java Features Version April 19, 2013 by Thorsten Kracht

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1 java Features Version April 19, 2013 by Thorsten Kracht

2 Contents 1 Introduction Hello World Variables, Types 3 3 Input/Output Standard I/O Scanner Operators Boolean Increment/Decrement Control Structures If Loops Standard Classes Import Math Random String tostring Wrapper Classes General Definition Classes in separate files Overloading Referenced objects can be changed Encapsulation Inheritance Abstract classes, polymorphism

3 Chapter 1 Introduction This note is intended to help people getting started with java. It contains some explanations and covers the topics by examples. 1.1 Hello World // // file Hello.java // class Hello public static void main ( String[] args ) System.out.println("Hello World!"); This program can be compiled and executed with: javac Hello.java creates Hello.class java Hello executes Hello.class 2

4 Chapter 2 Variables, Types These are the primitive data types: byte 8 bit, short 16 bit, int 32 bit, -2E9 - +2E9 long 64 bit, -10e e18 (long i = 3L;) float 32 bit, -3.4E e38 (float x = 1.23F;) double 64 bit, -1.7e e308 (double x = 123.0D;) char 16 bit (!) boolean true, false) The type names can be used as cast operators: int i = (int) 1.5; Primitive variables cannot be changes by a method. Reference variables can have the value null. String a = null; if( a!= null)... 3

5 Chapter 3 Input/Output 3.1 Standard I/O System.in System.out System,err 3.2 Scanner import java.util.scanner; // loads java.io implicitly class echo String line; Scanner inp = new Scanner( System.in ); System.out.println("Enter:"); line = inp.nextline(); System.out.println("You typed:" + line ); 4

6 Chapter 4 Operators 4.1 Boolean A == B A < B A <= B A > B A >= B A!= B &&! 4.2 Increment/Decrement i++; i--; 5

7 Chapter 5 Control Structures 5.1 If class iftest double x = 1.0; if( x < 0) System.out.println(" x < 0"); else if (x == 0.) System.out.println(" x == 0"); else System.out.println(" x > 0"); 5.2 Loops class iftest double x = 1.0; if( x < 0) System.out.println(" x < 0"); else if (x == 0.) System.out.println(" x == 0"); else System.out.println(" x > 0"); 6

8 Chapter 6 Standard Classes The examples in this section can be compiled and executed by: $ javac mathtest.java && java mathtest cos 60.0 = The string mathtest has to be replaces by the actual class name. 6.1 Import // import a single class import java.util.random; // import all classes of a package import java.util.*; 6.2 Math class mathtest double degree = 60.; System.out.println(" cos " + degree + " = " + Math.cos( Math.toRadians( degree))); $ javac mathtest.java && java mathtest cos 60.0 = Random import java.util.random; public class randtest public static void main ( String[] args ) Random rand = new Random(); int i = 10; while ( i > 0 ) // other methods: nextfloat(), nextdouble(), nextgaussian() 7

9 System.out.println("random " + rand.nextint(1000) ); // numbers from 0 to 999 i = i - 1; 6.4 String The string class (package java.lang.string) contains these functions (and others): public char charat( int index ) public String concat( String str ) public boolean endswith( String suffix ) public boolean equals( Object anobject ) str1.equals( str2) public boolean equalsignorecase( String anotherstring ) public int indexof( int ch ) public int indexof( String str ) public int length() public boolean startswith( String prefix ) public String substring( int beginindex ) public String substring( int beginindex, int endindex ) public String tolowercase() public String touppercase() public String trim() Example: // class Beispiel public static void main ( String[] args ) java.lang.string str; str = new String( "ein test string"); String str1 = new String( "noch ein string");; System.out.println( "string = " + str + " length " + str.length()); System.out.println( "uppercase-str1 = " + str1.touppercase()); 6.5 tostring Produces a string representation of an object. import java.awt.*; class tostringtest Point a = new Point( 3, 4); System.out.println(" tostring " + a.tostring()); Result:

10 $ javac tostringtest.java && java tostringtest tostring java.awt.point[x=3,y=4] 6.6 Wrapper The wrapper classes, package java.lang, create an object. primitive type wrapper type byte Byte short Short int Integer long Long float Float double Double char Character boolean Boolean Example: Integer i = new Integer(123);

11 Chapter 7 Classes 7.1 General static members belong a class not the opject. private visible from within the object. public visible from outside the object. If a member is neither declared private or public, it is public to the package. 7.2 Definition class Hello void say() System.out.println( "this is Hello.say"); class classtest Hello a = new Hello(); a.say(); 7.3 Classes in separate files Here is a main programm that uses code which is stored in a different file: // file classtest.java class classtest classhello a = new classhello( "moin"); a.say(); The class classhello: // file classhello.java class classhello 10

12 String msg; classhello( String a) this.msg = a; System.out.println( "this is the Constructor, classhello.hello"); void say() System.out.println( "this is classhello.say: " + this.msg); This command compiles both files and executes main(). $ javac classtest.java classhello.java && java classtest 7.4 Overloading class classhello private String msg; classhello( String a) this.msg = a; public void say() System.out.println( "this is classhello.say: // overloading a function public void say( String str) System.out.println( "this is classhello.say: " + this.msg); " + str); class classtest classhello a = new classhello( "Moin"); a.say(); String b = new String( "Guten Tag"); a.say( b); 7.5 Referenced objects can be changed class Value public int i = 1; class Klasse void func( Value obj) obj.i = 11; return;

13 class classtest Value b = new Value(); Klasse a = new Klasse(); System.out.println( "Vorher " + b.i); a.func( b); System.out.println( "Nachher " + b.i); 7.6 Encapsulation class Value private int i = 1; public void setvalue( int argin) i = argin; public int getvalue( ) return i; class classtest Value b = new Value(); System.out.println( "Vorher " + b.getvalue()); b.setvalue( 2); System.out.println( "Nachher " + b.getvalue()); 7.7 Inheritance class Human int age; String name; public Human( String name, int age) this.name = name; this.age = age; class male extends Human String gender; public male( String name, int age) super( name, age); this.gender = "male"; class classtest

14 male a = new male( "Fritz", 30); System.out.println( a.name + " " + a.age + " " + a.gender); 7.8 Abstract classes, polymorphism An abstract class is never instanciated. It servers the purpose of being a superclass for other classes. abstract class Animal String name; public Animal( String name) this.name = name; // abstract methods have to be implemented by subclasses public abstract String sound(); class dog extends Animal public dog( String name) super( name); public String sound() return "wau"; class cat extends Animal public cat( String name) super( name); public String sound() return "miau"; class classtest Animal a = new dog( "Rex"); Animal b = new cat( "Miezzi"); Animal c; c = a; System.out.println( c.name + " says " + c.sound()); c = b; System.out.println( c.name + " says " + c.sound()); Polymorphism: depending which type of animal is referenced by c, the sound() method produces a different result.

15 Index abstract classes, 13 encapsulation, 12 inheritance, 12 overloading, 11 polymorphism, 13 tostring, 8 14

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