Internet Quality of Service

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1 Internet Quality of Service Weibin Zhao 1

2 Outline 1. Background 2. Basic concepts 3. Supporting mechanisms 4. Frameworks 5. Policy & resource management 6. Conclusion 2

3 Background: IP Characteristic Connectionless Building block: datagram Goals Multiplexing Survivability Multi-ToS Variety of networks TCP Ethernet IP RTP Token Ring The Design Philosopy of DARPA Internet Protocols 3

4 Internet QoS Service differentiation & assurance => Internet Quality of Service Bandwidth allocation Loss control Delay & jitter control Differentiation & assurance deterministic/statistic quantitative/relative Internet QoS: A Big Picture 4

5 Internet QoS (2) Current status IP: best effort TCP: reliable, sequential Advocate 1. Diverse requirements 2. ISP: Better service, higher price 3. Maximize utility Opponent 1. Provision: enough bandwidth 2. Applications adapt 3. Complexity vs. benefit Best-Effort versus Reservations: A Simple Comparative Analysis 5

6 1. Background 2. Basic concepts 3. Supporting mechanisms 4. Frameworks 5. Policy & resource management 6. Conclusion 6

7 Basic Concepts Granularity Aggregate class Flow src/dest IP, src/dest port#, protocol ID Classification Sorting packets General classification => IntServ, MF Bit-pattern classification => AF Providing Guaranteed Service Without Per Flow Management 7

8 Specification Traffic Profile Traffic Temporal properties Tspec Token bucket: token rate [r], bucket depth [b] Peak rate: [p] Min policed unit: [m] Max packet size: [M] Rspec Service Per-flow based SLA (Service Level Agreement) Contract General Characterization Parameters for Integrated Service Network Elements 8

9 Admission Control Control resource allocation Decide whether to admit a new traffic stream Deterministic Statistic Measurementbased QoS violation No Small probability Occasional Resource utilization Low for bursty flows high high Admission Control for Statistic QoS: Theory and Practice, A Measurement-based Admission Control Algorithm for Integrated Services Packet Networks (Extended Version) 9

10 Traffic Control Use leaky bucket or token bucket Policing Monitoring traffic: dropping or (un)marking out-ofprofile packets Never hold arriving packets Shaping Provide temporary buffering to make traffic conform to the specified profile A Two-bit Differentiated Services Architecture for the Internet 10

11 1. Background 2. Basic concepts 3. Supporting mechanisms 4. Frameworks 5. Policy & resource management 6. Conclusion 11

12 Supporting Mechanisms Queue Management Control queue size by dropping or marking packet Control loss Scheduling Determine which packet to send out, Allocation of bandwidth Control delay Quality-of-Service in Packet Networks: Basic Mechanisms and Directions 12

13 Queue Management Loss Damaged (<<1%) Congestion Congestion control End-point Router Goal: high throughput low delay power=throughput/delay Power Optimal load Load Congestion Avoidance and Control 13

14 Queue Management (2) Queue: absorb short term bursts, small Drop on full Two problem: (1) lock-out (2) full-queue Active queue management Drop packets before a queue becomes full Recommendations on Queue Management and Congestion Avoidance in the Internet 14

15 Queue Management (3) RED: Random Early Detection Control average queue size Dropping/marking arriving packets probabilistically Avoid global synchronization No bias against bursty traffic RIO Service profile => In/Out packets Preferential dropping Random Early Detection Gateways for Congestion Avoidance, Explicit Allocation of Best Effort Packet Delivery Service 15

16 Scheduling Delay Propagation + transmit + queuing Queuing disciplines FIFO (FCFS) Priority queue WFQ (Weighted Fair Queuing) EDF (Earliest Deadline First) RCS (Rate-Controlled Service): EDF + shaper CBQ (Class Based Queuing) Quality-of-Service in Packet Networks: Basic Mechanisms and Directions 16

17 Scheduling (2) Link sharing Share aggregated bandwidth in a controlled way under overload 1. multi-entity 2. multi-protocol 3. multi-service Hierarchical link sharing: GPS (Generalized Processor Sharing) A theoretic reference model Integrated Service in the Internet Architecture: an Overview 17

18 1. Background 2. Basic concepts 3. Supporting mechanisms 4. Frameworks 5. Policy & resource management 6. Conclusion 18

19 IntServ Per-flow based QoS framework with dynamic resource reservation Control path: RSVP, admission control Data path: classification, scheduling RSVP Signaling protocol: path setup, resource reservation Receiver initiation Soft state for robust Integrated Service in the Internet Architecture: an Overview 19

20 IntServ (2) Service models Goal Deployment Guaranteed Control max queuing delay ubiquitous Controlled-load Closely equivalent to unloaded best effort service incremental Scalability problem flow router Specification of Guaranteed Quality of Service, Specification of the Controlled-Load Network Element Service 20

21 DiffServ A scalable service discrimination framework based on packet tagging Design principles Per-aggregate-class based Pushing complexity to network boundary Separating control policy from packet forwarding mechanism An Architecture for Differentiated Services 21

22 DiffServ (2) DS field redefine TOS field in IPv4 header DSCP CU PHB DSCP: Differentiated Services Codepoint CU: Currently Unused Per-hop behavior Definition of the Differentiated Service Field (DS Field) in the IPv4 and IPv6 Headers 22

23 DiffServ (3) Network boundary Edge routers, leaf routers, hosts Finer granularity: classification, conditioning Core router simple PHB: fast & scalable Meter Packet Classifier Marker Shaper/ Dropper An Architecture for Differentiated Services 23

24 DiffServ (4) Service Models Premium Guaranteed peak rate Little queuing delay Smoothing bursts Virtual-leased line (absolute) Assured Statistical provisioning In: unlikely dropped Out: preferential dropping Olympic service (relative) An Expedited Forwarding PHB, Assured Forwarding PHB Group, A Case for Relative Differentiated Services and the Proportional Differentiation Model 24

25 1. Background 2. Basic concepts 3. Supporting mechanisms 4. Frameworks 5. Policy & resource management 6. Conclusion 25

26 Policy regulation of access to network resources & services Policy infrastructure: administrative intentions differential packet treatment PEP: Policy Enforcement Point PDP: Policy Decision Point COPS: Common Open Policy Service PEP PDP PEP COPS Policy Domain Management Tool Database LDAP/SQL A Policy Framework for Integrated and Differentiated Services in the Internet 26

27 Resource Management Configuration Signaling protocol + admission control (with policy) Bandwidth Broker (BB) Inter-domain: negotiate with adjacent domain Intra-domain: resource allocation Translate SLA => TCA Policy database: if condition then action Send TCA to edge router: COPS A Two-tier Resource Management Model for the Internet 27

28 1. Background 2. Basic concepts 3. Supporting mechanisms 4. Frameworks 5. Policy & resource management 6. Conclusion 28

29 Conclusion End-to-end QoS delivery Two-tier architecture Inter-domain: bilateral coordination Intra-domain: many choice IntServ, DiffServ, MPLS, Constraint-based routing Design principles Separation of mechanism and control policy Pushing complexity to network boundary: scalability A Two-bit Differentiated Service Architecture for the Internet 29

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