1 A free course in the installation and use of the free VMware vsphere Hypervisor (ESXi)
2 John Borhek, VCP3, VCP4, VSP, VTSP VMsources Virtualization
4 1. Introduction / Terms and Concepts 2. Installing the VMware Hypervisor (ESXi) 3. Configure ESXi 4. Building Virtual Machines & Installing VMware Tools 5. P2V Migration with the VMware Converter 6. Creating a Virtual Router with PfSense
5 2010 Virtualization Centralized operations 1965 Mainframe Era Centralized operations 1995 The X86 PC revolution Server Proliferation 1980 Micro/Mini Computer
6 ESXi, VMware Hypervisor The basic package which is installed on hardware and makes possible virtualization. Host VMware uses this term interchangeably with ESX or ESXi Virtual Machine A container which is capable of installing and/or running an operating system Guest An operating system running on a hypervisor within a Virtual Machine container COS Console Operating System which is responsible for providing a user interface on the server itself
7 General Purpose (vestigial) Operating System Programs and data that provide common services for efficient execution of various application software not specific to a hypervisor. Bootstrapping A technique by which a simple computer program is required to activate a more complicated system of programs. Boot Loader A program required to bootstrap an operating system: GRUB for Linux, ntldr.exe for Windows ISO Image A disc image of an optical disc. ISO images can be created from optical discs, or can be used to recreate optical discs using software from a file.
8 A software layer or operating system which presents hardware to the guest operating systems. Multiple instances of a variety of operating systems may share the hardware resources of a single host. Traditional Architecture Virtual Architecture
9 VMware invented virtualization for the x86 platform First product VMware Workstation released in 1999 GSX (Now VMware Server) and ESX Server first released in 2001
10 Virtual Machine X86 hypervisor Application Host OS (Linux/Windows) Application Virtual Machine X86_64 hypervisor Management Operating System Type 2 hosted Type 1 Bare Metal
11 Type 2 hosted Virtualization Hypervisor runs as an application service on top of a full, traditional operating system All Virtual Machine hardware is presented by the host operating system (Windows/Linux) Type 1 Bare Metal Virtualization Hypervisor runs in conjunction or in place of a traditional operating system Actual hardware resources from host server are apportioned to Virtual Machines
12 In the beginning, hypervisors ran in conjunction with a traditional vestigial operating system like Windows or Linux Operating system was installed directly on hardware and was required to bootstrap hypervisor (virtualization)
13 Hypervisor starts first No traditional / vestigial OS Management resources (if any) run separately as a VM or application framework vsphere Management Virtual Machine Appliance (vma) X86_64 hypervisor Type 1 Bare Metal
14 ESXi is just the VMware Hypervisor Onboard management limited to configuration of management network IP ESX is the VMware Hypervisor and a Linux Virtual Machine called the Service Console Full command-line COS on each ESX Server Configure hypervisor Configure storage Configure networking Configure/manage Virtual Machines
15 Using the vsphere Client, you can: Create and run Virtual Machines Up to 4 vcpu per VM Connect to SAN (iscsi or Fibre Channel) Use NFS shares Create and manage VMware Standard vswitches May be licensed for additional VMware services at any time by purchasing a different key
16 Standalone use only, no vcenter server precludes the use of many VMware Services: vmotion HA DRS Fault Tolerance Clones Templates Customization Specification (sysprep) Much More..
17 Command line management with the vcli or vma limited to queries (read-only) Up to 256 GB RAM per Server Symmetric Multiprocessing (vsmp) limited to 4 CPU s
18 Use the VMware Compatibility Guide: earch.php
19 Many resources available online Must be true 64-bit capable hardware Will need supported NIC Intel Pro 1000 Broadcom Gigabit SCSI or supported SATA controller
20 Set BIOS time & date Update Firmware Enable hardware-assisted virtualization Intel VT AMD-V Configure directly-attached storage RAID 1 recommended for supported SCSI Delete pre-existing partitions (recommended)
21 Installing the VMware Hypervisor (ESXi)
22 Download the free VMware Hypervisor (ESXi) and license key Burn ISO image to CD Place CD in optical drive Power-on server and install ESXi
24 Burn the ISO to a blank disk. Do not extract the ISO and place the files on a disk!
25 Use the default option.
26 Hypervisor loads first
27 Press (Enter) to Install
28 Be sure to read and accept the VMware EULA
29 Install ESXi to a Local storage device
30 Press F11 to install
31 Installation takes just a couple of minutes!
32 Remove CD and press (Enter)
33 Server will reboot
34 Downloaded the free VMware Hypervisor (ESXi) and license key Burnt the ISO image to CD Placed CD in optical drive Powered-on server and installed ESXi
35 Configuring the free VMware Hypervisor
36 Set Password Configure Management Network Download and install the vsphere Client Connect to ESX Server Apply License to ESXi Configure NTP
37 Choose a secure password
38 The Management Network will be used to connect to ESXi with the vsphere Client.
39 Choose IP Configuration
40 Set an IP address which is part of your Management Network
41 Set DNS for your Management Network
42 Choose a hostname for your ESXi
43 Browse to the IP address of the ESXi Download the vsphere Client Download comes from vmware.com
44 Connect as: root with the password you set
45 Place a check mark to Install this certificate, then choose Ignore
47 Select: Configuration > Licensed Features > Edit
48 Choose: Assign a new license key to this host
49 Choose Enter Key Enter the license key which was provided when the VMware Hypervisor was downloaded When key is entered, allowed usage will be shown
50 Set ESX Server to Stratum 1 NTP time source Individual server example time.nist.gov Pool example (preferred) 0.north-america.pool.ntp.org 1.north-america.pool.ntp.org 2.north-america.pool.ntp.org Use VMware Tools to set VM time to ESX time Ensure accurate logging Prevent VM time drift
51 Select: Configuration > Time Configuration > Properties
52 Set the time manually to the correct time Choose: Options
53 Choose: NTP Settings > Add
54 Specify a NTP Server or Pool of NTP Servers
55 Password is set Management Network has been configured vsphere Client downloaded and installed Connected to ESX Server Configured licensing Configured NTP
56 Building Virtual Machines & Installing VMware Tools
57 What is a Virtual Machine? Create a new Virtual Machine Install the Operating System Install VMware Tools Use VMware Tools to set Virtual Machine Time
58 A Virtual Machine is a container which has been compared to: an efficient, isolated equivalent of a physical computer. Virtual Machines have: Hardware (CPU s, NIC s, RAM, Disk) Bios (Phoenix)
59 It is important to relate the operation of a Virtual Machine to its physical counterpart Do not begin to diagnose problems differently because a computer is a Virtual Machine
60 Right-click on the ESXi and choose: New Virtual Machine
61 Choose Custom configuration
62 Choose a name which is representative of the VM.
64 Choose Version 7
65 Choose the correct Operating System
66 Choosing fewer CPU s is often better than choosing too many CPU s and wasting resources.
67 Choose an appropriate amount of memory for your requirements ESXi uses many techniques to reclaim memory which is not actively in use. ESXi is capable of efficiently over committing memory resources
68 Use the adapter suggested by the New Virtual Machine Wizard, it will most likely be compatible with your OS choice. E1000 for Windows 7, Server 2008 and Linux Flexible for XP and legacy.
69 Use the SCSI Contriller suggested by the New Virtual Machine Wizard, it will most likely be compatible with your OS choice. LSI Logic SAS for Windows 7 / Server 2008 LSI Logic Parallel for XP / Server 2003
70 Choose: Create a new virtual disk
71 Select disk size Thin provisioned disks will only utilize allocated space on a datastore but can perform poorly No need to support clustering features with free VMware Hypervisor
75 Is used for Management and OS installation ONLY Not used for user/desktop connections Not encrypted should be run on secure networks only Power Off Power ON Create Snapshot Connect Floppy Connect CD/DVD/ISO Snapshot Manager
76 Virtual Machine must power-on before connection can be made to CD/ISO Until the VMware Tools are installed, mouse and keyboard are either IN or OUT of the console Use Ctrl + Alt to release mouse and keyboard
77 You can connect to: The CD/DVD on your workstation An ISO image on your workstation The CD/DVD of the ESXi An ISO image which has been uploaded to the ESXi
78 Choose: VM > Guest > Send Ctrl + Alt + del You can also use the key combination Ctrl + Alt + Ins
92 The VMware Tools are essential to efficient Virtual Machine operation and interaction Mouse and Keyboard Display improvement Memory management Time Storage Drivers much more.
93 Choose: VM > Guest Install/Upgrade VMware Tools
94 The VMware Tools packages are stored by default on each ESX and ESXi as ISO images ESXi may not have as many varieties of VMware Tools as ESX Previously connected CD/DVD/ISO is disconnected automatically
100 May be a good time to change computer (DNS) name or join domain before restart.
101 Locate VMware Tools in the System Tray
102 Place a check mark in Time synchronization between virtual machine and the ESX Server
103 Virtual Machines defined Created a new Virtual Machine Installed the Operating System Installed VMware Tools Used VMware Tools to set Virtual Machine Time
104 Physical to Virtual (P2V) Migrations with the VMware Converter
105 Download and Install the VMware Converter on a physical PC Convert the physical PC to a VM Edit the properties of the VM
107 Install on source PC In this case, an older XP box
108 Next Next
109 Choose I accept the terms in the License Agreement > Next Select a destination folder and choose: Next
110 VMware Converter Standalone can convert both local and remote PC s. To install all components choose: Local Installation
111 Finish and Run Client
112 Choose: Convert Machine
113 Choose Powered on machine Specify a machine This local machine
114 Destination type VMware Infrastructure Virtual Machine Specify Server IP User Name Password
115 Set Virtual Machine name
116 Choose datastore Set Virtual Machine to Version 7
117 Options Edit Networks If physical machine converts and NIC is connected, a hostname and/or IP address conflict will result!
118 Un-check Connect at power-on
119 Check Install VMware Tools on the destination Virtual Machine
120 Choose Finish
121 Fast (gigabit) networks help!
122 11 Minutes for 20 GB!
123 Before powering-on any converted Virtual Machine, it is important to remove unnecessary and/or obsolete hardware. Parallel ports Serial ports Floppy drive more
124 Converted physical PC s or Servers often contain lots of unneeded hardware Serial Ports Floppy Disk Parallel Ports Extra CD/DVD Unneeded hardware consumes resources on both ESXi and VM
125 Either turn off source physical PC or- edit the hostname and IP of this VM before connecting networking Choose: OK
127 The VMware Tools installation will cause new hardware to be found.
128 Disable unnecessary services screensaver display drivers sound CD/DVD Writer etc.
129 VMware Converter downloaded and installed on a physical PC Converted the physical PC to a VM Edited the properties of the VM and removed unnecessary hardware Powered on converted Virtual Machine
130 Building a Virtual Router for an all-in-one ESXi
131 Why use a virtual router Download pfsense Create a Virtual Machine use as a router Configure networking for ESXi Install pfsense router Configure pfsense
132 Reduce physical hardware required Improve firewall/router services Firewall Rules Port Forwarding Traffic Monitoring Captive Portal
133 We recommend doing a new install instead of using the VMware Appliance
134 Pick a mirror, then download the installer: pfsense-x.x.x-release-livecd-installer.iso.gz
135 The file is gzipped (*.gz) so Windows native will not un-zip it. We use: 7-ZIP
136 Select: Configuration > Networking > Add Networking
137 This will be a Virtual Machine Connection Type
138 You will know which adapter is unclaimed because its speed will be listed as down
139 Label the new network WAN
141 The new vswitch appears right below the existing vswitch
142 Right-click on the ESXi and choose: New Virtual Machine
143 Choose Custom configuration
144 Choose a name that describes the Virtual Machine
145 Choose a datastore
146 Virtual Machine Version 7
147 Choose: Other > FreeBSD
148 1 CPU
149 1GB RAM is more than sufficient for pfsense
150 Connect 2 NIC s to the Virtual Machine Place 1 in the LAN (VM Network) Place 1 in WAN
151 LSI Logic Parallel
152 New Disk
153 4 GB Disk will do
154 SCSI Disk please
155 Ready to complete
156 Router is now included in both networks
157 Open Console Power-on and allow to boot to PXE on no OS found
158 Virtual Machine must power-on before connection can be made to pfsense ISO Until the VMware Tools are installed, mouse and keyboard are either IN or OUT of the console Use Ctrl + Alt to release mouse and keyboard
159 You can connect to: The CD/DVD on your workstation An ISO image on your workstation The CD/DVD of the ESXi An ISO image which has been uploaded to the ESXi
160 Locate pfsense ISO connect to ISO image on local disk..
161 Choose: VM > Guest > Send Ctrl + Alt + del You can also use the key combination Ctrl + Alt + Ins
162 Allow pfsense to boot or choose option 1
163 Until you install it, pfsense runs as a live operating system from the ISO
164 Do not set up VLAN s at this point (even if you use them)
165 Generally the adapters will appear in the order which they are added to the VM
166 Choose option 99
168 Quick/Easy Install (you can always change it later)
169 Yes, you are sure!
170 It s not like boiling water, it goes pretty quickly
173 The Virtual Machine, not ESXi
174 Disconnect any existing router from LAN, turn off any DHCP service on LAN Plug the unused NIC on ESXi into a WAN port pfsense is now your gateway If pfsense is not on the correct network, change the LAN IP
175 If your provider requires static IP, configure it from the web interface later
176 From a LAN attached PC, do the following: Start > Run > cmd ipconfig /release ipconfig /renew Should see an IP supplied by pfsense!
177 Browse to the IP address of pfsense (gateway) username: admin password: pfsense
178 Logging in will automatically start the wizard
179 Set hostname and DNS
180 Any NTP server, the default included, will do
181 If pfsense is not configured for your network you can change it now
184 Reload should take considerably less than 120 seconds, try clicking the icon after 30
185 Log in with your password
186 Browse to: System > Packages
187 Click the + symbol to the right of Open-VM- Tools
188 Takes about 5 minutes, screen reloads several times
190 Downloaded pfsense Created a Virtual Machine for use as a router Configured networking for ESXi Installed pfsense router Configured pfsense
191 Call VMsources
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