1 Proven and Promising Reading Strategies for Secondary Students: Where Do I Find Them and How Can I Use Them Effectively? Vicky Zygouris-Coe, Ph.D., Principal Investigator Florida Online Reading Professional Development (FOR-PD) Associate Professor, College of Education, University of Central Florida (UCF) Lourdes H. Smith, M.Ed., Reading Specialist Florida Online Reading Professional Development (FOR-PD) College of Education, University of Central Florida (UCF) 7th Annual Just Read, Florida! K-12 Leadership Conference June 29-July 2, 2008, Orlando 1
2 Advance Organizer Brief overview of Florida s first large-scale, online professional development initiative FOR-PD. Demonstrate resources, developed by FOR-PD and free for Florida educators. Model how these resources can be used at the school site to support literacy efforts, teacher literacy expertise, and student achievement.
3 Why Developing Content Area Teachers Knowledge About Reading is Important The public and policy makers perceive reading as one of the most basic and essential abilities for an educated populace (Reinking, McKenna, Labbo, & Kieffer, 1998). Reading permits individuals to deepen their understanding of other critical domains of knowledge (Reed & Schallert, 1993; Wade & Moje, 2000). Reading is long-term developmental process, where at the end the proficient adult reader can read a variety of materials with ease and interest, can read for varying purposes, and can read with comprehension even when the material is neither easy to understand nor intrinsically interesting (RAND Reading Study Group, 2002, p. xiii). 3
4 Why Developing Content Area Teachers Knowledge About Reading is Important Ensuring adequate ongoing literacy development for all students in the middle and high school years is a more challenging task than ensuring excellent reading education in the primary grades, for two reasons: 1. First, secondary school literacy skills are more complex, more embedded in subject matters, and more multiply determined; and second 2. Adolescents are not as universally motivated to read better or as interested in school-based reading as kindergartners. (Biancarosa & Snow, 2005) 4
5 A Skilled Teacher Can Make a Dff Difference! The one factor that can make the most difference in improving student achievement is a "knowledgeable, skillful teacher in the classroom. (National Commission on Teaching & America's Future, 1996)
6 Why Reading in the Content Areas? Understanding the reading process and how students learn. Effective reading strategies and development of content area/academic vocabulary. Development of academic discourse. Development of academic comprehension.
7 Reading in the Content Areas Content Knowledge Knowledge of academic vocabulary Subject background knowledge Making connections Experiences with varied texts Evaluating resources Understanding text structures Teachers need effective reading strategies to teach and support these content-related skills and processes.
8 Content-specific Literacy Skills Test taking ability Knowledge of specialized vocabulary Knowledge of organizational patterns Ability to identify important t information Ability to read visual/graphic information Research skills Teachers need effective reading strategies to teach and support these content-related skills and processes.
9 Effective Reading Strategies A strategy is a tool, plan, or method used to accomplish a task. Reading ability is increased through deliberate and consistent teaching of strategies.
10 Why Teach Effective Reading Strategies? When readers are taught effective reading strategies and are given ample opportunity to use these strategies (using varied texts and in different contents) and with feedback and support, their ability to comprehend text improves.
11 FOR-PD Background Florida s first large-scale online professional development project in reading. 11
12 FOR-PD Background Florida Online Reading Professional Development (FOR-PD) was developed originally as a vehicle for about 50,000 of Florida s teachers to meet Competency 2 of the add-on reading endorsement: Foundations of Research-Based Practices Teachers need FOR-PD or its equivalent to be considered highly qualified according to No Child Left Behind (NCLB) 12
13 FOR-PD Background The project was developed and is housed at the University of Central Florida (UCF). FOR-PD is funded by the Florida DOE Just Read, Florida! Initiative and was launched in January, FOR-PD is frequently updated and was developed collaboratively by literacy and technology experts school-district personnel professional organizations teacher educators across the state of Florida The free 14-week online course is facilitated t by reading specialists (who are selected through an application process and are trained to facilitate online via a 7-week online course) and other well-qualified educators. 13
14 FOR-PD Background More and more in recent years there is an increased focus on reading in the content areas, especially in the secondary grades where students had historically been losing ground. FL s FLs Add-on Reading Endorsement FOR-PD, which meets competency 2 and other approved professional development programs CAR-PD (since 2006) 14
15 FOR-PD Course: A Brief Overview Florida s first large-scale online professional development project in reading: 32, 214 K- 12 educators serviced to date. 15
16 Description of Lessons Lesson 1 - Introduction to the FOR-PD Course Lesson 2 - Reading and Learning to Read Lesson 3 - Exemplary Reading Instruction Lesson 4 - Language and Print-Rich Environments Lesson 5 - Phonemic Awareness and Phonics Lesson 6 - Bringing Students and Texts Together Lesson 7 - Strengthening Vocabulary Development Lesson 8 - Fluency and Comprehension Instruction Lesson 9 - Integrating Reading and Writing Across the Curriculum Lesson 10 - Teaching for Understanding in Content Areas Lesson 11 - Literacy Instruction and Non-native Speakers of English Lesson 12 - Instruction for Striving Readers Lesson 13 - Assessment Lesson 14 - Becoming an Effective Literacy Leader 16
17 What are FOR-PD Participants Learning? How to analyze and assess their classroom environment with emphasis on the exposure they provide to language and print. How to reflect on their own K-12 literacy instruction and share experiences on how their teaching will change. How to question their own teaching practices and select specific elements of exemplary teaching that t they want to incorporate into their classroom instruction from what they learn in the course. How to incorporate effective reading strategies in order to develop and support students vocabulary and comprehension of the content area that they teach. 17
18 Standard Lesson Overview Current content (research and practice) Direct instruction Classroom applications Classroom resources Interactive media--video, audio, games Modeling of effective reading strategies Role of assessment for instruction Assessing teacher comprehension of material via a quiz, online discussion posting, literacy log 18
19 FOR-PD Reading Resources FOR-PD: Equipping educators to help all students succeed in reading. 19
20 FOR-PD FOR-PD provides free reading resources to all Florida educators. All resources undergo an ongoing g evaluation; they are kept current and relevant. FOR-PD resources have been showcased in MiddleWeb and in books by Stenhouse Publishers; several state reading associations share FOR-PD resources with their educators.
21 Reading Strategy of the Month f d / /i d h
22 RSM Handout
24 RSM Assessment Rubric
25 Literacy enewsletter f d / /i d h l
26 Resource Database f d / /i d h
27 Interviews with Experts
28 Reading Reminders f d / / d h
29 Instructional Posters f d / /i d h
30 FOR-PD Literacy Blog f d /li /
31 FOR-PD How can I use these strategies and resources effectively?
32 Modeling, Scaffolding, Practice, Support Explicit instruction Scaffolding Much practice for ownership to develop Use strategy with varied texts Use strategy in varied contexts Invite student input Provide support throughout the process Give it time! Monitor progress
33 What Teachers Are Saying Teacher Voices about FOR-PD strategies and resources 33
34 Content Area Teachers I now see that it is important to model strategies that will help struggling students get through hard to understand text. I also believe that the old fashioned model of lecture and learn just doesn't cut it anymore. We really need to use multiple strategies to reach all of our students. 34
35 Content Area Teachers I realize that we are not being turned into reading teachers, but that we have an obligation to teach reading. I have a sign in my room that states Those Who Read Will Lead This is one of my favorite quotes and I am thankful that I am learning how to incorporate reading strategies into my instruction. 35
36 TS ULT ESU RE TEACHER LITERACY LOGS REFLECTION SELECTION (FOLLOWS) The Literacy Log is a core course assignment that helps participants process content, implement effective strategies in their classrooms, and reflect on their learning. 36
37 Results from Literacy Log Posting Analysis I need to incorporate more direct instruction in my advanced classes. I am guilty of thinking since they are juniors and seniors in honors classes that they will pick up on contextual clues to determine the meaning of the new words. I also assume that if I briefly define the new word they will then know what I am talking about when I refer to it later, I now know this is not the case. What a Mathematics Teacher Learned Vocabulary (Knowledge) 37
38 Results from Literacy Log Posting Analysis Reading comprehension is very important to solving word problems in math. Many students try to read the problem, but they lack fluency, automaticity and good prosody. Students need to be able to chunk the mathematical phrases quickly and accurately with almost an effortless comprehension. There is the ultimate goal to help the students understand what a real-world word problem is asking, then ultimately they have the math skills to solve a word problem that may require the use of slope-intercept form of an equation. What a Mathematics Teacher Learned Comprehension (Knowledge) 38
39 Results from Literacy Log Posting Analysis After reading this lesson, I am going g to change a lot. I learned there are better strategies for students to learn vocabulary then just writing the word and copying its definition. I need to incorporate more science reading from newspapers and articles to get students to see the vocabulary words outside of the classroom. I am going to take more time to show students the suffix and prefix meaning of words (great in science!). What a Science Teacher Learned Vocabulary (Knowledge) 39
40 I can improve on my strategies for reading comprehension. It turns out that science, as a subject, can be very challenging for students in the Middle School mainly because students must understand the text, what is written that is important, and be able to infer information from it. If they can't use the information in an effective manner, they really have not learned anything. Using the fix-up strategies and finding text that relate to their lives is the best way to get students actively engaged in the classroom. Results from Literacy Log Posting Analysis What a Science Teacher Learned Comprehension (Knowledge) 40
41 I plan to change the way I introduce new words, rather than just defining the words for the students, I plan on trying to get their prior knowledge about the subject, then try to use some examples to see if they can come up with the definitions as a group, so they discover the definitions, actively, themselves. Results from Literacy Log Posting Analysis ti l th l I need to add in more NRP strategies to make certain that my students are learning and then can use the tools I have given them to do work and read on their own. I would vocabulary What Mathematics y g Teachers are implementing comprehension like to begin adding generating questions in to my teaching. I think that students will be able to see how problems are created and solved by making their own for other students. 41
42 I am definitely going to try the "top ten list" as I think with science it is a great way to introduce new concepts and find out what prior knowledge the students have. I also think that having them create their own definitions/pictures/ is a great way to have them take ownership of words. vocabulary Results from Literacy Log Posting Analysis I need to start checking for prior knowledge on topics before we start reading about them. I need to do more read-alouds and paired readings. This will allow me to model fluency as well as assess theirs in the paired readings. I also need to do more comprehension checks in smaller amounts of reading. Rather then waiting until they have "read" the whole thing to find out they didn't get it I need to have them start checking in with themselves to see what they are getting and not getting. What Science g g Teachers are implementing comprehension 42
43 Discussion How do you help content area teachers change their perceptions about the role of reading in the content areas? What have you found (strategies, etc.) that helps teachers help their students t effectively learn academic vocabulary and comprehend what they read? In what other ways do you support content areas teachers to develop their knowledge of effective reading instruction and literacy? 4 3
44 Next Steps A review of all resources and strategies is currently taking place. All will be updated and enhanced to ensure that content area teachers instructional needs are been met. Working with an advisory board of content area teachers and reading experts. Keep visiting our website. Contact us if you would like to join our listservs. 44
45 Visit the FOR-PD website at: 45
46 References Barbato, S., Ramos, R., & Swan, B. (2007). Florida Online Reading Professional Development (FOR-PD) Phase V classroom implementation survey results from fall 2006 participants. Orlando FL: University of Central Florida, College of Education. Biancarosa, G., & Snow, C.E. (2004). Reading Next- A Vision for Action and Research in Middle and High School Literacy: A Report from Carnegie Corporation of New York. Washington, DC: Alliance for Excellent Education. National Commission on Teaching and America's Future. (1996). What Matters Most: Teaching for America's Future. New York: Author. Reed, J. H., & Schallert, D. L. (1993). The nature of involvement in academic discourse. Journal of Educational Psychology, 85, Reinking, D., McKenna, M. C., Labbo, L. D., & Kieffer, R. D. (1998). Handbook of literacy and technology: Transformations in a post-typographic world. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. RAND Reading Study Group (2002). Reading for understanding: Toward an R&D program in reading comprehension. Santa Monica: CA Wade, S. E., & Moje, E. B. (2000). The role of text in classroom learning. In M. L. Kamil, P. B. Mosenthal, P. D. Pearson, & R. Barr (Eds.), Handbook of reading research: Vol. III (pp ). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 46