1 RISK ASSESSMENT Mechanical Engineering January 2011 Mark Hoare Health and Safety Manager The University of Birmingham
2 Course Content Introduction to health and safety How heath and safety is managed at the University Risk assessment in theory Risk assessment in practice
3 WHAT IS HEALTH & SAFETY? Health and Safety is not the absence of accidents or ill health BUT the result of taking positive action to identify causes and implement and maintain suitable preventive measures to eliminate risk or reduce risk to an acceptable level. What is an acceptable level?
4 The greater the risk the more resources that need to be put into controlling the risk Time Money Effort
5 WHY BOTHER WITH HEALTH & SAFETY? People The Law Cost of Accidents University s s reputation
6 LAW Mainly the Health and Safety At Work Act -and regulations made under it Also Duty of care University s s Policy interperate the law
7 Employer s duty to ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, the health, safety and welfare of all his employees. In particular: safe plant and equipment HSWA Section 2 safe systems of work safe handling, transport and storage information, training and supervision safe access and egress safe environment safety policy trade union consultation Similar responsibility towards non employees
8 Employee s duty while at work: to take reasonable care of his own and other peoples health and safety co-operate operate with employers HSWA Sections 7 & 8 No person shall interfere with or misuse anything provided for health, safety or welfare.
9 Fire at Southampton University -Cost of millions -to deal with immediate incident -to rebuild -to relocate world class research work -reputation Plus stress on all levels of staff and students
10 HOW is H&S ORGANISED and MANAGED? UNIVERSITY LEVEL The University via the VC & Senior Staff Heads of College Supported by: University Workplace Wellbeing Team University Policy, Guidance and Rules
11 COLLEGE LEVEL
13 Workplace Wellbeing Team Director Mr David Harrison Health and Safety Unit Occupational Health Staff Support Services [Sustainability and Environmental Advisor] Dr Trevor Shields
14 HEALTH & SAFETY PHILOSOPHY H & S MUST BE MANAGED the creator of the risk must control the risk prevent accidents, incidents, ill health before they occur assess risk and target resources the greater the risk the more resources to control the risk
15 NEED TO MANAGE THE RISK Identify foreseeable hazards in order to prevent or control them to recognised standards and be able to demonstrate that it is being done and the correct standards are being achieved
18 Examples of Accidents in Mechanical Engineering Lifting a flywheel, slipped through his fingers onto foot Coolent to grinder stopped, dust extraction caught fire Spark from a linisher hit person in the eye Cut finger on swarf Die on press failed and hit person in face Using emery paper on lathe, caught hand on chuck Steel bar being moved slipped through fingers Piece of hot weld went down a student s s back Injured back lifting post bags Cut arm using hack saw Using bench drill without clamping work and cut finger
19 Risk Assessment
20 HEALTH & SAFETY AT WORK ACT 1974 Requires employers to ensure the health, safety and welfare of their employees and non employees How can this be done without assessing the risks they face?
21 MANAGEMENT OF HEALTH & SAFETY AT WORK REGS 1999 Specifically requires employers to carry out risk assessments Employers must make suitable and sufficient assessments of risks to employees and other persons arising from or in connection with their conduct or undertaking for the purpose of identifying control measures
22 Process Identify Hazard Assess Risk Manage the Risk Monitor Review Improve
23 Identify Hazard Process
24 HAZARD something with the potential to cause harm DEFINITIONS g\winppt\riskass\1
25 Process Identify Hazard Assess Risk
26 HAZARD something with the potential to cause harm RISK the likelihood of that harm being realised DEFINITIONS g\winppt\riskass\1
27 Process Clear identification of hazards What are the risks from the hazards?
28 Identify Hazard Assess Risk Process Manage the Risks
29 Process Assess the Risk Identify those who may be harmed and numbers young persons/students physical impairment pregnant strength/height immuno-compromised Take account of Some may be regulars in workplace, some not Staff, students, visitors, contractors, maintenance, cleaners, patients, p public etc. Different levels of competence, knowledge, awareness, language etc. Away from campus, travelling, fieldwork etc. Existing control measures Are they adequate? What more do I have to do?
30 Evaluating the risk Process Evaluate Risk Separate significant from insignificant risks
31 Evaluating the risk Separate significant from insignificant risks Outcome Process Evaluate Risk No injury / minor / major / fatal
32 Evaluating the risk Separate significant from insignificant risks Outcome Process Evaluate Risk No injury / minor / major / fatal Clarify why risks are significant consequence probability frequency numbers affected
33 Evaluating the risk Separate significant from insignificant risks Outcome Process Evaluate Risk No injury / minor / major / fatal Clarify why risks are significant consequence probability frequency numbers affected Can the risk be accepted? Are existing controls Ok? Are more controls required
34 Identify Hazard Assess Risk Process Manage the Risks by: Elimination/ Substitution Separation Controlling to Acceptable Level by: Procedures Systems Instructions i.e.method Statements Personal Protective Equipment Warnings
35 Process Controlling the Risk Can the hazard be removed altogether? If not, how can risks be controlled so that harm is unlikely? Hierarchy of controls eliminate or substitute engineering controls administrative controls personal protective equipment information and instruction Controls consider competence consider emergencies etc. must be maintained and monitored for effectiveness
36 Process Controlling the Risk Controlling the risk Is there University policy/guidance? Is there HSE guidance? Is there an industry/research standard? Apply hierarchy of controls Consider competency Identify emergency procedures Health surveillance may be required
37 University Health & Safety Policy & Strategy Management Guidance Local plans/organisation Specific Policies Manual Handling Electrical Testing Fire Ladders Biological Safety Ionising Radiation Pressure Systems Carcinogens Etc. Specific Guidance Risk Assessment Supervision Work Equipment Confined Spaces Laboratory Work Work Station Design Offices Young Persons Etc...
40 Process Using the Assessment Use the assessment outcome procedures (including emergency) instructions methods of work Communicate to those who need to know students shared premises contractors visitor etc.
41 Record of the assessment Signed Dated Specify review date Process Recording
42 Laboratory Worker Severely Burned Lab worker sustained severe chemical burns when she was splashed with a hot beaker of perchloric acid. She was moving a beaker of the liquid which was at 200 degrees C when it slipped from her grasp, spilled onto her clothes and burst into flames. Her leg also caught fire. She had five operations and will have permanent scarring. She was not wearing any personal protective clothing. Company fined 25,000. Judge said they had no proper procedure in terms of safety procedure, equipment and training.the company fell lamentably short of the standards required. East Anglian Daily Times Risk Assessment?
43 One accident can lead to another A Student modified a TV to take headphones. He did not know that the set was a live chassis type. The phones were live at 350v when he used them. He received severe shock and burns and was rendered unconscious. Also, as he fell he pulled the TV set down on him and his shoulder was broken.
44 Specific Risk Assessments Required For Display Screen Assessment Manual Handling Hazardous Substances (COSHH)
45 DSE Checklist
46 Process Identify Hazard Assess Risk Manage Risks by Elimination/ Control to Acceptable Level Monitor Review Procedures Systems Instructions Warnings i.e.method Statement
47 REVIEW & REVISE Significant changes, revise assessment workplace changes, new substances, procedures, equipment etc. Good practice to review anyway Some assessments (COSHH) must be reviewed at specific periods Don t t amend for trivial changes Walk round, look, ask people, look at accident statistics, manufacturer s s instructions, data sheets etc.
48 Case Study Working at height
49 Hazard working at heights falls, well known Risk high, well known Eliminate Control Work at height regulations University guidance on work at heights Competent Contractors Selection of equipment Training of operatives Supervision Inspection arrangements Monitoring arrangements
54 Case Study Storage of flammable and hazardous materials Risks known Follow University s Hazardous Substances Policy -particularly storage section. Inspect against this plus housekeeping issue
55 Risk assessment may consider: Are loose gas cylinders required? -pipe in direct from a permanent installation Is such a large quantity of oil required? Inspection may consider: Who is responsible/why such a mess? Why was the rubbish not cleared away? -supervision
57 Summary Understand activity Identify hazards Identify those who might be harmed Evaluate the risk Control the risk Record the assessment Review and revise Use the assessment to formulate procedures etc.
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