1 VoIP from A to Z NAEO 2009 Conference Cancun, Mexico
2 VoIP glossary What is VoIP? Bandwidth Signaling Codecs Quality of Service (QoS)
3 What is VoIP? Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) is the method of transmitting voice calls over an IP based network. VoIP does not have to operate over the Internet. VoIP gives you flexibility with cost, reliability, quality that cannot be obtained in the PSTN.
4 Bandwidth Bandwidth is a measure of data flow rate in digital networks You can never have enough bandwidth. T1 = 1.5mbps, T3 = 45mbps Cable, DSL options Carrier Ethernet options (VzON, TLS)
5 Signaling Signaling is used in the telephone network for call creation and supervision. Information such as CallerID, DNIS, ANI is sent via signaling Many competing standards (SIP,MGCP,H.323,H.248,SCCP) Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) has won the battle.
6 Codec Codec stands for encoding & DECoding. Used in the network to digitize the analog voice signal Codec choice has a big impact in voice quality and bandwidth requirements Major codecs (g.711u, g.729) g.711u is the same as a T1 (PCM). uses 80kbps of bandwidth per call. Supports faxing & modem traffic if your network is clean enough g.729 is a lower quality, high CPU, low bandwidth codec. 16kbps of bandwidth per call. Cannot support faxing & modem traffic *ever*
7 Quality of Service (QoS) QoS affects the quality of your voice traffic Measured in Latency, Jitter and loss Latency = The time it takes for a packet to travel across the network. Latency below 150ms is preferred. Latency = echo which is easily handled by the echo cancelers in the network if the jitter is low enough. Jitter = The difference in inter-packet latency jitter is bad! Phones & gateways have jitter buffers to compensate but they can only do so much. Loss = Packet loss, packets that are dropped by a device along the network path. commonly caused by queue overruns
8 QoS part II QoS is provided by Marking,Classification and Queuing Packet marking is handled by the end points according to class. Routers & switches react to the markings by queuing the packets. Most routers have 4 queues. Nothing helps QoS like MORE BANDWIDTH. The faster the interface the easier it is for packets to get through. An interface that shows 30% utilization over 5 minutes is actually 100% full 30% of the time! (1.5 minutes of jitter & loss) Data packets (web page) are 1500 bytes = 8ms on a T1, 0.12ms on FastE (100mbps) Default action for equipment is best effort /FIFO queing Queuing options vary by vendor and can become extremely complex Queues need to be configured on every device. 2 types of QoS in the network DSCP - IP layer 3 (aka DiffServ) - typically VoIP traffic is marked with DSCP:EF (expedited forwarding) 802.1p - Ethernet layer 2 (switches) DSCP does not survive a trip through the Internet. ISPs reset the DSCP marking to DSCP:00 (best effort) on all packets 802.1p marking does not survive a trip through a router and must be remapped from the DSCP values at every interface.
9 VoIP Components Call Agent - Softswitch, PBX. Handles call control and signaling. Media Gateway - Converts VoIP traffic into traditional telephony services (ISDN PRI) Provides the CPU power through Digital Signal Processors (DSP) to handle the codec work. ATA - Analog Telephone Adapter - converts VoIP Traffic into traditional analog lines (POTS). User Agent - Software component of a VoIP end user device (IP Phone, soft phone) registers with a Call Agent. SBC - Session Border Controller, aka VoIP firewall handles the interaction between devices and the public Internet. Provides NAT Traversal of VoIP packets.
10 Asterisk? Asterisk is a swiss army knife VoIP toolbox. It can be a Call Agent, User Agent, Media Gateway, IVR, etc. Open source, runs on Linux. High degree of complexity. It can do anything but requires Linux knowledge and programming (PHP, Perl, C) NOT recommended as a gateway (too many moving parts). Many low cost PBX options are based on Asterisk. May be a better choice for companies with small IT staff.
11 Example 1 Operator audio over VoIP to Infinity PRI Internet Firewall LAN VoIP Gateway ISDN PRI Infinity Operator has a SIP based VoIP phone which registers directly to the SIP gateway. Operator logs into WinOP then dials DID access code OpAudio enters Infinity via ISDN PRI as a call (Account behavior = OpAudio) Operator can make calls through Infinity No month recurring charges (no need for VONAGE, etc) Can be used for local & remote operators Equipment options: Phones - Linksys SPA-942, CounterPath eyebeam Gateway - Adtran 908e, Quintum, Asterisk
12 Example 2 Inbound DIDs via VoIP VoIP Serivce Provider Internet Firewall LAN VoIP Gateway ISDN PRI Infinity VoIP Service provider sends inbound via SIP to SIP gateway SIP Gateway sends call to Infinity via PRI Outbound calls leave Infinity via PRI through gateway to SP via SIP Avoid using VoIP for Ultracom & Alpha paging unless you have a solid network and use g.711 Equipment options: Gateway - Adtran 908e, Quintum, Asterisk
13 How much bandwidth? Description Quantity Bandwidth needed (g.711) 80kbps per call Bandwidth needed (g.729) 16kbps per call Operator Audio kbps 160kbps Inbound calls via SIP trunk kbps 400kbps Outbound dispatcher calls 3 240kbps 48kbps Total 38 T1,T3,Ethernet transport (90% efficient) Cable, DSL transport (60% efficient) 3040kbps (3+ mbps) 3378kbps 5066kbps 608kbps 676kbps 1127kbps
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