by Scott Recover your P0RN from your RAID Array!

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1 by Scott Recover your P0RN from your RAID Array!

2 WHAT IS THIS ABOUT? BRIEF Coverage ;) Unusual Arrays Intro to RAID About RAID 0 Sight Samples Sound Samples About RAID 5 Demo with Sights!

3 Mission Briefing (1) WHY RAID RECOVERY? RAID recovery is EXPENSIVE! Its more difficult than a single drive. Its very time consuming. Has more than one point of failure. Many people have problems with them and send me questions!

4 Mission Briefing (2) Assumptions for this Talk We are assuming you have already done what I previously described in videos to repair the damaged drive. We are also assuming you know nothing about how the data is stored; not the slice size or order. You have PORN, or at least pictures!

5 Mission Briefing (3) Goals for this Talk! DIY:* Teach you how to rebuild RAID yourself from my experiences. Do it as cheap as possible! i.e. free or under a $100! Do as much in software as quickly as possible by sight and sound using the PORN on the drive!

6 Mission Briefing (4) Whats it going to take? A bit of time... Lots of free disk space... You have to find the Pictures... Persistence and Experimentation... In some cases, Research Some Slides are for Reference & can be downloaded from

7 What is a RAID Array? Redundant Array of (Inexpensive or Independent) Disks. Regardless of marketing on the box some arrays are not Redundant. Different types of arrays need different quantities of drives & you need to know how many that is! i.e. The Mystery Box

8 Covering Unusual Arrays JBOD s such as in LaCie or generic external enclosures. XFS/ZFS Arrays such as NAS drives from Western Digital or Buffalo. Combinations with offsets & RAID 0 such as some LaCie NAS drives, etc.

9 JBOD Data Recovery MyHardDriveDied.com 2009

10 JBOD Data Recovery MyHardDriveDied.com 2009

11 1 JBOD Drives (1) Means Just a Bunch of Disks and they are just linked logically together end to end. These drives usually have no fan, get very hot and contain several drives. Sometimes the cables are melted together. Sometimes they are custom and employ different variations for different drives. Generally they can be recovered individually by scanning for file headers. One drive will have a File System Table of some sort, other will be just raw files and no file system structure without the first disk.

12 JBOD Drives (2) Data Recovery MyHardDriveDied.com

13 Host Protected Area (HPA) ATA-4 Standard Host Protected Area aka HPA, used to limit the capacity of a drive for storage of additional info usually stored Data the Recovery end of the MyHardDriveDied.com drive. Free tools like MHDD 2009 to set. 1

14 NAS Boxes Fixed with HPA Data Recovery MyHardDriveDied.com

15 1 Windows Dynamic Disks Dynamic disks do not use partition tables, they use LDM which is at the end of the disk and needs to be done backwards. It uses one single partition occupying the entire disk minus one cylinder. When volumes are added or deleted the partition table is not updated. This will be noticed right away by some data recovery software like R-Studio.

16 1 Processing XFS/ZFS Arrays XFS / ZFS is very hard to recover from due to the lack of commercial software available. Some software that can help are tools like: TESTDISK (free) supports repairing XFS partitions and write it back out. UFS Explorer (ufsexplorer.com) has versions that support XFS and ZFS.

17 1 UFS Explorer for XFS

18 Let s talk about RAID ZERO! Data Recovery MyHardDriveDied.com

19 1 RAID 0 Arrays Overview From Wikipedia.org

20 1 RAID 0: How it works RAID 0 has NO redundancy and does NOTHING to protect data! Losing one drive loses all your data. RAID 0 should be called AIDS: Array of Inexpensive Drives that Suck

21 2 RAID 0 with more than TWO You can have a RAID 0 array with more than two drives. There is generally no sequencing numbers for the order. If there are four drives in the array, there can be as many as 72 different combinations to test. More than two drives? No backup? Thats just CRAZY! Yes, Photographers I mean you! Your Mac is made of the same crap as a PC :O>

22 2 WHICH IS THE FIRST DRIVE? In most cases you can determine the first drive in the array, depending on the slice size. How? In the first sector you will find an MBR and at sector 63 you will see the active boot partition, in most cases

23 2 Partition Example From

24 NTFS Boot Sectors From Microsoft.com Data Recovery MyHardDriveDied.com

25 2 RAID 0 Put the first drive in the first slot of whatever software you are using. Put the other drives in their slots. Set your size of your slice to your guess. Usually 64 is the defaults (unless some tech messed with it) Scan for Pictures (JPG,JPEG,GIF) or MP3s. Stop, extract, view, listen, try again

26 2 Slice Sizes (2k to 2048k) Extract samples between the boundaries possible i.e.:»16k»32k»64k»128k»256k»512k»1024k

27 2 How do you know when you are wrong?? REVIEWING SAMPLES EXTRACTED

28 Large File Sample Data Recovery MyHardDriveDied.com

29 Stick Porn under 32k Intact Data Recovery MyHardDriveDied.com

30 Recognizable Sample File 140k Data Recovery MyHardDriveDied.com

31 Small Files under 64k Intact Data Recovery MyHardDriveDied.com

32 File over 128k Data Recovery MyHardDriveDied.com

33 Files Just Over 64k Data Recovery MyHardDriveDied.com

34 Files Over 2 Megs Data Recovery MyHardDriveDied.com

35 Large RAW Files Data Recovery MyHardDriveDied.com

36 Once you get it right you get me!

37 3 SOUND SAMPLE Extracted MP3 Sound File

38 3 SOUND SAMPLE Extracted MP3 Sound File

39 3 SOUND SAMPLE Extracted MP3 Sound File

40 How Large is your RAID 5 Array??

41 3 RAID 5: Controllers There are two kinds of controllers for RAID, Host Based and Discrete controllers. You are going to try to do this in software!

42 3 RAID 5: How it works RAID 5 Array protects the server from down time. RAID 5 does this by storing parity data on all the hard drives. Parity is a formula that calculates error correction data. By distributing parity across all drives it creates a safety net for the data when a drive fails.

43 RAID 5 Array Overview From Wikipedia.org Data Recovery MyHardDriveDied.com

44 RAID 5: How it works Data Recovery MyHardDriveDied.com

45 4 RAID5 XOR Parity is calculated by using the math function XOR with the data with the number of slices in the row to store the parity slice. For 3 drives it looks like this: SliceA xor SliceB = Parity

46 4 Why is it in for Recovery? There have also been times where RAID 5 arrays have failed a single drive, but no one noticed before a second one failed. If two drives fail and the array goes down, which drive do you need to repair???

47 4 RAID 5: How it works Usually reassembly of RAID is hard because there are at least two or more unknowns so it is hard to guess correctly: Disk Order is Unknown Slice Sizes can Vary Variations on Slice Arrangements Fragmentation and Boundaries Looking at the Pictures as Jigsaws has helped me figure out the arrangements.

48 4 Slice Sizes (2k to 2048k) You still have the slice boundaries:»16k»32k»64k»128k»256k»512k»1024k»2048k

49 (EXTRA) JPG Start and End Wikipedia Reference for JPG Data Recovery MyHardDriveDied.com

50 4 (EXTRA) EXIF: Manual Carving

51 4 (EXTRA) EXIF: Info Thumbnail

52 4 (EXTRA) EXIF: Calculation Size

53 5 Contiguous Slice Sizes 64k 128k 256k 512k 1 Meg 2 Megs

54 5 Jigsaw: Do they Belong? Do Slices Belong to Same Picture?

55 Arrangements: Left Async Data Recovery MyHardDriveDied.com

56 Arrangements: Left Sync Data Recovery MyHardDriveDied.com

57 Arrangements: Right Async Data Recovery MyHardDriveDied.com

58 Arrangements: Right Sync Data Recovery MyHardDriveDied.com

59 5 Are they in the wrong order? Do Slices Belong to Same Picture?

60 Arrangements: Left Async Data Recovery MyHardDriveDied.com

61 Arrangements: Left Sync Data Recovery MyHardDriveDied.com

62 5 Arranged Correctly

63 6 Steps to rebuild RAID 5 array 1. Repair all necessary BAD drives. 2.Image the damaged drive(s) and recover as many sectors as possible. 3.Image all the good drives. 4.Use software to analyze and re-weave the images back together virtually. Test data! 5.Write the newly weaved image back to a hard drive to start the logical recovery (follow the logical recovery section for the type of format).

64 6 Free Code to Assemble Array #!/usr/bin/perl w # # raid5 perl utility # Copyright (C) 2005 # Mike Hardy <mike [at] mikehardy.net> # # This script understands the default linux raid5 disk layout, # and can be used to check parity in an array stripe, or to calculate # the data that should be present in a chunk with a read error. my [at] array_components. = my $chunk_size = 64 * 1024; # chunk size is 64K my $sectors_per_chunk = $chunk_size / 512;

65 6 Software to Rebuild RAID 5 Remember our goal is to cost less than $100 and be able to rebuild AIDS and RAID5. Give the most options and produce an image file. My Choices: Raid Reconstructor from Runtime.org R-Studio from r-tools technology.

66 6 Model in Photos: Randi Lamey RAID Live Demo Using R-Studio

67 The End Data Recovery MyHardDriveDied.com

68 Model in Photos: Randi Lamey Bonus Pictures Data Recovery MyHardDriveDied.com 2009

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