# SOLUTIONS. Learning Goal 30

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1 S1 Learning Goal 30 Multiple Choice 1. c A corporation wants to reissue treasury stock at a higher price than it paid. In this way, a greater amount of capital can be obtained than was returned to the stockholders when the treasury stock was purchased. 2. b 3. a A stock split increases all issued shares. This means both outstanding shares and shares held by the company as treasury stock. (Note: Total authorized shares do not change.) 4. d Issued shares means both outstanding shares and shares held in treasury, so this total will not change because as outstanding shares decrease, treasury shares increase. Legal capital is a fixed amount determined at the time stock is issued. Total stockholders equity is reduced because cash is paid out to some of the stockholders who decide to sell their shares back to the company. 5. d Choice (b) is an example of selling treasury stock at a price greater than the purchase price. Choice (a) can happen if treasury stock is sold below cost. 6. b 7. a A stock dividend has no effect on total stockholders equity and no effect on the par value per share. 8. d 9. d Two effects are occurring. First, 500 shares at a cost of \$20 per share are being removed from a contra account that reduces stockholders equity. This is an increase in stockholders equity of 500 \$20 = \$10,000. Second, the stock is being sold for \$4 above the purchase price. This is an additional increase in stockholders equity of 500 \$4 = \$2,000. A faster calculation is 500 \$24 = \$12, c 11. d 12. b 13. a 14. d A stock split reduces the par value per share, but the total par value is unchanged because the number of shares increases. 15. b Par value per share: (\$.15 2/3) = \$.10. Total shares: (90,000 3/2) = 135, c 17. c A stock split reduces the par value per share. A cash dividend reduces stockholders equity. A liquidating dividend is a cash dividend that decreases both retained earnings and paid-in capital. 18. d Because this is a small stock dividend (less than 20 25% of outstanding shares) GAAP requires that market value be used to value the transaction. Therefore, retained earnings decreases by (100, \$20) = \$200,000. Paid-in Capital in Excess of Par will increase by the excess of market value above the par value which is (\$20 \$1) 10,000 = \$190,000. (The Common Stock account also increases by \$10,000.) 19. b 20. a This is a large stock dividend, so the entire amount is recorded at par value. 21. c 22. c A split has no effect on the total dollar amount of any stockholders equity accounts. 23. d

2 S2 Section VI. Corporations Discussion Questions and Brief Exercises 1. A corporation would purchase its own stock and hold it as treasury stock for several possible reasons. These reasons include: If the stock can be purchased at a lower price and resold at a higher price, the business can increase the amount of invested capital. Reducing the shares of outstanding stock tends to keep the stock price higher or reduce the rate of decrease. This makes most investors happy. Reducing the outstanding shares makes it more difficult for another company or large investor to obtain enough shares to acquire control of a company. The company may need additional shares for other purposes such as employee stock plans or using company stock to acquire another company. Gain or loss is never recorded with treasury stock sales. When treasury stock is sold above or below its acquisition cost, it is simply an expansion or contraction of stockholders equity. When a company is buying and reissuing shares of its own stock, it is just dealing with its own capital. 2. Authorized stock is the total amount of shares that a corporation is authorized to issue at the time it receives a charter from the state of incorporation. Issued stock is the total number of shares that have ever been issued to investors and other parties and that have not been cancelled or retired. Outstanding stock is the number of shares that are currently held that are not treasury stock. 3. Effect on total assets: Total assets increase because cash is received. Effect on total stockholders equity: Stockholders equity increases because the Treasury Stock contra account is reduced. This amount is increased if the stock is sold above its purchase price and decreased if the stock was sold below its purchase price. Effect on net income: Net income is not affected by a treasury stock purchase or sale. Effect on paid-in capital: Paid-in capital will increase if the treasury stock is sold for more than its cost. Paid-in capital will decrease if treasury stock is sold for less than its cost. (An alternative is to decrease retained earnings if there is not sufficient paid-in capital from treasury stock transactions.) Although treasury stock has a debit balance, it is not an asset. It is a contra equity account. Example of increase: 1,000 shares of treasury stock were purchased for \$20 and sold for \$23. Increase Cash 23,000 Treasury Stock 20,000 Paid-in Capital in Excess of Par, Treasury Stock 3,000 Example of decrease: 1,000 shares of treasury stock were purchased for \$20 and sold for \$18 Decrease Cash 18,000 Paid-in Capital in Excess of Par, Treasury Stock 2,000 Treasury Stock 20,000

3 S3 4. Par value per share decreases. Total par value is unchanged. Total shares outstanding increases. Total shares issued increases. Total shares authorized is unchanged. 5. A stock dividend removes an amount from retained earnings and transfers that same amount into paid-in capital. Therefore, the total stockholders equity is unchanged. More shares are outstanding, but the value of the business itself has not changed. A stock split has no effect on total stockholders equity because the total dollar value of stockholders equity is unaffected and remains unchanged. The same amount of stockholders equity is simply being divided among more shares of issued stock. 6. Post. Date Account Ref. Dr. Cr. March Treasury Stock 70,000 Cash 70,000 May 3 Cash 54,000 Treasury Stock 42,000 Paid-in Capital in Excess of Par, Treasury Stock 12,000 June 28 Cash 26,000 Paid-in Capital in Excess of Par, Treasury Stock 2,000 Treasury Stock 28,000 Analysis: On March 1, 5,000 shares \$14 = \$70,000 cash paid. On May 3, 3,000 shares \$18 = \$54,000 cash received. The cost of the treasury shares was 3,000 \$14 = \$42,000. The additional \$4 per share = \$12,000 of additional paid in capital obtained. On June 28, 2,000 shares \$13 = \$26,000 of cash received. The cost of the treasury shares was 2,000 \$14 = \$28,000. The difference of \$1 less per share is a decrease in paid-in capital of \$2, Items that decrease retained earnings: Net loss (from the income statement) Cash and stock dividends (All dividends are reductions in retained earnings.) Prior period adjustment (from an accounting error in a prior period that overstated net income) Accumulated prior effect of a change in accounting principle (cumulative decrease in net income) Sale of treasury stock at a price below cost (Retained earnings is debited, or reduced, when there is insufficient paid-in capital from treasury stock to absorb the full difference for the decrease in stockholders equity.) Increase in appropriations of retained earnings (when retained earnings available for dividends is reduced by a journal entry)

4 S4 Section VI. Corporations 7, continued Items that increase retained earnings: Net income (from the income statement) Prior period adjustment (from an accounting error in a prior period that understated net income) Accumulated prior effect of a change in accounting principle (cumulative increase in net income) Reduction in appropriations of retained earnings (when retained earnings available for dividends is increased by a journal entry that reduces or eliminates the appropriation) 8. A prior period adjustment is an entry to retained earnings (and to some other balance sheet account) to correct a revenue or expense error of a prior period. If the error caused the prior period net income to be overstated, retained earnings will be reduced by the adjustment in the current period. If the error caused the prior period net income to be understated, retained earnings will be increased by the adjustment in the current period. Prior period adjustments are shown as a decrease or increase in retained earnings on the statement of retained earnings (or statement of stockholders equity, which is discussed in Learning Goal 31). Prior period adjustments also require that the prior financial statements affected by the error be restated. 9. A change in accounting principle is a change from a currently used and generally accepted accounting principle to a different generally accepted accounting principle. The accumulated effect of the change on the net income of all prior accounting periods that are affected is shown as an adjustment to the beginning balance of retained earnings on the statement of retained earnings. This same amount will also require a change in some asset or liability item in the current period. All affected previous financial statements must be restated using the new principle. (Note: If comparative statements of retained earnings are presented, the beginning balance of the statement of the earliest period will show the adjustment.) 10. Common Stock: The total dollar amount remains unchanged at \$100,000. The par value 11. decreases to \$.50 per share. Paid-in Capital in Excess of Par, Common: The total dollar amount remains unchanged at \$1,220,000. Treasury Stock: The total dollar amount remains unchanged at 20,000 \$8.60 = \$172,000. The total authorized shares are unchanged at 500,000. The issued shares increase to 210,000, of which 20,000 are in treasury and 190,000 are outstanding. (The cost per share of the treasury stock becomes \$172,000/20,000 = \$8.60.) Baker Corporation Statement of Retained Earnings For Year Ended June 30, 2008 Balance, July 1, 2007 as reported \$720,000 Correction for 2007 understated income 5,000 Balance, July 1 as corrected 725,000 Net loss (121,000) Less: cash dividends (40,000) Balance, June 30, 2008 \$564,000

5 S5 12. A restriction on retained earnings is a limitation on the amount of retained earnings that may be paid out as dividends. This happens for several reasons: Banks and other creditors want to ensure that enough cash is kept in a company to pay business debts. State laws restrict the amount of cash that can be used to purchase treasury stock. This is often done by requiring that a restricted amount of retained earnings be maintained that is equivalent to some portion of treasury stock. This requirement maintains retained earnings as a positive offset against the treasury stock. If the board of directors anticipates large future cash requirements, a portion of the retained earnings may be restricted to ensure that cash will not be used for payment of dividend. Restrictions on retained earnings are reported in the financial statement footnotes. 13. A stock dividend does not require the corporation to use cash; however, a stock dividend usually pleases the investors because they like owning more shares. 14. Small: GAAP defines a small stock dividend as less than 20 25% of outstanding shares. Generally, most stock dividends are less than 20% of outstanding shares. A small stock dividend uses the market value of the stock to determine the value of the transaction by multiplying the number of new shares times the market value per share. The retained earnings account is decreased and Common Stock and Paid-in Capital in Excess of Par accounts are increased. (For no-par stock, the Common Stock account is increased.) Large: a large stock dividend uses par value to value the transaction by multiplying the par value per share times the number of new shares. The retained earnings account is decreased and the Common Stock account is increased. Large stock dividends do not frequently occur; instead, a corporation will declare a stock split. 15. When a board of directors wants to issue a large number of new shares, a stock split is generally used. Unlike a stock dividend, a stock split will not reduce retained earnings, and the balance in retained earnings will have no effect on the decision of how many new shares to issue. 16. Treasury stock is a contra equity account. This means that it acts as an offset against the rest of stockholders equity and reduces total stockholders equity. Treasury stock has a debit balance. 17. Par Value Shares Issued = Total \$ Par Value Before split \$1 120,000 \$120,000 2 for 1 split , ,000 3 for 1 split , ,000 3 for 2 split , ,000 4 for 3 split , ,000 1 for 2 split 2 60, ,000 Rounded

6 S6 Section VI. Corporations 18. Shares owned after the stock dividend: (1, ) = 1,150 shares Percent ownership before the dividend: (1,000/50,000) =.02; after dividend: (1,150/57,500) =.02. His percent ownership remains unchanged at 2% of outstanding shares. Stock price should theoretically be approximately: (\$27 1/1.15) = \$ For a normal (non-liquidating) cash dividend, (a) there must be a sufficient balance of unrestricted and unappropriated retained earnings, (b) there must be sufficient available cash, and (c) state laws on capital maintenance cannot be violated. 20. A deficit in retained earnings is a debit (negative) balance in retained earnings. A deficit occurs when the cumulative amount of net losses exceeds the cumulative amount of net income. (This includes adjustments for prior period errors and the effect of changes in accounting principles.) Note that dividends cannot create a deficit because dividend declarations generally are not permitted if they would create a negative balance in retained earnings. 21. Item Stock Dividend Stock Split a. Total stockholders equity No change No change b. Total paid-in capital Increase No change c. Total retained earnings Decrease No change d. Total par or stated value Increase No change e. Par or stated value per share No change Decrease f. Total shares issued Increase Increase g. Total shares authorized No change No change h. Taxable income to stockholder None None Reinforcement Problems LG a. A stock dividend does not affect total stockholders equity. The amount will remain at \$1,792,000. b. Stock dividends are calculated based on the outstanding shares. Therefore Retained Earnings will decrease by (90,000.10) \$8 = \$72,000. The new balance will be \$913,000. Stock Dividends Distributable will be a new account with a balance of (9,000 \$.05) = \$450. The balance will remain until the stock is distributed, at which time it will be reclassified into the Common Stock account. Paid-in Capital in Excess of Par will increase by (9,000 \$7.95) = \$71,550. The new balance will be \$943,550. c. Total shares issued will increase by 9,000 shares to 109,000 shares. Total shares outstanding will increase by 10% (9,000 shares) to 99,000 shares. The shares in treasury are not affected by a stock dividend. d. Total shares issued will be (109,000 2) = 218,000. Total shares outstanding will be (99,000 2) = 198,000. The difference between shares issued and outstanding (218, ,000 = 20,000) is the new balance of shares in treasury, which also doubled as a result of the split. e. A stock split does not affect total stockholders equity. The amount will remain at \$1,792,000.

7 S7 LG Date Account Post. Ref. Dr. Cr. Oct. 5 Retained Earnings 150,000 Common Stock Distributable 5,000 Paid-in Capital in Excess of Par, Common 145, Common Stock Distributable 5,000 Common Stock 5,000 Nov. 11 Treasury Stock 220,000 Cash 220,000 Jan. 17 Retained Earnings 250,000 Dividends Payable, Preferred 90,000 Dividends Payable, Common 160,000 Feb. 14 Dividends Payable, Preferred 90,000 Dividends Payable, Common 160,000 Cash 250,000 April 8 Cash 189,000 Treasury Stock 154,000 Paid-in Capital from Treasury Stock 35, Cash 57,000 Paid-in Capital from Treasury Stock 9,000 Treasury Stock 66, Declared a 5 for 4 stock split. Will replace 55,000 shares of \$1 par value common stock with 68,750 new shares (55,000 5/4) of \$.80 par value stock (\$1 4/5).

8 S8 Section VI. Corporations LG Date Account Post. Ref. Dr. Cr. April 4 Treasury Stock 200,000 Cash 200,000 May 27 Cash 168,000 Treasury Stock 140,000 Paid-in Capital from Treasury Stock Transactions 28,000 July 8 Retained Earnings 620,000 Common Stock Distributable 25,000 Paid-in Capital in Excess of Par, Common 595,000 Aug. 11 Common Stock Distributable 25,000 Common Stock 25,000 Sept. 4 Cash 34,000 Paid-in Capital from Treasury Stock Transactions 6,000 Treasury Stock 40, Cash 1,075,000 Common Stock 50,000 Paid-in Capital in Excess of Par, Common 1,025,000 Oct. 1 Declared a 2 for 1 stock split. 375,000 issued shares of \$1 par value common stock are replaced with 750,000 new shares (375,000 2) of \$.50 par value common stock (\$1 1/2). Calculations: May 27: Cost per share of the treasury stock from the April 4 purchase is \$200,000/10,000 = \$20 per share. The treasury stock was sold for \$24 per share, so the additional paid-in capital is \$4 7,000 = \$28,000. July 8: This is a small stock dividend (less than 20% of outstanding shares: 25,000/297,000 =.084). Therefore, the market price is used to value the transaction: 25,000 \$24.80 = \$620,000. The Common Stock Distributable account is credited for the par value (\$1 25,000), and the balance is credited to Paid-in Capital in Excess of Par. Sept. 4: The sales price per share of the treasury stock is \$34,000/2,000 = \$17. Because this is less than the cost per share (\$20), it results in a decrease in stockholders equity of 2,000 \$3 = \$6,000. We record this reduction by debiting Paid-in Capital in Excess of Par for the common stock. Oct. 1: The common shares issued before the split are 300, ,000 (stock dividend) + 50,000 (stock sale) = 375,000 shares.

9 S9 LG a. Date Account Post. Ref. Dr. Cr. July 11 Accounts Receivable 125,000 Retained Earnings 125, Treasury Stock 88,000 Cash 88,000 Aug. 8 Cash 58,000 Treasury Stock 44,000 Paid-in Capital from Treasury Stock Transactions 14, Retained Earnings 612,300 Common Stock Distributable 4,710 Paid-in Capital in Excess of Par 607,590 Sept. 5 Common Stock Distributable 4,750 Common Stock 4, Cash 20,000 Paid-in Capital from Treasury Stock Transactions 2,000 Treasury Stock 22, Retained Earnings 100,000 Dividends Payable, Preferred 45,000 Dividends Payable, Common 55,000 Calculations: July 23: \$11 8,000 = \$88,000. Aug. 8: \$ ,000 = \$58,000. (\$14.50 sales price \$11 cost) 4,000 = \$14,000 Paid in Capital from Treasury Stock Transactions. Aug. 24: (475,000 8,000 treasury shares purchased + 4,000 treasury shares sold) = 471,000 common shares outstanding. 471, = 47,100 new shares. This is a small stock dividend so market value is used. 47,100 \$13 = \$612,300. Par value: \$.10 47,100 = \$4,710. Sept. 20: Cost of shares sold is \$11 2,000 = \$22,000. \$20,000 \$22,000 = \$2,000 decrease in stockholders equity. Because there is a Paid-in Capital from Treasury Stock Transactions account balance, this account is debited for the decrease in stockholders equity. Sept. 22: Preferred stock dividend: (20,000 \$100.09)/4 = \$45,000. Common dividend: \$100,000 \$45,000 = \$55,000.

10 S10 Section VI. Corporations LG 30-4, continued b. Bakersfield Corporation Statement of Retained Earnings For the Three Months Ended September 30, 2008 Balance, June 30, 2008 as reported \$2,320,000 Correction for prior year understated revenue ,000 Balance, June 30, 2008 as corrected ,445,000 Net loss (186,000) Less: dividends Cash dividends payable (\$100,000) Stock dividend (612,300) (712,300) Balance, September 30, \$1,546,700 LG Item Common Stock Paid-in Capital in Excess of Par Paid-in Capital: Treasury Stock Comments: Item 4. The treasury stock account increases by the cost of the purchase. Common Stock Distributable Retained Earnings Item 6. A sale of treasury decreases the treasury stock account by the cost of the shares sold which is 2,000 \$12 = \$24,000. If the treasury stock is sold for more than cost, the additional amount is added to paid-in capital from treasury stock transactions. In this case: \$4 2,000 = \$8,000. Item 8. Paying a previously declared cash dividend reduces Cash and Dividends Payable accounts but does not affect any stockholders equity accounts. Treasury Stock 1 \$50,000 \$700,000 NE NE NE NE 2 NE NE NE NE (\$25,000) NE 3 NE 204,000 NE \$12,000 (216,000) NE 4 NE NE NE NE NE \$60, ,000 NE NE (12,000) NE NE 6 NE NE \$8,000 NE NE (24,000) 7 NE NE NE NE (238,000) NE 8 NE NE NE NE NE NE 9 NE NE (2,000) NE NE (12,000) 10 NE NE NE NE NE NE 11 NE NE NE NE 77,000 NE

11 S11 LG 30-5, continued Item 9. A sale of treasury stock decreases the Treasury Stock account by the cost of the shares sold which is 1,000 \$12 = \$12,000. If the treasury stock is sold for less than cost, the difference is subtracted from paid-in capital from treasury stock transactions. In this case: \$2 1,000 = \$2,000. If there is not sufficient balance in Paid-In Capital from Treasury Stock Transactions, (here, \$8,000) the balance would be subtracted from retained earnings. Item 10. A stock split does not affect the total dollar value of any stockholders equity accounts; however, total shares issued, outstanding, and in treasury increase. Issued shares: (40, , ,000) 2 = 204,000 Outstanding shares: (40, , ,000 5, , ,000) 2 = 200,000 Treasury shares: (5,000 2,000 1,000) 2 = 4,000 LG Palo Alto Properties, Inc. Statement of Retained Earnings For the Year Ended December 31, 2008 Balance, January 1, 2008 as reported \$840,000 Correction for overstated income (238,000) Balance, January 1, 2008 as corrected ,000 Net income ,000 Less: dividends Cash dividend (\$25,000) Stock dividend (216,000) (241,000) Balance, December 31, \$438,000 Palo Alto Properties, Inc. Balance Sheet (partial) December 31, 2008 Stockholders Equity Paid-in capital Common stock, \$.50 par, 204,000 shares issued, 200,000 shares outstanding.... \$ 102,000 Paid-in capital in excess of par, common ,354,000 Paid-in capital from treasury stock transactions ,000 Total paid-in capital ,462,000 Retained earnings ,000 Total paid-in capital and retained earnings ,900,000 Less: Treasury stock, common (4,000 shares at cost) (24,000) Total stockholders equity \$1,876,000

12 S12 Section VI. Corporations LG 30-6, continued Comments: The beginning balance of common shares issued and outstanding is (\$40,000/\$1) = 40,000 shares. The year-end number of shares issued is (40, , ,000) 2 = 204,000. The par value of the stock is (\$1 1/2) = \$.50. The number of treasury stock shares is (5,000 2,000 1,000) 2 = 4,000. The stock split affects the number of shares but does not change the total cost of the shares. However, the cost of the treasury stock per share has now been reduced to \$6 per share from \$12 per share. LG De Leon Corporation Balance Sheet (partial) December 31, 2008 Stockholders Equity Paid-in capital Preferred stock, \$100 par, 7% cumulative; 5,000 shares issued and outstanding \$ 500,000 Common stock, \$1 par, 101,000 shares issued, 100,000 shares outstanding ,000 Paid-in capital in excess of par, common ,031,000 Paid-in capital from treasury stock transactions ,000 1,155,000 Total paid-in capital ,655,000 Retained earnings ,094,000 Total paid-in capital and retained earnings ,749,000 Less: Treasury stock, common (1,000 shares at cost) (20,000) Total stockholders equity \$2,729,000 Calculations: Common shares issued: 92, ,000 stock dividend = 101,000 shares Common shares outstanding: 90, ,000 stock dividend + 1,000 from treasury stock = 100,000 shares Common stock total dollars: \$92,000 + (\$1 9,000) = \$101,000 (or, 101,000 shares \$1) Paid-in capital in excess of par: \$815,000 + (9,000 \$24 excess from stock dividend) = \$1,031,000 Paid-in capital from treasury stock transactions: \$20,000 + (\$3 per share sale above cost 1,000 treasury shares) = \$23,000 Retained earnings: \$1,210,000 + \$109,000 net income (\$25 9,000 stock dividend) = \$1,094,000 Treasury stock shares: 2,000 1,000 resold = 1,000 shares Treasury stock total dollars: \$40,000 (\$20 cost per share 1,000 shares sold) = \$20,000 Note: Check total stockholders equity, \$2,597,000 beginning balance + \$109,000 net income + \$23,000 from treasury stock sale = \$2,729,000.

13 S13 LG a. Date Account Post. Ref. Dr. Cr. Jan. 5 Retained Earnings 250,000 Dividends Payable, Preferred 150,000 Dividends Payable, Common 100,000 Feb. 15 Dividends Payable, Preferred 150,000 Dividends Payable, Common 100,000 Cash 250,000 Mar. 12 Treasury Stock 240,000 Cash 240,000 April 20 Retained Earnings 1,200,000 Common Stock Distributable 2,400 Paid-in Capital in Excess of Par, Common 1,197,600 May 17 Common Stock Distributable 2,400 Common Stock 2,400 July 8 Retained Earnings 350,000 Dividends Payable, Preferred 150,000 Dividends Payable, Common 200,000 Aug. 17 Dividends Payable, Preferred 150,000 Dividends Payable, Common 200,000 Cash 350, Cash 46,000 Retained Earnings 14,000 Treasury Stock 60,000 Sept. 19 Declared a 3 for 2 common stock split. Will replace 540,000 shares of \$.06 par value common stock with 810,000 new shares (540,000 3/2) of \$.04 par value stock (\$.06 2/3).

14 S14 Section VI. Corporations LG 30-8, continued Date Account Post. Ref. Dr. Cr. Oct. 21 Cash 22,000 Treasury Stock 20,000 Paid-in Capital from Treasury Stock Transactions 2,000 Nov. 30 Inventory 352,000 Retained Earnings 352,000 Calculations: Jan. 5: Preferred cash dividend (semi-annual) is [(100,000 \$3)/2] = \$150,000. The remainder of the dividend goes to common stockholders. April 20: 40,000 shares/500,000 shares =.08, which is a small stock dividend. Therefore, using market price per share: 40,000 shares \$30 = \$1,200,000. Allocated to Common Stock: \$.06 40,000 = \$2,400. July 8: Preferred stock dividend (semi-annual) is [(100,000 \$3)/2] = \$150,000. The remainder of the dividend goes to common stockholders. Aug. 23: 2,000 \$23 = \$46,000 total cash received. 2,000 \$30 = \$60,000 cost of treasury shares sold. There is no balance in a Paid-in Capital from Treasury Stock account, so the difference reduces retained earnings. Sept. 19: A stock split affects all shares issued, both outstanding and in treasury. Oct. 21: Before the stock split, the number of shares held in treasury are (8,000 2,000) = 6,000. After the stock split, the treasury shares increase to (6,000 3/2) = 9,000. The cost of the shares held in treasury is (\$240,000 \$60,000) = \$180,000. Therefore, after the split, the cost per share of the treasury stock now becomes (\$180,000/9,000) = \$20 per share. The sale of 1,000 shares results in a credit to Treasury Stock of 1,000 \$20 = \$20,000. The cash received from the sale is 1,000 \$22 = \$22,000. b. Muncie, Inc. Statement of Retained Earnings For the Year Ended December 31, 2008 Balance, January 1, 2008 as reported \$2,740,000 Correction for understated income ,000 Balance, January 1, 2008 as corrected ,092,000 Net loss (284,000) Less: dividends Cash dividends (\$ 600,000) Stock dividend (1,200,000) (1,800,000) Less: Treasury stock sold at less than cost (14,000) Balance, December 31, \$ 994,000

15 S15 LG 30-8, continued c. If the \$352,000 prior years inventory error correction had been made as an adjustment to current period operations, the current period net income would have been very distorted. In fact, instead of showing a \$284,000 loss for the year, the business would show \$68,000 of net income! LG a. Date Account Post. Ref. Dr. Cr. Jan. 4 Retained Earnings 500,000 Dividends Payable, Preferred 325,000 Dividends Payable, Common 175,000 Feb. 18 Dividends Payable, Preferred 325,000 Dividends Payable, Common 175,000 Cash 500,000 March 9 Cash 1,400,00 Common Stock 1,400,00 April 3 Treasury Stock 330,000 Cash 330,000 June 8 Retained Earnings 705,000 Common Stock Distributable 705,000 July 7 Common Stock Distributable 705,000 Common Stock 705, Retained Earnings 375,000 Dividends Payable, Preferred 325,000 Dividends Payable, Common 50,000 Aug. 20 Dividends Payable, Preferred 325,000 Dividends Payable, Common 50,000 Cash 375,000

16 S16 Section VI. Corporations LG 30-9, continued Date Account Post. Ref. Dr. Cr. Sept. 9 Cash 140,000 Treasury Stock 110,000 Paid-in Capital from Treasury Stock Transactions 30,000 Oct. 15 Retained Earnings 250,000 Short-Term Investments 250,000 Dec. 2 Cash 136,000 Paid-in Capital from Treasury Stock Transactions 30,000 Retained Earnings 10,000 Treasury Stock 176,000 Calculations: Jan. 4: To preferred stockholders: [(130,000 \$5)/2] = \$325,000. To common stockholders: \$500,000 \$325,000 = \$175,000. June 8: (235,000 shares.10) = 23,500 new shares. 10% is a small stock dividend, therefore the market value of \$30 per share is used. (23,500 \$30) = \$705,000. July 11: To preferred stockholders: [(130,000 \$5)/2] = \$325,000. To common stockholders: \$375,000 \$325,000 = \$50,000. Sept. 9: Cost of treasury stock is \$22 per share. (5,000 shares \$22) = \$110,000. Therefore, additional paid-in capital from the sale is (\$140,000 \$110,000) = \$30,000. Dec. 2: Sale below cost reduces stockholders equity by [(8,000 (\$22 \$17)] = \$40,000. A sale of treasury stock below cost first reduces any balance in Paid-in Capital from Treasury Stock Transactions, and then reduces Retained Earnings. The Paid-in Capital from Treasury Stock Transactions has a \$30,000 balance from September 9. Common Shares Outstanding: Date Event Shares Total Shares Jan. 1 Beginning balance 200,000 March 9 Sold new shares 50, ,000 April 3 Treasury shares purchased (15,000) 235,000 July 7 Stock dividend 23, ,500 Sept. 9 Treasury shares sold 5, ,500 Dec. 2 Treasury shares sold 8, ,500

17 S17 LG 30-9, continued Common Stock Treasury Shares: Date Event Shares Total Shares April 3 Treasury shares purchased 15,000 15,000 Sept. 9 Treasury shares sold (5,000) 10,000 Dec. 2 Treasury shares sold (8,000) 2,000 Preferred Shares: Date Event Shares Total Shares Jan. 1 Beginning balance 130,000 b. Account Balances as of December 31, 2008: Preferred Stock Common Stock 1,365,000 5,400,000 1,400, ,000 7,505,000 Common Stock Distributable 705, , , , , ,000 10,000 Retained Earnings 8,210, ,000 6,784,000 Treasury Stock 330, , ,000 44,000 Paid-in Capital from Treasury Stock Trans. 30,000 30,000 0

18 S18 Section VI. Corporations LG 30-9, continued c. Evanston, Inc. Statement of Retained Earnings For the Year Ended December 31, 2008 Balance, January 1, 2008 as reported \$8,210,000 Correction for overstated revenue (250,000) Balance, January 1, 2008 as corrected ,960,000 Net income ,000 Less: dividends Cash dividend (\$875,000) Stock dividend (705,000) (1,580,000) Less: Treasury stock sold at less than cost (10,000) Balance, December 31, \$6,784,000 d. Evanston, Inc. Balance Sheet (partial) December 31, 2008 Stockholders Equity Paid-in capital Preferred stock, no par, \$5,130,000 shares issued and outstanding..... \$ 1,365,000 Common stock, no par, 273,500 shares issued, 271,500 outstanding ,505,000 Total paid-in capital ,870,000 Retained earnings ,784,000 Total paid-in capital and retained earnings ,654,000 Less: Treasury stock, common (2,000 shares at cost) (44,000) Total stockholders equity \$15,610,000 e. Yes, common stock dilution probably occurred during the year because new shares were issued. Although existing stockholders could have been the purchasers of the new shares, it is unlikely that they all purchased the new shares in proportion to their existing percentages.

19 S19 LG a. Date Account Post. Ref. Dr. Cr. Jan. 4 Retained Earnings 600,000 Dividends Payable, Preferred 450,000 Dividends Payable, Common 150,000 Feb. 14 Dividends Payable, Preferred 450,000 Dividends Payable, Common 150,000 Cash 600,000 March 7 Cash 3,720,000 Organization Expense 280,000 Common Stock 100,000 Paid-in Capital in Excess of Par, Common 3,900, Organization Expense 70,000 Common Stock 2,000 Paid-in Capital in Excess of Par, Common 68,000 May 11 Preferred Stock 400,000 Paid-in Capital in Excess of Par, Preferred 20,000 Common Stock 32,000 Paid-in Capital in Excess of Par, Common 388,000 June 5 Equipment 544,000 Common Stock 16,000 Paid-in Capital in Excess of Par, Common 528,000 July 8 Retained Earnings 600,000 Dividends Payable, Preferred 72,000 Dividends Payable, Common 528,000 Aug. 15 Dividends Payable, Preferred 72,000 Dividends Payable, Common 528,000 Cash 600,000

20 S20 Section VI. Corporations LG 30-10, continued Date Account Post. Ref. Dr. Cr. Aug. 21 Declared a 5 for 4 stock split. Will replace 400,000 issued shares of \$1 par value common stock with 500,000 new shares (400,000 5/4) of \$.80 par value stock (\$1 4/5). Nov. 20 Retained Earnings 120,000 Commissions Payable 120,000 Dec. 12 Retained Earnings 1,950,000 Common Stock Distributable 39,000 Paid-in Capital in Excess of Par, Common 1,911, Cash 380,000 Treasury Stock 176,000 Paid-in Capital from Treasury Stock Transactions 204,000 Calculations: Jan. 4: Preferred stock: (40,000 \$ ) = \$360,000 dividends in arrears. (40,000 \$50.09)/2 = \$90,000 current semi-annual dividend. Total is (\$360,000 + \$90,000) = \$450,000. Common stock: (\$600,000 \$450,000) = \$150,000. March 7: Cash received: (100,000 \$40.93) = \$3,720,000. Common stock: 100,000 \$1 = \$100,000. Paid-in Capital in Excess of Par: (\$4,000,000 \$100,000) = \$3,900,000. March 18: Common stock: (2,000 \$1) = \$2,000. Paid-in Capital in Excess of Par: (\$70,000 \$2,000) = \$68,000. The stock is not actively traded, so \$70,000 value of services is used to value the transaction. May 11: Common shares issued: (8,000 4) = 32,000. Preferred equity converted to common equity is [(8,000/40,000) \$2,000,000] = \$400,000 preferred par value + [(8,000/40,000) \$100,000] = \$20,000 preferred paid-in capital in excess of par. June 5: The value of stock that is actively traded on an exchange is a better measure of value than a dealer s asking price. Therefore, the value of the equipment is recorded as (16,000 \$34) = \$544,000.

21 S21 LG 30-10, continued July 8: Preferred dividends: (32,000 \$50.09)/2 = \$72,000. Common dividends: (\$600,000 \$72,000) = \$528,000. Dec. 12: Because this is a small stock dividend (less than 20 25% of outstanding common shares), the market price of the stock is used to value the transaction. 500,000 shares have been issued, of which 487,500 are outstanding and 12,500 are held in treasury (stock split increased all shares including the treasury shares). The stock dividend is based on outstanding shares. Therefore: (487,500 \$40.10) = \$1,950,000. (487,500.10) = 48,750 number of new shares to be issued. This is recorded as Common Stock Distributable of (48,750 \$.80 par value per share) = \$39,000. Dec. 29: The number of treasury stock shares: 10,000 beginning balance, increased to 12,500 from the stock split (10,000 5/4) on August 21. The total cost of the treasury stock is \$220,000. Therefore, the average cost per share is \$220,000/12,500 = \$17.60 per share. (10,000 shares \$17.60) = \$176,000 cost of treasury stock sold. b. Account Balances as of December 31, 2008: Preferred Stock 2,000, ,000 1,600,000 Paid-in Capital in Excess of Par, Preferred 20,000 Common Stock Paid-in Capital in Excess of Par, Common 100, ,000 8,750, ,000 3,900,000 80,000 2,000 68,000 32, ,000 16, , ,000 1,911,000 15,545,000 Common Stock Distributable Paid-in Capital from Treasury Stock Trans. Retained Earnings 39, ,000 15,980, ,000 2,970,000 44, , ,000 1,950,000 15,680,000 Treasury Stock 220, ,000

22 S22 Section VI. Corporations LG 30-10, continued Common Shares Outstanding: Date Event Shares Total Shares Jan. 1 Beginning balance 240,000 Mar. 7 New shares sold 100, , New shares issued to law firm 2, ,000 May 11 Shares issued for preferred stock 32, ,000 June 5 New shares issued for equipment 16, ,000 Aug for 4 stock split 487,500 Dec. 29 Treasury shares sold 10, ,500 Common Stock Treasury Shares: Date Event Shares Total Shares Jan. 1 Beginning balance 10,000 Aug for 4 stock split 12,500 Dec. 29 Shares sold (10,000) 2,500 Preferred Shares: Date Event Shares Total Shares Jan. 1 Beginning balance 40,000 May 11 Shares converted to common stock 8,000 32,000 Note: Common shares from the December 12 stock dividend declaration will not be issued until January.

23 S23 LG 30-10, continued c. Minneapolis Corporation Statement of Retained Earnings For the Year Ended December 31, 2008 Balance, January 1, 2008 as reported \$15,980,000 Correction for prior year understated (120,000) Balance, January 1, 2008 as corrected ,860,000 Net income ,970,000 Less: dividends Cash dividend (\$1,200,000) Stock dividend (1,950,000) (3,150,000) Balance, December 31, \$15,680,000 d. Minneapolis Corporation Balance Sheet (partial) December 31, 2008 Stockholders Equity Paid-in capital Preferred stock, \$50 par, 9%, convertible, 32,000 shares issued and outstanding \$1,600,000 Paid-in capital in excess of par ,000 \$1,680,000 Common stock, 500,000 shares issued, \$.80 par, 497,500 shares outstanding ,000 Common stock distributable (48,750 shares) ,000 Paid-in capital in excess of par ,545,000 Paid-in capital from treasury stock ,000 16,188,000 Total paid-in capital ,868,000 Retained Earnings ,680,000 Total paid-in capital and retained earnings ,548,000 Less: Treasury stock, common (2,500 shares at cost) (44,000) Total stockholders equity \$33,504,000

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