1 Chapter 3 Achieving Competitive Advantage with Information Systems 3.1 Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
2 STUDENT LEARNING OBJECTIVES How does Porter s competitive forces model help companies develop competitive strategies using information systems? How do the value chain and value web models help businesses identify opportunities for strategic information system applications? How do information systems help businesses use synergies, core competencies, and networkbased strategies to achieve competitive advantage? 3.2 Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
3 STUDENT LEARNING OBJECTIVES How do competing on a global scale and promoting quality enhance competitive advantage? Evaluate the role of business process management (BPM) in enhancing competitiveness. 3.3 Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
4 Verizon or AT&T: Which Company Has the Best Digital Strategy? Problem Intense competition, difficult strategic decisions. Solutions Verizon heavily promotes its FiOS service whereas AT&T partners with smartphone developers like Apple to strengthen its wireless business. 3.4 Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
5 Verizon or AT&T: Which Company Has the Best Digital Strategy? Cutting-edge technologies like the iphone and fiberoptic networks offer Verizon and AT&T opportunities to gain an edge. Illustrates digital technology s role in gaining and maintaining a competitive advantage And what about substitute providers like cable companies and Wi-Max (wide area Wi-Fi)? 3.5 Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
6 Verizon or AT&T: Which Company Has the Best Digital Strategy? 3.6 Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
7 Porter s Competitive Forces Model One way to understand competitive advantage Five competitive forces shape fate of firm 1. Traditional competitors Competitors in market space continuously devise new products, new efficiencies, switching costs. 2. New market entrants Some industries have low barriers to entry: E.g., food industry versus microchip industry Newer companies may have advantages: Newer equipment, younger workforce, and so on. 3.7 Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
8 3. Substitute products and services Substitutes customers can purchase if your prices too high. E.g., Internet music service versus CDs. 4. Customers Can customers easily switch to competitor s products? Can customers force firm and competitors to compete on price alone (transparent marketplace). 5. Suppliers Porter s Competitive Forces Model The more suppliers a firm has, the greater control it can exercise over suppliers. 3.8 Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
9 In Porter s competitive forces model, the strategic position of the firm and its strategies are determined not only by competition with its traditional direct competitors but also by four forces in the industry s environment: new market entrants, substitute products, customers, and suppliers. Porter s Competitive Forces Model Figure Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
10 Information System Strategies for Dealing with Competitive Forces Basic strategy: Align IT with business objectives 75 percent of businesses fail to align their IT with their business objectives, leading to lower profitability. To align IT: Identify business goals and strategies. Break strategic goals into concrete activities and processes. Identify metrics for measuring progress. Determine how IT can help achieve business goals. Measure actual performance Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
11 Information System Strategies for Dealing with Competitive Forces Low-cost leadership Use information systems to achieve the lowest operational costs and the lowest prices. E.g. Wal-Mart Inventory replenishment system sends orders to suppliers when purchase recorded at cash register. Minimizes inventory at warehouses, operating costs. Efficient customer response system Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
12 Supermarkets and large retail stores such as Wal- Mart use sales data captured at the checkout counter to determine which items have sold and need to be reordered. Wal-Mart s continuous replenishment system transmits orders to restock directly to its suppliers. The system enables Wal-Mart to keep costs low while fine-tuning its merchandise to meet customer demands Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
13 Information System Strategies for Dealing with Competitive Forces Product differentiation Use information systems to enable new products and services, or greatly change the customer convenience in using your existing products and services. E.g., Google s continuous innovations, Apple s iphone. Use information systems to customize, personalize products to fit specifications of individual consumers. Dell Mass customization at Lands End 3.13 Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
14 Information System Strategies for Dealing with Competitive Forces Focus on market niche. Use information systems to enable specific market focus, and serve narrow target market better than competitors. Analyzes customer buying habits, preferences Advertising pitches to smaller and smaller target markets E.g., Hilton Hotel s OnQ System Analyzes data collected on guests to determine preferences and guest s profitability 3.14 Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
15 Information System Strategies for Dealing with Competitive Forces Strengthen customer and supplier intimacy. Strong linkages to customers and suppliers increase switching costs and loyalty Toyota: uses IS to facilitate direct access from suppliers to production schedules Permits suppliers to decide how and when to ship suppliers to Chrysler factories, allowing more lead time in producing goods. Amazon: keeps track of user preferences for purchases, and recommends titles purchased by others 3.15 Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
16 Information System Strategies for Dealing with Competitive Forces Some companies pursue several strategies at same time. Dell emphasizes low cost plus customization of products. Successfully using IS to achieve competitive advantage requires precise coordination of technology, organizations, and people Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
17 The Internet s Impact on Competitive Advantage Enables new products and services Transforms industries Increases bargaining power of customers and suppliers Intensifies competitive rivalry Creates new opportunities for building brands and large customer bases 3.17 Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
18 The Internet s Impact on Competitive Advantage Existing competitors: widens market, increasing competitors, reducing differences, pressure to compete on price New entrants: reduces barriers to entry (e.g., need for sales force declines), provides technology for driving business processes Substitute products and services: facilitates creation of new products and services Customers bargaining power: bargaining power shifts to customer Suppliers bargaining power: procurement over Internet raises power over suppliers, suppliers can benefit from reduced barriers to entry and elimination of intermediaries 3.18 Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
19 The Business Value Chain Model Highlights specific activities in a business where competitive strategies can best be applied and where information systems are likely to have a strategic impact. Primary activities Support activities Benchmarking Best practices 3.19 Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
20 This figure provides examples of systems for both primary and support activities of a firm and of its value partners that would add a margin of value to a firm s products or services. The Value Chain Model Figure Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
21 Extending the Value Chain: The Value Web A firm s value chain is linked to the value chains of its suppliers, distributors, and customers. A value web is a collection of independent firms that use information technology to coordinate their value chains to produce a product collectively. Value webs are flexible and adapt to changes in supply and demand Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
22 The Value Web The value web is a networked system that can synchronize the value chains of business partners within an industry to respond rapidly to changes in supply and demand. Figure Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
23 Synergies, Core Competencies, and Network-Based Strategies Synergies: When output of some units can be used as inputs to other units When two firms can pool markets and expertise (e.g., recent bank mergers) Lower costs and generate profits Enabled by information systems that ties together disparate units so they act as whole 3.23 Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
24 Synergies, Core Competencies, and Network-Based Strategies Core competency: Activities for which firm is world-class leader. E.g., world s best miniature parts designer, best package delivery service. Relies on knowledge that is gained over many years of experience as well as knowledge research. Any information system that encourages the sharing of knowledge across business units enhances competency. E.g., Procter & Gamble uses intranet to help people working on similar problems share ideas and expertise Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
25 Synergies, Core Competencies, and Network-Based Strategies Network-based strategies: Network economics: Marginal costs of adding another participant are near zero, whereas marginal gain is much larger E.g., larger number of participants in Internet, greater value to all participants Virtual company: Uses networks to link people, resources, and ally with other companies to create and distribute products without traditional organizational boundaries or physical locations 3.25 Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
26 Disruptive Technologies: Riding the Wave Disruptive technologies: Technologies with disruptive impact on industries and businesses, rendering existing products, services and business models obsolete: Personal computers World Wide Web Internet music services First movers versus fast followers First movers of disruptive technologies may fail to see potential, allowing second movers to reap rewards (fast followers) 3.26 Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
27 Prior to the Internet, competing globally was only an option for huge firms able to afford factories, warehouses, and distribution centers abroad. The Internet drastically reduces costs of operating globally. Globalization benefits: The Internet and Globalization Scale economies and resource cost reduction Higher utilization rates, fixed capital costs, and lower cost per unit of production Speeding time to market Competing on a Global Scale 3.27 Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
28 Competing on a Global Scale An HP Laptop s Path to Market Figure 3-4 Hewlett-Packard and other electronics companies assign distribution and production of their products to a number of different countries Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
29 Competing on a Global Scale Global Business and System Strategies Domestic exporters Heavy centralization of corporate activities in home country Multinationals Concentrates financial management at central home base while decentralizing production, sales, and marketing to other countries Franchisers Product created, designed, financed, and initially produced in home country but rely on foreign units for further production, marketing, and human resources Transnationals Regional (not national) headquarters and perhaps world headquarters; optimizing resources as needed 3.29 Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
30 Competing on a Global Scale Centralized systems: Global System Configurations All development and operation at domestic home base Duplicated systems: Development at home base but operations managed by autonomous units in foreign locations Decentralized systems: Each foreign unit designs own solutions and systems Networked systems: Development and operations occur in integrated and coordinated fashion across all units 3.30 Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
31 Competing on a Global Scale Global Business Organization Systems Configurations The large Xs show the dominant patterns, and the small Xs show the emerging patterns. For instance, domestic exporters rely predominantly on centralized systems, but there is continual pressure and some development of decentralized systems in local marketing regions. Figure Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
32 Competing on Quality and Design What Is Quality? Producer perspective: Conformance to specifications and absence of variation from specs Customer perspective: Physical quality (reliability), quality of service, psychological quality Total quality management (TQM): Quality control is end in itself All people, functions responsible for quality Six sigma: Measure of quality: 3.4 defects/million opportunities 3.32 Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
33 Reduce cycle time and simplify production process. Benchmarking Competing on Quality and Design How Information Systems Improve Quality Use customer demands to improve products and services. Improve design quality and precision. Computer-aided design (CAD) systems Improve production precision and tighten production tolerances Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
34 Competing on Quality and Design Computer-aided design (CAD) systems improve the quality and precision of product design by performing much of the design and testing work on the computer Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
35 Competing on Business Processes Businesses are collections of business processes ways of working and getting things done. See Chapter 1. Some times they are written in manuals, but in many cases business processes are informal. In order to use information systems effectively, you need to change business processes. Before you can change processes, you need to change people s attitudes and behaviors, and even the organization itself Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
36 Business process management = continuous improvement Identify processes for change. Analyze existing processes. Design new process. Implement new process. Measure new process. Competing on Business Processes 3.36 Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
37 Competing on Business Processes Figure Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
38 Competing on Business Processes Figure Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
39 Competing on Business Processes Business Process Reengineering A radical form of fast change Not continuous improvement, but elimination of old processes, replacement with new processes, in a brief time period Can produce dramatic gains in productivity, but increases organizational resistance to change 3.39 Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
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