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1 Chapter 1 : What is the theme of solitude by ella wheeler Wilcox Enter your mobile number or address below and we'll send you a link to download the free Kindle App. Then you can start reading Kindle books on your smartphone, tablet, or computer - no Kindle device required. Share8 Shares 33K We all tend to focus on the evil men in the world and forget some of the truly evil women that have lived. I hope to correct that with this list. So, without further ado, here are the top 10 most evil women in history. Queen Mary I Born: Fearing the gallows a further Protestants left the country, unable to return until her death. It should be noted that Elizabeth I shares position 10 on this list for her equally bad behavior. Together these two monsters were responsible for the kidnapping, sexual abuse, torture and murder of three children under the age of twelve and two teenagers, aged 16 and The evidence included a tape recording of one of the murder victims screaming as Hindley and Brady raped and tortured her. In the final days before incarceration, she developed a swagger and arrogant attitude that became her trademark. Police secretary Sandra Wilkinson has never forgotten seeing Hindley and her mother Nellie, leaning against the courthouse eating sweets. While the mother was obviously and understandably upset, Hindley seemed indifferent and uncaring of her situation. Isabella of Castile Born: March 31, marks the implementation of the Alhambra Decree; expulsion edicts forcing the removal or conversion of Jews and Muslims. Roughly, people left Spain; those remaining who chose conversion were subsequently persecuted by the inquisition investigating Judaizing conversos. In, Pope Paul VI opened her cause for beatification. This places her on the path toward possible sainthood. In the Catholic Church, she is thus titled Servant of God. Working as a pediatric nurse, she is responsible for the murder of 4 children and the serious injury of 5 others in her care. When available, insulin or potassium injections were used to precipitate cardiac arrest; smothering sufficed when they were not. Although convicted with death or injury in nine cases, Allit attacked thirteen children over a fifty-eight day period before being caught red-handed. This debatable personality disorder involves a pattern of abuse or harm to someone in your care in order to garner attention Alitt was known as a child to wear bandages and casts over wounds, but would not allow them to be examined. Standing 6 ft 1. It is likely that she killed both her husbands and all of her children at different times, but it is certain that she murdered most of her suitors, boyfriends, and her two daughters, Myrtle and Lucy. The motive was greed-pure and simple; life insurance policies and assets stolen or swindled from her suitors became her source of income. Most reports put her death toll at more than twenty victims over several decades, with some claiming in excess of one hundred. Who do you despise the most? Mary Ann Cotton Born: Married at age twenty to William Mowbray, the newlyweds settled in Plymouth, Devon, to start their family. Moving back to the north-east, tragedy seemed to follow them; three more children born, three more children died. British Prudential promptly paid a 35 pound dividend, and a pattern was established. Her second husband, George Ward, died of intestinal problems as well as one of her two remaining children. The power of the press, always a force to be reckoned with, caught up with Mary Ann. The local newspapers discovered that as Mary Ann moved around northern England, she lost three husbands, a lover, a friend, her mother and a dozen children, all dying of stomach fever. She was hanged at Durham County Gaol, March 24,, for murder by arsenic poisoning. Drunk on the absolute power rendered by her husband, she reveled in torture and obscenity. Infamous for her souvenirs; tattoos taken from the murdered inmates, her reputation for debauchery was well earned. Transferred to Auschwitz in, she must have shown particular enthusiasm and dedication to the job, she was promoted to Senior Supervisor, the 2nd highest ranking female in camp, by the end of the year. In charge of over 30, Jewish female prisoners, she reveled in her work. Her work included; savaging of prisoners by her trained and half starved dogs, sexual excesses, arbitrary shootings, sadistic beatings with a plaited whip, and selecting prisoners for the gas chamber. She enjoyed both physical and emotional torture and habitually wore heavy boots and carried a pistol to facilitate both. He had been stabbed at least 37 times, both front and back, with many of the wounds penetrating vital organs. The meal and a vindictive note were set out for the children, luckily discovered by police before they arrived home. Rumors had circulated for years about missing peasant girls; offered well paid work at the castle, they were never seen again. The men found one girl Page 1

2 dead and one dying. Another was found wounded and others locked up. Described atrocities, collected from testimony of witnesses, include; severe beatings over extended periods of time, the use of needles, burning or mutilation of hands, sometimes also of faces and genitalia, biting the flesh off the faces, arms and other bodily parts, and the starving of victims. The victim total is thought to number in the hundreds occurring over a twenty-five year period. Due to her social status she was never brought to trial but remained under house arrest in a single room until her death. The idea that the Countess bathed in the blood of her victims is folklore, and one of the few things she did not do. You can read more about Elizabeth Bathory on Mythverse our sister site for debunking misonceptions. In order to clear one point up, Lizzie Borden is not on this list because she was found innocent of the murder of her parents. Page 2

3 Chapter 2 : Thomas Paine publishes Common Sense - HISTORY Find this Pin and more on Women famous and infamous! by Swansea Bay Yarns. Today's historical badass is: Margaret Thomas "Mardy" Murie. Naturalist, author, adventurer, and conservationist, she is known as the "Grandmother of the Conservation Movement" by both the Sierra Club and the Wilderness Society. In, she was elected as a member of the Italian parliament. She remained in office as a member of the Radical Party until, during which time she continued to make hard-core pornos and offered to have sex with Saddam Hussein in exchange for the release of foreign hostages and peace in the Middle East. She also enjoyed making political speeches with one large silicone filled breast exposed. In, she renewed her offer to Hussein, and in sheâ wait for itâ offered to have sex with Osama Bin Laden. My breasts have only ever helped people while Bin Laden has killed thousands of innocent victims. She set out to enlighten the poor as to the ways of Jesus Christ, and held high-class evangelical tea parties in her home. Many flocked to hear her speak. They remained close until her death in She is said, apparently by her own admission, to have had an insatiable sexual lust and to have derived great pleasure from her work, though she lived the life of a beggar. One day, after seventeen years of harlotry, Mary learned that hundreds of pilgrims were traveling to Jerusalem to celebrate the Feast of the Exaltation of the Cross. Mary saw an opportunity to make many potential customers in Jerusalem, so paid for food and passage to the city with her body. During this time she is said to have been visited by the Virgin Mary, who told her she would find peace across the River Jordan. Mary crossed the great river and wandered off into the desert where she continued to live a life of solitary prayer for forty-eight years. She had many visions during this time, probably as a result of dehydration. A priest named Zosimus eventually encountered the old womanâ naked, with skin like blackened leather, and delirious from years alone in the desert. They had two children, both of whom contracted syphilis from their father. The elder boy died when both children suddenly became violently ill, possibly from mercury poisoning. Margaretha separated from her husband in but he slandered her name so vehemently that she lost custody of her daughter and was left penniless. With no qualifications to speak of, Margaretha briefly turned to prostitution to get together enough money to make her way to Paris, where she began her career as an exotic dancer. She became a sensation, dancing almost completely naked except for a tiny gilded bra. Her beautyâ coupled with her elaborate fabricated tales of her pastâ gave her an almost sacred air, and men flocked from all over Paris to see her. She quickly branched out to Spain, Monte Carlo and Germany. As her dancing career waned due to younger, more talented competition, she became a high class courtesan. She was one of the highest paid in Europe at the time, entertaining many rich dukes, lords, and marquises. Sadly, through an unclear set of circumstances, she was convicted of espionage, imprisoned, and executed by firing squad on 14 October It is still not known whether she really was a spy or was just the victim of overzealousness on the part of the British and French intelligence servicesâ or even used as a scapegoat by her then-lover, who actually was a double-agent. Yu Xuanji adopted poetry as a personal art form and throughout her lifetime she wrote vivid, intensely emotional poems, around fifty of which survive today. She also had a book of poetry published during her lifetime but the works it contained have long since been lost. This apparently caused her to fly into such a rage that she beat the maid to death and buried her in the garden, where her body was later discovered by the foul smell emanating from the earth. It is very possible that Yu Xuanji was falsely accused of the crime, though we will probably never know for certain. She was only around twenty-eight years old when she died. He left his daughter there for the night, telling her he would return in the morning to finish the job. With no other way to survive, she began working as a prostitute in the slum district of St Giles. She had a quick temper which, coupled with a tendency to get into debt, saw her landed in jail multiple times throughout her life. She is said at one point to have escaped a hefty jail sentence because the judge was infatuated with her. In, during an argument with a customer called John Finch she picked up a bread knife and stabbed him in the chest. She was immediately remorseful and rushed to get help. Though Finch amiably forgave her, Salisbury was sentenced to a year in the notorious Newgate Prison for violent assault. She continued to grace the silver screen until, but during this time her reputation was destroyed on account of her many love affairs with Page 3

4 married men, reckless partying and heavy drinking. She also attempted suicide by overdosing on sleeping pills. Neil ended up being imprisoned after shooting his third wife in the back of the head. She lived in filthy, rat-infested apartments and was often homeless. She ended up selling herself for five dollars a trick on Sunset Boulevard. She gained large amounts of weight, was stabbed, and lost teeth during the regular beatings she received at the hands of her tricks. When she was fifteen years old, Sada Abe was raped by an acquaintance, and her behavior began to deteriorate until her father sold her to a Geisha house when she was seventeen. At this point, she decided to leave the Geisha house and become a licensed prostitute, which paid better. After a few flings with married men and a run-in with the law, she eventually met Kichizo Ishida who was the first man who could fully satisfy her insatiable sexual needs. She fell madly in love with him, but, when she realized he would always belong to another woman as he was married she decided that she had to kill him. She then carved her name into his left arm, cut off his genitals which she put in her handbag, and swiftly left the hotel room they were staying in. When she was arrested, Sada Abe told police that she took his penis because it was the part of him that reminded her most vividly of their time together. She served only five years in prison, for second-degree murder and mutilation of a corpse, and after her term she eventually disappeared. At age twenty, after being abandoned by her abusive lover, she experienced a dramatic religious conversion to Miaphysite Christianity. She then took up the humble art of wool spinning, and it was during this time that she caught the eye of Justinian, heir to the Byzantine throne. They married in A. Theodora became the most powerful woman in Byzantine history, imposing the death penalty for rape, giving women the rights to initiate divorce and own property, abolishing sex slavery and the exposure of unwanted infants, and opening convents where ex-prostitutes could go to make an honest living. Though she did a lot of good, according to some writers she could be pretty ruthless and malevolent when threatened, employing torture and poisoning to exact retribution against those who spoke ill of her or her husband. The famous historian Procopius even went so far as to describe Theodora as a bloodthirsty demon. She died at age of forty-nine, of what most people presume to be some form of cancer. The cunning Ching Shih agreed to the marriage on the condition that she be entitled to fifty percent of all profits that Zheng Yi made, and that she be allowed to command one of his pirate fleets. The smitten captain eagerly agreed. The pair became a formidable force, and within three years of the marriage they were in command of one of the most powerful pirate fleets in China, named the Red Flag Fleet, which comprised more than 1, ships. In, Zheng Yi was killed and Ching Shih took his place at the head of the pirate armada. Ching Shih was as formidable as she was ruthless, and within a year the Red Flag Fleet was one of the largest navies in the world. She extorted taxes and levies from coastal townships in exchange for sparing them, and began to impose her own laws. Retribution was swift and punishment severe for any man or woman who attempted to defy her. Ching Shih defeated multiple fleets sent by the hostile Chinese government, as well as the British and Portuguese navies. In the Chinese government had no choice but to admit defeat. They offered amnesty to Ching Shih and all other pirates who would give up their ships and arms. Ching Shih accepted the offer on the condition that she be able to keep the extensive amount of loot she had obtained during her racketeering years. The Chinese government agreed, and Ching Shih, at thirty-four years old, retired a very wealthy woman. She opened a combined gambling house and brothel, and lived to the ripe old age of sixty-nine. Page 4

5 Chapter 3 : This Infamous 19th-Century Birth Control Pamphlet Got Its Writer Imprisoned â C.A. Asbrey Laura Bell () became famous for her radiant beauty, wit and intelligence when working as a high class prostitute in Dublin in her teens. She eventually moved to London, where she would spend her days riding around Hyde Park in a gilded carriage drawn by two white horses and "entertaining" rich dukes and wealthy noblemen. OX1 4BW info sandersofoxford. We are, therefore, excited to release our most recent catalogue, Famous and Infamous, providing a brief overview of this grand tradition from high society portraits to depictions of criminals and courtesans. Often believed to be an 18th century concept, the female celebrity has its roots further back in history, with infamous individuals such as Mary Carleton 39 the 17th century impersonator or the famous French military figure Joan of Arc Portraits of actresses, countesses, and queens continued to be printed and published throughout the 18th and 19th centuries in order to feed public interest in the emergence of celebrity culture. We hope to revive the stories of these fascinating but often forgotten women through this catalogue. The child holds an apple in their right hand. The date has also been erased. Half-length portrait of a young woman with her back turned to the viewer, peering back over her right shoulder whilst drawing a band over her head. She wears a gown, and a shawl which has a decorated hem. Her hair is worn up, with ringlets falling around the nape of her neck, and with her left hand, she pushes a lock of hair away from her face. In preparation for leaving England, Kauffman sold off her plates, the majority of which were bought by John Boydell. Between and, Boydell reissued the plates, adding aquatint to several. Thompson later acquired a number of plates from Boydell, and reissued them in The aquatint of the Thompson impressions is generally rather faded. Trimmed within plate mark and graingerised. Trimmed to plate mark and graingerised. Standing in full-length on a ledge in classical attire, she bows her head whilst pouring water from a vase into a cup she holds with her left hand. Trimmed close to plate mark, and some light time toning to margins, but otherwise a good, clean impression. The figure is shown in full-length, and wears a plumed helmet. Her left hand rests upon her hip, whilst her right hand extends to a ruined column by her side. Lying by her feet is a lion. Trimmed within the plate mark. Standing in full-length on a ledge with her back turned to the viewer, she gazes to the upper left of the image, from where a ray of light emerges. In the lower left of the composition, part of an anchor is visible. Excellent impression with full margins. Light foxing bottom margin not affecting the image. Here, she is shown full-length, walking forwards, with her right arm raised and holding a burning torch in her left hand. She is set against a background of classical buildings. She accompanied Robert Pott, a friend of the artist William Hickey, to Bengal c but died there shortly afterwards on a voyage between Madras and Calcutta. Framed in period frame. Facing to the the left almost in profile, she wears a flounced dress, a flat hat, and pearls around her neck. Miss Muse remains an unidentified sitter. Light pressed crease running right down side of sheet, graingerised. In three-quarter length, she is seated facing front holding a kitten in her hands and smiling. She is wearing broad-brimmed straw hat with ribbon and dark shawl over white dress. There is a curtain in the background on left and a landscape beyond on right. All with title and artist names below accompanied y a vers by Dryen: Trimmed within the plate. Publication line trimmed off. Diagonal crease lower left. Depicted seated upon a chair whilst reading a book, Theophilia is shown with her head bowed in profile, and resting upon her left hand. The book that she reads is held with her right hand. Theophila and her daughter modelled for Reynolds on occasion. The three-quarter length portrait shows Theophila nearly in complete profile to the left, whilst seated and leaning her left upon a ledge. She wears a dress with a large ribbon around the breast, with a dark shawl over her shoulders, and long, dark gloves. Her hair is mostly worn up, with a few tresses around the nape of her neck, and pearls adorn the top of her hair. The half-length portrait of Catherine shows her standing, with her face partially shaded by the large, flat hat she wears upon her head. Around her neck, she wears a ribbon, and over her low-cut dress she wears a mantle. They were married in Boydell Engraver in Cheapside, Jany. Seated and directed to the right, she look downwards, and wears a pearl choker. Her hair is adorned with pearls, and in her lap, she holds a bunch of flowers. Image x mm, Plate x mm, Sheet x mm Set within a studio, three women are depicted painting. The image comes from a series of prints titled Twenty-four subjects exhibiting the Costume of Paris. The series Page 5

6 was published between and in four parts, each of which came with a lithographed or engraved wrapper. Although an order is given in Abbey Travel, the plates were not numbered, and therefore, the order is uncertain. Abbey Travel Condition: Discolouration and time toning to margins. Vertical tear, approximately 2cm, along upper edge of sheet, not affecting image. Seated under an arch whilst painting a Madonna and Child, she holds a paintbrush in her right hand. She wears a dark robe with a lace collar, and an apron over her lap. She painted several three-quarter view self-portraits. Chaloner Smith 1, Meyer 22 Condition: Tipped to an album page and some light rubbing in the upper portion of the print. She wears a hat, a ribbon around her neck, and a cape over her dress. In her hands she holds a book, and sitting upon the desk to her left are books and a quill pen. She left him to become an actress in Edinburgh and Norwich. Sayer in Fleet Street. Crease to lower right corner, and small mark to upper edge of sheet, not affecting image. Sayer, Printseller in Fleet Street. Oettingen - Wallerstein Ex. Mark to top left corner, at and above plate mark. Bust portrait of Angelica Kauffman, based upon a wax medallion. Facing to the left in profile, she wears a chiton and peplos, and her hair is styled as an Ancient Greek, with a fillet across her head. Biffin [Sarah Biffen] R. Sievier after Sarah Biffen Stipple London. Published June ; by Miss Biffin; 33 Strand. Image x mm, Plate x mm, Sheet x mm A three-quarter length portrait of Sarah Biffin, miniature painter born without arms seated to the right on a bench behind a table on which lies and easel, a glass with two paint brushes, and a palette, looking towards the viewer, paint brush attached to the right sleeve of her dres, shewears a plumed hat, lace collar and chain. Inscription below title reads: Born at East Quantox-head, near Bridgewater, Somersetshire. Light dirt build up and discolouration to margins, not affecting plate or image. Image 91 x 75 mm, Plate x mm, Sheet x mm Half-length portrait of Olivia Serres, set within a oval. She faces forwards, with her gaze set slightly off to the left, holding a crayon in her right hand, and a portfolio in her left. Over her head she wears a veil. Olivia Serres -, known as Olive, was a British painter and writer. The drawing from which this print is taken is from a selection of numerous drawings that were previously attributed to Mary Beale by Robert Laurence Binyon, which are now recognised as the work of her son, Charles Beale. Mary Beale - was one of the most important portrait painters in 17th-century England, and has been recognised as the first professional female English painter. Her husband, Charles Beale the Elder, ran, and assisted her in, her studio in London. Staining to edges of sheet. Somel foxing to sheet. Mrs Frewer active early 19th century was drawing teacher in Norwich. Trimmed within plate mark and laid to album page. Small loss to lower left corner of sheet, not affecting printed area. Catherine was noted not for beauty but for her celebrated wittiness and sharp tongue Ex. A notorious trouble maker in her home town outside Belfast she announced her engagement to the lieutenant, Valentine Rudd, after just ten days of him being stationed in her town. The newly married couple moved to London where Caroline proceeded to rack up debts in her husbands name. She then ran off with another man and continued to bill her husband to ruin. Due to Carolines actions Rudd was arrested and put in a debtors prision, upon his release he fled the country. Caroline is most notorious for her involvement with the brothers Perreau, a subject upon which Sarah Bakewell has based the novel The Smart: Page 6

7 Chapter 4 : Women who changed the world Biography Online The main theme is the cruelty of humanity. When you are in a joyful mood, people want to keep your compamy since they want a share of happiness. However if you are sowncast and gloomy, people tend. Englishwoman Hannah Snell, who could neither read nor write, joined the army in under the name of James Gray. She fought in naval battles and was considered a courageous sailor. Not surprisingly, she was shunned by other women and had trouble finding work. She received an army pension and at her death was buried at Chelsea Hospital, a national retirement home for soldiers in England. This tragedy killed hundreds of people. William Paul Crillon Barton, a young navy surgeon, recommended that female nurses be included among navy personnel. His proposal was ignored. After falling in love with a young man who ruined her good name, she was forced to flee her family. With little money and no friends, Baker began working in a house of prostitution. She finally joined thse marines out of sheer desperation and was sent to sea. After three years she returned home and began to write a book on her experiences as a warning to other girls to be wary of young men and their intentions. The book was widely read and accepted as fact, but historians now believe that Louisa Baker never existed, and that the story of the female marine was created by publisher Nathaniel Coverly, Jr. Fact or fiction, the story was so popular that a sequel, The Adventures of Lucy Brown, was published. Historians doubt that the bookâ full of fantastic adventure, danger, and romanceâ is a true autobiography of Almira Paul of Halifax, Nova Scotia. What is more likely is that the story was based on the lives of real women such as Hannah Snell and Mary Anne Talbotâ women who defied convention to live life on their own terms. During their first four years of marriage, Lemuel made two lengthy voyages, leaving Mary Ann at home. But in, she sailed to China with her husband on the Oneidaâ an unusual undertaking at a time when fear of disease and other dangers generally kept women from sailing to distant lands. The ship returned to the United States in, and in the Tripps set out again for a two-year voyage to China. In a newspaper story, Mary Ann Tripp described the first voyage as the most important event of her life. Forty-three passengers and crew were lost. William Darling, keeper of Longstone Island Light, and his twenty-three-year-old daughter Grace made two trips to the wreck and rescued nine survivors stranded on the rocks. She was awarded the gold medal of the Humane Society and received several awards of money from Queen Victoria. Grace had little time to enjoy her fame, however: Just before the Arctic whaling season, Edwin left the pregnant Martha in Honolulu, where she rented a room. With no acquaintances and little money, Martha missed life at sea. In her journal on April 30,, she wrote, "It is one week yesterday since I again took up my abode on land. I am less happy here than there. The family returned to New York in July Mary Louisa Burtch married William Brewster in Disliking long partings from her husband, Mary decided to accompany him to sea, and sailed in April aboard the Tiger. She was almost constantly seasick, but she managed to write regularly in her journal. After giving birth to her first child, Mary returned home to Connecticut. The two boarded the cargo ship J. Hawthorn, bound for Savannah, Georgia. Like most Victorian women, Susan passed her time writing in her journal and sewing a vast array of items. In September, Captain Hathorn headed back to sea, missing the birth of his only child, Josephine, two months later. In May, Susan received the news that her husband had died of a tropical disease in the Caribbean. She was a widow at the age of twenty-six. She spent two years on the Hawaiian Islands, where she was befriended by many "sister sailors. Captain Luce was cautious while hunting whales in the Pacific because Confederate raiders were known to be boarding and burning Yankee whalers. George Geer wrote home to his wife. Jernegan initially went to sea without his new wife, but in he sent for her. After a difficult journey from New York, through the isthmus of Panama, and by steamer to San Francisco, Helen finally reached Honolulu and joined her husband aboard the whale ship Oriole. Two children soon came along, and the entire family headed for sea aboard the Roman. During the voyage, Helen made a quilt containing 2, pieces. Realizing the ships and their cargoes could not be saved, the captains decided to leave the ships and attempt to reach the end of the ice in the small whaleboats. They loaded the whaleboats with crew, provisions, clothing, and bedding, and, after traveling for a day, spent the night in tents on the ice. Nearly officers and men, three women, four children, and a baby sailed to safety in Honolulu. Young William Page 7

8 Williams, who experienced this adventure with his father captain of one of the doomed whalers, his mother, and his sister, wrote, "I doubt if I can adequately describe the leave-taking of our ship. It was depressing enough to me. Annie and her crew also did some crime fighting and helped people caught in storms and floods. The series was extremely popular and even spawned two motion pictures and a television comedy show. But long before the magazine series began its run, many real "Tugboat Annies" had made their mark on the maritime world. Before long Foss Maritime Company owned nearly boats and began transporting timber as well. The company is still in business today. Callie Leach French, circa s Courtesy of G. But when Kate, a German immigrant, married the keeper of Sandy Hook Light, her husband taught her to tend the light as well. Kate stated, "When I first came to Robbins Reef, the sight of water, which ever way I looked, made me lonesome. I refused to unpack my trunks at first, but gradually, a little at a time, I unpacked. She was back at the job later that day. During her time as keeper, she raised two children and rescued nearly fifty people. When her husband died thirteen years later, she took over management of Daniels Steamboat Line, which specialized in carrying iron ore and passengers. Her family recalled that she wore beautiful dresses with bustles, bows, and beads, but that she never allowed visitors to disturb her in the pilot house, so serious was she about her job as pilot. One fellow apparently learned this the hard way, getting an unwelcome swim in the lake when he retreated too slowly from the pilothouse. Georgia married Captain Phineas Banning Blanchard, who had proposed to her one week before they were married on October 3, They honeymooned at sea aboard the Bangalore, a square-rigged ship bound for San Francisco, loaded with coal. Georgia was no stranger to the trade, for her father was a merchant captain and she had spent part of her childhood aboard ship. Captain Blanchard bought his wife a sextant for the voyage and taught her how to navigate. Georgia later wrote, "Banning would be on deck looking at the sun through his sextant while I was in the cabin looking at the chronometer. When the sun was not out during the day we would take the sights by the stars at night. Navy Nurse Corps was established on May The first twenty nurses reported to Washington, D. By the end of World War I there were over 1, women enlisted as nurses. The Yo Hoearned second place. As a member of the three-person crew, Mabel regularly took her turn at the wheel. Navy authorized the enlistment of women under the rating of yeoman F. Joy Bright joined the navy as a first-class yeoman F in and excelled in a variety of assignments, including one with the newly organized U. Navy Bureau of Aeronautics. After losing two husbands to air accidents, in Joy Hancock her married name joined the WAVES as a lieutenant and became the highest-ranking woman in the Bureau of Aeronautics. There she helped introduce new civilian WAVES to the navy life and advocated that women perform many of the same technical jobs as men. When the navy began to consider disbanding the WAVES after the war, Hancock transferred to the Bureau of Personnel and worked to keep a permanent trained corps of women in the peacetime navy. In October, Hancock became one of the first women officers sworn into the regular navy. Navy nurses served aboard the first floating hospital, the USS Relief. Sutton became manager of the Providence Steamboat Company in after the death of her husband, Captain Hard Sutton, and three of her sons who were involved in the business. She was recognized as a maritime authority, but hardly set foot on a tug. She mainly worked from the office of the business, managing a fleet of five tugs. At one point, she was asked if she was the prototype for the fictional character Tugboat Annie; she responded, "I hope not. Page 8

9 Chapter 5 : Famous Women : Infamous Trivia and Quizzes Women who changed the world A list of famous influential women, including women's rights activists, poets, musicians, politicians, humanitarians and scientists. Sappho (circa BCE) One of the first known female writers. Ella Higginson When you are born, you cry, and the world rejoices. When you die, you rejoice, and the world cries. Buddhist Saying The song is ended, but the melody lingers on Irving Berlin The first breath is the beginning of death. Thomas Fuller There are only two ways to live your life. One is as though nothing is a miracle. The other is as though everything is a miracle. Albert Einstein The bitterest tears shed over graves are for words left unsaid and deeds left undone. Harriet Beecher Stowe Perhaps they are not stars but rather openings in Heaven where the love of our lost ones shines down to let us know they are happy Eskimo Legend Your end, which is endless, is as a snowflake dissolving in the pure air. Follow this rule, and you will add decades to your life. As a well spent day brings happy sleep, so life well used brings happy death. Leonardo DaVinci A single death is a tragedy, a million deaths is a statistic. Joseph Stalin Security is mostly a superstition. It does not exist in nature, nor do the children of men as a whole experience it. Avoiding danger is no safer in the long run than outright exposure. Life is either a daring adventure, or nothing. Helen Keller Death is not the end Death can never be the end. Death is the road. Life is the traveller. The Soul is the Guide Our mind thinks of death. Our heart thinks of life Our soul thinks of Immortality. Sri Chinmoy Say not in grief that she is no more but say in thankfulness that she was A death is not the extinguishing of a light, but the putting out of the lamp because the dawn has come. Rabindranath Tagore People are like stained-glass windows. They sparkle and shine when the sun is out, but when the darkness sets in; their true beauty is revealed only if there light is from within. Elizabeth Kubler Ross We make a living by what we get; we make a life by what we give Winston Churchill The boundaries between life and death are at best shadowy and vague. Who shall say where one ends and where the other begins? Robert Frost Take him and cut him out in little stars, And he will make the face of heaven so fine That all the world will be in love with night, And pay no worship to the garish sun. Francis Bacon Men fear death, as if unquestionably the greatest evil, and yet no man knows that it may not be the greatest good. William Mitford I know death has ten thousand several doors for men to take their exits John Webster I have seen death too often to believe in death, It is not an ending, but a withdrawal. As one who finishes a long journey. Turns off the lights Steps from the car And walks up the path To the home that awaits him Unknown It is not length of life, but depth of life. Emerson Ralph Waldo Life and death are but phases of the same thing, the reverse and obverse of the same coin. Mahatma Gandhi Say not in grief he is no more - but live in thankfulness that he was Hebrew Proverb It matters not what someone is born, but what they grow to be. Rowling I fall asleep in the full and certain hope That my slumber shall not be broken; And that, though I be all-forgetting, Yet shall I not be all-forgotten, But continue that life in the thoughts and deeds of those I have loved. If he burns brightly before he dies, his brightness shines for all time Unknown Sometimes, when one person is absent, the whole world seems depopulated Allphonse de Lamartine The comfort of having a friend may be taken away, but not that of having had one. Seneca Grief is the price we pay for love Queen Elizabeth II Anything that is of value in life only multiplies when it is given. Deepak Chopra Yesterday is a memory, tomorrow is a mystery and today is a gift, which is why it is called the present. What the caterpillar perceives is the end; to the butterfly is just the beginning. Everything that has a beginning has an ending. Make your peace with that and all will be well Buddhist Saying Cowards die many times before their deaths: The valiant never taste of death but once. William Shakespeare Death is the veil which those who live call life: They sleep, and it is lifted. Who knows when the end is reached? Death may be the beginning of life. How do I know that love of life is not a delusion after all? How do I know that he who dreads to die is as a child who has lost the way and cannot find his way home? How do I know that the dead repent of having previously clung to life? Chuang Tse Perhaps passing through the gates of death is like passing quietly through the gate in a pasture fence. On the other side, you keep walking, without the need to look back. No shock, no drama, just the lifting of a plank or two in a simple wooden gate in a clearing. Neither pain, nor floods of light, nor great voices, but just the silent crossing of a meadow. We sometimes congratulate Page 9

10 ourselves at the moment of waking from a troubled dream; it may be so the moment after death. Nathaniel Hawthorne If death could be seen as a beautiful clear lake, refreshing and buoyant, then when a consciousness moves towards its exit from a body there would be that delightful plunge and it would simply swim away. Pat Rodegast In the godforsaken, obscene quicksand of life, there is a deafening alleluia rising from the souls of those who weep, and of those who weep with those who weep. If you watch, you will see The hand of God putting the stars back in their skies one by one. Ann Weems I do not want the peace which passeth understanding, I want the understanding which bringeth peace. Helen Keller The people who pretend that dying is rather like strolling into the next room always leave me unconvinced. Death, like birth, must be a tremendous event. Page 10

11 Chapter 6 : Ella Wheeler Wilcox Books - Biography and List of Works - Author of 'A Baby In the House' Pamphlet: Pamphlet, brief booklet; in the UNESCO definition, it is an unbound publication that is not a periodical and contains no fewer than 5 and no more than 48 pages, exclusive of any cover. See Article History Alternative Title: After the invention of printing, short unbound or loosely bound booklets were called pamphlets. Since polemical and propagandist works on topical subjects were circulated in this form, the word came to be used to describe them. Librarians and bibliographers generally classify as a pamphlet any short work, unbound or bound in paper covers. Although the word tract is almost synonymous, it generally describes religious publications. Pamphlets were among the first printed materials, and they were widely used in England, France, and Germany. The first great age of pamphleteering was inspired by the religious controversies of the early 16th century. In France so many pamphlets were issued in support of the Reformed religion that edicts prohibiting them were promulgated in,, and In Germany the pamphlet was first used by the leaders of the Protestant Reformation to inflame popular opinion against the pope and the Roman Catholic church. Martin Luther was one of the earliest and most effective pamphleteers. The coarseness and violence of the pamphlets on both sides and the public disorder attributed to their distribution led to their prohibition by imperial edict in The pamphlet was popular in the Elizabethan age, being used not only for religious controversy but also by men such as Thomas Dekker, Thomas Nashe, and Robert Greene for romantic fiction, autobiography, scurrilous personal abuse, and social and literary criticism. In France didactic and abusive religious pamphleteering gave way to a more flippant and lively writing that satirized the morals of the court and the chief ministers. The pamphlets of Blaise Pascal, known as Les Provinciales, raised the form to the level of literature. In England pamphlets gained increasing propagandist influence during the political and religious controversies of the 17th century. They played an important role in the debates between Puritan and Anglican, and king and Parliament in the years before, during, and after the English Civil Wars. At the time of the Restoration in England in, the flow of pamphlets was checked, their range restricted to some extent by newspapers and periodicals. During the Glorious Revolution â 89, however, pamphlets increased in importance as political weapons. The pamphlet continued to have a powerful influence throughout the 18th century. In North America, pre- Revolutionary political agitation stimulated the beginning of extensive pamphleteering; foremost among the writers of political pamphlets was Thomas Paine, whose Common Sense appeared in January After the United States was founded, another wave of pamphleteering was caused by the proposal of a new constitution in From this material there emerged The Federalist Papers, contributions made to the discussion of government by the revolutionary pamphleteers Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison. The Federalist may also be regarded as marking the end of the era of the political pamphlet; thereafter political dialogue was largely carried on in newspapers, periodicals, and bound books. Noted pamphleteers of 18th-century Franceâ Voltaire, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Montesquieu, and Denis Diderot, among othersâ used pamphlets to express the philosophy of the Enlightenment. These pamphlets were reasoned discourses, though with the arrival of the French Revolution, pamphlets once again became powerful polemical weapons. The Revolution itself produced many popular anonymous pamphlets, slandering the queen and the nobility and commenting on events. In 19th-century France, Paul-Louis Courier wrote polemic masterpieces. In England the pamphlet played a part in all political movements of the 19th century. From the 20th century the pamphlet has more often been used for information than for controversy, chiefly by government departments and learned societies. Learn More in these related Britannica articles: Page 11

12 Chapter 7 : Famous Alcatraz Inmates - How Libraries Changed the World for Women; This Infamous 19th-Century Birth Control Pamphlet Got Its Writer Imprisoned; The Secret Recipes Of The 19th Century;. Much of her poetry has been lost but her immense reputation has remained. Plato referred to Sappho as one of the great 10 poets. Cleopatra sought to defend Egypt from the expanding Roman Empire. Mary Magdalene stood near Jesus at his crucifixion and was the first to see his resurrection. She led several tribes in revolt against the Roman occupation. Initially successful, her army of, sacked Colchester and then London. Her army was later defeated. Hildegard of Bingen â Mystic, author and composer. Hildegard of Bingen lived a withdrawn life, spending most of her time behind convent walls. However, her writings, poetry and music were revelatory for the time period. She was consulted by popes, kings and influential people of the time. Her writings and music have influenced people to this day. Eleanor of Aquitaine â The first Queen of France. Two of her sons Richard and John went on to become Kings of England. Educated, beautiful and highly articulate, Eleanor influenced the politics of western Europe through her alliances and influence over her sons. An unlikely hero, at the age of just 17, the diminutive Joan successfully led the French to victory at Orleans. Her later trial and martyrdom only heightened her mystique. Mirabai â Indian mystic and poet. Mirabai was born into a privileged Hindu family, but she forsook the expectations of a princess and spent her time as a mystic and devotee of Sri Krishna. She helped revitalise the tradition of bhakti devotional yoga in India. St Teresa of Avila â Spanish mystic, poet and Carmelite reformer. St Teresa of Avila lived through the Spanish inquisition but avoided being placed on trial despite her mystical revelations. She helped to reform the tradition of Catholicism and steer the religion away from fanaticism. She was involved in interminable political machinations seeking to increase the power of her favoured sons. Elizabeth I â Queen of England during a time of great economic and social change, she saw England cemented as a Protestant country. Catherine the Great â One of the greatest political leaders of the Eighteenth Century. Catherine the Great was said to have played an important role in improving the welfare of Russian serfs. She placed great emphasis on the arts and helped to cement Russia as one of the dominant countries in Europe. Mary Wollstonecraft â English author, Wollstonecraft wrote the most significant book in the early feminist movement. She was a pioneer in the struggle for female suffrage. Jane Austen wrote at a time when female writers were not encouraged, helping pave the way for future writers. Her book Women in the Nineteenth Century was influential in changing perceptions about men and women, and was one of the most important early feminist works. She argued for equality and women being more self-dependent and less dependent on men. Harriet Beecher Stowe â A lifelong anti-slavery campaigner. Abraham Lincoln later remarked that her books were a major factor behind the American civil war. Queen Victoria â British Queen. Queen Victoria sought to gain an influence in British politics whilst remaining aloof from party politics. She came to symbolise a whole era of Victorian values. Florence Nightingale â British nurse. By serving in the Crimean war, Florence Nightingale was instrumental in changing the role and perception of the nursing profession. Her dedicated service won widespread admiration and led to a significant improvement in the treatment of wounded soldiers. She began campaigning within the temperance movement and this convinced her of the necessity for women to have the vote. She toured the US giving countless speeches on the subjects of human rights. Elizabeth Blackwell â Born in Britain, Blackwell was the first woman to receive a medical degree in America and the first woman to be on the UK medical register. Blackwell helped to break down social barriers, enabling women to be accepted as doctors. Her poems were published posthumously and received widespread literary praise for their bold and unconventional style. Her poetic style left a significant legacy on 20th Century poetry. She also helped found Newnham College, Cambridge. She explored all avenues of protest including violence, public demonstrations and hunger strikes. She died in, 3 weeks before a law giving all women over 21 the right to vote. Curie was the first woman to receive the Nobel Prize and the first person to win the Nobel Prize for two separate categories. Her first award was for research into radioactivity Physics, Her second Nobel prize was for Chemistry in A few years later she also helped develop the first X-ray Page 12

13 machines. Emily Murphy â The first woman magistrate in the British Empire. She wrote fiercely against German imperialism and for international socialism. In, she was murdered after a failed attempt to bring about a Communist revolution in Germany. Helena Rubinstein â American businesswoman. Her business enterprise proved immensely successful and, later in life, she used her enormous wealth to support charitable enterprises in the field of education, art and health. Helen Keller â American social activist. At the age of 19 months, Helen became deaf and blind. Overcoming the frustration of losing both sight and hearing she campaigned tirelessly on behalf of deaf and blind people. Coco Chanel â French fashion designer. One of the most innovative fashion designers, Coco Chanel was instrumental in defining feminine style and dress during the 20th Century. Her ideas were revolutionary; in particular she often took traditionally male clothes and redesigned them for the benefit of women. Eleanor Roosevelt â Wife and political aide of American president F. In her own right Eleanor made a significant contribution to the field of human rights, a topic she campaigned upon throughout her life. As head of UN human rights commission she helped to draft the UN declaration of human rights. She also actively campaigned for Indian independence. Katharine Hepburn â American actress. An iconic figure of twentieth Century film, Katharine Hepburn won four Oscars and received over twelve Oscar nominations. Rachel Carson â American conservationist. Rachel Carson was a pioneering environmentalist. It played an important role in creating the modern ecological movement. Simone de Beauvoir â French existentialist philosopher. Simone de Beauvoir developed a close personal and intellectual relationship with Jean-Paul Satre. It was a defining book for the feminist movement. Devoting her life to the service of the poor and dispossessed Mother Teresa became a global icon for selfless service to others. Through her Missionary of Charities organisation, she personally cared for thousands of sick and dying people in Calcutta. She was awarded the Nobel Peace prize in Dorothy Hodgkin â British chemist. Hodgkin was awarded the Nobel prize for her work on critical discoveries of the structure of both penicillin and later insulin. These discoveries led to significant improvements in health care. An outstanding chemist, Dorothy also devoted a large section of her life to the peace movement and promoting nuclear disarmament. Rosa Parks â American civil rights activist. She sought to play down her role in the civil rights struggle but for her peaceful and dignified campaigning she became one of the most well respected figures in the civil rights movements. She has witnessed rapid social and economic change and has been a unifying influence for Britain and the Commonwealth. Billie Holiday â American jazz singer. Her voice was moving in its emotional intensity and poignancy. Despite dying at the age of only 44, Billie Holiday helped define the jazz era and her recordings are still widely sold today. Indira Gandhi â First female prime minister of India. She was in power from between â 77 and â She was assassinated in by her Sikh bodyguards, in response to her storming of the Golden Temple. Eva Peron â Eva Peron was widely loved by the ordinary people of Argentina. She died aged only 32 in Franklin also worked on the chemistry of coal and viruses. Betty Friedan â American social activist and leading feminist figure of the s. Margaret Thatcher â The first female Prime minister of Great Britain, she governed for over 10 years, putting emphasis on individual responsibility and a belief in free markets. Marilyn Monroe â American actress who became one of the most iconic film legends. Page 13