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2 The development of this ITS Communications Plan was a joint project of the Metropolitan Topeka Planning Organization (MTPO) and Kansas Department of Transportation (KDOT). Development of this ITS Communications Plan for the Topeka-Shawnee County Region was funded by the Federal Highway Administration and the Federal Transit Administration through a Consolidated Planning Grant administered by KDOT. KDOT also supplied funding for this project, and local funding for this plan was supplied by the City of Topeka and Shawnee County.

3 TABLE OF CONTENTS ITS Communications Plan 1.0 INTRODUCTION PURPOSE OF THIS REPORT INVOLVED AGENCIES EXISTING AND PLANNED ITS AND COMMUNICATIONS RESOURCES CITY OF TOPEKA SHAWNEE COUNTY KANSAS DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (KDOT) OTHER STAKEHOLDERS OTHER COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS REQUIREMENTS PROTOCOLS AND STANDARDS COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK HIERARCHY BASELINE CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK REQUIREMENTS Center-to-Center Communications Requirements Center-to-Field Communications Requirements COMMUNICATIONS ALTERNATIVE ANALYSIS NETWORK ARCHITECTURE COMMUNICATIONS APPROACH Communication Approach Type 1 Centers Communication Approach Type 2 Centers COMMUNICATIONS MEDIA AND TECHNOLOGIES ASSESSMENT LAND-LINE SOLUTIONS Fiber Optic SONET on Fiber ATM on Fiber Ethernet on fiber Leased Line ISDN DSL T-Carrier ATM Internet WIRELESS SOLUTION GPRS Wi-Fi Communcations WiMax Mesh Networks RECOMMENDATIONS FOR COMMUNICATIONS CENTER-TO-CENTER COMMUNICATIONS Essential Elements for Center-to-Center Communications CENTER-TO-FIELD COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS DEPLOYMENT STRATEGY OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE...51 Iteris, Inc. i

4 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1.1: STUDY AREA FOR THE TOPEKA-SHAWNEE COUNTY REGIONAL ITS ARCHITECTURE...2 FIGURE 2.1: CITY OF TOPEKA TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT CENTER...4 FIGURE 2.2: TOPEKA-SHAWNEE COUNTY REGION SIGNALIZED INTERSECTIONS...5 FIGURE 2.3: CITY OF TOPEKA COMMUNICATION SYSTEM...9 FIGURE 2.4: PROPOSED 4.9 GHZ WI-FI COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK...10 FIGURE 3.1: AGENCY LEVEL COMMUNICATIONS CONCEPT...14 FIGURE 3.2: HIGH LEVEL TOPEKA-SHAWNEE COUNTY COMMUNICATIONS CONCEPT...14 FIGURE 3.3: CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS - ALTERNATIVE FIGURE 3.4: CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS - ALTERNATIVE FIGURE 4.1: STAR NETWORK (EXAMPLE)...29 FIGURE 4.2: TREE NETWORK (EXAMPLE)...30 FIGURE 4.3: UNPROTECTED RING NETWORK (EXAMPLE)...30 FIGURE 4.4: PROTECTED RING NETWORK (EXAMPLE)...31 FIGURE 4.5: MESH NETWORK (EXAMPLE)...31 FIGURE 4.6: COMMUNICATIONS APPROACH TYPE 1 CENTERS...34 FIGURE 4.7: COMMUNICATIONS APPROACH TYPE 2 CENTERS...35 FIGURE 6.1: POTENTIAL FUTURE EXPANSION OF TOPEKA IT NETWORK...50 FIGURE 6.2: RISK ASSESSMENT MATRIX...52 LIST OF TABLES TABLE 1.1: COMMUNICATION SHARING NEEDS FOR STAKEHOLDERS...3 TABLE 3.1: POTENTIAL ROLES, RESPONSIBILITIES, AND TYPE OF DATA FOR STAKEHOLDERS...16 TABLE 6.1: SUMMARY OF PRELIMINARY SUGGESTION FOR CENTER TO CENTER COMMUNICATIONS...45 Iteris, Inc. ii

5 1.0 INTRODUCTION The Metropolitan Topeka Planning Organization (MTPO), in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), the Federal Transit Administration (FTA), the Kansas Department of Transportation (KDOT), the Topeka Metropolitan Transit Authority (TMTA), Shawnee County, and the City of Topeka, have sponsored the development of a Regional Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) Architecture for the Topeka-Shawnee County Region. The goal of the architecture is to answer questions such as: How can we make travel on our roadways safer, more secure and efficient? How can we make government services, such as transit and emergency response, more efficient? What can we do by working together, that we can't do as well on our own? The Topeka-Shawnee County Regional ITS Architecture will become a plan of projects for technologies, interagency collaboration, communication and technical integration in the Topeka- Shawnee County Region. The purpose of developing a Regional ITS Architecture is to illustrate and document regional integration so that planning and deployment can take place in an organized and coordinated fashion. The common thread for all agencies is the need to provide ITS solutions to transportation safety, congestion and security. This project will be conducted through 12 tasks with multiple milestones and deliverables. This deliverable presents the draft Communications Master Plan developed in support of Task 5 with the primary objective of assessing the adequacy of the existing and planned communication infrastructure in the region and contains the following primary actions: Perform communications inventory in concert with development of the overall system needs. Identify communications alternatives. Recommend communications strategies and concepts. Develop ITS Communications Plan. 1.1 Purpose of this Report This report identifies and documents an ITS communications network capable of connecting the agencies Transportation Management Centers (TMC) to the ITS field elements and sharing information between transportation agencies or other stakeholders in the region. Existing and planned communication inventory, the overall system needs, communications requirements, and alternative analysis provide a framework for the recommended ITS communications plan. Please note that this communications plan considers connection to a multitude of ITS systems deployed in the field. Its intent is not to complete a detailed systems design for each element. It is high level in nature, so that it will allow for the use of various technologies. A key element of the plan is to identify some of the opportunities that may be available, but it should not be considered a substitute for future communications analysis. As additional devices or systems Iteris, Inc. 1

6 are deployed, or as the need for data sharing and exchange between agencies progresses, each project should contain an analysis for detailed communications planning and design. 1.2 Involved Agencies The Steering Committee for the Topeka-Shawnee County Regional ITS Architecture includes representatives from the Metropolitan Topeka Planning Organization (MTPO), Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), Federal Transit Administration (FTA), Kansas Department of Transportation (KDOT), Topeka Metropolitan Transit Authority (TMTA), Shawnee County, and the City of Topeka. The Topeka-Shawnee County Regional ITS Architecture will encompass all major communities and interested organizations within Shawnee County. Figure 1.1 provides a map of the Topeka-Shawnee County project study area. Figure 1.1: Study Area for the Topeka-Shawnee County Regional ITS Architecture From a communication needs stand point, these Stakeholders could be grouped into the following categories: 1. Stakeholders with traffic management, emergency operations or maintenance systems that will transmit and receive information through the communications network on a continuous basis Iteris, Inc. 2

7 2. Stakeholders that will transmit information to other Stakeholders only 3. Stakeholders that will receive information from other Stakeholders only 4. Stakeholders that will not transmit or receive information from other Stakeholders For the Topeka-Shawnee County Regional ITS Architecture project, the communication needs for the project Stakeholders are summarized in Table 1.1. Table 1.1: Communication Sharing Needs for Stakeholders Transmit & Receive 1. City of Topeka (Traffic Operations TMC) 2. Shawnee County 911 Dispatch Center 3. KDOT-VTOC (Topeka Office) 4. City of Topeka (Transportation Operations Maintenance Operations) 5. Shawnee County Emergency Management Center Receive Only 1. Shawnee County Public Works 2. City of Topeka (Traffic Engineering) 3. City of Topeka Fire Department 4. Shawnee County Sheriff s Office 5. Topeka Metropolitan Transit Authority 6. Kansas Highway Patrol 7. Metropolitan Topeka Airport Authority 8. Washburn University 9. American Medical Response 10. St. Francis Health Center 11. Stormont-Vail Healthcare 12. Rural/Special Fire Departments 13. Public School Districts Transmit Only No Sharing 1. City of Topeka Police Department 2. Kansas Turnpike Authority 3. City of Topeka Public Works Call Center Iteris, Inc. 3

8 2.0 EXISTING AND PLANNED ITS AND COMMUNICATIONS RESOURCES The following sections describe existing communication resources in the area and the planned communications to be implemented shortly. 2.1 City of Topeka Traffic Signal System The City of Topeka maintains and operates approximately 182 traffic signals with 90 of these signals interconnected through fiber optic cable and operating in coordinated patterns during peak periods. The City utilizes PYRAMIDS traffic signal software system, by Econolite, to operate the 90 signals that are on-line. The PYRAMIDS workstation is located at the Topeka TMC, presented in Figure 2.1, located at 927 NW Harrison. Figure 2.1: City of Topeka Traffic Management Center Most of the City s traffic signal controllers are Type 170E, operate Wapiti controller firmware, and utilize the serial data port for communications. To date, the City has installed ten (10) Model 2070 traffic signal controllers, by Econolite, that operate OASIS controller software. The City s signalized intersections are illustrated in Figure 2.2. The City also maintains nine (9) traffic signals, one (1) school flasher for Shawnee County and two (2) KDOT signalized intersections in the Topeka-Shawnee County Region. The County and KDOT signalized intersections are also illustrated in Figure 2.2. Iteris, Inc. 4

9 Figure 2.2: Topeka-Shawnee County Region Signalized Intersections Iteris, Inc. 5

10 Some of the major arterial corridors where a majority of the signalized intersections are located are noted below and illustrated in Figure 2.2. Wanamaker Road Topeka Boulevard Washburn Avenue 6 th Avenue 10 th Avenue 21 st Street The City is planning to upgrade all traffic signal controllers to Model 2070 controllers at a rate of 6 controllers per year. Currently, the City utilizes the serial data port for communications with the 2070 controllers, with the ultimate goal to utilize Ethernet communications. The current Model 2070 controllers are equipped with only a serial port. It is recommended that future Model 2070 controllers be equipped with both a serial and an Ethernet port as a cost savings measure versus a future upgrade to the Model 2070 controllers to install the Ethernet port. The City has a total of 52 intersections that use complete or partial video detection, as noted below. Peek Video Trak at 15 intersections to operate the full intersection Econolite Autoscope Solo Pro at 25 intersections to operate the full intersection Econolite Rack Vision hardware at 12 intersections to control one or more legs of an intersection but not the entire intersection Their current specification for video detection hardware is Econolite Autoscope equipment and they are in the middle of a program to remove all of the Peek Video Trak installations. The City uses Opticom Priority Control Systems, by 3M, for emergency vehicle signal preemption at two locations. Video Surveillance System The City of Topeka currently has two CCTV cameras installed and operational with one more planned, at the locations listed below: I-70 & Wanamaker 21 st & Wanamaker I-470 & Wanamaker (planned) The CCTV cameras are Vicon dome CCTV cameras that currently transmit analog video but are Internet Protocol (IP) upgradeable. The analog video is converted to IP video prior to transmission to the Topeka TMC and camera control is integrated into the PYRAMIDS traffic signal software system. The City, in association with KDOT, has plans to implement 14 additional CCTV cameras in Most of the cameras will be located at freeway interchanges in the Topeka Area and will be shared City/KDOT cameras. Iteris, Inc. 6

11 Fiber Optic Communications The City of Topeka has an extensive fiber optic network that is comprised of three communication systems, as described below. The fiber network is illustrated in Figure 2.3. Lightcore Telecom Fiber Network: Lightcore (formerly KMC) is a private telecommunications company that installed fiber optic cable in the Topeka Area. In support of this effort, Lightcore has provided 12 fiber strands for use by the City and Shawnee County. The 12 fiber strands are completely separate from Lightcore s fiber and the associated communication hardware is all City- or County-owned and maintained. Currently, all 12 strands are in use with 6 strands allocated for Traffic use, which are currently supporting backbone communications. The City s fiber strands are maintained by the Topeka IT department. Topeka School District Fiber Network: The school district fiber has allocated 24 fiber strands for Traffic use. Currently, all 24 fiber strands are in use by Traffic. This fiber is managed by the Topeka IT department. Traffic Fiber Network: The City has several distribution fiber runs that branch off of the backbone fiber to support the signalized intersections. The distribution fiber consists of 24 fiber strands. Typically, 2 to 4 of the fiber strands are in use. Public Safety Wireless Communications (Future) The City of Topeka is planning to deploy a WI-FI communications network that utilizes the 4.9 GHz Public Safety frequency. The FCC-approved 4.9 GHz license gives an agency the right to use the entire MHz frequency band. However, multiple agencies may receive licenses within the same geographic area, thus the possibility for interference exists. For the Topeka-Shawnee County Region, it is envisioned that the frequency will be collectively shared by Stakeholders. The system could support Ethernet communications to ITS field devices including traffic signal controllers, CCTV cameras, Dynamic Messages Signs (DMS), freeway sensors, etc., and can fill gaps in the fiber optic communications system. The envisioned coverage area provided by the wireless network is illustrated in Figure 2.4. The City also has a GDI 1200 baud wireless system throughout the downtown area. The system was abandoned when the fiber system was installed. However, several of the antennas are still mounted on the traffic signal poles. 2.2 Shawnee County Shawnee County owns 16 traffic signals, 9 of which are fully-operational signalized intersections. The remaining 7 traffic signals are flashing beacon installations. The City of Topeka maintains and operates all 9 County fully-operational signalized intersections and a school flasher. The Shawnee County signals maintained by City of Topeka are listed below and illustrated in Figure Block N Topeka Ave, "Pedestrian Activated Signal" (Off map) NW 46th St & N Topeka Ave, (Off map) SE 6th St (Old US 40) and SE Croco Rd SW 57th St and S Topeka Ave Iteris, Inc. 7

12 SW University Blvd and S Topeka Ave SW Gary Ormsby Dr and S Topeka Ave, (Off map) SE 29th St & SE Westedge Rd SE 29th St & SE Croco Rd, SE 45th St & SE Adams Rd These nine County signalized intersections are currently not on-line and the County has no immediate plans to bring them onto the network using fiber. The locations are too remote for the installation of fiber optic cable. However, the County may desire to connect to these locations in the future using wireless communications or other viable means of communications. Based on discussion with Shawnee County Staff, the two critical signalized intersections that warrant communications are noted below. 29 th and Croco 57 th and Topeka Shawnee County does not own any fiber optic network of its own. However, Shawnee County Emergency Communications currently uses 8 strands of City of Topeka fiber which extends from 215 SE 7 th Street to 1500 SW 8 th Street. Shawnee County currently has no video surveillance system but has plans to have access to the City of Topeka TMC system which could provide access to City cameras. Additionally, the County would like to see CCTV cameras installed at the two critical locations noted above. The Shawnee County Emergency Communications Center also has plans to provide preemption at signals for emergency vehicles. The Shawnee County Public Works Department would like to receive weather information from KDOT, the City, and Surface Systems, Inc. (SSI ). The Shawnee County emergency communications center also has plans to deploy a wireless hot spot next year in its parking lot (320 S. Kansas Avenue) to be used by County staff. This can also be used/shared to bring some of the outlying signal locations online. 2.3 Kansas Department of Transportation (KDOT) KDOT has 12 fiber strands leased by contract from Lightcore (Private Entity) that runs primarily on US 24 onto US 75 going southbound on US 75 to I-70. The focus of KDOT was to develop backbone communications for statewide communications using fiber connections to major cities (Kansas City, Wichita, and Topeka) in the state of Kansas. KDOT has plans to set up a statewide Virtual Operations Center (VOC) with no existing state infrastructure on the ground. KDOT envisions that the VOCs would interface with the regional TMC s, hosted by other agencies such as City of Topeka, in which KDOT can transmit and receive traffic related data. KANROAD will be a primary component of the VOC. KDOT also has plans to install Dynamic Message Signs (DMS) at major interchanges with I-70/I-470 in the City of Topeka-Shawnee County Region. Other planned programs include queue detection and congestion warning system on Wanamaker Road, DMS near the Polk-Quincy viaduct for construction, maintenance and incidents, DMS on US-75, and vehicle system detection along the freeways in the Topeka-Shawnee County Region. Iteris, Inc. 8

13 Figure 2.3: City of Topeka Communication System Iteris, Inc. 9

14 Figure 2.4: Proposed 4.9 GHz WI-FI Communications Network Iteris, Inc. 10

15 ITS Communication Plan 2.4 Other Stakeholders Below is a listing of communications systems employed by other Topeka-Shawnee County stakeholders. The City of Topeka Information Technology (IT) Department primarily maintains fiber optic and wireless communication networks for both the City of Topeka and Shawnee County. City of Topeka Police Department (TPD) currently has In-vehicle radio systems, Invehicle computers and Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL) systems. TMTA utilizes two-way communications, security cameras on buses and demandresponsive trip scheduling software and plans to add AVL and mobile data terminals to demand-responsive vehicles. The City of Topeka construction and maintenance division currently has AVL, vehicle temperature probes and In-vehicle radio systems for maintenance vehicles. The City of Topeka Fire Department has a signal preemption device at Station 1 for fire vehicles. They plan to use more ITS devices in the future. The Shawnee County Sheriff s Department has speed trailers, mobile data terminals and GPS tracking on all its vehicles. They would like to automate notification process to all interested agencies in future which is currently done through person-person contact. Kansas Turnpike currently uses 800 MHz Trunked radio system for its communication system. They plan to utilize fiber along the turnpike in the future for possible traveler information components (signs, sensors, etc.). KTA currently reports roadway conditions into KANROADS (511 system) for providing traveler information. The Shawnee County Health Agency has a surveillance system which receives reports from schools, hospitals and major employers to administer and notify the public concerning health risks. Washburn University has its own dispatch center for all campus calls. They also currently have CCTV camera surveillance in some parking lots and are working on installing cameras in all parking lots. Washburn Police currently has no GPS on patrol vehicles but they do have mobile data terminals inside their patrol vehicles. Washburn University currently uses DMS for campus information and at Lee Arena for event notification, but not for traveler information. American Medical Response (AMR-Ambulance service) covers the entire region including transport for hospitals. They currently have computer aided dispatch and also use the 800 MHz system/400 MHz back up/paging system to contact other agencies during incidents. All AMR vehicles have GPS on them which are used for vehicle tracking purpose only. Iteris, Inc. 11

16 2.5 Other Communications Most agencies in the Topeka-Shawnee County Region are on the 800 MHz Trunked radio system. KDOT uses the radio system to communicate with maintenance and Kansas Highway Patrol (KHP). The Shawnee County Public Works Maintenance and Construction Operations (MCO) and emergency communications division also has an 800 MHz radio system and can communicate with Police and KHP. However, the City of Topeka MCO division is on a different radio system and currently can not communicate with agencies using the 800 MHz Trunked radio system. Iteris, Inc. 12

17 3.0 COMMUNICATIONS REQUIREMENTS Prior to evaluating and planning the Topeka-Shawnee County communications network, it is first necessary to identify the requirements for the communication between traffic management or operation centers and their corresponding field elements and the data transmission requirements between involved agencies. The focus of this section is to establish a set of communication requirements for the Topeka-Shawnee County communications network. 3.1 Protocols and Standards One of the primary goals for the Topeka-Shawnee County Regional ITS Communications Plan is to establish common communications and infrastructure protocols for all current and future ITS projects in the Topeka-Shawnee County Region. To achieve this goal, the first step is to bring Topeka-Shawnee County into compliance with some of the more broadly accepted National Transportation Communications for ITS Protocol (NTCIP) standards. NTCIP is a family of communications protocols and data definition standards that have been designed for use in all types of systems dealing with the transportation environment, including those for freeways, traffic signals, emergency management, traveler information, and data archiving. It has been adopted by Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) to meet the needs and requirements for ITS communications and to insure that inter-network connectivity is done through an open architecture and industry standard interfaces. NTCIP eliminates barriers to interagency coordination by reducing the need for reliance on specific equipment vendors and customized one-of-a-kind products. It allows a management system to communicate with a mixture of device types of the same communications channel. It also allows for the future expansion of the system to benefit from true competitive bidding, as well as allow other types of ITS elements to be added. One primary purpose of NTCIP is to handle two major ITS communications needs: (1) Centerto-Center (C2C) Communications and (2) Center-to-Field (C2F) Communications and field ITS device interconnect. The communications network requirements for Topeka-Shawnee County are mostly derived from the ITS needs/services and can be grouped into the C2C and C2F categories. A separate effort is being conducted to develop the Kansas Statewide ITS Architecture. Another requirement of the Topeka-Shawnee County ITS Communications Master Plan is to be compliant with and integrate with the Statewide Architecture. Typically, the regional ITS Architectures are rolled up into the statewide plan. In this case, the Topeka-Shawnee County Regional ITS Architecture will become a subset to the Kansas Statewide ITS Architecture. Therefore, the proposed high-level communications plan will also become a subset of the larger center-to-center communications plan as well. 3.2 Communications Network Hierarchy The two possible hierarchies for the communication network of the City of Topeka, and the Topeka-Shawnee County Region are presented in Figures 3.1 and 3.2. These figures indicate that the City network will eventually be integrated into the KDOT and the statewide communication system. Iteris, Inc. 13

18 Figure 3.1: Agency Level Communications Concept Figure 3.2: High Level Topeka-Shawnee County Communications Concept Iteris, Inc. 14

19 3.3 Baseline Concept of Operations The concept of operations defines, in more detail, the relationship between participating Topeka-Shawnee County stakeholder agencies, including their roles and responsibilities and the level of information, status, and control sharing among those agencies. It represents the vision of the system based on user needs and how the system will work to satisfy those user needs. The concept of operations is an important component of the system engineering process and has a direct effect on the Center to Center (C2C) communications network requirements. The Topeka-Shawnee County concept of operations consists of two major components: Role and Responsibilities Based on the desire and capabilities of the agencies to transmit/receive, just transmit or just receive traffic information, the centers could be categorized into two types: - Type 1 Center In order to be classified as Type 1, a center has to both transmit and receive information to and from other centers on a continuous basis. In addition, the Type 1 centers are responsible for housing, operating, and maintaining communications equipment for data exchange and sharing with other centers. These centers usually have the most communications infrastructure and are the most ready to provide communications for the Topeka-Shawnee County Region. Examples of Type 1 Centers are the City of Topeka Traffic Management Center (TMC), Shawnee County 911 Dispatch Center, KDOT Virtual Operations Center (VOC), City of Topeka (Transportation Operations Maintenance Operations), and Shawnee County Emergency Management Center. - Type 2 Center Type 2 centers will either transmit or receive information, or transmit and receive, but not on a continuous basis, to and from other centers, typically to one or more Type 1 Centers. Type 2 centers are not required to house, operate, and maintain regional communications equipment. An example of this would be the connection between the City of Topeka TMC and the City of Topeka Fire Department. The City of Topeka TMC may only transmit information relative to major events which the City of Topeka Fire Department would request or like to receive such as road closures. Some Type 2 centers may require high bandwidth connections, such as fiber optic cable, if they transmit or receive video. In the future, each Type 2 center may require the need to transmit and receive information on a more frequent basis, or be upgraded to a Type 1 center for continuous information exchange at a future time. Type of Information Two types of information will be involved in the Topeka-Shawnee County communications network: Video and Data. Table 3.1, on the following page, summarizes the relationships of these two components for the Topeka-Shawnee County Region. Iteris, Inc. 15

20 Based on the roles of the Topeka-Shawnee County stakeholders, there are two alternatives for the concept of operations. Table 3.1: Potential Roles, Responsibilities, and Type of Data for Stakeholders Role Responsibility Stakeholder Type of Informati on Type 1 Center Transmit and Receive Information House, operate, and maintain regional communications equipment City of Topeka (Traffic Operations TMC) Shawnee County 911 Dispatch Center KDOT Virtual Operations Center (VOC) City of Topeka (Transportation Operations Maintenance Operations) Shawnee County Emergency Management Center Data and Video Type 2 Center Transmit Information City of Topeka Police Department Kansas Turnpike Authority City of Topeka Public Works 311 Call Center Data and Video Type 2 Center No Data Exchange Receive Information Shawnee County Public Works City of Topeka (Traffic Engineering) City of Topeka Fire Department Shawnee County Sheriff s Office Shawnee County Fire District 3 Topeka Metropolitan Transit Authority Kansas Highway Patrol Metropolitan Topeka Airport Authority Washburn University American Medical Response St. Francis Health Center Stormont-Vail Healthcare Rural/Special Fire Departments Public School Districts These agencies currently do not Transmit or Receive Information None Data and Video Not applicable Iteris, Inc. 16

21 Concept of Operations - Alternative 1 Under this alternative, all centers will be connected to the Topeka-Shawnee County communications network for data and video sharing. In order to communicate with the network, each center has to have similar communications equipment used to access the network. As a result, each center has to house, operate, and maintain its own regional communications equipment. However, the entire communications network can utilize more than one type of media and technologies as a hybrid network. The advantage of this alternative is uniformity because all agencies will be using the same or compatible communications equipment. The disadvantage is that Type 2 centers, as defined, might not have the space and operations and maintenance budget for the regional communications equipment. Figure 3.3 illustrates the concept of operations for Alternative 1. Concept of Operations - Alternative 2 The City of Topeka area-wide network (Topeka IT) supports the various City facilities (Topeka City Hall, Topeka TMC, Shawnee County 911, etc.). Additionally, this network can be modified to support the future KDOT Virtual Operations Center (VOC). The Topeka area-wide network includes a SONET ring and a Gigabit Ethernet ring, the latter of which supports the Topeka TMC. Alternative 2 utilizes the Topeka area-wide network to support the communications between the Type 1 centers, and in some cases, the Type 2 centers, located in the vicinity of the Topeka area-wide network. In this case, Type 1 centers, as well as select Type 2 centers, will be connected to the Topeka area-wide network. Other Type 2 centers will be indirectly connected to the Topeka-Shawnee County communications network through the Topeka TMC or KDOT VOC via the Topeka-Shawnee County communications system that could include fiber optic cable, leased line communications, private web page (virtual private network) and dial up. This approach does not require each center to install the same communications equipment used to access the network. The City traffic signal software system PYRAMIDS, by Econolite, offers two alternatives (dial up or broadband access) for remote access by Type 2 centers not connected to the Topeka TMC via the Topeka IT network. For example, a Type 2 center can continue to use its legacy equipment to transmit data to the Type 1 center. Other centers may receive information from that particular Type 2 center via the Topeka-Shawnee County communications network. However, this does not mean that a Type 2 center cannot implement a direct connection to the Topeka-Shawnee County communications network, but only that they are not required to do so. Like Alternative 1, the entire communications network can utilize more than one type of media and technologies. Figure 3.4 illustrates the concept of operations for Alternative 2. The following three primary factors were considered in the selection of the most appropriate alternative for the Topeka-Shawnee County concept of operations. Cost It is assumed that the Topeka-Shawnee County communications network will be a high speed, high capacity communication backbone for the Topeka-Shawnee County Region. Since some Topeka-Shawnee County agencies might not require a high speed and high capacity network, it is not cost effective to have all centers connect to the Topeka-Shawnee County communications network directly. In addition, the Type 2 centers might not have the space to house the regional communication equipment and the operations and maintenance budget for regional communication. Based on the cost fact, Alternative 1 is less desirable than Alternative 2. Iteris, Inc. 17

22 Ease of Deployment Since one common communication technology will be used for the Topeka-Shawnee County communications network for both alternatives, the ease of deployment will depend on the number of agencies that need to be connected to the network. While Alternative 1 requires all centers to be connected to the network, Alternative 2 requires only Type 1 centers to be connected to the network. Therefore, Alternative 2 is relatively easier to deploy than Alternative 1. Existing Infrastructure Alternative 2 is more flexible in terms of existing infrastructure. Alternative 2 makes use of the existing Topeka area-wide network, with minor modification, to support communications between centers. Additionally, the Type 2 centers may be connected to the network via their legacy communications network. Based on the above analysis, it is recommended that Alternative 2 of the Concept of Operations be used for the development of communications network requirements for the Topeka-Shawnee County communications network. This alternative will make the most use of existing infrastructure and the City of Topeka area-wide network. 3.4 Communications Network Requirements The Topeka-Shawnee County Regional ITS Communications Plan will focus on Center-to- Center (C2C) and Center-to-Field (C2F) communications. The following sections present the requirements for these two types of communications Center-to-Center Communications Requirements The following presents the specific C2C communications network requirements that the Topeka- Shawnee County communications network design should support. I. Protocol and Standard Requirements 1. The Topeka-Shawnee County communications network and its associated equipment should comply with NTCIP and other applicable standards, such as the IEEE standards for Ethernet. 2. The Topeka-Shawnee County communications network should allow participating centers to use the same or compatible communications protocols for data sharing and exchange. 3. Communications protocols should be independent of communications media. II. Data Requirements As discussed in the previous chapter, there are two types of centers involved in the Topeka- Shawnee County communications network. The specific data requirements for each type of center are presented below. Note that the list of data requirements is intended to be thorough but not necessarily all encompassing. Iteris, Inc. 18

23 ITS Communication Plan Figure 3.3: Concept of Operations - Alternative 1 Iteris, Inc. 19

24 Figure 3.4: Concept of Operations - Alternative 2 Iteris, Inc. 20

25 ITS Communication Plan City of Topeka TMC Type 1 Center It is envisioned that the Topeka TMC will serve as the Regional TMC for the Topeka- Shawnee County Region. The Topeka TMC will serve as the data hub for transportation management activities in the Topeka-Shawnee County Region. The Topeka TMC will serve as the communication hub to the field devices in the Topeka- Shawnee County Region. The Topeka TMC will also serve as the communication hub for the Type 1 and Type 2 centers in the region. The data requirements listed below are intended to support this goal. 1. Transmit and Receive 1.1. Transmit and receive arterial traffic data (e.g. timing data, traffic demand data, congestion data, detection data, CCTV video and camera control) from City of Topeka field devices Transmit and receive arterial traffic data (e.g. timing data, traffic demand data, congestion data, detection data, CCTV video, CCTV camera control) from Shawnee County field devices Transmit and receive arterial or freeway traffic data (e.g. timing data, traffic demand data, congestion data, detection data) from KDOT D1 field devices Transmit and receive CCTV video and camera control from shared City of Topeka / KDOT CCTV cameras Transmit and receive other arterial event data (e.g. construction, scheduled maintenance, lane closure, special events, etc.) as needed Transmit and receive traffic event data (e.g. agency name, contact information, number of injuries and fatalities, property damages, number of vehicles involved, etc.). 2. Receive 2.1. Receive arterial traffic data (e.g. timing data, traffic demand data, congestion data, and detection data) for KDOT signalized intersections from KDOT D-1 VOC Receive freeway and highway traffic data (e.g. traffic demand data, congestion data, detection data, etc) from KDOT D-1 VOC Receive arterial incident data (e.g. data, time, location, type, blockage pattern, duration, and status of incidents) from field devices and other Type 1 and Type 2 centers Receive arterial traffic data (e.g. timing data, traffic demand data, congestion data, detection data, etc) from other Type 1 centers Receive DMS message data Receive DMS message data as information changes Receive arterial device status information continuously Receive freeway traffic data (e.g. demand data, congestion data, etc) Receive freeway incident data (e.g. date, time, location, type, blockage pattern, duration, and status of incidents) as needed Receive other freeway event data (e.g. construction, scheduled maintenance, lane closure, special events, etc.) Receive toll road traffic data (e.g. demand data, congestion data, etc) Receive toll road incident data (e.g. date, time, location, type, blockage pattern, duration, and status of incidents) as needed. Iteris, Inc. 21

26 2.13. Receive other toll road event data (e.g. construction, scheduled maintenance, lane closure, special events, etc.) Receive roadway weather data as needed Receive transit data (e.g. position, route, stop, schedule, arrival, and departure.) Receive incident data from Shawnee County 911 Dispatch 3. Transmit 3.1. Transmit arterial traffic data, CCTV video and camera control to Shawnee County 911 Dispatch 3.2. Transmit arterial traffic data (e.g. timing data, traffic demand data, congestion data, detection data, etc) to other centers Transmit arterial incident data (e.g. data, time, location, type, blockage pattern, duration, and status of incidents) to other centers Transmit other event data (e.g. construction, scheduled maintenance, lane closure, special events, etc.) to other centers Transmit CCTV control data as needed. KDOT Virtual Operations Center (VOC) Type 1 Center The KDOT VOC is envisioned to be connected to the Topeka TMC to transmit data between the KDOT VOC and the Topeka TMC. The data requirements listed below are intended to support this goal. Additionally, the KDOT VOC will be connected to other KDOT VOCs and TMCs throughout the State. However, the data requirements associated with that element will be addressed as part of the Statewide ITS Architecture project being conducted as part of a separate project. 1. Transmit and Receive 1.1. Transmit and receive messages from freeway DMS Transmit and receive freeway traffic data (e.g. timing data, traffic demand data, congestion data, detection data, etc) to other centers Transmit and receive freeway incident data (e.g. data, time, location, type, blockage pattern, duration, and status of incidents) to other centers Transmit and receive freeway event data (e.g. construction, scheduled maintenance, lane closure, special events, etc.) as needed Transmit and receive traffic data from other KDOT districts Transmit and receive traffic event data (e.g. agency name, contact information, number of injuries and fatalities, property damages, number of vehicles involved, etc.). 2. Receive 2.1. Receive arterial traffic data (e.g. timing data, traffic demand data, congestion data, detection data, CCTV video and camera control) from City, County and KDOT field devices Receive arterial traffic data (e.g. timing data, traffic demand data, congestion data, detection data, etc) from other Type 1 centers Receive event data (e.g. construction, scheduled maintenance, lane closure, special events, etc.) from other Type 1 centers Receive roadway weather data as needed Receive freeway device status information continuously. Iteris, Inc. 22

27 2.6. Receive arterial incident data (e.g. data, time, location, type, blockage pattern, duration, and status of incidents) from field devices and other Type 1 and Type 2 centers Receive arterial traffic data (e.g. timing data, traffic demand data, congestion data, detection data, etc) from other Type 1 centers Receive DMS message data Receive DMS message data as information changes Receive arterial device status information continuously Receive freeway traffic data (e.g. demand data, congestion data, etc) Receive other freeway event data (e.g. construction, scheduled maintenance, lane closure, special events, etc.) Receive toll road traffic data (e.g. demand data, congestion data, etc) Receive toll road incident data (e.g. date, time, location, type, blockage pattern, duration, and status of incidents) as needed Receive other toll road event data (e.g. construction, scheduled maintenance, lane closure, special events, etc.) Receive roadway weather data as needed Receive transit data (e.g. position, route, stop, schedule, arrival, and departure.) Receive incident data from Shawnee County 911 Dispatch Receive AVL data from Shawnee County 911 Dispatch 3. Transmit 3.1. Transmit CCTV control data. Shawnee County 911 Type 1 Center The Shawnee County 911 Center is envisioned to be connected to the Topeka TMC to transmit data between the 911 Dispatch Center and the Topeka TMC. The data requirements listed below are intended to support this goal. 1. Transmit and Receive 1.1. Transmit and receive other arterial event data (e.g. construction, scheduled maintenance, lane closure, special events, etc.) as needed Transmit and receive traffic event data (e.g. agency name, contact information, number of injuries and fatalities, property damages, number of vehicles involved, etc.). 2. Receive 2.1. Receive arterial traffic data (e.g. timing data, traffic demand data, congestion data, detection data, CCTV video and camera control) Receive CCTV video and camera control Receive freeway and highway traffic data (e.g. traffic demand data, congestion data, detection data, etc) Receive arterial incident data (e.g. data, time, location, type, blockage pattern, duration, and status of incidents) from field devices and other Type 1 and Type 2 centers Receive freeway incident data (e.g. data, time, location, type, blockage pattern, duration, and status of incidents) Receive DMS message data. Iteris, Inc. 23

28 2.7. Receive DMS message data as information changes Receive other freeway event data (e.g. construction, scheduled maintenance, lane closure, special events, etc.) 2.9. Receive toll road traffic data (e.g. demand data, congestion data, etc) Receive toll road incident data (e.g. date, time, location, type, blockage pattern, duration, and status of incidents) as needed Receive other toll road event data (e.g. construction, scheduled maintenance, lane closure, special events, etc.) Receive roadway weather data as needed Receive transit data (e.g. position, route, stop, schedule, arrival, and departure.). 3. Transmit 3.1. Transmit arterial incident data (e.g. data, time, location, type, blockage pattern, duration, and status of incidents) Transmit freeway incident data (e.g. data, time, location, type, blockage pattern, duration, and status of incidents) Transmit toll road incident data (e.g. data, time, location, type, blockage pattern, duration, and status of incidents) Transmit AVL data 3.5. Transmit CCTV control data as needed. Other Type 1 Centers It is envisioned that additional Type 1 centers will come on-line at a future time in the Topeka-Shawnee County Region. Depending on the sponsoring stakeholder, the information to transmit and / or receive will vary. Some of the types of data requirements are listed below. 1. Transmit and Receive 1.1. Transmit and receive arterial traffic data (e.g. timing data, traffic demand data, congestion data, detection data, CCTV video and camera control) Transmit and receive freeway traffic data (e.g. timing data, traffic demand data, congestion data, detection data, CCTV video and camera control) Transmit and receive toll road traffic data (e.g. timing data, traffic demand data, congestion data, detection data, CCTV video and camera control) Receive arterial, freeway and toll road incident data (e.g. date, time, location, type, blockage pattern, duration, and status of incidents) Transmit and receive other arterial, freeway and toll road event data (e.g. construction, scheduled maintenance, lane closure, special events, etc.) as needed Transmit and receive DMS messages 1.7. Transmit and receive traffic event data (e.g. agency name, contact information, number of injuries and fatalities, property damages, number of vehicles involved, etc.) Transmit and receive DMS messages 2. Receive 2.1. Receive arterial device status information continuously Receive DMS message data as information changes. Iteris, Inc. 24

29 2.3. Receive roadway weather data as needed Receive transit data (e.g. position, route, stop, schedule, arrival, and departure.). 3. Transmit 3.1. Transmit arterial traffic data, CCTV video and camera control 3.2. Transmit CCTV control data as needed. Type 2 Centers Typical data requirements for a Type 2 center are listed below. 1. Receive or transmit arterial traffic data (e.g. timing data, traffic demand data, congestion data, detection data, etc) from Type 1 centers at regular intervals or upon request. 2. Receive or transmit arterial incident data (e.g. data, time, location, type, blockage pattern, duration, and status of incidents) from Type 1 centers. 3. Receive or transmit freeway / toll traffic data (e.g. demand data, congestion data, etc). 4. Receive or transmit freeway / toll incident data (e.g. date, time, location, type, blockage pattern, duration, and status of incidents) as needed. 5. Receive other freeway / toll event data (e.g. construction, scheduled maintenance, lane closure, special events, etc.) 6. Receive or transmit arterial DMS message data as information changes. 7. Receive or transmit Shawnee County 911 traffic event data (e.g. agency name, contact information, number of injuries and fatalities, property damages, number of vehicles involved, etc) 8. Receive or transmit other event data (e.g. construction, scheduled maintenance, lane closure, special events, etc.) as needed. 9. Receive or transmit arterial device status information continuously. 10. Receive or transmit roadway weather data as needed. 11. Receive or transmit transit data (e.g. position, route, stop, schedule, arrival, and departure.) 12. Receive or transmit emergency information. 13. Receive or transmit bus locations (transit or school). III. Connectivity Requirements 1. The Topeka-Shawnee County communications network for centers should be continuously available to participating agencies, 24 hours per day, 7 days per week. 2. The communications interface to the Topeka-Shawnee County network should be able to make use of an open architecture and common industry standards. 3. The network should be able to recover from cable cut or hub failure automatically. Iteris, Inc. 25

30 IV. Bandwidth Requirements 1. The Topeka-Shawnee County communications network should provide sufficient bandwidth for traffic data transmission for all signalized intersections controlled by the Type 1 Centers simultaneously. 2. If video is transmitted in digital format, the data rate for video transmission should be adjusted dynamically based on the available bandwidth. V. Design Requirements 1. In order to avoid duplication of investments in infrastructure, the Topeka- Shawnee County communications network should utilize existing infrastructure wherever available and feasible. 2. Since the timeframe for the Topeka-Shawnee County Regional ITS Architecture is 20 years, the Topeka-Shawnee County communications network should be designed to support communications and system expansion for a minimum of 20- year period. 3. The network should have at least one alternate routing option to ensure uninterrupted operations during hub failure and maintenance downtime. 4. The latency (time between request and system response) of the communications network should be less than one second. 5. The network should support a modular design so that it can be incrementally increased or decreased in size with limited cost and risk as the need to add or remove equipment becomes necessary. 6. Communications equipment should be interchangeable and interoperable. 7. Communications equipment should be IP-addressable for ease of management Center-to-Field Communications Requirements In order to ensure that the current and future ITS projects in Topeka-Shawnee County follow the common communications and infrastructure protocol, it is important to establish some guidelines for C2F communications and interconnection requirements for each center. The following presents some specific C2F communications network requirements that Topeka- Shawnee County agencies should consider for their current and future ITS projects. I. Data Requirements There are several types of ITS devices that have been or will be deployed in the Topeka- Shawnee County Region. The specific data requirements for each type of devices are presented below. 1. Traffic Signals a. Support NTCIP Class B standards. b. Support once per second communications with traffic signal controllers. c. The minimum baud rate for signal communications is assumed to be 9,600 bits per second (bps) and preferably 19.2 kbps. d. Traffic signal data can be multi-dropped. Iteris, Inc. 26

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