# High Performance Computing. Course Notes High Performance Storage

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1 High Performance Computing Course Notes High Performance Storage

2 Storage devices Primary storage: register (1 CPU cycle, a few ns) Cache ( cycles, us) Main memory Local main memory (0.2-4us) NUMA (2-10xlocal memory) Secondary storage: Magnetic disk (2-20ms) Solid state disk ( ms) Cache in storage controller ( ms) Tertiary storage Removable media: tapes, floppies, CDs (ms-minutes) Tape library (few seconds few minutes) 2

3 Hard disk vs. solid state drive a) 2.5-inch hard disk b) solid state drive 3

4 Tape library 4

5 Disks 5

6 Disk failure and metrics mean time between failures (MTBF): Mean time between failures (MTBF) is the average time between failures of a disk MTBF= (downtime-uptime)/number-of-failures Annual failure rate (AFR): number of failures per year AFR=running-hours-per-year/MTBF AFR disks =N disks *AFR disk 6

7 Solutions for disk failures Redundancy Replication (mirroring) Partial Redundancy Parity information 7

8 RAID RAID: Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disks Goals: increased data reliability and increased I/O performance Main concepts in RAID Mirroring stripping parity Advantages: High capability High performance: data stripe Graceful degrading One disk fails, only that disk needs to be replaced 8

9 RAID Disadvantage: failures AFR disks =N disks *AFR disk Solution Redundancy: 1) replication/mirroring: need more space 2) parity: recover from single disk failure; need more operations to maintain parity info and recover 9

10 Parity Parity calculation is performed using XOR. XOR operator is "true" if and only if one of its operands is true Property of XOR: If D p =D 1 XOR D k XOR D n, then D k = D p XOR D 1 D k-1 XOR D k+1 XOR D n Therefore, if any data is lost, we can recover the data from parity and the remaining data Advantages: only one of the "N+1" drives contains redundancy information Disadvantages: parity information has to be computed every time the data is updated 10

11 Disk arrays taxonomy RAID levels 0: stripping without redundancy 1: full copy mirroring 2: Hamming-code 3: separate disk for parity 4: data of a file are put in a single disk 5: rotated distributed parity 6: double parity They are just classifications rather than a ordered list 11

12 RAID levels RAID0 Stripped without redundancy Data can be read off in parallel Any disk failure destroys the entire array RAID1 Mirrored Array continues to operate so long as at least one drive is functioning 12

13 RAID3 Striped set with dedicated parity single parity disk is a bottleneck for writing Byte-level striping (typically under 1k) RAID4 Identical to RAID 3 but does block-level striping instead of byte-level striping The block can be of any size 13

14 RAID5 Striped set with distributed parity the array is not destroyed by a single drive failure Upon drive failure, any subsequent reads can be calculated from the distributed parity The array will have data loss in the event of a second drive failure 14

15 RAID6 Striped set with dual parity. Provides fault tolerance from two drive failures 15

16 16

17 17

18 Network Attached Storage (NAS) Follows a client/server design A NAS head acts as the interface between the NAS and network clients The NAS appears on the network as a single "node" that is the IP address of the head device Clients access a NAS over an Ethernet connection The NAS devices require no monitor, keyboard or mouse and run an embedded os NAS uses file-based application protocols such as NFS (Network File System) and CIFS (Common Internet File System) 18

19 Storage Area Networks (SANs( SANs) An architecture to attach remote computer storage devices to servers in such a way that the devices appear as locally attached to the OS The data is accessed in blocks Use FibreChannel protocol to access data 19

20 NAS vs. SAN 20

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