# Biology 347 General Physiology Lab Advanced Cardiac Functions ECG Leads and Einthoven s Triangle

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5 which we would theoretically measure no net electrical activity). Now, we just draw a line (a vector) from the zero point at the center of Einthoven's triangle that passes through our lead intersection point and passes out from the triangle and bisects the circle surrounding the triangle. 5. The vector that we have just drawn summarizes the net direction of electrical activity in the heart we are examining. Simply read the value at the point where the vector bisects the circle. Here, we read a value of approximately +56 (note that our vector heads down and to the left). Human references listing the normal human electrical axis as from 0 to +90 and also from -30 to +120 (evidently, everyone does not agree on the normal electrical axis for a human. 6. Following the above example, find the electrical axis of your subject s heart.

7 Calculating avl from Leads I and II: avl = Vcos(30+ ) avl = V{cos(30)*cos( ) - sin(30)*sin( )} avl = cos(30)*vcos( ) - sin(3)*vsin( ) avl = cos(30)*i - sin(30)*avf avl = (( 3)/2)*I - (1/2)*(2*II - I)/ 3 avl = (( 3)/2)*I - II / 3 + (1/2)*I / 3 avl = (2*I - II)/ 3 Equation (11) Calculate avr from Leads I and II: avr = -Vcos(30- ) avr = -V{cos(30)*cos( ) + sin(30)*sin( )} avr = -cos(30)*i - sin(30)*avf avr = -(( 3)/2)*I - (1/2)*(2*II - I)/ 3 avr = -(( 3)/2)*I - II/ 3 + (1/2)*I/ 3 avr = -(I+ II)/ 3 Equation (12) Calculate Cardiac Angle from Leads I and II: From equation 9: V*sin( ) = (2*II - I)/ 3 From equation 1: Vcos( ) = I Dividing equation 9 by equation 1: tan( ) = {(2*II - I)/ 3}/I = + Arctan((2*II - I)/ 3 *I) Equation (13) Questions and Conclusions 1. Which leads recorded upright R waves? From which electrode (left arm, right arm, left leg, right leg) and along which axis (-150, -30, 0, 60, 90, 120 degrees) were these leads looking at the depolarization of the ventricle? 2. Which leads recorded inverted R waves? From which electrode (left arm, right arm, left leg, right leg) and along which axis (-150, -30, 0, 60, 90, 120 degrees) were these leads looking at the depolarization of the ventricle? 3. Which lead is the isoelectric lead?

8 4. What is the QRS axis of the subject s heart? What is the normal range of the QRS axis? 5. Which ECG lead provided the largest R wave for the subject? 6. Which lead is closest to the QRS axis of the heart?

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