# University of Lethbridge Department of Economics ECON 1012 Introduction to Microeconomics Instructor: Michael G. Lanyi. Chapter 3 Demand and Supply

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1 University of Lethbridge Department of Economics ECON 1012 Introduction to Microeconomics Instructor: Michael G. Lanyi Chapter 3 Demand and Supply 1) The relative price of a good is all of the following except A) the money price of the good divided by a price index. B) an opportunity cost. C)the ratio of one price to another. D) the same as the money price of a good. E) determined in a market. Topic: Markets and Prices 2) How many sides does a market have? A) one side - buyers B) one side - sellers C)two sides - domestic and foreign D) two sides - buyers and sellers E) three sides - buyers, sellers, and the government Topic: Markets and Prices 3) Which market is an example of a market for goods? A) labour market B) haircut market C) energy market D) manufactured input market E) apple market Topic: Markets and Prices 4) Which market is an example of a market for services? A) manufactured input market B) orange market C) labour market D) tennis lessons market E) energy market Topic: Markets and Prices 5) Which market is an example of a resource market? A) furniture market B) labour market C) automobile market D) haircut market E) apple market Topic: Markets and Prices 6) The demand and supply model determines A) money prices. B) demand prices. C) supply prices. D) absolute prices. E) relative prices. Topic: Markets and Prices 1

2 Use the table below to answer the following questions. Table Year Coffee Price Tea Price Cola Price 2007 \$1.25 \$1.10 \$ \$1.50 \$1.00 \$ \$1.25 \$1.20 \$1.00 7) Refer to Table In 2007, the relative price of coffee in terms of tea is A) B) C) D) E) Topic: Markets and Prices 8) Refer to Table In 2009, the relative price of coffee in terms of cola is A) B) C) D) E) unknown without more information. Topic: Markets and Prices 9) Refer to Table In 2009, the relative price of cola in terms of tea is A) B) C) D) E) unknown without more information. Topic: Markets and Prices 10) Refer to Table Between 2007 and 2008, the price of coffee relative to the price of tea while the price of coffee relative to the price of cola. A) fell; rose B) fell; stayed constant C) rose; rose D) rose; fell E) fell; fell Topic: Markets and Prices 11) Refer to Table Between 2008 and 2009, the price of coffee relative to the price of tea while the price of coffee relative to the price of cola. A) fell; fell B) fell; stayed constant C) rose; fell D) fell; rose E) rose; rose Topic: Markets and Prices 2

4 17) The demand curve slopes downward to the right because A) of the law of supply. B) an increase in income leads to increased consumption. C)of the law of demand. D) of comparative advantage. E) as income rises, the quantity demanded increases. 18) An increase in the price of ground beef A) increases the demand for chicken, a substitute for ground beef. B) increases the quantity demanded of ground beef. C) increases the demand for hamburger buns, a complement of ground beef. D) decreases the quantity demanded of ground beef. E) both A and D. 19) An increase in income A) increases the supply of turnips. B) decreases the supply of turnips. C)decreases the demand for turnips if turnips have a very low price. D) increases the demand for turnips if a turnip is a normal good. E) increases the demand for turnips if a turnip is an inferior good. 20) A turnip is an inferior good if A) turnips violate the law of demand. B) an increase in income decreases the demand for turnips. C) an increase in income increases the demand for turnips. D) an increase in the price of a turnip decreases the quantity of turnips that consumers want to buy. E) turnips are a low quality good. 21) If a turnip is an inferior good, then, ceteris paribus, an increase in the price of a turnip will A) increase the supply of turnips. B) increase the demand for turnips. C) decrease the demand for turnips. D) decrease the supply of turnips. E) none of the above. 22) Suppose income increases. Choose the correct statement. A) The equilibrium price of turnips falls if a turnip is an inferior good. B) The equilibrium price of turnips rises if a turnip is an inferior good. C) The equilibrium quantity of turnips decreases if a turnip is an inferior good. D) The supply of turnips decreases whether or not a turnip is an inferior good. E) Both A and C. 4

5 Use the figure below to answer the following questions. Figure ) Point A in Figure indicates that A) consumers will only pay \$1 for any apple. B) if the price is \$1, consumers will plan to buy 4,000 apples. C)consumers will not be in equilibrium if the price of an apple is \$1. D) \$1 is the least that consumers are willing to pay for the 4,000th apple. E) if the price is more than \$1, consumers will buy 9,000 apples. 24) Which one of the following statements best characterizes point B in Figure 3.2.1? A) At point B, the market is in equilibrium. B) Producers would be unwilling to sell the 9,000th apple for less than \$0.50. C)At a price of \$0.50, consumers will be unwilling to buy any apples. D) The most that consumers would be willing to pay for the 9,000th apple is \$0.50. E) At a price of \$0.50, there will be an apple shortage. 25) Given Figure 3.2.1, under what condition are consumers willing to buy more than 9,000 apples per week? A) if the price is between \$1 and \$1.50 B) if the price is between \$1 and \$0.50 C)if the price is above \$1 D) if the price is \$0.75 E) if the price is below \$ ) Which one of the following would result in a movement from point A to point B in Figure 3.2.1? A) a rise in the price of oranges B) a fall in the price of apples C)a rise in the price of bananas D) an increase in population size E) public concern about chemicals sprayed on apples 5

6 Use the figure below to answer the following questions. Figure ) Which one of the following would result in the demand curve shifting from D1 to D2 in Figure 3.2.2? A) a rise in the price of Coke, a complement of pizza B) an increase in the supply of pizza C)a rise in the price of hamburgers, a substitute for pizza D) a rise in the price of pizza E) a fall in the price of pizza 28) Refer to Figure Which one of the following represents a decrease in quantity demanded? A) a shift from D2 to D1 B) a movement from B to A C)a shift from D1 to D2 D) a movement from A to B E) none of the above 29) Refer to Figure If consumers' income increases, A) the quantity of pizzas demanded increases. B) a movement from point A to point B on D1 occurs. C) the quantity of pizzas supplied decreases. D) the demand curve for pizzas shifts from D1 to D2 if a pizza is a normal good. E) the supply of pizzas increases. 30) The price of good A rises, and the demand curve for good B shifts leftward. We can conclude that A)A and B are complements. B)B is a normal good. C)B is an inferior good. D)A and B are substitutes. E) A and B are complements in production. 6

7 31) The price of good X falls and the demand for good Y decreases. We can conclude that A) X and Y are independent of each other. B) X and Y are substitutes. C)X and Y are complements. D) X is a normal good. E) X is an inferior good. 32) Which one of the following would lead to an increase in the demand for hamburgers? A) a news report that hamburgers can cause skin diseases B) a rise in the price of French fries, a complement of hamburgers C)a decrease in consumer income if hamburgers are a normal good D) a decrease in population size E) a new fad hamburger diet 33) Which of the following "other things" are not held constant along a demand curve? A) prices of related goods B) income C)the price of the good itself D) preferences E) expected future income and credit 34) Good A is a normal good if A) a rise in the price of a complement causes the demand for A to decrease. B) income and the demand for A are negatively related. C)good A satisfies the law of demand. D) the demand for A increases when income rises. E) a rise in the price of a substitute causes the demand for A to increase. 35) A decrease in quantity demanded is represented by a A) rightward shift of the supply curve. B) movement upward and to the left along the demand curve. C) rightward shift of the demand curve. D) movement downward and to the right along the demand curve. E) leftward shift of the demand curve. 36) Some sales managers are talking shop. Which of the following quotations refers to a movement along the demand curve? A) "The Green movement has sparked an increase in our sales of biodegradable products." B) "It has been an unusually mild winter; our sales of wool scarves are down from last year." C)"Since our competitors raised their prices, our sales have doubled." D) "We decided to cut our prices, and the increase in our sales has been remarkable." E) None of the above. 37) Some sales managers are talking shop. Which one of the following quotations refers to a rightward shift of the demand curve? A) "Since our competitors raised their prices, our sales have doubled." B) "The Green movement has sparked an increase in our sales of biodegradable products." C)"We decided to cut our prices, and the increase in our sales has been remarkable." D) "It has been an unusually harsh winter; our sales of wool scarves are up from last year." E) All of the above except C. 7

8 38) Some sales managers are talking shop. Which one of the following quotations refers to a leftward shift of the demand curve? A) "The Green movement has sparked an increase in our sales of biodegradable products." B) "Since our competitors raised their prices, our sales have doubled." C)"We decided to cut our prices, and the increase in our sales has been remarkable." D) "It has been an unusually mild winter; our sales of wool scarves are down from last year." E) None of the above. 39) If Hamburger Helper is an inferior good, then, ceteris paribus, a decrease in income will lead to A) a movement up along the demand curve for Hamburger Helper. B) an initial movement up and then down along the demand curve for Hamburger Helper. C) a leftward shift of the demand curve for Hamburger Helper. D) a rightward shift of the demand curve for Hamburger Helper. E) a movement down along the demand curve for Hamburger Helper. 40) Consider the market for cell phones. Suppose the price of a cell phone falls. Explain the effect of this event on the quantity of cell phones demanded and on the demand for cell phones. A) The quantity of cell phones demanded is unchanged and the demand for cell phones increases. B) The quantity of cell phones demanded is unchanged and the demand for cell phones decreases. C) The quantity of cell phones demanded decreases and the demand for cell phones is unchanged. D) The quantity of cell phones demanded increases and the demand for cell phones is unchanged. E) The quantity of cell phones demanded increases and the demand for cell phones also increases. 41) The law of supply tells us that other things remaining the same, as the A) cost of producing gasoline falls, the supply of gasoline will increase. B) cost of producing gasoline increases, the price of gasoline rises. C) price of gasoline rises, the quantity of gasoline supplied decreases. D) supply of gasoline increases, the price of gasoline falls. E) price of gasoline falls, the quantity of gasoline supplied decreases. Topic: Supply 42) The supply curve of a good slopes upward to the right because of A) the existence of substitutes in production. B) the law of demand. C)the fact that prices tend to rise over time. D) the law of supply. E) technological improvements over time. Topic: Supply 43) An increase in supply is shown by A) a movement up along the supply curve. B) a leftward shift of the supply curve. C)an initial movement up and then down along the same supply curve. D) a rightward shift of the supply curve. E) a movement down along the supply curve. Topic: Supply 8

9 44) If goods X and Y are substitutes in production, then a rise in the price of good X A) increases the demand for good Y. B) decreases the supply of good Y. C)increases the supply of good Y. D) decreases the demand for good Y. E) might change the supply of Y; it depends on whether X and Y are also substitutes. Topic: Supply 45) If a producer can use its factors of production to produce either good A or good B, then a rise in the price of A A) increases the supply of A. B) decreases the supply of B. C)decreases the supply of A. D) increases the supply of B. E) both C and D. Topic: Supply 46) The fact that a fall in the price of a good results in a decrease in the quantity of the good supplied illustrates A) technological improvement. B) the law of demand. C)the law of supply. D) a change in supply. E) the nature of an inferior good. Topic: Supply 47) Which one of the following would not shift the supply curve of good X to the right? A) a fall in the price of Y, a substitute in production of X B) a fall in the price of the factors of production used in producing X C)an improvement in technology used in the production of X D) an increase in the price of Y, a complement in production of X E) a rise in the price of X Topic: Supply 48) A decrease in the quantity supplied is shown by a A) rightward shift of the supply curve. B) movement up along the supply curve. C) leftward shift of the supply curve. D) rightward shift of the demand curve. E) movement down along the supply curve. Topic: Supply 49) Which one of the following will shift the supply curve of good X leftward? A) a technological improvement in the production of X B) a decrease in the wages of workers employed to produce X C) a situation where quantity demanded exceeds quantity supplied D) an increase in the cost of machinery used to produce X E) a decrease in the cost of capital used to produce X Topic: Supply 50) Which of the following will shift the supply curve of good X rightward? A) a decrease in the number of suppliers of good X B) an increase in the cost of capital used to produce good X C)a decrease in the wages of workers employed to produce good X D) the price of Y, a substitute in production for good X, rises E) an increase in the price of energy Topic: Supply 9

10 51) If a factor of production can be used to produce either good A or good B, then A and B are A) substitutes in production. B) normal goods. C) substitutes. D) complements. E) complements in production. Topic: Supply 52) A rise in the price of a good A) creates a movement up along the supply curve. B) creates a movement down along the demand curve. C) decreases demand for the good. D) increases the supply of the good. E) increases preferences for the good. Topic: Supply 53) If the number of suppliers of good Y increases, then A) a movement down along the supply curve of good Y will occur. B) a movement up along the supply curve of good Y will occur. C)the supply curve of good Y will remain unchanged. D) the supply curve of good Y shifts leftward. E) the supply curve of good Y shifts rightward. Topic: Supply 54) A shift of the supply curve for rutabagas occurs if there is A) a change in the price of a related good that is a substitute for rutabagas. B) a change in the price of rutabagas. C)a change in income. D) a change in preferences for rutabagas. E) none of the above. Topic: Supply 55) Some producers are chatting over a beer. Which one of the following quotations refers to a movement along the supply curve? A) "Our new, sophisticated equipment will enable us to undercut our competitors." B) "Raw material prices have sky-rocketed; we will have to pass the cost on to our customers." C)"We anticipate a big increase in demand. Our product price should rise, so we are planning for an increase in output." D) "New competitors in the industry are causing prices to fall." E) "Wage increases have forced us to raise our prices." Topic: Supply 56) Some producers are chatting over a beer. Which one of the following quotations refers to a rightward shift of the supply curve? A) "Wage increases have forced us to raise our prices." B) "We anticipate a big increase in demand. Our product price should rise, so we are planning for an increase in output." C)"Raw material prices have sky-rocketed; we will have to pass the cost on to our customers." D) "Our new, sophisticated equipment will enable us to undercut our competitors." E) Both A and C. Topic: Supply 10

11 57) Some producers are chatting over a beer. Which one of the following quotations refers to a leftward shift of the supply curve? A) "Wage increases have forced us to raise our prices." B) "Our new, sophisticated equipment will enable us to undercut our competitors." C)"Raw material prices have sky-rocketed; we will have to pass the cost on to our customers." D) "We anticipate a big increase in demand. Our product price should rise, so we are planning for an increase in output." E) Both A and C. Topic: Supply 58) A decrease in the quantity supplied of a good is shown by A) a movement down along the supply curve. B) a movement up along the supply curve. C) an initial rightward shift and then leftward shift of the supply curve. D) a leftward shift of the supply curve. E) a rightward shift of the supply curve. Topic: Supply Use the table below to answer the following questions. Price (dollars per unit) 59) Refer to Table At a price of \$3 a unit A) the market is in equilibrium. B) there is a 180-unit surplus. C) there is a 180-unit shortage. D) there is a tendency for the price to rise. E) C and D. Table Quantity Demanded (units) Quantity Supplied (units) 1 1, ) In Table 3.4.1, the equilibrium price is A) \$5 a unit. B) \$7 a unit. C)\$4 a unit. D) \$1 a unit. E) \$3 a unit. 61) In Table 3.4.1, the equilibrium quantity is A) 200 units. B) 320 units. C) 500 units. D) 420 units. E) none of the above; there is no equilibrium. 11

12 62) Refer to Table The equilibrium quantity is 420 units if A) the price is fixed at \$3 a unit. B) the price is fixed at \$5 a unit. C)the price is fixed at \$4 a unit. D) both A and C are correct. E) none of the above. 63) Refer to Table A shortage occurs if A) the price is below \$4 a unit. B) the price is \$7 a unit. C)the price is \$6 a unit. D) the price is \$4 a unit. E) the price is \$5 a unit. 64) Refer to Table A surplus occurs if A) the price is \$2 a unit. B) the price is \$4 a unit. C)the price is above \$4 a unit. D) the price is \$1 a unit. E) the price is \$3 a unit. 65) Refer to Table If the price is \$7, then the surplus is A) zero units. B) 400 units. C) 290 units. D) 360 units. E) 160 units. 66) Refer to Table If the price is \$3, then the shortage is A) 1,050 units. B) 180 units. C) 600 units. D) zero units. E) 160 units. 12

13 Use the figure below to answer the following questions. Figure ) At price P3 in Figure 3.4.1, A) this market is in equilibrium. B) there is a shortage in the amount of Q5 - Q1. C) equilibrium quantity is Q5. D) there is a surplus in the amount of Q5 - Q1. E) there is a tendency for the price to rise. 68) At price P2 in Figure 3.4.1, which one of the following is not true? A) The quantity demanded is equal to the quantity supplied. B) The quantity supplied is Q3. C)There is no surplus. D) This market is in equilibrium. E) The quantity demanded is Q1. 69) At price P1 in Figure A) there is a shortage in the amount of Q4 - Q2. B) the equilibrium quantity is Q2. C)there is a surplus in the amount of Q4 - Q2. D) there is a tendency for the price to fall. E) the equilibrium quantity is Q4. 70) At price P1 in Figure 3.4.1, A) producers can sell all they plan to sell. B) a surplus exists. C)consumers can buy all they want. D) producers are unwilling to sell any goods. E) both sides of the market are able to carry out their desired transactions. 13

14 Use the figure below to answer the following questions. Figure ) The equilibrium price in the market illustrated by Figure is A) \$4 a unit. B) \$2 a unit. C)\$8 a unit. D) \$6 a unit. E) \$10 a unit. 72) Refer to Figure When the price is \$10 a unit A) a shortage occurs. B) consumers will buy 500 units of output. C)the surplus is zero. D) consumers will buy only 100 units of output. E) consumers will buy nothing. 73) At a price of \$10 a unit in Figure A) quantity will rise. B) there is a surplus of 200 units. C)there is a surplus of 400 units. D) there is a shortage of 200 units. E) there is a shortage of 400 units. 74) At a price of \$4 a unit in Figure A) the quantity demanded is 200 units. B) the equilibrium quantity is 400 units. C)there is a surplus of 200 units. D) the quantity supplied is 400 units. E) there is a shortage of 200 units. 14

15 75) Which one of the following correctly describes how price adjustment eliminates a surplus? A) As the price rises, the quantity demanded decreases and the quantity supplied increases. B) As the price falls, the quantity demanded increases and the quantity supplied decreases. C) As the price falls, the quantity demanded decreases and the quantity supplied increases. D) As the price falls, the demand for substitutes decreases, which eliminates the surplus. E) As the price rises, the quantity demanded increases and the quantity supplied decreases. 76) Which one of the following correctly describes how price adjustment eliminates a shortage? A) As the price rises, the quantity demanded increases and the quantity supplied decreases. B) As the price falls, the quantity demanded increases and the quantity supplied decreases. C) As the price falls, the quantity demanded increases and the quantity supplied increases. D) As the price rises, the quantity demanded decreases and the quantity supplied increases. E) As the price falls, the quantity demanded decreases and the quantity supplied increases. 77) If the price is above the equilibrium price, then A) a surplus exists. B) a shortage exists. C)none of the good will be sold. D) the price must rise further to reach the new market equilibrium. E) price will not change; producers will cut back production until the market is in equilibrium. 78) A shortage will exist if A) there are not enough producers. B) there are not enough consumers. C) demand decreases. D) the price is below the equilibrium price. E) the price is above the equilibrium price. 79) The price of a good will tend to fall if A) there is a surplus at the current price. B) the current price is below the equilibrium price. C) the quantity supplied exceeds the quantity demanded at the current price. D) both A and C are true. E) none of the above are true. 80) If the market for Twinkies is in equilibrium, then A) the equilibrium quantity equals the quantity demanded. B) there is a surplus. C)producers would like to sell more at the current price. D) consumers would like to buy more at the current price. E) Twinkies must be a normal good. 81) A shortage is the amount by which quantity A) demanded exceeds the equilibrium quantity. B) demanded increases when the price rises. C) supplied exceeds the equilibrium quantity. D) supplied exceeds quantity demanded. E) demanded exceeds quantity supplied. 15

16 82) Complete the following sentence. A surplus A) is the amount by which the quantity demanded exceeds the quantity supplied. B) is the amount by which the quantity supplied exceeds the equilibrium quantity. C) is the amount by which the quantity demanded exceeds the equilibrium quantity. D) exists if the price is above the equilibrium price. E) will lead to rising prices. 83) When a shortage occurs, there is a tendency for the A) price to fall. B) price to rise. C) price to remain unchanged. D) quantity supplied to decrease. E) quantity demanded to increase. Refer to the table below for the following question. Table Price (dollars per bottle) Quantity demanded (bottles per week) Quantity supplied (bottles per week) ) Refer to Table The table shows the demand and supply schedules for shampoo. If the price is \$6 a bottle, there is a of shampoo. So the price of a bottle of shampoo, the quantity demanded and the quantity supplied. The market moves to equilibrium. A) shortage; rises; decreases; increases B) shortage; rises; increases; decreases C) surplus; falls; increases; decreases D) shortage; falls; decreases; increases E) surplus; rises; increases; decreases 85) Since 1980, there has been a dramatic increase in the number of working mothers. Based on this information alone, we can predict that the market for child care services has experienced A) an increase in quantity demanded. B) an increase in demand. C) an increase in supply. D) a decrease in quantity supplied. E) a decrease in demand. 16

17 Use the figure below to answer the following questions. Figure ) If the demand curve is D2 in Figure 3.5.1, A) price will rise. B) the equilibrium price is P2 and the equilibrium quantity is Q2. C)a rise in price will shift the demand curve to D3. D) the equilibrium price is P2 and the equilibrium quantity is Q0. E) there is a shortage in the amount of Q2 - Q0. 87) Initially, the demand curve for good A is D2 in Figure Suppose good B is a substitute for good A. If the price of B falls A) the equilibrium quantity of good A will increase. B) the price of A will rise. C)there will be a surplus of good A at P2. D) the demand curve for good A will shift from D2 to D3. E) all of the above are true except B. 88) Initially, the demand curve for good A is D2 in Figure If income increases and A is a normal good, we would expect to see a movement from point A to point A)B. B)D. C)E. D)C. E)C and back to point A. 89) The price of a good will rise if A) supply of the good decreases. B) there is a surplus of the good. C)the good is an inferior good and income increases. D) the price of a substitute for the good decreases. E) demand for the good decreases. 17

18 90) The price of a good will fall if A) there is a shortage of the good. B) if the supply of the good decreases. C)if demand for the good increases. D) there is a surplus of the good. E) if demand for the good does not change. 91) The price of a good will fall if A) supply of the good remains constant. B) supply of the good decreases. C) supply of the good increases. D) demand for the good remains constant. E) demand for the good increases. 92) Suppose we observe a rise in the price of good A and an increase in the quantity of good A bought and sold. Which one of the following is a likely explanation? A) The law of demand is violated. B) The demand for A decreased. C)The supply of A increased. D) The supply of A decreased. E) The demand for A increased. 93) Suppose we observe a rise in the price of good A and a decrease in the quantity of good A bought and sold. Which one of the following is a likely explanation? A) The supply of A decreased. B) The law of supply is violated. C)The demand for A increased. D) The supply of A increased. E) The demand for A decreased. 94) Suppose we observe a fall in the price of good A and an increase in the quantity of good A bought and sold. Which one of the following is a likely explanation? A) The supply of A increased. B) The demand for A increased. C)The law of supply is violated. D) The demand for A decreased. E) The supply of A decreased. 95) Suppose we observe a fall in the price of good A and a decrease in the quantity of good A bought and sold. Which one of the following is a likely explanation? A) The supply of A decreased. B) The demand for A decreased. C)The law of demand is violated. D) The demand for A increased. E) The supply of A increased. 18

19 96) When the demand for good A increases, A) the equilibrium price and equilibrium quantity will decrease. B) a surplus will result. C) the equilibrium price will rise but the equilibrium quantity will decrease. D) the equilibrium price and equilibrium quantity will increase. E) the equilibrium price will decrease but the equilibrium quantity will increase. 97) When the supply of good A decreases, A) the equilibrium price and the equilibrium quantity will decrease. B) the equilibrium price will decrease but the equilibrium quantity will increase. C) the equilibrium price will increase but the equilibrium quantity will decrease. D) a surplus will result. E) the equilibrium price and the equilibrium quantity will increase. 98) If A is an inferior good and consumer income rises, the demand for A A) decreases and the equilibrium price falls but the equilibrium quantity increases. B) decreases and the equilibrium price and the equilibrium quantity decrease. C) decreases and the equilibrium price rises; as a result, the equilibrium quantity decreases. D) increases and the equilibrium price rises but the equilibrium quantity decreases. E) increases and the equilibrium price and the equilibrium quantity increase. 99) If A and B are substitutes and the price of A rises, we will observe A) a decrease in equilibrium price but an increase in the equilibrium quantity of B. B) a decrease in the equilibrium price and the equilibrium quantity of B. C) an increase in the equilibrium price and the equilibrium quantity of B. D) an increase in the equilibrium price but a decrease in the equilibrium quantity of B. E) none of the above. 100) If A and B are substitutes and the cost of a factor of production used in the production of A increases, then the price of A)B rises but the price of A falls. B)A and B fall. C)A and B rise. D)A falls, and the price of B will stay unchanged. E)B falls but the price of A rises. 101) If A and B are substitutes in production and the price of A falls, the supply of B A) does not change. B) decreases and the price of B rises. C)decreases and the price of B falls. D) increases and the price of B rises. E) increases and the price of B falls. 102) If A and B are complements in production and the price of A falls, the supply of B A) does not change. B) increases and the price of B rises. C)decreases and the price of B falls. D) decreases and the price of B rises. E) increases and the price of B falls. 19

20 103) Crude oil is a very important factor of production used in the production of gasoline. If the price of crude oil rises, we would expect the A) price of gasoline to rise due to a decrease in supply. B) equilibrium quantity of gasoline to fall due to an increase in supply. C) equilibrium quantity of gasoline to rise due to an increase in demand. D) price of gasoline to fall due to an increase in demand. E) price of gasoline to rise due to an increase in demand. 104) If demand increases and supply decreases, then the A) equilibrium quantity increases but the effect on the equilibrium price is unknown. B) equilibrium price rises but the effect on the equilibrium quantity is unknown. C) equilibrium quantity decreases but the effect on the equilibrium price is unknown. D) equilibrium price falls but the effect on the equilibrium quantity is unknown. E) effect on both equilibrium price and quantity is unknown. 105) If demand decreases and supply increases, then the A) equilibrium price rises but the effect on equilibrium quantity is unknown. B) equilibrium price falls but the effect on equilibrium quantity is unknown. C) equilibrium quantity decreases but the effect on the equilibrium price is unknown. D) equilibrium quantity increases but the effect on the equilibrium price is unknown. E) effect on both equilibrium price and quantity is unknown. 106) If we observe a rise in the equilibrium price of good A, we know that either the demand for A has A) decreased or the supply of A has increased or both. B) increased or the supply of A has decreased or both. C)decreased or the supply of A has decreased or both. D) increased or the supply of A has increased or both. E) none of the above. 107) If we observe a fall in the equilibrium price of good A, we know that either the demand for A has A) increased or the supply of A has decreased or both. B) decreased or the supply of A has increased or both. C)decreased or the supply of A has decreased or both. D) increased or the supply of A has increased or both. E) none of the above. 108) If we observe an increase in the equilibrium quantity of good A, we know that A) either the demand for A has decreased or the supply of A has increased or both. B) either the demand for A has increased or the supply of A has increased or both. C)either the demand for A has increased or the supply of A has decreased or both. D) either the demand for A has decreased or the supply of A has decreased or both. E) none of the above. 20

21 109) If we observe a decrease in the equilibrium quantity of good A, we know that A) either the demand for A has decreased or the supply of A has increased or both. B) either the demand for A has decreased or the supply of A has decreased or both. C)either the demand for A has increased or the supply of A has decreased or both. D) either the demand for A has increased or the supply of A has increased or both. E) none of the above. 110) Which of the following will definitely result in an increase in the equilibrium price? A) a decrease in both demand and supply B) an increase in both demand and supply C)an increase in demand combined with a decrease in supply D) a decrease in demand combined with an increase in supply E) an increase in supply combined with a decrease in demand 111) Which one of the following will definitely lower the equilibrium price? A) an increase in demand combined with a decrease in supply B) an increase in both demand and supply C)a decrease in demand combined with an increase in supply D) a decrease in both demand and supply E) a decrease in supply combined with an increase in demand 112) Which one of the following will definitely decrease the equilibrium quantity? A) a decrease in demand combined with an increase in supply B) a decrease in both demand and supply C)an increase in both demand and supply D) an increase in demand combined with a decrease in supply E) none of the above 113) A technological improvement in the production of good A A) decreases the quantity demanded of A. B) increases the demand for A. C)decreases the supply of A. D) decreases the equilibrium price of A and decreases the equilibrium quantity. E) increases the supply of A. 114) Which of the following events leads to a rise in the price of oranges? A) a rise in the price of apples B) good growing weather in Florida C) a technological improvement in the production of oranges D) a scientific discovery that oranges cause hair loss E) a decrease in income if oranges are a normal good 115) If A and B are complements and the cost of a factor of production used in the production of A decreases, then the price of A)A will fall and the price of B will remain unchanged. B)A will rise and the price of B will fall. C)both A and B will rise. D)A will fall and the price of B will rise. E) both A and B will fall. 21

22 116) If both demand and supply increase, then the equilibrium price A) rises and the equilibrium quantity could either increase or decrease. B) falls and the equilibrium quantity could either increase or decrease. C) falls but the equilibrium quantity increases. D) could either rise or fall, but the equilibrium quantity increases. E) and equilibrium quantity increases. 117) There have been severe problems in the Atlantic fishing industry, with large falls in the fish stocks. As a result, A) the equilibrium price and the equilibrium quantity will fall or rise depending on how large the fall in fish stocks. B) both the equilibrium price and the equilibrium quantity will rise, as consumers will desire even more fish, because they are scarce. C)the fall in the fish stocks will lead to a shortage, and a rise in the equilibrium price and a decrease in the equilibrium quantity. D) the price of fish will fall. E) the quantity of fish sold will increase as fishermen will catch more to make up for the shortage. 118) There have been severe falls in the fish stocks in the Atlantic fishing industry. As a result, we would expect A) an increase in the demand for meat, because meat is a substitute for fish. B) a fall in the price of fish, leading to an increase in the demand for meat, because meat and fish are substitutes. C)a rise in the price of fish, leading to a decrease in the demand for meat, because meat and fish are complements. D) a fall in the price of fish, leading to a decrease in the demand for meat, because meat and fish are substitutes. E) an increase in the demand for meat (e.g., beef), because meat is a complement of fish. 119) If Canadians suddenly develop a strong urge to escape the cold winter by taking vacations in Hawaii, the A) price of a vacation in Hawaii rises and the quantity demanded of Hawaiian vacations decreases. B) price of luggage will rise, because luggage and vacations are complements. C)price of airline tickets falls as ticket agents make deals in response to this change. D) initial result of the change is a surplus of vacations in Hawaii, leading to a price rise. E) price of a skiing vacation in the mountains rises. 120) The Genius Software Company has developed an amazing new software package to be used only with Einstein Computers. As a result, the equilibrium price of A) all computers rises. B) all software packages rises. C) Einstein computers rises, accompanied by an increase in the equilibrium quantity. D) rival software packages falls leading to an overall increase in the equilibrium quantity of these packages. E) Einstein computers rises, leading to a decrease in the equilibrium quantity. 22

23 Use the information below to answer the following questions. Fact The market for coffee is initially in equilibrium. Pepsi is a substitute for coffee; cream is a complement of coffee. Consider the market for coffee. Assume that all ceteris paribus assumptions continue to hold except for the event listed. 121) Refer to Fact If coffee is a normal good, then a decrease in income will A) decrease the price and the quantity supplied of coffee. B) decrease the price and the quantity demanded of coffee. C) increase the price and the quantity supplied of coffee. D) increase the price and the quantity demanded of coffee. E) cause none of the above. 122) Refer to Fact An increase in the price of Pepsi, a substitute for coffee will A) decrease the price and the quantity supplied of coffee. B) decrease the price and the quantity demanded of coffee. C) increase the price and the quantity supplied of coffee. D) increase the price and the quantity demanded of coffee. E) cause none of the above. 123) Refer to Fact A technological improvement lowers the cost of producing coffee. At the same time, preferences for coffee decrease. The equilibrium quantity of coffee A) decreases. B) remains the same. C) increases or decreases depending on whether the price of coffee falls or rises. D) increases. E) increases, decreases, or remains the same depending on the relative shifts of the demand and supply curves. 124) Refer to Fact If there is an increase in the wages of farm workers who harvest coffee beans, the equilibrium quantity of coffee A) decreases. B) increases or decreases depending on the slope of the supply and demand curves. C) increases or decreases depending on the relative shifts of the supply and demand curves. D) increases. E) remains the same. 125) Refer to Fact The price of cream falls. Simultaneously, there is an increase in the wages of farm workers who harvest coffee beans. The equilibrium quantity of coffee A) decreases. B) remains the same. C) increases or decreases depending on the slope of the supply and demand curves. D) increases. E) increases, decreases, or remains the same depending on the relative shifts of the supply and demand curves. 23

24 126) Refer to Fact A new study comes out, revealing that drinking Pepsi increases your ability to study. The equilibrium quantity of coffee A) decreases. B) remains the same. C) increases. D) increases or decreases depending on the relative shifts of the supply and demand curves. E) increases or decreases depending on the slope of the supply and demand curves. 127) Farm land can be used to produce either cattle or corn. If the demand for cattle increases, then the A) supply of corn decreases. B) demand for corn decreases. C) supply of corn increases. D) demand for corn increases. E) both B and C. 128) When the price of good A rises, the supply curve of good B shifts rightward. Which of the following statements are true? A)A is a factor used in the production of B. B)A and B are complements. C)A and B are substitutes in production. D)A and B are complements in production. E)A and B are substitutes. 129) "As domestic car prices have increased, consumers have found foreign cars to be a better bargain. Consequently, domestic car sales have fallen and foreign car sales have risen." Based on this information alone, there has been a A) shift of the demand curve for domestic cars and a movement along the demand curve for foreign cars. B) shift in the demand curves for both domestic and foreign cars. C)movement along the demand curve for domestic cars and a shift of the demand curve for foreign cars. D) movement along the demand curves for both domestic and foreign cars. E) shift in the supply curves for both domestic and foreign cars. 24

25 Use the figure below to answer the following questions. Figure Original equilibrium at ) Refer to Figure 3.5.2, which represents the market for beans. If the price of peas, a substitute for beans rises, what is the new beans equilibrium, ceteris paribus? A) 8 B) 5 C)9 D) 6 E) 3 131) Refer to Figure 3.5.2, which represents the market for beer. If the price of pizza, a complement of beer rises, what is the new beer equilibrium, ceteris paribus? A) 3 B) 8 C)9 D) 6 E) 5 132) Refer to Figure 3.5.2, which represents the market for beans. If the price of peas, a substitute for beans in production, rises, what is the new beans equilibrium, ceteris paribus? A) 5 B) 8 C)3 D) 9 E) 6 25

26 133) Refer to Figure 3.5.2, which represents the market for cow manure. If the price of milk, a complement in production of manure, rises, what is the new manure equilibrium, ceteris paribus? A) 9 B) 6 C)3 D) 5 E) 8 134) Refer to Figure 3.5.2, which represents the market for beans. If the price of peas, a substitute for beans and a substitute in production, rises, what is the new beans equilibrium, ceteris paribus? A) 3 B) 9 C)2 D) 7 E) 4 135) Refer to Figure 3.5.2, which represents the market for beans. If the price of peas, a substitute for beans, rises, and the cost of producing beans decreases, what is the new beans equilibrium, ceteris paribus? A) 2 B) 9 C)4 D) 3 E) 7 136) Refer to Figure 3.5.2, which represents the market for tacos. A new scientific study reveals that tacos cause bad breath. Simultaneously, the cost of producing tacos decreases. What is the new equilibrium, ceteris paribus? A) 2 B) 9 C)3 D) 4 E) 7 137) Refer to Figure 3.5.2, which represents the market for tacos. A new scientific study reveals that tacos cause bad breath. Simultaneously, the cost of producing tacos increases. What is the new equilibrium, ceteris paribus? A) 9 B) 2 C)7 D) 3 E) 4 26

27 Use the table below to answer the following questions. Table The Market for Car-Seat Heaters Price (dollars per heater) Quantity Demanded (heaters per month) Quantity Supplied (heaters per month) ) Refer to Table The equilibrium price is \$ and the equilibrium quantity is heaters per month. A) 80; 300 B) 50; 350 C)50; 450 D) 80; 500 E) 60; ) Refer to Table If the price is set at \$80, there will be a A) shortage of 200 units and price will rise. B) shortage of 200 units and demand will fall. C)surplus of 200 units and demand will rise. D) surplus of 200 units and price will fall. E) surplus of 200 units and supply will fall. 140) Refer to Table Suppose the cost of production rises, causing supply to decrease by 100 units at each price. The new equilibrium price is \$ and equilibrium quantity is units. A) 50; 450 B) 70; 350 C)60; 400 D) 50; 350 E) 70; ) Refer to Table Suppose a problem develops with car-seat heaters - they malfunction and occasionally cause serious burns. As a result, demand decreases by 100 heaters at each price. The new equilibrium price is \$ and the new equilibrium quantity is heaters per month. A) 70; 350 B) 50; 450 C)50; 350 D) 60; 400 E) 70;

28 142) Refer to Table Suppose a problem develops with car-seat heaters - they malfunction and occasionally cause serious burns. As a result, demand decreases by 100 heaters at each price. Simultaneously, the cost of production rises, and supply decreases by 100 heaters at each price. The new equilibrium price is \$ and the new equilibrium quantity is heaters per month. A) 70; 350 B) 50; 450 C)60; 300 D) 70; 450 E) 50; 350 Use the figure below to answer the following questions. Table Demand and Supply Schedules for Cups of Coffee each day at CoolU Price (dollars per cup) Quantity Demanded (cups of coffee per day) 1,200 1,100 1, Quantity Supplied (cups of coffee per day) ,000 1,200 1,400 1, ) Refer to Table The equilibrium price is \$ and the equilibrium quantity is cups a day. A) 1.10; 800 B) 0.90; 1000 C) 1.30; 1200 D) 1.10; 900 E) 1.00; ) Refer to Table If the price is set at \$0.80 per cup, there is a leading to a price. A) equilibrium; rise B) shortage; rise C) shortage; fall D) surplus; rise E) surplus; fall 145) Refer to Table If the price is set at \$1.30 per cup, there is a leading to a price. A) shortage; rise B) shortage; fall C) equilibrium; rise D) surplus; fall E) surplus; rise 28

29 146) Refer to Table A premature frost destroys half the coffee trees. This change would be represented as a A) movement down along the supply curve. B) leftward shift of the demand curve. C) rightward shift of the supply curve. D) leftward shift of the supply curve. E) rightward shift of the demand curve. 147) Refer to Table A premature frost destroys half the coffee trees and the supply of coffee is cut in half. The new equilibrium price is \$ and the new equilibrium quantity is cups a day. A) 1.30; 500 B) 1.50; 400 C)1.30; 600 D) 1.20; 700 E) 0.90; ) Refer to Table Professor Hyper publishes a new study, showing that coffee raises the test performance of students. Students double their demand for coffee. This change would be represented as a A) rightward shift of the supply curve. B) leftward shift of the demand curve. C) rightward shift of the demand curve. D) leftward shift of the supply curve. E) movement up along the demand curve. 149) Refer to Table Professor Hyper publishes a new study, showing that coffee raises the test performance of students. Students double their demand for coffee. The new equilibrium price is \$, and the new equilibrium quantity is cups a day. A) 1.40; 1,400 B) 1.20; 1,000 C) 1.50; 1,600 D) 1.30; 1,200 E) none of the above 150) Refer to Table Professor Hyper publishes a new study, showing that coffee raises the test performance of students. Students double their demand for coffee. In addition, a premature frost destroys half the coffee trees and the supply of coffee is cut in half. The new equilibrium price is \$ and the new equilibrium quantity is cups a day. A) 1.10; 400 B) 1.10; 800 C) 1.10; 1,600 D) 1.50; 800 E) 1.50;

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