Determining the Productivity of Instructional Systems

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Determining the Productivity of Instructional Systems"

Transcription

1 Determining the Productivity of Instructional Systems Dr. Philip McGee, Program Coordinator of the Masters in Human Resource Development, Clemson University, South Carolina ABSTRACT The Productivity Model described in this article is applied in such a way as to determine the productivity of instructional systems by describing a simple to use strategy for assessing and evaluating instructional systems. Data generated by the model enables instructional designers to determine not only the effectiveness and efficiency of any instructional system, but also its overall productivity. Data generated by the Productivity Model may be used not only to assess an instructional system, but may also be used as an evaluation tool enabling instructional designers to pin-point where and when to take corrective actions. INTRODUCTION If you enter the keywords instructional design + productivity into any Internet search engine you will generate a number of links to online papers and sites extolling the benefits and advantages of using instructional system principles and techniques to design and develop training programs and materials that produce predictable learning outcomes. The same holds true for searching online libraries and databases of journal articles. However, when one examines the literature related to evaluating training systems, more often than not, one is referred to the work of Donald Kirkpatrick (1998) and Jack Phillips (1997). Unfortunately, neither Kirkpatrick s Four Levels of Evaluation nor Phillips work determining the ROI of training systems always provide the type of information needed by instructional designers to evaluate and improve the instructional systems for which they are responsible. This is not to say the topic of instructional design and productivity has not been addressed in the past. Ivor Davies wrote on the issue of designing instructional systems that are both effective and efficient in his book Instructional Technique (1981). Davies based his writings on the definitions developed by Peter Drucker (1974) who wrote that Efficiency is concerned with doing things right. While, Effectiveness is doing right things. Now, thirty years later, William Rothwell and H. C. Kazanas in their book Mastering the Instructional Design Process (2003) state that These terms have no universally accepted definitions. They continue their discussion of effectiveness and efficiency by quoting Drucker, as did Davies, and then press on to discuss that instructional design is guided by a model of human performance. It is at this point that I would like to offer a new evaluation model using the concepts of effectiveness and efficiency, and to explore how this model can be used as a strategy for improving the productivity of instructional systems. A MODEL FOR DETERMINING THE PRODUCTIVITY OF INSTRUCTIONAL SYSTEMS The Oxford English Dictionary (1989) states that productivity is the rate of output per unit of input or output/input = productivity. As with calculating the mean for a set of scores, valuable insights can be lost when data is reduced to a single measure. It is with this concern in mind that I would like to describe the Productivity Model and how it can be applied by instructional designers and trainers. Let us begin with the assumption that any system can be described as being composed of three basic elements as illustrated below by Figure 1. The Journal of Human Resource and Adult Learning * November

2 Resources + Activity = Results Figure 1. Elements common to all systems First, all systems produce results. Granted, the results produced by any given system may at times be difficult to predict. Secondly, to achieve results, something must happen; something must be done. In other words, activity must take place. Third, in order to have activity, resources must be used. These three elements of a system hold true whether the system is mechanical, electrical, biological, financial, social or educational. The next step to understanding this model is to examine the dynamic relationships that exist between the elements of a system. We will start with the relationship between results and activity. Effectiveness It can be said that something is effective only when an activity produces a predetermined result. For example, when an instructional designer develops a program of instruction, the designer should first strive to create an instructional system that produces not only the desired results, but also a system that produces the desired results with a high degree of predictability. It is only when a system does what it is supposed to, with a high degree of predictability, that we able to say that it is effective. Effectiveness Dimension Qualitative Measures Asks: How Well? Resources + Activity = Results Figure 2. The Effectiveness Dimension Effectiveness is concerned with "how well" something works i.e., produces predetermined desired results. This concern for "how well" is the basis for the concept we call quality. As designers of systems, we must strive first for effectiveness. For without it, there is little reason to proceed with the design of any system. Efficiency Efficiency is the dynamic relationship that exists between resources and an activity. Efficiency is concerned with quantity and asks the question, "How much?" However, this is a dangerous question to ask. Dangerous in that if we cut resources too much, we run the risk of producing poor results. Resources + Activity = Results Efficiency Dimension Quantitative Measures Asks: How much? Figure 3. The Efficiency Dimension 2 The Journal of Human Resource and Adult Learning * November 2006

3 Effectiveness This is not to say that we should not be concerned with resources and their associated costs. We should, because within every system there is an optimum balance between resources and activity, and activity and results. This optimum balance is known as productivity. Effectiveness Dimension Qualitative Dimension Asks: How well? Resources + Activity = Results Productivity Efficiency Dimension Quantitative Measures Asks: How much? Figure 4. Productivity defined as a measure of effectiveness and efficiency Productivity We can see this balance between effectiveness and efficiency in the illustration below in Figure 5. System (A), which is neither effective nor efficient, cannot be said to be productive. System (B), while very effective, cannot be said to be productive, because it is not efficient. System (C), while efficient, is not effective. Therefore it cannot be considered productive. Only system (D), which is both effective and efficient, can be said to be productive. In application, it is possible to set performance standards for any system in terms of effectiveness and efficiency, and to determine corrective courses of action when evaluative data is generated and graphed. High B D Slope of Productivity Low A C Low Efficiency High Figure 5. The Slope of Productivity Applying the Model to Improving the Productivity of Training Systems If we are to measure and improve the productivity of a training system, we must focus our attention on two distinct measures. The first is the quality of the instruction, i.e., what should be taught? And the second is the quantity The Journal of Human Resource and Adult Learning * November

4 Average Competency Level Achieved of resources needed to deliver the instruction, i.e., by what means should the curriculum be taught? This interrelationship is illustrated below in Figure 6. Curriculum Development Asks: What should be taught? Resources + Activity = Results Productivity Instructional Tactics Asks: By what means should the curriculum be taught? Figure 6. Curriculum development versus Instructional Tactics Let me expand on this concept. Instructional quality is the major concern of curriculum development. Curriculum development answers the question, What should be taught? It is during the development of the instructional curriculum that a performance standard for the curriculum is established and program content is identified. Instructional quality is often measured by how well participants are able to predictably achieve the objectives of the program. This data is most often gained through traditional testing procedures. For example, a particular curriculum may produce results, wherein an average participant achieves a 95% level of competency on the material presented. 100 % Instructional System 95% 90% 85% $15 $12 $10 $ Delivery Cost per Participant Figure 7. Average competency level achieved versus delivery cost per participant Instructional quantity, on the other hand, falls into the domain of instructional tactics, which is the process of determining and selecting the most efficient method and media for delivering a program of instruction (curriculum). The goal of instructional tactics is to answer the question, By what means should the curriculum be taught? Again, a performance standard must be established by which to measure this dimension. Common standards are money, time, instructional staff, equipment required, i.e., instructional resources. 4 The Journal of Human Resource and Adult Learning * November 2006

5 Average Competency Level Achieved In order to determine the productivity of an instructional system, we must consider both the results produced by the curriculum and the instructional resources required to deliver the curriculum. Keep in mind that productivity is a ratio or composite measure of both the effectiveness and efficiency of a system. For example, in Figure 7 above we have an instructional system in which 95% of the participants achieve competency using a media/method to deliver the training which has a per participant cost of $125. By simply plotting the data using an X-Y graph and noting where the data points are located in relation to the Slope of Productivity, it is possible to determine the effectiveness, efficiency, and productivity for any given system. Taking Corrective Action The power of this evaluation strategy is that it enables trainers and instructional developers to identify where they should take corrective action. Using Figure 8, it can be seen that to improve the instructional system, attention should be focused upon decreasing the cost of delivering the training. 100% 95% Instructional System 90% 85% $150 $125 $100 $75 Delivery Cost per Participant Figure 8. Determining corrective action using the Productivity Model In other situations, given different data, trainers and designers may want to improve their curriculums. This brings us to the following: Factors that Influence the Effectiveness of an Instructional System (Curriculum Development) - Needs Assessments - Assessment of Learners - Analysis of Work Settings - Job, Task, or Content Analysis - Statements of Performance Objectives - Performance Measurements (test items) - Sequence Performance Objectives Factors that Influence the Efficiency of an Instructional System (Instructional Tactics) - Instructional Techniques - Designs for Instructional Materials The Journal of Human Resource and Adult Learning * November

6 Average Competency Level Achieved - Media - Delivery mode / medium - Instructional Resources, i.e., money, time, instructional staff, or required equipment. Comparing Two or More Instructional Systems Trainers and instructional developers are often asked to compare and contrast two or more instructional systems and to make a recommendation. Using the Productivity Model, this becomes a simple task as illustrated below. Let us say that we have two instructional systems that deliver the same information and skills. 85% of the trainees, who use Instructional System A, achieve competency for an average delivery cost of $100 per participant. However, 95% of the trainees who use Instructional System B achieve competency using media and methods which have a per participant cost of $125. To determine which of the two instructional systems is the most productive we need only to graph out the two instructional systems as illustrated in Figure % System A: 85%, $100 System B: 95%, $125 95% System B 90% 85% System A $150 $125 $100 $75 Delivery Cost per Participant Figure 9. Comparing two or more instructional systems using the Productivity Model Because Instructional System B falls higher and closer to the line we call the "Slope of Productivity," we can determine it is the most productive. It should be noted that using this strategy, it is possible to compare any number instructional system to determine which is the most productive. A Grounded Model The concepts and relationships detailed in this article are based upon established principles from a variety of disciplines. The basic elements of a system: resources, activity and results, are described throughout the literature on systems theory and are sometimes referred to simply as an input/output model. Accountants and financial people, who often speak of return on investment, have known the relationship between resources and results: (ROI). ROI is where returns are results and investments are costs, and in this way, are able to determine the health of a business enterprise (activity). Physicists and engineers recognized long ago that in order to describe the performance of various phenomena and systems, they had to be described in terms of dynamic relationships between two variables. For example, miles per gallon or feet per second. 6 The Journal of Human Resource and Adult Learning * November 2006

7 Thomas Gilbert, a founding father of the human performance field, developed the First Leisurely Theorem, which says that worth is equal to value divided by costs. In other words, activity adds value to resources (cost) and results in something of greater worth. Peter Drucker pointed out in the 1970s that effectiveness was doing right things, while efficiency was doing things right. In the field of education, these concepts were expanded upon by Ivor Davies and applied to decisionmaking concerning instructional methods. CONCLUDING THOUGHTS Because the Productivity Model is grounded in general systems theory, it can be used for a wide range of design and evaluation activities. The author has not only used the Productivity Model to analyze various training systems, but has used to the Productivity Model to analyze production processes, as a starting point for group discussions that focused on improving processes ranging from sales, to product development, to distribution and logistics. In the classroom, the Productivity Model has proved useful as a teaching tool by providing students with a framework on which to arrange problems solving concepts that in turn help to facilitate the development of their critical thinking skills. REFERENCES Davies, Ivor K. (1981). Instructional Technique. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company. Drucker, Peter F. (1974). Management Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices. New York: Harper & Row Publishers. Gilbert, Thomas F. (1978). Human Competence: Engineering Worthy Performance. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company. Kirkpatrick, Donald (1998). Evaluating Training Programs (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc. Simpson, J.A. and Weiner, E.S.C. (1989) Oxford English Dictionary (2 nd ed., Vols. 1-20). New York: Oxford University Press. Phillips, Jack J. (1997). Handbook of Training Evaluation and Measurement Methods (3rd ed.). Houston: Gulf Publishing Company. Rothwell, William J. and Kazanas, H. C. (2003). Mastering the Instructional Design Process (3rd ed.). San Francisco: Pfeiffer. The Journal of Human Resource and Adult Learning * November

Training Evaluation: Audience Resonse System as an Evaluation Tool

Training Evaluation: Audience Resonse System as an Evaluation Tool Journal of Education and Human Development June 2014, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 259-269 ISSN: 2334-296X (Print), 2334-2978 (Online) Copyright The Author(s). 2014. All Rights Reserved. Published by American Research

More information

The Effectiveness of Field Training In Businesses Faculties at Jordanian Universities. Ahmad Nahar Al-Rfou

The Effectiveness of Field Training In Businesses Faculties at Jordanian Universities. Ahmad Nahar Al-Rfou The Effectiveness of Field Training In Businesses Faculties at Jordanian Universities Ahmad Nahar Al-Rfou Business Management, Tafilah Technical University, Tafilah, Jordan Postal Code: 66110 Abstract

More information

Assumptions of CVP Analysis. Objective 1: Contribution Margin Income Statement. Assumptions of CVP Analysis. Contribution Margin Example

Assumptions of CVP Analysis. Objective 1: Contribution Margin Income Statement. Assumptions of CVP Analysis. Contribution Margin Example Assumptions of CVP Analysis Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis Expenses can be classified as either variable or fixed. CVP relationships are linear over a wide range of production and sales. Sales prices, unit

More information

Is Online Course Quality Predictive of Student Satisfaction in Higher Education?

Is Online Course Quality Predictive of Student Satisfaction in Higher Education? Is Online Course Quality Predictive of Student Satisfaction in Higher Education? Stacey Clawson (Ph.D. expected June 2007) Manager, Next Generation Learning Capella University, Minneapolis, MN Dr. Sonja

More information

Using Return on Investment to Evaluate Project Management Training. Abstract. Introduction

Using Return on Investment to Evaluate Project Management Training. Abstract. Introduction Using Return on Investment to Evaluate Project Management Training Author: Gina Abudi, MBA, Partner/VP Peak Performance Group, Inc. Abstract Executives today are demanding to see the monetary value that

More information

Chapter 5. Summary, Conclusions, and Recommendations. The overriding purpose of this study was to determine the relative

Chapter 5. Summary, Conclusions, and Recommendations. The overriding purpose of this study was to determine the relative 149 Chapter 5 Summary, Conclusions, and Recommendations Summary The overriding purpose of this study was to determine the relative importance of construction as a curriculum organizer when viewed from

More information

Using Kirkpatrick s Four Levels of Evaluation in Real-World Organizations

Using Kirkpatrick s Four Levels of Evaluation in Real-World Organizations Using Kirkpatrick s Four Levels of Evaluation in Real-World Organizations Principles, Tips, & Tricks 1 Preamble: Adding value with evaluation Management often doesn t want real evaluation it wants endorsement

More information

Police Sector Standard for the Training of Trainers. Trainer Standard. Version 2.0

Police Sector Standard for the Training of Trainers. Trainer Standard. Version 2.0 Police Sector Standard for the Training of Trainers Version 2.0 - College of Policing Limited (the College) March 2013 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, modified, amended,

More information

Instructional Design Basics for Courses/Modules By William J. Rothwell* CLS Module

Instructional Design Basics for Courses/Modules By William J. Rothwell* CLS Module Instructional Design Basics for Courses/Modules By William J. Rothwell* CLS Module Designing a training course [i.e. module] can be more difficult than it appears to be. Many books and articles have been

More information

EMBRACING TECHNOLOGY TO ACHIEVE RESULTS WHAT IS LEARNSMART? HOW LEARNSMART BENEFITS EDUCATORS

EMBRACING TECHNOLOGY TO ACHIEVE RESULTS WHAT IS LEARNSMART? HOW LEARNSMART BENEFITS EDUCATORS McGraw-Hill LearnSmart Effectiveness Study Evaluating the adaptive learning tool s impact on pass and retention rates and instructional efficiencies at seven U.S. universities EMBRACING TECHNOLOGY TO ACHIEVE

More information

Dr. Katiraie Practice Quiz 2 on Sections 3.1 and 3.2 Name: Date:

Dr. Katiraie Practice Quiz 2 on Sections 3.1 and 3.2 Name: Date: Dr. Katiraie Practice Quiz 2 on Sections 3.1 and 3.2 Name: Date: 1. Suppose that a music club charges $12 per CD but offers a 5% discount on orders larger than 10 CDs. Then the cost per order is a linear

More information

The gap between e-learning managers and users on satisfaction of e-learning in the accounting industry

The gap between e-learning managers and users on satisfaction of e-learning in the accounting industry ABSTRACT The gap between e-learning managers and users on satisfaction of e-learning in the accounting industry Kai Wen Cheng National Kaohsiung University of Hospitality and Tourism This paper conducted

More information

South Carolina College- and Career-Ready (SCCCR) Algebra 1

South Carolina College- and Career-Ready (SCCCR) Algebra 1 South Carolina College- and Career-Ready (SCCCR) Algebra 1 South Carolina College- and Career-Ready Mathematical Process Standards The South Carolina College- and Career-Ready (SCCCR) Mathematical Process

More information

AN EDUCATOR'S GUIDE TO EVALUATING THE USE OF TECHNOLOGY IN SCHOOLS AND CLASSROOMS

AN EDUCATOR'S GUIDE TO EVALUATING THE USE OF TECHNOLOGY IN SCHOOLS AND CLASSROOMS AN EDUCATOR'S GUIDE TO EVALUATING THE USE OF TECHNOLOGY IN SCHOOLS AND CLASSROOMS 1998 U.S. Department of Education Office of Educational Research and Improvement AN EDUCATOR'S GUIDE TO EVALUATING THE

More information

You Can Create Measurable Training Programs A White Paper For Training Professionals

You Can Create Measurable Training Programs A White Paper For Training Professionals You Can Create Measurable Training Programs A White Paper For Training Professionals Executive Summary Determining training return on investment (ROI) is a pressing need for all training professionals.

More information

PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A CONTRACT MANUFACTURING SYSTEM

PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A CONTRACT MANUFACTURING SYSTEM PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A CONTRACT MANUFACTURING SYSTEM Viswanadham.N 1, Vaidyanathan.G 2 The Logistics Institute- Asia Pacific National University of Singapore Singapore 11926 mpenv@nus.edu.sg 1 engp9778@nus.edu.sg

More information

Corporate Learning Watch

Corporate Learning Watch Quantifying the Organizational Benefits of Training August 2010 The Majority of CEOs Want Return on Investment Data for Training Programs, But Few Receive It Watch List A recent survey of CEOs found that

More information

WHITE PAPER AN INTRODUCTION TO THE ADDIE INSTRUCTIONAL SYSTEMS DESIGN MODEL

WHITE PAPER AN INTRODUCTION TO THE ADDIE INSTRUCTIONAL SYSTEMS DESIGN MODEL WHITE PAPER AN INTRODUCTION TO THE ADDIE INSTRUCTIONAL SYSTEMS DESIGN MODEL Jolly T. Holden. Ed.D. 2015 i Table of Contents Introduction to Instructional Systems Design...3 Instructional Systems Design

More information

Teachers' Art Assessment Practices: Relationship to Expertise, Experience, Beliefs and Confidence

Teachers' Art Assessment Practices: Relationship to Expertise, Experience, Beliefs and Confidence Marilyn Zurmuehlen Working Papers in Art Education ISSN: 2326-7070 (Print) ISSN: 2326-7062 (Online) Volume 11 Issue 1 (1992) pps. 73-79 Teachers' Art Assessment Practices: Relationship to Expertise, Experience,

More information

Students Attitudes about Online Master s Degree Programs versus Traditional Programs

Students Attitudes about Online Master s Degree Programs versus Traditional Programs Aberasturi, S., & Kongrith, K. (2006). Students attitudes about online master s degree programs versus traditional programs. International Journal of Technology in Teaching and Learning, 2(1), 50-57. Students

More information

A Framework for Evaluating Return on Investment in Management Development Programs 1

A Framework for Evaluating Return on Investment in Management Development Programs 1 International Food and Agribusiness Management Review Volume 9, Issue 2, 2006 A Framework for Evaluating Return on Investment in Management Development Programs 1 Kara Lynch a, Jay T. Akridge b, Scott

More information

Linear functions Increasing Linear Functions. Decreasing Linear Functions

Linear functions Increasing Linear Functions. Decreasing Linear Functions 3.5 Increasing, Decreasing, Max, and Min So far we have been describing graphs using quantitative information. That s just a fancy way to say that we ve been using numbers. Specifically, we have described

More information

Unit 1 Equations, Inequalities, Functions

Unit 1 Equations, Inequalities, Functions Unit 1 Equations, Inequalities, Functions Algebra 2, Pages 1-100 Overview: This unit models real-world situations by using one- and two-variable linear equations. This unit will further expand upon pervious

More information

University of Northern Iowa College of Business Administration Master of Business Administration Learning Assurance Program Last updated April 2009

University of Northern Iowa College of Business Administration Master of Business Administration Learning Assurance Program Last updated April 2009 University of Northern Iowa College of Business Administration Master of Business Administration Learning Assurance Program Last updated April 2009 1. Philosophy and Program Goals The MBA program s Learning

More information

Editorial: Learning, teaching and disseminating knowledge in business process management

Editorial: Learning, teaching and disseminating knowledge in business process management Knowledge Management & E-Learning: An International Journal, Vol.4, No.4. 390 Editorial: Learning, teaching and disseminating knowledge in business process management Jürgen Moormann* ProcessLab, Management

More information

Practice#1(chapter1,2) Name

Practice#1(chapter1,2) Name Practice#1(chapter1,2) Name Solve the problem. 1) The average age of the students in a statistics class is 22 years. Does this statement describe descriptive or inferential statistics? A) inferential statistics

More information

THE SYSTEMS APPROACH TO CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT

THE SYSTEMS APPROACH TO CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT THE SYSTEMS APPROACH TO CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT 1 Dr.S.Rajasekar, Professor, Department of Education, Annamalai University Email:sr@sekars.net Website: http://www.sekars.net Introduction The systems approach

More information

THE IMPACT OF E-LEARNING IN THE IMPROVEMENT OF VALUE AND EFFICIENCY THROUGHOUT THE HOPSITALITY INDUSTRY ABSTRACT

THE IMPACT OF E-LEARNING IN THE IMPROVEMENT OF VALUE AND EFFICIENCY THROUGHOUT THE HOPSITALITY INDUSTRY ABSTRACT THE IMPACT OF E-LEARIG I THE IMPROVEMET OF VALUE AD EFFICIECY THROUGHOUT THE HOPSITALITY IDUSTRY ABSTRACT Maher F.Hossny Pharos University Tourism and Hotel Management Alexandria, Egypt e-mail: maher.fouad@pua.edu.eg

More information

DRAFT. New York State Testing Program Grade 8 Common Core Mathematics Test. Released Questions with Annotations

DRAFT. New York State Testing Program Grade 8 Common Core Mathematics Test. Released Questions with Annotations DRAFT New York State Testing Program Grade 8 Common Core Mathematics Test Released Questions with Annotations August 2014 Developed and published under contract with the New York State Education Department

More information

Integrating Spreadsheet Templates and Data Analysis into Fluid Power Instruction

Integrating Spreadsheet Templates and Data Analysis into Fluid Power Instruction Volume 16, Number 4 - August 2000 to October 2000 Integrating Spreadsheet Templates and Data Analysis into Fluid Power Instruction By Dr. Bruce Marsh KEYWORD SEARCH Curriculum Fluid Power Teaching Methods

More information

Start-up Companies Predictive Models Analysis. Boyan Yankov, Kaloyan Haralampiev, Petko Ruskov

Start-up Companies Predictive Models Analysis. Boyan Yankov, Kaloyan Haralampiev, Petko Ruskov Start-up Companies Predictive Models Analysis Boyan Yankov, Kaloyan Haralampiev, Petko Ruskov Abstract: A quantitative research is performed to derive a model for predicting the success of Bulgarian start-up

More information

CORRELATED TO THE SOUTH CAROLINA COLLEGE AND CAREER-READY FOUNDATIONS IN ALGEBRA

CORRELATED TO THE SOUTH CAROLINA COLLEGE AND CAREER-READY FOUNDATIONS IN ALGEBRA We Can Early Learning Curriculum PreK Grades 8 12 INSIDE ALGEBRA, GRADES 8 12 CORRELATED TO THE SOUTH CAROLINA COLLEGE AND CAREER-READY FOUNDATIONS IN ALGEBRA April 2016 www.voyagersopris.com Mathematical

More information

Brillig Systems Making Projects Successful

Brillig Systems Making Projects Successful Metrics for Successful Automation Project Management Most automation engineers spend their days controlling manufacturing processes, but spend little or no time controlling their project schedule and budget.

More information

HOW TO LINK TEAM BUILDING TO BUSINESS IMPROVEMENT AND ROI

HOW TO LINK TEAM BUILDING TO BUSINESS IMPROVEMENT AND ROI HOW TO LINK TEAM BUILDING TO BUSINESS IMPROVEMENT AND ROI 34 Jack J. Phillips and Patti P. Phillips Most team-building sessions focus on a specific problem or opportunity within the team (or at least they

More information

Instructional Design Models. UBC/KFUPM Workshop 2009

Instructional Design Models. UBC/KFUPM Workshop 2009 Instructional Design Models UBC/KFUPM Workshop 2009 Instructional Design? The process for designing instruction based on sound practices. Instructional design is based on the assumption that learning is

More information

Deckblatt. Zugriff von: www.processlab.info

Deckblatt. Zugriff von: www.processlab.info Deckblatt Moormann, J./Bandara, W., Editorial: Learning, Teaching and Disseminating Knowledge in Business Process Management, in: Knowledge Management & E-Learning: An International Journal, 4. Jg. (2012),

More information

SYSTEMS ENGINEERING AND MANAGEMENT FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT - Vol. I The Planning and Marketing Life Cycle - Patterson F.G., Jr.

SYSTEMS ENGINEERING AND MANAGEMENT FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT - Vol. I The Planning and Marketing Life Cycle - Patterson F.G., Jr. THE PLANNING AND MARKETING LIFE CYCLE Patterson F.G., Jr. George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, USA Keywords: life cycle, planning and marketing, process, systems engineering Contents 1. Introduction 2.

More information

Program Planning Guide School-Age Education, Associate in Applied Science Degree (A55440)

Program Planning Guide School-Age Education, Associate in Applied Science Degree (A55440) Program Planning Guide School-Age Education, Associate in Applied Science Degree (A55440) Program Length: 5 semesters Career Pathway Options: Associate in Applied Science Degree in School-Age Education

More information

BENEFITS AND ADVANTAGES OF BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE IN CORPORATE MANAGEMENT

BENEFITS AND ADVANTAGES OF BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE IN CORPORATE MANAGEMENT International Journal of Latest Research In Engineering and Computing (IJLREC) Volume 3, Issue 1, Page No. 1-7 January-February 2015 www.ijlrec.com ISSN: 2347-6540 BENEFITS AND ADVANTAGES OF BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE

More information

Prerequisites: TSI Math Complete and high school Algebra II and geometry or MATH 0303.

Prerequisites: TSI Math Complete and high school Algebra II and geometry or MATH 0303. Course Syllabus Math 1314 College Algebra Revision Date: 8-21-15 Catalog Description: In-depth study and applications of polynomial, rational, radical, exponential and logarithmic functions, and systems

More information

David H. Gray. 5 March, 2008

David H. Gray. 5 March, 2008 Educational Research and Review Vol. 3 (4), pp. 114-120, April, 2008 Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/err ISSN 1990-3839 2008 Academic Journals Full Length Research Paper Needs assessment

More information

Significance of Training and Post Training Evaluation for Employee Effectiveness: An Empirical Study on Sainsbury s Supermarket Ltd, UK

Significance of Training and Post Training Evaluation for Employee Effectiveness: An Empirical Study on Sainsbury s Supermarket Ltd, UK International Journal of Business and Management; Vol. 7, No. 18; 2012 ISSN 1833-3850 E-ISSN 1833-8119 Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education Significance of Training and Post Training Evaluation

More information

ACC 121 PRINCIPLES OF MANAGERIAL ACCOUNTING

ACC 121 PRINCIPLES OF MANAGERIAL ACCOUNTING PRINCIPLES OF MANAGERIAL ACCOUNTING COURSE DESCRIPTION: Prerequisites: ACC 120 Corequisites: None This course includes a greater emphasis on managerial and cost accounting skills. Emphasis is on managerial

More information

Along with some skill in writing in heteromedia environments, I hope you'll experience:

Along with some skill in writing in heteromedia environments, I hope you'll experience: Writing for Environmental Science Professionals Section 001 - T-Th (9:30 to 10:50) in Baker 300 Spring 2011 INSTRUCTOR: Donald K. Wagner OFFICE: 340A HBCrouse Hall Office phone: 443-4946 Home phone: 1-315-337-6463

More information

Domain of Management Project Management Resource Management

Domain of Management Project Management Resource Management Domain of Management The domain of management entails the planning, organizing, coordinating and supervising of instructional technologies (Seels & Richey, 1994). When dealing with management, instructional

More information

with functions, expressions and equations which follow in units 3 and 4.

with functions, expressions and equations which follow in units 3 and 4. Grade 8 Overview View unit yearlong overview here The unit design was created in line with the areas of focus for grade 8 Mathematics as identified by the Common Core State Standards and the PARCC Model

More information

Part I Program SLO Assessment Report for 2013 14

Part I Program SLO Assessment Report for 2013 14 Degree/Certificate: MED Major/Option: Curriculum and Instruction, Literacy, Adult Education, Early Childhood Education, Educational Foundations/Interdisciplinary Submitted by: Marion Moore and Jan Olov

More information

Indiana State Core Curriculum Standards updated 2009 Algebra I

Indiana State Core Curriculum Standards updated 2009 Algebra I Indiana State Core Curriculum Standards updated 2009 Algebra I Strand Description Boardworks High School Algebra presentations Operations With Real Numbers Linear Equations and A1.1 Students simplify and

More information

Big Ideas in Mathematics

Big Ideas in Mathematics Big Ideas in Mathematics which are important to all mathematics learning. (Adapted from the NCTM Curriculum Focal Points, 2006) The Mathematics Big Ideas are organized using the PA Mathematics Standards

More information

Introduction to Risk Analysis

Introduction to Risk Analysis Introduction to Risk Analysis and Risk Assessment Solenne Costard ILRI, Nairobi, 2 nd and 3 rd October 2008 Concepts: Risk Hazard Overview Risk Analysis and Risk Assessment Approaches to Risk Assessment:

More information

Ch. 4: Four-Step Problem Solving Model

Ch. 4: Four-Step Problem Solving Model Ch. 4: Four-Step Problem Solving Model MDCPS Office of Academics, Accountability & School Improvement 2013-2014 The Problem-Solving Team Each school is expected to create and support an RtI/MTSS leadership

More information

Training Evaluation. White Papers

Training Evaluation. White Papers White Papers Training Evaluation In most organizations today, training is more than a simple introductory how to course. The quality of training directly impacts a business in terms of sales volume, employee

More information

HUMAN RESOURCES AND THEIR DEVELOPMENT Vol. I Economic Foundation of Human Resource Development - Oscar A. Aliaga, Richard A.

HUMAN RESOURCES AND THEIR DEVELOPMENT Vol. I Economic Foundation of Human Resource Development - Oscar A. Aliaga, Richard A. ECONOMIC FOUNDATION OF HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT Oscar A. Aliaga and Richard A. Swanson Professor of Human Resource Development, University of Minnesota, USA Keywords: Economic foundation, human resource

More information

The ADDIE Model: Designing, Evaluating Instructional Coach Effectiveness By Shelby Danks, Hurst-Euless-Bedford Independent School District

The ADDIE Model: Designing, Evaluating Instructional Coach Effectiveness By Shelby Danks, Hurst-Euless-Bedford Independent School District The ADDIE Model: Designing, Evaluating Instructional Coach Effectiveness By Shelby Danks, Hurst-Euless-Bedford Independent School District The era of accountability throughout the last decade has brought

More information

Competencies There are three units in this course. At the completion of these units, students will be able to:

Competencies There are three units in this course. At the completion of these units, students will be able to: University of Wisconsin-Platteville Course Syllabus for Academic Credit Curriculum and Course Construction #50 Wisconsin Technical College System (WTCS) Course Title: Curriculum and Course Construction

More information

SEQUENCES ARITHMETIC SEQUENCES. Examples

SEQUENCES ARITHMETIC SEQUENCES. Examples SEQUENCES ARITHMETIC SEQUENCES An ordered list of numbers such as: 4, 9, 6, 25, 36 is a sequence. Each number in the sequence is a term. Usually variables with subscripts are used to label terms. For example,

More information

Guidelines for Massachusetts Early Educator Preparation Programs Participating in the Early Childhood Educator Scholarships Program.

Guidelines for Massachusetts Early Educator Preparation Programs Participating in the Early Childhood Educator Scholarships Program. Guidelines for Massachusetts Early Educator Preparation Programs Participating in the Early Childhood Educator Scholarships Program Background The Departments of Higher Education and Early Education and

More information

Student Progress Monitoring in Mathematics Pamela M. Stecker, PhD

Student Progress Monitoring in Mathematics Pamela M. Stecker, PhD Student Progress Monitoring in Mathematics Pamela M. Stecker, PhD Clemson University Session Objectives Discuss curriculum-based measurement as one research-validated form of progress monitoring. Contrast

More information

Research competences in University education: profile of Master's Programs

Research competences in University education: profile of Master's Programs Research competences in University education: profile of Master's Programs V. Bishimbayev, I. Yefimova M.Auezov South Kazakhstan State University (Kazakhstan) rector@ukgu.kz, irina_uko@mail.ru 1. To the

More information

An Introductory Guide to Selected Training and Teaching Resources (Revised 2013)

An Introductory Guide to Selected Training and Teaching Resources (Revised 2013) An Introductory Guide to Selected Training and Teaching Resources (Revised 2013) Many of the publications in this section contain simulations and different training and educational exercises. The following

More information

A Case Study in Software Enhancements as Six Sigma Process Improvements: Simulating Productivity Savings

A Case Study in Software Enhancements as Six Sigma Process Improvements: Simulating Productivity Savings A Case Study in Software Enhancements as Six Sigma Process Improvements: Simulating Productivity Savings Dan Houston, Ph.D. Automation and Control Solutions Honeywell, Inc. dxhouston@ieee.org Abstract

More information

Effective 21 st Century Leadership: The Seven Aspirations

Effective 21 st Century Leadership: The Seven Aspirations Where people of goodwill get together and transcend their differences for the common good, peaceful and just solutions can be found for even those problems which seem most intractable. -Nelson Mandela

More information

Application of the Scoring Model for Assessing the Credit Rating of Principals

Application of the Scoring Model for Assessing the Credit Rating of Principals Application of the Scoring Model for Assessing the Credit Rating of Principals Margarita Janeska 1, Kosta Sotiroski 1, Suzana Taleska 1 1 Faculty of Economics Prilep, Gorce Petrov bb, Prilep, Macedonia

More information

Students Perceptions of Distance Learning, Online Learning and the Traditional Classroom

Students Perceptions of Distance Learning, Online Learning and the Traditional Classroom 1 of 10 Students Perceptions of Distance Learning, Online Learning and the Traditional Classroom John O'Malley, Department of Management and Business Systems Harrison McCraw, Department of Accounting and

More information

E-learning Course Design Don McIntosh, Ph.D. - February 23, 2006

E-learning Course Design Don McIntosh, Ph.D. - February 23, 2006 E-learning Course Design Don McIntosh, Ph.D. - February 23, 2006 Introduction Imagine your company is embarking on a program to implement e-learning to complement its classroom training program, and you

More information

Program Planning Guide Early Childhood Education, Associate in Applied Science Degree (A55220)

Program Planning Guide Early Childhood Education, Associate in Applied Science Degree (A55220) Program Planning Guide Early Childhood Education, Associate in Applied Science Degree (A55220) Program Length: 5 semesters Career Pathway Options: Associate in Applied Science Degree in Early Childhood

More information

Account Planning - What Role Does it Play in Advertising Effectiveness? Rod McCulloch, Charles Sturt University. Abstract

Account Planning - What Role Does it Play in Advertising Effectiveness? Rod McCulloch, Charles Sturt University. Abstract Account Planning - What Role Does it Play in Advertising Effectiveness? Rod McCulloch, Charles Sturt University Abstract What role does account planning play in the creation of effective advertising? Is

More information

Investigation of Managers Perception about Employees Learning Aptitude

Investigation of Managers Perception about Employees Learning Aptitude Bonfring International Journal of Data Mining, Vol. 2, No.4, December 2012 6 Investigation of Managers Perception about Employees Learning Aptitude Muhammad Faisal Aziz Abstract--- Corporate sector is

More information

The challenge of corporate safety and security

The challenge of corporate safety and security Safety and Security Engineering 821 The challenge of corporate safety and security M. Lanne & M. Räikkönen VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Abstract Large organisations need to control several

More information

WORLD S BEST WORKFORCE PLAN

WORLD S BEST WORKFORCE PLAN WORLD S BEST WORKFORCE PLAN ANNUAL REPORT 2014 2015 School Year South Early Learning Center, North Intermediate, Saint Peter Middle/High School 1 Saint Peter Public Schools World s Best Workforce Report

More information

Online Content Development Processes

Online Content Development Processes Online Content Development Processes A White Paper by Dr. Gary Woodill, Ed. D. Chief Learning Officer, Operitel Corporation gwoodill@operitel.com David Paris, B.A. Business Analyst, Operitel Corporation

More information

STAT 35A HW2 Solutions

STAT 35A HW2 Solutions STAT 35A HW2 Solutions http://www.stat.ucla.edu/~dinov/courses_students.dir/09/spring/stat35.dir 1. A computer consulting firm presently has bids out on three projects. Let A i = { awarded project i },

More information

Instructional Design for Career and Technical Education TECH 3181/5181 (330:181g) Syllabus MEET YOUR INSTRUCTOR

Instructional Design for Career and Technical Education TECH 3181/5181 (330:181g) Syllabus MEET YOUR INSTRUCTOR of 5 Instructional Design for Career and Technical Education TECH 3181/5181 (330:181g) Syllabus MEET YOUR INSTRUCTOR Ali Kashef, Professor in Technology Management & Manufacturing area and Coordinator

More information

Online Journal of Workforce Education and Development Volume IV, Issue 1 Fall 2009

Online Journal of Workforce Education and Development Volume IV, Issue 1 Fall 2009 DETERMINING RETURN ON INVESTMENT FOR PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN PUBLIC EDUCATION: A MODEL Michael F. Kosloski, Jr., MS Ed Old Dominion University Education Building, Room 228 Norfolk, VA 23529 mkoslosk@odu.edu

More information

Course Name: College Algebra Course Number: Math 1513 Semester: Fall 2015

Course Name: College Algebra Course Number: Math 1513 Semester: Fall 2015 Course Name: College Algebra Course Number: Math 1513 Semester: Fall 2015 Instructor s Name: Ricky Streight Hours Credit: 3 Office Phone: 945-6794 Office Hours: Check http://www.osuokc.edu/rickyws/ for

More information

Specific Usage of Visual Data Analysis Techniques

Specific Usage of Visual Data Analysis Techniques Specific Usage of Visual Data Analysis Techniques Snezana Savoska 1 and Suzana Loskovska 2 1 Faculty of Administration and Management of Information systems, Partizanska bb, 7000, Bitola, Republic of Macedonia

More information

Course Outline. BUSN 6070-3 Project Management and Consulting Methods (3,0,0)

Course Outline. BUSN 6070-3 Project Management and Consulting Methods (3,0,0) Calendar Description Course Outline Department of Management School of Business and Economics BUSN 6070-3 Project Management and Consulting Methods (3,0,0) Students explore the concepts and practical techniques

More information

Development of an instructional quality assurance model in nursing science

Development of an instructional quality assurance model in nursing science Development of an instructional quality assurance model in nursing science Haruthai Ajpru Chulalongkorn University, Thailand Shotiga Pasiphol Chulalongkorn University, Thailand Suwimon Wongwanich Chulalongkorn

More information

Information differences between closed-ended and open-ended survey questions for high-technology products

Information differences between closed-ended and open-ended survey questions for high-technology products Information differences between closed-ended and open-ended survey questions for high-technology products ABSTRACT William Bleuel Pepperdine University Many businesses collect survey data that has two

More information

Computer Applications in Production Management and Their Impact on Company Performance

Computer Applications in Production Management and Their Impact on Company Performance Computer Applications in Production Management and Their Impact on Company Performance DENISA FERENČÍKOVÁ, MICHAL PIVNIČKA Department of Industrial Engineering and Information Systems Tomas Bata University

More information

For example, estimate the population of the United States as 3 times 10⁸ and the

For example, estimate the population of the United States as 3 times 10⁸ and the CCSS: Mathematics The Number System CCSS: Grade 8 8.NS.A. Know that there are numbers that are not rational, and approximate them by rational numbers. 8.NS.A.1. Understand informally that every number

More information

Research Productivity in Counseling Psychology: An Update

Research Productivity in Counseling Psychology: An Update Professional Forum Research Productivity in Counseling Psychology: An Update 10.1177/0011000005277814 THE Buboltz COUNSELING et al. / RESEARCH PSYCHOLOGIST PRODUCTIVITY / September 2005 Walter C. Buboltz

More information

The Innovative Role of the Principal as Instructional Leader: A Prerequisite for High Student Achievement?

The Innovative Role of the Principal as Instructional Leader: A Prerequisite for High Student Achievement? DOI: 10.7763/IPEDR. 2013. V60. 25 The Innovative Role of the Principal as Instructional Leader: A Prerequisite for High Student Achievement? Raj Mestry + University of Johannesburg Abstract. Principals

More information

Running Head: FORMULATION OF AN EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY AND AN ORGANIZATIONAL FRAMEWORK. Lauren Jansen. Midwestern State University

Running Head: FORMULATION OF AN EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY AND AN ORGANIZATIONAL FRAMEWORK. Lauren Jansen. Midwestern State University Educational Philosophy 1 Running Head: FORMULATION OF AN EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY AND AN ORGANIZATIONAL FRAMEWORK Lauren Jansen Midwestern State University Educational Philosophy 2 Formulation Of An Educational

More information

Teaching Beliefs of Graduate Students in Adult Education: A Longitudinal Perspective

Teaching Beliefs of Graduate Students in Adult Education: A Longitudinal Perspective Teaching Beliefs of Graduate Students in Adult Education: A Longitudinal Perspective Edward W. Taylor Penn State University Capital College, USA Abstract This longitudinal study explores the influence

More information

The Kirkpatrick/Phillips Model for Evaluating Human Resource Development and Training

The Kirkpatrick/Phillips Model for Evaluating Human Resource Development and Training The Kirkpatrick/Phillips Model for Evaluating Human Resource Development and Training By Allan Bailey, CEO, Learning Designs Online The ROI Methodology Because of its appropriateness to the business setting,

More information

Data Visualisation and Statistical Analysis Within the Decision Making Process

Data Visualisation and Statistical Analysis Within the Decision Making Process Data Visualisation and Statistical Analysis Within the Decision Making Process Jamie Mahoney Centre for Educational Research and Development, University of Lincoln, Lincoln, UK. Keywords: Abstract: Data

More information

Educational simulation in construction project risk management Setting the stage

Educational simulation in construction project risk management Setting the stage Creative Construction Conference 2015 Educational simulation in construction project risk management Setting the stage Constanta-Nicoleta Bodea a), Augustin Purnus b) * a) Bucharest University of Economic

More information

White Paper from Global Process Innovation. Fourteen Metrics for a BPM Program

White Paper from Global Process Innovation. Fourteen Metrics for a BPM Program White Paper from Global Process Innovation by Jim Boots Fourteen Metrics for a BPM Program This white paper presents 14 metrics which may be useful for monitoring progress on a BPM program or initiative.

More information

VOLUME 13 Issue 2 STRATEGIC ACCOUNT MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION

VOLUME 13 Issue 2 STRATEGIC ACCOUNT MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION VOLUME 13 Issue 2 STRATEGIC ACCOUNT MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION The keys to effective strategic account planning Key 1: Define What is a strategic account? and assess the ongoing fit By Steve Andersen President

More information

Fostering the musical skills of children and their teachers through a. newly designed music program

Fostering the musical skills of children and their teachers through a. newly designed music program Fostering the musical skills of children and their teachers through a newly designed music program Suvi Saarikallio, University of Jyväskylä Rourke O Brien, Children s Music Foundation This paper was presented

More information

Corporate Universities: Competitors or Collaborators?

Corporate Universities: Competitors or Collaborators? Corporate Universities: Competitors or Collaborators? Dr. Philip McGee, Program Coordinator for the Masters in Human Resource Development, Clemson University, South Carolina ABSTRACT universities bogged

More information

SPERNER S LEMMA AND BROUWER S FIXED POINT THEOREM

SPERNER S LEMMA AND BROUWER S FIXED POINT THEOREM SPERNER S LEMMA AND BROUWER S FIXED POINT THEOREM ALEX WRIGHT 1. Intoduction A fixed point of a function f from a set X into itself is a point x 0 satisfying f(x 0 ) = x 0. Theorems which establish the

More information

12 th ICCRTS. Adapting C2 to the 21 st Century

12 th ICCRTS. Adapting C2 to the 21 st Century 12 th ICCRTS Adapting C2 to the 21 st Century Human Performance Technology: A Discipline to Improve C2 Concept Development and Analysis Tracks: Track 1: C2 Concepts, Theory, and Policy Track 6: Metrics

More information

Teaching Basic Accounting to Engineering Economy Students: Are Computer Tutorials More Effective than Traditional Classroom Lectures?

Teaching Basic Accounting to Engineering Economy Students: Are Computer Tutorials More Effective than Traditional Classroom Lectures? Teaching Basic Accounting to Engineering Economy Students: Are Computer Tutorials More Effective than Traditional Classroom Lectures? Donald N. Merino, Ph.D. P.E., and Kate D. Abel, Ph.D. Stevens Institute

More information

The Management Accounting Simulation: An Approach To Bringing Decision Making Into An Introductory Managerial Accounting Course

The Management Accounting Simulation: An Approach To Bringing Decision Making Into An Introductory Managerial Accounting Course The Management Accounting Simulation: An Approach To Bringing Decision Making Into An Introductory Managerial Accounting Course John P. Koeplin, University of San Francisco Abstract The Accounting Education

More information

IACBE Advancing Academic Quality in Business Education Worldwide

IACBE Advancing Academic Quality in Business Education Worldwide IACBE Advancing Academic Quality in Business Education Worldwide Example of an MBA Student Exit Survey International Assembly for Collegiate Business Education 11374 Strang Line Road Lenexa, Kansas 66215,

More information

Evaluation and elearning

Evaluation and elearning Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education-TOJDE January 2006 ISSN 1302-6488 Volume: 7 Number: 1 Article: 11 Evaluation and elearning ABSTRACT Debra PEAK Zane L. BERGE UMBC 1000 Hilltop Circle Baltimore

More information

ANALYSING INTERVIEW DATA FOR CLUSTERS AND THEMES

ANALYSING INTERVIEW DATA FOR CLUSTERS AND THEMES ANALYSING INTERVIEW DATA FOR CLUSTERS AND THEMES LYNDA BALL The University of Melbourne lball@unimelb.edu.au This paper outlines a qualitative approach for analysing interview transcripts. The approach

More information

Kaspersky Whitelisting Database Test

Kaspersky Whitelisting Database Test Kaspersky Whitelisting Database Test A test commissioned by Kaspersky Lab and performed by AV-Test GmbH Date of the report: February 14 th, 2013, last update: April 4 th, 2013 Summary During November 2012

More information