routers in an area) becomes overloaded, congestion results. Because routers are receiving packets faster than they can forward them, one

More information

TCP over Multi-hop Wireless Networks * Overview of Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Internet Protocol (IP)

TCP over Multi-hop Wireless Networks * Overview of Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Internet Protocol (IP) TCP over Multi-hop Wireless Networks * Overview of Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) *Slides adapted from a talk given by Nitin Vaidya. Wireless Computing and Network Systems Page

More information

The Analysis and Simulation of VoIP

The Analysis and Simulation of VoIP ENSC 427 Communication Networks Spring 2013 Final Project The Analysis and Simulation of VoIP http://www.sfu.ca/~cjw11/427project.html Group #3 Demet Dilekci ddilekci@sfu.ca Conrad Wang cw11@sfu.ca Jiang

More information

SLA verification + QoS control: the base for successful VoIP & IPTV deployments

SLA verification + QoS control: the base for successful VoIP & IPTV deployments SLA verification + QoS control: the base for successful VoIP & IPTV deployments White Paper. by ALBEDO Telecom - Barcelona info.telecom@albedo.biz Jan 2011 All rights reserved Executive Summary The integration

More information

AERONAUTICAL COMMUNICATIONS PANEL (ACP) ATN and IP

AERONAUTICAL COMMUNICATIONS PANEL (ACP) ATN and IP AERONAUTICAL COMMUNICATIONS PANEL (ACP) Working Group I - 7 th Meeting Móntreal, Canada 2 6 June 2008 Agenda Item x : ATN and IP Information Paper Presented by Naoki Kanada Electronic Navigation Research

More information

Application Note. UniPRO MGig1 Carrier-grade Ethernet tester. UniPRO SEL1 Intelligent loopback device

Application Note. UniPRO MGig1 Carrier-grade Ethernet tester. UniPRO SEL1 Intelligent loopback device Application Note UniPRO MGig1 Carrier-grade Ethernet tester UniPRO SEL1 Intelligent loopback device Y.1564 Ethernet Service Activation Method for Testing Contents 1. Why does the Carrier Ethernet Industry

More information

A Preferred Service Architecture for Payload Data Flows. Ray Gilstrap, Thom Stone, Ken Freeman

A Preferred Service Architecture for Payload Data Flows. Ray Gilstrap, Thom Stone, Ken Freeman A Preferred Service Architecture for Payload Data Flows Ray Gilstrap, Thom Stone, Ken Freeman NASA Research and Engineering Network NASA Advanced Supercomputing Division NASA Ames Research Center Outline

More information

EtherSAM: THE NEW STANDARD IN ETHERNET SERVICE TESTING

EtherSAM: THE NEW STANDARD IN ETHERNET SERVICE TESTING EtherSAM: THE NEW STANDARD IN ETHERNET SERVICE TESTING By Thierno Diallo and Marquis Dorais, Product Specialists, Transport and Datacom Business Unit INTRODUCTION With Ethernet continuing to evolve as

More information

Chapter 7 outline. 7.5 providing multiple classes of service 7.6 providing QoS guarantees RTP, RTCP, SIP. 7: Multimedia Networking 7-71

Chapter 7 outline. 7.5 providing multiple classes of service 7.6 providing QoS guarantees RTP, RTCP, SIP. 7: Multimedia Networking 7-71 Chapter 7 outline 7.1 multimedia networking applications 7.2 streaming stored audio and video 7.3 making the best out of best effort service 7.4 protocols for real-time interactive applications RTP, RTCP,

More information

TECHNICAL NOTE. FortiGate Traffic Shaping Version 2.80. www.fortinet.com

TECHNICAL NOTE. FortiGate Traffic Shaping Version 2.80. www.fortinet.com TECHNICAL NOTE FortiGate Traffic Shaping Version 2.80 www.fortinet.com FortiGate Traffic Shaping Technical Note Version 2.80 March 10, 2006 01-28000-0304-20060310 Copyright 2005 Fortinet, Inc. All rights

More information

15-441: Computer Networks Homework 2 Solution

15-441: Computer Networks Homework 2 Solution 5-44: omputer Networks Homework 2 Solution Assigned: September 25, 2002. Due: October 7, 2002 in class. In this homework you will test your understanding of the TP concepts taught in class including flow

More information

Final for ECE374 05/06/13 Solution!!

Final for ECE374 05/06/13 Solution!! 1 Final for ECE374 05/06/13 Solution!! Instructions: Put your name and student number on each sheet of paper! The exam is closed book. You have 90 minutes to complete the exam. Be a smart exam taker -

More information

1 Introduction to mobile telecommunications

1 Introduction to mobile telecommunications 1 Introduction to mobile telecommunications Mobile phones were first introduced in the early 1980s. In the succeeding years, the underlying technology has gone through three phases, known as generations.

More information

MPLS Layer 2 VPNs Functional and Performance Testing Sample Test Plans

MPLS Layer 2 VPNs Functional and Performance Testing Sample Test Plans MPLS Layer 2 VPNs Functional and Performance Testing Sample Test Plans Contents Overview 1 1. L2 VPN Padding Verification Test 1 1.1 Objective 1 1.2 Setup 1 1.3 Input Parameters 2 1.4 Methodology 2 1.5

More information

Technical Specification MEF 14. Abstract Test Suite for Traffic Management Phase 1. November, 2005

Technical Specification MEF 14. Abstract Test Suite for Traffic Management Phase 1. November, 2005 Technical Specification Abstract Test Suite for Traffic Management Phase 1 November, 2005 Disclaimer The information in this publication is freely available for reproduction and use by any recipient and

More information

UPPER LAYER SWITCHING

UPPER LAYER SWITCHING 52-20-40 DATA COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT UPPER LAYER SWITCHING Gilbert Held INSIDE Upper Layer Operations; Address Translation; Layer 3 Switching; Layer 4 Switching OVERVIEW The first series of LAN switches

More information