Assessment of Informal Apprenticeship in Palestine

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1 Assessment of Informal Apprenticeship in Palestine Enhancing Capacity for Institution Building (ECIB) Programme in consultation with MOL, MOEHE and ILO Ref: BTC PZA Conducted By: OPTIMUM for Consultancy and Training Study Report Prepared By: Engineer Randa Hilal Supported by: Omar Qassis, Shadan Nassar, Moh d Tull, Jamal Fadi, Laith Kassis and Fawaz Aalami 11/29/2016

2 OPTIMUM Consultants and Facilitators 1. Team Leader: Randa Hilal, TVET and Labour Market Expert 2. OPTIMUM Facilitators: Moh d Tull, Omar Qassis, Shadan Nassar and Jamal Fadi 3. External Facilitators: Laith Kassis, Fawaz Alami 4. Support: Data Entry and support: Shorouq Mimi Resource: Bassam Salah Date of the Research: March 2016 to June 2016 Note This Assessment Report was produced within the framework of The Enhancing Capacities for Institution Building (ECIB) programme. It is funded by the Belgian Government and is implemented through cooperation between the Belgian Development Agency (BTC) and the Palestinian Ministry of Education and Higher Education (MoEHE) and the Ministry of Labour (MoL). The Programme benefited from ILO technical support for this research component. The Opinions expressed in this report are those of the authors. Acknowledgment: We the Consultancy Team would like to express our gratitude for all those who contributed to the success of this study; we hereby would like to thank all economic establishments that have contributed with their time to fill out the survey and the different interviewed market and profession representatives and key informants, as well as different stakeholders participated in the study. WE would also like to thank the official representatives from the MOL and MOEHE for contributing their time for the study through interview and attending workshop, we would like to extend our thanks for the ECIB and ILO for their assistance and support during the mission. I

3 Table of Contents Abbreviations:... V Glossary... VI The Executive Summary... VIII Part 1: Introduction, Background Information and Methodology Introduction and Objective of the Research Background: The Palestinian Context and the TVET system The Palestine Context The TVET System Methodology and methods used Desk Review Selection of trades and Sample Methods Used and Participants in the research Tools used Collecting the Primary Data Challenges and limitations Data Validation and Analysis Part 2.1: Preliminary Findings of Informal Apprenticeship within Different Sectors Informal Apprenticeship in Different Sectors The Industrial Sector The Agricultural Sector The Construction Sector The Information and Communications Technology (ICT) Sector The Tourism Sector Overall Part 2.2: Main Findings of Informal Apprenticeship within Selected Sub-Sectors- Auto-Mechanics and Sewing Characteristics of Participated Businesses and Workers Characteristics of the Participated Businesses Characteristics of Participating Workers Forming Apprenticeship Recruitment Reasons for Apprentice Joining, Training Contract Progression of Learning II

4 7 Decent work aspects Work Conditions: Wages and working hours Working environment and Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Social security and protection Training outcome Quality of training Training outcomes Skills recognition Skills development Financing and linking to TVET Part 3: Conclusions and Recommendations Conclusions and Recommendations Conclusions Policy Recommendations List of Resources. 63 List of Annexes Annex 1. List of People participated in interviews and Focus groups Annex 2. Questionnaires used in the Survey and Validation Annex 3. Detailed tables of the survey Annex 4. OSH table of findings List of Tables, Figures and Boxes List of Tables Table 2-1: Work-Based Learning Characteristics and those existing in Palestine... 4 Table 3-1: The sample distribution of enterprises according to selected trades and targeted geographic location... 6 Table 3-2: People Participated in the research and Methods Used... 7 Table 3-3: Surveyed Auto-Mechanics Workshops... 9 Table 3-4: Surveyed Sewing Businesses Table 3-5: People interviewed and participated in Focus Group Discussion Table 5-1: Min, Max, Mean, and Median of age of Respondent by type of worker Table 5-2: Distribution of workers according to highest educational level attained and type of worker Table 6-1: Criteria for selection of the apprentice by mentor or owner total and according to trade and geographic location Table 6-2: Apprentices reasons for joining informal apprenticeship Table 6-3: Elements included in the agreement Table 6-4: Duration of the trial period for the apprentice according to trade and geographic location in days Table 6-5: Mentors/Owners ways of determining the end of apprenticeship Table 6-6: Bases for selection and recruitment of skilled workers as stated by mentors: III

5 Table 7-1: Min, Max, Average and Median of weekly Wages, Pocket Money and tips received by the apprentice for all apprentices and according to trade Table 7-2: Min, Max, Average and Median of expected monthly earnings after concluding the apprenticeship as stated by apprentice and mentor/owner Table 7-3: Number of working hours per day and the number of working days per week (Min, Max, Average and Median) for the total apprentices and according to trade Table 8-1: Degree of the skills that the informal apprenticeship trainee obtains and time to obtain it (Auto- Mechanics) Table 8-2: Degree of the skills that the informal apprenticeship trainee obtains and time to obtain it (Sewing) Table 8-3: Skills to be upgraded by Skilled Worker and Mentor and those suggested for Apprentices by the Mentors Table 8-4: Ways of acquiring new knowledge and skills List of Figures Figure 5-1: Distribution of companies that provides apprenticeship according to size of company (number of workers) in comparison with national figures Figure 5-2: Distribution of business according to registration obtained Figure 5-3: Percentages of registered companies that provide apprenticeship according to geographic location Figure 5-4: Type of cooperation of companies with other companies according to trade Figure 5-5: Distribution of workers according to gender and worker type in sewing sector Figure 5-6: Distribution of apprentices according to gender and geographic location Figure 5-7: Reasons for lack of disabled apprentices Figure 5-8: Distribution of workers according to place of birth and worker type Figure 5-9: Source of mentor skills for the trade in addition and other than the informal apprenticeship Figure 6-1: Mentors/Owners responses to recruitment based on the question: are you receiving many applicants? Figure 6-2: Duration of the informal apprenticeship according to trade in months Figure 7-1: Apprentices and Skilled Workers awareness of their rights Figure 7-2: Days-off /Holidays enjoyed by the apprentice Figure 7-3 Distribution of Workshops/ companies according to compliance with OSH (Percentages) Figure 7-4: Coverage of medication for work injury or in case of illness Figure 7-5: Payment of wage/pocket money in case of illness or work injury Figure 7-6: Actions taken by Mentor/Owner if apprentice misbehaves- As noted by Mentors/owners Figure 8-1: Distribution of Mentors by Skills taught to apprenticeship Figure 8-2: Apprentice status after finishing their apprenticeship Figure 8-3: Reasons for not attending skills development training by Skilled Worker and Mentor Figure 10-1: Challenges and deficits facing the informal apprenticeship in Palestine Figure 10-2: Building blocks towards formalizing company-based apprenticeship Figure 10-3: Proposed Step-By-Step Approach for Formalising Informal Apprenticeship List of Boxes: Box 4-1: Summary of preliminary assessment of existence of Informal Apprenticeship within the different economic sectors (Agriculture, Industrial, Construction, ICT, Tourism ): Box 9-1: AM in Ramallah Preferences are to School-Based Apprenticeship or Internships IV

6 Abbreviations: AM: ALO: AOC: BTC: CCI: Cedefop: CERP: ECIB: EJ: EFE: ES: ETF: EU: FGD: GIZ: GMR: ILO: ILS: ISS: KTC: LFPR: LM: LMS: LWF: MoEHE: MoL: MSME: NCWE: NGO: NGO-VET League: NQF: OCHA: opt: OSH: PCBS: PFCCIA: PFI: PITA: POC: SME: SPSS: TVET: UN: UNDP: UNESCO: UNICEF: UNRWA: USAID: VET: VSS: VTC: WBL: YMCA: Auto-Mechanics Arab Labour Organization Arab Occupational Classification Belgium Development Agency Chambers of Commerce and Industry European Center for Development of Vocational Training Centre for Economic Policy Research Enhancing Capacities for Institution Building Programme East Jerusalem Education for Employment Evangelical Training Centre/School European Training Foundation European Union Focus Group Discussion Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit Global Monitoring Report International Labour Organization Israeli Shekel Industrial Secondary School Kalandia Training Centre Labour Force Participation Rate Labour Market Labour Market Survey Lutheran World Federation Ministry of Education & Higher Education Ministry of Labour Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises National Committee for Women Employment Non-Governmental Organizations League of Vocational Education and Training Institutes National Qualification Framework Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs in opt occupied Palestinian territory Occupational Safety and Health Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics Palestinian Federation and Chambers of Commerce, Industry and Agriculture Palestinian Federation of Industry Palestinian IT Association Palestinian Occupational Classification Small and Medium Enterprises Statistical Package for Social Sciences Technical and Vocational Education and Training United Nations United Nations Development Program United Nations, Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization The United Nations Children's Fund The United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East United States Agency for International Development Vocational Education and Training Vocational Secondary School Vocational Training Centre Work Based Learning Young Men Christian Association V

7 Glossary 1. Glossary from ILO Resource Guide for Informal Apprenticeship: (ILO 2012) Informal apprenticeship: Informal apprenticeship refers to the system by which a young learner (the apprentice) acquires the skills for a trade or craft in a micro- or small enterprise learning and working side by side with an experienced craftsperson. Apprentice and master craftsperson conclude a training agreement that is embedded in local norms and traditions of a society. Costs of training are shared between apprentice and master craftsperson. Formal apprenticeship: Formal apprenticeship refers to a system by which a learner (the apprentice) acquires the skills for a trade or craft in an enterprise learning and working side by side with an experienced craftsperson, usually complemented by classroom-based instruction. Apprentice, master craftsperson/employer and the training provider conclude a training agreement that is regulated by formal laws and acts. Costs of training are shared between apprentice, master craftsperson/ employer and the government. Formal training: Instruction given in education and training institutions or specially designed training areas, including enterprises in formal apprenticeship systems. Training is structured and systematic, and follows pre- defined content and precise learning objectives. National training system: All forms of skills development relevant for the world of work provided in schools, training centers or enterprises that are recognized by governmental authorities or by bodies authorized by the government to do so. Training delivered within the national training system has access to government funding or other training resources provided by the government. Trade: An occupation in which people gain skills Workplace learning / on-the job training: Learning or training undertaken in the workplace, usually on the job or on-site 2. Glossary from the Palestinian Bureau of Statistics (PCBS) Labour Force Survey 2015 (PCBS 2016) Labor Force: All persons aged 15 years and above who are either employed or unemployed. Employment status: Employer: A person who work in an establishment that is totally or partially belonging to him/ her and hires or supervises the work of one or more wage employees. This includes persons operating their projects or contacting companies provided they employ a minimum of one wage employee. Shareholders are not considered employers even if they are working in it. Self-employed: A person who works in an establishment that is totally or partially belonging to him/ her (partner) and does not hires any wage employees. This includes self-employed who work to own selves outside establishments. Paid-employed (wage employee): A person who works for a public or private employer or under its supervision and receives remuneration in wage salary, commission, tips, piece rates or in kind etc. This item includes persons employed in governmental, non governmental and private institutions along with those employed in a household enterprise in return for a specific remuneration. VI

8 Unpaid family member: A person who works without pay in an economic enterprise operated by a related person living in the same household. 3. Glossary from the ECIB- inception study (ECIB 2015) Work-Based Learning (WBL): is acquisition of knowledge and skills through carrying out and reflecting on tasks in a working context. It is career awareness and exploration, work experience, structured training, and/or mentoring at the work site. There are Work-Based Learning activities appropriate for every grade level to support students in developing career awareness, exploring career options, developing appropriate workplace skills, and relating academic skills to real-world applications. (Cedefop, 2011) WBL Implemented by TVET: Traineeships are a work practice including an educational component which is limited in time (a few weeks up to 6 months). The purpose of these traineeships is to help the trainee s school to work transition by providing the practical experience, knowledge and skills that complete his/her theoretical education (ETF, 2012) Internships constitute a form of learning in a real work situation which can either be part of a formal education programme or be done voluntarily outside formal education, with the aim of acquiring competencies through executing real work tasks whilst being financially compensated and having access to according social protection (ETF, 2012) First job experience practice is a period of temporary student employment, within a framework of learning objectives, in which the student takes control of the learning experiences and improves the chance of a becoming permanently employed. (ILO, 2011) School based Apprenticeships are a systematic, long-term training for a technical occupation with alternating periods in the workplace and in an educational institution or training centre, where the employer assumes responsibility for providing the training leading to a specific occupation. Company Based Apprenticeship: is the formal apprenticeship detailed above (ILO 2012) 4. Additional relevant Glossary of terms used in the study Informal firms: (PCBS 2008 cited in MAS 2014) Informal firms are defined as those with no tax registration and (part of) whose production/services is sold in the market Decent Work: Decent work sums up the aspirations of people in their working lives. It involves opportunities for work that is productive and delivers a fair income, security in the workplace and social protection for families, better prospects for personal development and social integration, freedom for people to express their concerns, organize and participate in the decisions that affect their lives and equality of opportunity and treatment for all women and men. (ILO 1996) VII

9 Executive Summary This research on Informal Apprenticeship has been conducted in the framework of the Enhancing Capacities for Institution Building (ECIB) Programme of the Belgian Development Cooperation and the Decent Work Country Programme of the International Labour Organisation, both focusing on improving work-based learning (WBL) practices in the Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) programmes in Palestine. The objective of the research is (a) to provide a detailed knowledge base on informal apprenticeship practices in Palestine and (b) to identify opportunities for a potential framework for upgrading this informal apprenticeship. The programme benefited from ILO technical experience and of its methodologies already validated in various countries through numerous research. The research methodology combined qualitative and quantitative methods, and included as respondents the apprentice, the mentor, the owner and other skilled workers, on the establishment level. Methods also engaged labour market and TVET representatives, as well as professional unions and key informants. The research reviewed various sectors but focused mainly on Auto-Mechanics (AM) and Sewing occupations. The selected sectors were based on set criteria and engaged representatives. The sample selection was distributed over the five governorates of Nablus, Ramallah, Jerusalem, Hebron and Gaza. Methods included questionnaires, in-depth interviews and focus group discussion, as well as observation of the Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) compliance within the enterprises. Main Findings: Most of AM businesses that are training apprentices are small businesses. Most of the sewing businesses that are training apprentices are medium and large sized ones. Little more than a third of surveyed businesses were registered (38%), except in Jerusalem and Ramallah (more than 50%). (60%) of businesses were cooperating with other businesses, yet only (8%) cooperated in relation to informal apprenticeship, and some businesses especially those in sewing sector were challenged by fierce competition. Most of the apprentices were young with an average age of 21 (36 years old for women and 20 for men). This difference is linked with the reproductive role of females at younger ages and expected societal attitude towards her responsibility in housework and care. Women apprentices do not exist in AM, while they were only one in four in Sewing. Gaza has shifted their employment to mostly males in the sewing industry through the last period; due to various reasons including the dire unemployment, which assumes the first jobs go to men. In addition to the different working hours, sometimes extended or night shifts, to adjust to daily electricity cuts and receiving of material through a tight siege, is not acceptable for women by the families and the society. Around one in eight of the trained apprentices were persons with disabilities (PWD) most of whom trained in sewing. At the same time, business owners not hiring persons with disabilities, perceived them as not fit for the job, and requiring unavailable safety measures. VIII

10 Most apprentices were coming from big families with income below the poverty line, as (77%) had 6 members or above, and (89%) had income below poverty line, confirming the fact that informal apprenticeship is the skills training of last resort for vulnerable families. Most of the apprentices have completed 9th to 12th grade (Junior Secondary to Higher Secondary), and (91.4%) of the apprentices did not do any formal or non-formal training before the informal apprenticeship. Most mentors/owners required a minimum level of basic education. More than half of the mentors/owners of sewing will accept all those approaching them for an apprenticeship, while over half of the AM will be selective. Sewing shop owners mentioned the decline in number of apprentices in the trade. Recommendation from a friend or relative, talent for the profession and trustworthiness were the highest agreed criteria for the selection of an apprentice as expressed by all mentors/owners, followed by maturity, kinship and neighbourhood relation. The best age for apprenticeship as indicated by mentor/owner was 19 and below (90%), while one in three indicated the best age as 16 and below. The youngest preferred age for male was and for females. The main reasons for apprentices to join the scheme were: to learn the skills of the trade and to earn some money now. These reasons were the main factors regardless of age, gender and locality, although it differed among these variables. The third reason was because of dropping out of school, especially among the (15-18) and (19-24) age groups. I didn t know what else to do, was a common answer among male and apprentices from refugee camps, indicating the minimum opportunities available for these groups. Only (60%) of the apprentices confirmed having an agreement with the mentor/owner, out of whom only 2.8% had a written agreement while the remaining had an oral agreement. An oral agreement is binding according to Palestinian Labour Law1. The remaining (40%) apprentices who did not conclude an agreement are mostly at a young age, in most cases agreements are concluded with parent, as (92%) of mentors/owners confirmed having an agreement. Almost half of mentors/owners and apprentices of those who had agreements mentioned that the agreement included wage, working hours and holidays, coverage of work accidents, food and transportation. According to owners/mentors, the duration of the informal apprenticeship varies from 1 to 36 months for sewing (with an average of 12 months), and between 6 months and 60 months (with an average of 30 months) for auto-mechanic. Only one in three of mentors and owners say they agree upfront on the period for training; others stated that they would know when the apprentice has learnt the trade (skills test) (74%). More than half of the apprentices (57%) do not know how their apprenticeship will be concluded, while one in three mentioned that the mentor will decide. An average of one apprentice per enterprise has left before concluding (dropped out of the training) during the last 5 years. 1 Palestinian Authority Palestinian Labour Law: Law 7 of the Year Ramallah. IX

11 Most enterprises have a trial period (88%) ranging from seven days to seven months, with an average of a little less than two months (59 days). The studied 60 enterprises trained a total of 309 apprentices during the last two years. An average of five apprentices per enterprise had concluded their training during the last two years. This number was trade specific and enterprise size specific. It was higher for sewing (an average of 7 compared to an average of 3 AM), and for bigger companies (12-19 compared to 5 in medium companies and 3 in small ones). Only half of the apprentices but most of the skilled workers are aware of their rights regarding wages, working hours and a little less on vacations. Around one in three of the skilled workers are aware of work injuries while (9%) or less is aware of health insurance and social protection. The observation of the OSH noted that most were in compliance with regard to the workplace environment, electrical installations, machinery and tools as well as first aid and sanitation, yet other safety measures such as accidents records, fire protection, emergency exits requires improvements. The MoL reports indicated over 500 cases of work accidents annually, some fatal, especially in the construction sector. Specific regulations for each profession don t exist, although general regulations are available. Most apprentices mentioned that the master craftsperson made him/her aware of work-related risks. However, 13% had work-related accidents at the work place. All cases were provided with medical support either on the premises or in hospital. Most mentors mentioned that in the case of work injury they would cover the cost (76.5%), (15.7%) mentioned that it will be covered by the insurance and (7.8%) mentioned it will be covered by the apprentice or their parents. In case the apprentice stayed at home due to work injury, most owners/mentors would pay him/her wage/pocket money, or the insurance will pay, others would say depending on his/her or parents economic conditions. This is opposite to paying wage/pocket money when apprentice is absent due to illness. Treatment of misbehaviour varied from providing guidance to abusive measures. This is linked with the relation to the owner. The former treatment was for family acquaintance or neighbour, the later treatment was received from the father or uncle, the two treatments were presented as follows: o o Providing Guidance: Almost one in two of the respondent mentors/owners would treat misbehaviour from the apprentice gradually, through guiding, warning then dismissal (in accordance with the Labour Law). Some mentors would just guide apprentices and others would contact the parent. Confirming the above; most of the apprentices responded that the mentor will guide them and correct them. Mistreatment: Some would dismiss immediately and others would deal differently either with anger using verbal or by physical abuse, according to case. In confirmation with this; some apprentices mentioned being subjected to physical abuse. Only (15.7%) of the mentors mentioned that they have a prior prepared written or unwritten training plan (3.8% for AM and 28% for Sewing). Most who prepare the plans would do so based on their experiences, only one mentioned he would use formal resources. X

12 All mentors stated they focus on technical skills; most mentioned safe handling of tools and equipment. Around half mentors would provide apprentices with theoretical background and with purchasing of materials skills as well. The adopted Arab Occupational Qualification (AOC) was used as a reference in evaluating the quality of skills gained. By listing skills taught and degree of proficiency. Results had indicated variation based on jobs available within the work place, for example; skills gained in sewing trade were of basic nature reflecting the decline in the sub-sector towards sub-contracted jobs requiring limited skills. Such finding confirms that quality of training needs improvement. Most of the mentors/owners mentioned that they have the needed equipment to conduct the training. Only one out of fourteen of the mentors (7%) stated that they would send the apprentices to other places to get the skills they can t train in their own enterprise. This percentage increased to (10%) in sewing versus (3%) in AM. The vast majority of the mentors (92%) have acquired skills through informal apprenticeship, and most of the mentors did not take any further training. Only 10% apprentices will get a certificate after the training ends by the mentor. (14% for AM and 7% for sewing), none in Nablus or Hebron. Several apprentices requested official certifications and professions unions (sewing and auto-mechanics) have suggested having a role in setting the standards for quality assurance and certification. One in two mentors suggested technical skills of the apprentices would need to be upgraded and (30%) mentioned skills related to maintenance of machinery. These skills were higher in AM. Moreover; (25%) and (28%) of mentors and skilled workers respectively would like to participate in future skills development trainings, mainly in technical skills. The outcome of the training was high as one in five apprentices was able to start their own business, two out of three of whom within their field of training (Sewing or AM). The figure is considered high in comparison with the national figures of (6.2%) owners or employers according to PCBS 2. In addition to the above; two out of three of the apprentices are employed. Only (1%) was recorded unemployed, the rest are either working in the taught trade or other trade. These figures indicate the ability of the informal apprenticeship system to facilitate transition from the world of learning to the world of work. It is significant when comparing with the 40% official unemployment3 among youth in Palestine during the past decade. The survey has indicated that the private sector are investing in informal apprenticeship, carrying all its costs on their shoulders. Families and apprentices do not contribute financially apart from opportunity costs. It was also evident that the collaboration and coordination of the private sector with TVET is lacking. Private sector representatives and professional unions have requested the systematic coordination 2 PCBS Labour Force Survey: Annual Report: PCBS, Ramallah- Palestine. 3 ibid XI

13 and cooperation on an equal basis, as well as the share of the government in the cost of training through the reduction of taxes for each institute that is training apprentices. The formalisation process is challenged by the huge informal sector and the limited ability of the MOL to conduct the required inspections for any agreed regulations, due to limited financial resources of the PA. Moreover; providing the theoretical training nationally would require national agreements with TVET service providers and available resources to increase its capacity, as well as structural arrangements to facilitate the dual training. The AM workshops in Ramallah has swapped the informal apprenticeship they used to practice with a formal apprenticeship system because of the availability of apprenticeship courses with the Lutheran World Federation Vocational Training Centre (LWF-VTCs) and the UNRWA Kalandia Vocational Training Centre (KTC). Workshop owners were content with the system as it provided them with apprentices through formal methods and covered in all legal aspects. Conclusion The study has found that informal apprenticeship exists and is wide spread in most of the regions; especially in areas away from the centre, it provides opportunities for youth and businesses. Nevertheless; informal apprenticeship faces various deficits, some are variant according to location and trade. Deficits were mainly related to quality of training and decent work related issues. Deficits included limited opportunities to theoretical understanding in their field; the lack of recognition of the skills gained by the apprentices; quality of the training. Deficits in decent work agenda were mainly in work conditions, OSH; low allowances or wages; limited social protection in case of illness or accident; and strong gender imbalances, as well as limited opportunities for skills upgrading. Formal school-based apprenticeship is provided by various TVET institutes, while the WBL initiatives supported by the ECIB provide the required spread for these initiatives to provide an alternative for the system. Yet setting the bases for formalising the company based apprenticeship should be done. Formalisation of the apprenticeship is challenged by the Context, the deficits within the systems, the PA s limited resources, the huge informal business sector and the challenges the Palestinian economy is facing in general. Formalizing informal apprenticeship would require national level intervention at a later stage. Nevertheless; setting the regulations and standards followed and supervised by governmental and private sector bodies would be first step towards formalisation. Recommendations: Recommendations on formalising the system: linking informal apprenticeship to TVET through building blocks could contribute towards formalizing the system, building on existing traditions and practices and utilizing the implemented pilots and experiences would be a valid approach for the Palestinian case. XII

14 Recommended building blocks are: Block 1: Spreading the school based apprenticeship model and other long-term WBL schemes Block 2: Develop certification and skills recognition, without prior recognition of the training venues or the economic establishments could contribute to the effort of formalization of the system on the national level Block 3: Provide upgrading training for workers and link it to testing and certification Block 4: Regulate apprenticeship through an adequate legal framework Block 5: Link the testing and certification to other developed or underway national efforts (NQF, POC, LMIS) and with Labour offices Block 6: Sharing funding of apprenticeship, through providing incentive for employers for training youth at their establishment, this could also be linked to improving OSH at the establishments. Hence taking a step-by step approach, focusing on skills recognition, testing and certification and linking with other related TVET initiatives could lead to future integration of apprenticeship within the national system of training. XIII

15 Part 1: Introduction, Background Information and Methodology 1 Introduction and Objective of the Research Informal apprenticeship has been practiced traditionally throughout time in many countries including Palestine. Limited data and information are available on this sort of training system. The informal apprenticeship provides the opportunity for learning of youth and their transition to the world of work, such outcome is important with the specificity of Palestine, were unemployment among youth reached around 40% during the last decade and is among the highest in the world, and women participation in the labour force, and in specifically young women, is among the lowest in the world. Informal apprenticeship refers to a system where a young learner (the apprentice) acquires the skills for a trade or craft in a micro- or small enterprise learning and working side-by-side with an experienced craftsperson. Apprentice and master craftsperson conclude some sort of a training agreement that is embedded in local norms and traditions of a society. Costs of training are shared between apprentice and master craftsperson (ILO 2012: Glossary). 4 Informal apprenticeship systems have the potential to meet the needs and expectations of considerable numbers of youth, but such system has serious weaknesses that limit its ability to deliver good quality training. ILO pilot projects in Africa have demonstrated that well-designed approaches can overcome weaknesses in the system step by step and can also reverse the situation so that informal apprenticeship can become a positive and constructive intervention. Within same regard; The ILO provided technical support to upgrade informal apprenticeships in Jordan through a project on Tripartite Action for Youth Employment in Jordan implemented within the framework of the ILO Decent Work Country Programme for Jordan. Improving linkages to the formal TVET system may offer one means of making improvements in terms of quality of training; skills acquired; employability; certification of acquired skills/competency level; young women s access to non-traditional occupations. For the success of such provisions it should be built on existing apprenticeship practices in the informal economy. Hence; the Objective of the research is to provide (a) a detailed knowledge base on informal apprenticeship practices in Palestine and (b) to identify opportunities for potential framework for upgrading. 4 The informal apprenticeship includes the traditional apprenticeship, in which Traditional apprentices, are children of the master craftsperson therefore have a double role: They can be considered both apprentice and family helper (ILO 2012:11-12) 1

16 2 Background: The Palestinian Context and the TVET system 2.1 The Palestine Context The Palestinian context with high mobility restriction and off hand of many areas and zones of the Palestinian territories, impede development, restricts the lives of the Palestinians to certain zones and affect the socio-economic status of the Palestinians. Currently the West-Bank, Gaza and East Jerusalem are separated from each other by system of mobility restrictions and siege enforced on Gaza (for further info visit the UNOCHA website: It was noted by various international reports of the World Bank and the ILO, that the occupation has a deep effect on the economy, private sector development and workers rights (World Bank 2015; 2016, ILO 2015): The economy of the Palestinian territories is unsustainable under the current paradigm. Due to long lasting restrictions on movement, access and trade, private sector activity has been severely constrained and private investment levels are amongst the lowest in the world (World Bank 2015:3). The World Bank of 2016 report has indicated that one third of the businesses are challenged by instability, and that the businesses in Gaza are affected by the acute electricity problem. They added the low participation of women within the private sector among other challenges such as access to finance. The current status has its effects on the decline of the GDP but also on the high level of unemployment specifically among youth reaching over 36% among male and over 60% among females for the last decade. And low participation rates among youth reaching (32.7%) in 2015 and in specifically female youth reaching as low as 11% only (PCBS 2015). Poverty rates are high; were almost one in four Palestinians are living in poverty; rates were higher in Gaza reaching 2.5 times that of the West Bank (PCBS 2014). Studies have indicated that over half of the businesses are within the Informal sector. PCBS has also indicated that 65.8% of the labour force is informal workers, more than half of self-employed and business owner are part of the informal labour force (PCBS 2008). There has been a decline over years in the production sectors and increase in the services sectors. The Palestinian economic structure is badly hit and deformed by the occupation measures, as agriculture and industry contribution to GDP dropped by half over the years 1975 to 2014, and the contribution to employment dropped from 47% to 23% (UNCTAD 2016). The GDP contribution is mainly driven by consumption, services and donors support. Production sectors were affected by the occupation measures of control over land and water resources, and control over borders and export/import activities. Currently most of the establishments and workers are 2

17 concentrated in services and commerce sectors, with over half of the working force and the establishments are in services and commerce (PCBS 2015, 2012) Within such a context; the issue of transitioning from education to the market is of utmost importance. Such status has led the ILO to recommend: More than 70 per cent of Palestinians are under 30 years of age and, in the context of occupation and economic stagnation, face extreme difficulties in transitioning from education to the labour market ( ) There is a clear and urgent need for direct job creation and training programmes (ILO 2015:12). 2.2 The TVET System TVET in Palestine is provided by various stakeholders including Governmental (through Ministry of Education and Higher Education, Ministry of Labour and Ministry of Social Affairs), Non-Governmental (NGO-VET League members and others), by UN (the UNRWA) and privately provided. The TVET system is supervised by the Ministry of Education and Higher Education and Ministry of Labour, recently the Higher Council of TVET was activated. TVET reviewed strategy in 2010 has called for quality and relevance of TVET and indicated the importance of TVET-Labour Market relations. TVET institutes are graduating over 10 thousand graduates annually in more than 70 field of training (BTC 2013), with unequal access based on gender and localities. The need is high for skilled workers and the limited capacity of institutes can t meet the market demand. When assessing the demand by the business owners, 21% of enterprises reported suffering from a lack of qualified trained workers within the first three work levels in fields were training is not provided or not enough, or advanced technology is affecting the profession (BTC 2013). Study indicated that employment demand would increase in the upcoming 3 year ( ) for skilled labour by 19% annually compared to base year of This percentage is much higher for females, which reached 28% annually. Demand was for male and female workers and was sector relevant. The results pointed out that some of the needed specializations are already provided in VET (BTC 2013). The BTC 2013 study included initial mapping of TVET programs provision, in which results indicated that females within VET levels are present in agriculture, textile, beauty care and sales, also present at less percentage in management and financial professions, in hotels and restaurants services and media. The study also indicated that males were present within all vocations, and all economic sectors with high presence of non-vet employees in sales, agriculture, auto-mechanics, hotel and restaurants, carpentry, metal work and electricity, as well as hair and facial care and textiles (BTC 2013). The ECIB Inception Study refers to the informal apprenticeship practices in Palestine. As presented in the table below, in comparison to the variety of Work-Based Learning (WBL) schemes, the informal scheme can be encountered in many companies, though regulations are missing. At the contrary, initial field work indicated that structured Company Based Apprenticeships do not exist in Palestine. 3

18 On the formal TVET side; school-based apprenticeship do exist and is provided by Lutheran World Federation (LWF), and the previously supported GIZ project of Hebron Industrial Secondary School (ISS) and Evangelical Training Centre/School (ES), while long term Internship is provided by UNRWA-KTC and YMCA-VTC (Young Men Christian Association- Vocational Training Centre). Traineeship is provided by Colleges and other TVET institutes. On a project basis, it was found that first Job Experience is provided by different donors, including the Welfare Association project and the Education for Employment (EFE). The table below summarises the different modes available of Work Based Learning in TVET, including its different characteristics and what is available in Palestine, all forms are available except the formal apprenticeship. Table 2-1: Work-Based Learning Characteristics and those existing in Palestine WORK BASED LEARNING in TVET Wage Legislative Frame work Work- place based Programme of learning On-the-job training Off-the- job training Formal assessment Traineeship Maybe No Yes No Maybe No No No Variable Colleges, TVET inst. etc. Internship Maybe No Yes No Maybe No No No Variable UNWRA, YMCA First job experience Yes No Yes No No No No No Variable Welfare, EFE Apprenticeship School based Apprenticeship Company based Informal Apprenticeship (not TVET) Maybe No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Fixed Hebron ISS, LWF, ES Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Fixed x Pocket money or in kind No Yes No Maybe No No No Variable Many companies Source: ECIB Inception Study 2015: Table 2 on p. 10: Work-Based Learning Characteristics and those existing in Palestine The study indicated that although in-company apprenticeship (starting from the company not the TVET institute) is non-existent, yet the potential is high, given the awareness of enterprise owners and managers and under the condition that a system is set nationally (ECIB 2015:33). In another part of the report, the following was quoted: Formalising informal apprenticeships has not happened to the extent one could expect. Candidates for full-scale dual apprenticeship are considered as potential future skilled workers and technicians / master craftsmen / highly skilled workers, whereas informal apprentices are used as helpers and remain usually at the stage of unskilled or semi-skilled workers. But this may not be generalized. In one company visit (as part of Case Study Hebron Industrial Secondary School), the apprentice told us that he had worked as a helping hand in several auto repair Recognized certification Duration In Palestine 4

19 workshops during school holidays and in the afternoons after school, before he was accepted as an apprentice in the full-scale dual apprenticeship 5. (ECIB 2015:50) Currently, BTC is supporting through the ECIB programme the pilot of 83 WBL initiatives provided by over 45 TVET institutes, spread over the different areas of the West Bank including Jerusalem. It also reaches Gaza. A tailor-made coaching programme is provided for part of the initiatives to assure the quality and sustainability of the initiatives. 3 Methodology and methods used The methodology is qualitative methodology using combined qualitative and quantitative methods, its main aim is to understand the informal apprenticeship practices and assess policy framework, in accordance with TOR to: Conduct research to understand informal apprenticeship practices in jointly selected sectors; Assess the policy framework of informal apprenticeship and existing linkages between informal apprenticeship and the formal training systems; Study was conducted in coordination with BTC and benefited from technical support of the ILO. The study was based on the developed methodology and tools by the ILO, documented in the resource guide (ILO 2012). According to TOR; the study target group are the working young females and males in small and microenterprises in the selected sectors. The targeted areas are: Nablus, Hebron, Ramallah, East-Jerusalem and Gaza. The data was analysed according to the set thematic areas and sub-sections, as TOR indicates. 3.1 Desk Review A desk review is conducted gathering secondary data, statistics and relevant studies, analysing them and drawing information needed on the context, economic status and employment data. Data related to women and youth work as well as child labour was also gathered. Extracted initial information was used in selecting the trades and other sectors to investigate. ILO resources and guides were used as reference to the research in all parts. In addition; this stage resulted in developing the preliminary skills lists for each profession based on the Arab Occupational Classification (AOC) adopted nationally, and other relevant technical resources. Palestinian laws and regulations were reviewed and analysed, linked to findings, including Labour and Child Laws as well as Occupational Safety & Health (OSH) 6 provision. Documents reviewed are in the resource list. 3.2 Selection of trades and Sample Criteria were set to select the researched sectors, including: High presence of informal apprenticeship 5 The full- dual apprenticeship referred to here is the company based apprenticeship, referred to as dual system and starts from the company as the case in Germany or other countries. 6 Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) is used by the ILO, yet in various other resources it s referred to as Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) both have the same connotation. 5

20 High demand for employment and /or Shortage in qualified human resources Gender balance TVET provision National priority of the sector Occupations with high OSH Risk New technology and hence need for upgrading or risk of losing their jobs Yet after discussion with the ILO, the first 2 criteria were prioritized, and it was recommended to select only 1 to 2 sectors. Suggested sectors based on desk review were: Auto mechanics/ carpentry/metalwork or electricity Sewing or beautician Hospitality/tourism Agriculture The last three sets of trades are provided for both males and females, while the first set is provided for male only. Based on desk review, the criteria, and discussion with ILO,ECIB, MoEHE and MoL the following 2 sectors were selected: Auto mechanics Sewing ( for gender perspective) The sample had to consider the distribution upon targeted geographic locations (Nablus, Ramallah, Jerusalem, Hebron and Gaza), as well as the distribution along the two selected trades. Hence; the selected sample was a Purposive Sample using a Snowball Sampling technique, as there were no records available for enterprises implementing informal apprenticeship training on the one hand, and collected data had to provide meaningful information on the other hand. Therefore each location had to at least survey five enterprises, and each trade had to be half of the overall sample. Sample was increased from 50 as per the TOR to 60 by the researcher to provide enough readings for analysis. The sample distribution of enterprises of the two trades within the selected areas is illustrated in table 3.1. Table 3-1: The sample distribution of enterprises according to selected trades and targeted geographic location Auto-mechanics Sewing Total Nablus Ramallah Jerusalem Hebron Gaza Total Meaningful information according to trade and location was required to provide the qualitative information regarding practices and rules of the informal apprenticeship within the two selected sectors in the different localities. Moreover; to enable providing rural related info, the selected sample in Hebron was mostly rural in addition to some of the other localities. Such consideration was important, 6

21 due to the fact that the selected localities had a more vibrant urban centres than the remaining of the opt, hence to better enable understanding the different practices according to different localities. 3.3 Methods Used and Participants in the research Quantitative and qualitative methods used for collection of data have varied to include the following: 1. Literature and Desk Review was conducted to collect secondary data through other reports, studies, statistics and sectoral researches. While the following methods were used to collect the primary data: 2. The survey filled by the different workers in the enterprise, being the apprentice, the mentor and /or the owner and other skilled worker. It has to be noted that the owner was only surveyed when the mentor was not concluding the agreement with the apprentice. In various cases mentors were the employers, that was the case in most micro and small enterprises. 3. In-depth semi-structured interviews conducted with private sector representatives, relevant sector representatives as well as policy makers of TVET, employment and gender. Private sector representatives were mainly those of the selected trades Auto-Mechanics (AM) and Sewing, but as this is the first time such survey is conducted hence in-depth. 4. Observation: Trained field researchers carried OSH check of the enterprises during their field visits. 5. Focus Group discussion (FGD) with Auto-mechanics union and employers as well as with Sewing union and employers. The FGD was conducted following the initial analysis of the surveys, to provide explanation and interpretation for some of the findings. Findings were discussed and feedback collected through: 6. Feedback Workshop was conducted with participation of TVET and private sector representatives as well as other stakeholders and donors. Workshops were conducted in the West Bank and in Gaza; feedback was gathered following the presentations and the discussion. Hence respondents to the research were the workers at the enterprise levels, as well as labour market and TVET representatives, in addition to professional unions and key informants. Table below summarises people participated and methods used, while the details are in annex 1. Table 3-2: People Participated in the research and Methods Used Number of Method used Participants Mentors 60 Questionnaires Apprentices 60 per each group Skilled Workers 54 Owners 11 Representatives of Other sectors 13 Interviews AM and Sewing Representatives 8 Interviews 11 Focus Groups Policy people and key informant (Employment, TVET and Gender) 10 Interviews TOTAL 227 7

22 Participants in the feedback workshops totalled to 34 in the West Bank and 30 in Gaza, representing different stakeholders, Refer to Annex 1 for participants lists in the research. 3.4 Tools used The Four Questionnaires The tools used were mainly the questionnaires developed by the ILO available in the resource guide (ILO 2012), translated to Arabic and adopted to the Palestinian context then compared to the ones developed in Jordan. Questionnaires are: Four questionnaires for the four categories of workers within the 60 surveyed economic establishments: o Master Crafts Person or Mentor Questionnaire: which addresses the mentor of the apprentice, this questionnaire is considered as the main questionnaire to be filled out in every enterprise, it contains 127 questions o The Employer Questionnaire: the employer questionnaire only filled if the mentor is not concluding agreement with apprentice. Hence it complements the mentor questionnaire for concluding the apprenticeship agreement, it contains 52 questions o The Skilled Worker Questionnaire: to be filled out when possible, contains 49 questions o The Apprentice Questionnaire: considered as the main questionnaire to be filled out in every workshop, contains 68 questions The four questionnaire details the practices and rules of the informal apprenticeship, skills achievements and quality of training as well as contractual issues and funding of the training The Observation Sheet Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Sheet: used the one developed in Jordan. As it provided the general information needed and aligned with auto-mechanics workshops. As no specific OSH standards for each type of enterprise were developed in Palestine The Qualitative Tools The developed qualitative tools for Interviews and Focus Groups were according to the ILO resource guide, it contained: Questions for semi-structured interviews with policy people Questions for semi-structured interviews with sector representatives Questions for interviews with master craftspeople/business owners Themes for Focus Group Discussion Questionnaires and observation sheet are in Annex 2. 8

23 3.5 Collecting the Primary Data Organization of the Field Work 1. Four teams in the West Bank and Gaza have worked to fill out the 2-4 different surveys 7 in the 60 workshops and companies within the 2 selected fields (sewing and auto-mechanics); teams started working after the orientation workshops. 2. Same team conducted the OHS observation check in the 60 workshops and companies and the qualitative interviews and focus group discussions with people and representatives from the field. 3. Three teams worked to conduct interviews in the other sectors and interviews with policy level in West Bank and Gaza. 4. LWF assisted the team in filling out 2 questionnaires for the AM sector inside East Jerusalem-J Filling Out the Surveys The field work was conducted during the period April-May 2016, filling out the four surveys took place in the five identified areas: Nablus, Ramallah, Jerusalem, Hebron and Gaza, according to the designed sample based on the distribution of related businesses in areas according to PCBS data. 185 persons were surveyed in the 60 auto-mechanics workshop and sewing shops distributed per category and geographical location as tables below indicates. Again this sample is not representative, as sampling method was snowballing method due to the lack of the records of the actual population ( being the enterprises that conduct informal apprenticeship), yet sample is purposive and presented the required information for the qualitative study. 89 Persons were surveyed in the 30 auto-mechanics workshop distributed per category and geographical location as table below indicates: Table 3-3: Surveyed Auto-Mechanics Workshops Locality Number of workshops/ companies Mentors Apprentices Skilled worker Owner Nablus Ramallah Jerusalem Hebron Gaza TOTAL Note: no interviews were done with owners in some AM workshops, as mentors were the ones responsible for concluding the agreement with the apprentice, or were the owners themselves as well as being mentors. 96 persons were surveyed in the 30 sewing business distributed per category and geographical location as table below indicates. 7 In each workshop or company the minimum filled surveys were two being the Mentor and the Apprentice, in most cases the mentor is the owner, whenever the mentor is not the owner and does not conclude the apprenticeship agreement, and then the owner questionnaire is filled (11 cases of owners filled the survey out of 60). In some workshops the skilled worker was not available for interview, or in micro workshops the owner is the mentor and the only worker with the apprentice. ( 54 filled the survey out of 60) 9

24 Table 3-4: Surveyed Sewing Businesses Locality Number of companies Mentors Apprentices Skilled worker Owner Nablus Ramallah Jerusalem Hebron Gaza TOTAL Note: no interviews were done with owners in some sewing businesses, as mentors were the ones responsible for concluding the agreement with the apprentice, or were the owners themselves as well as being mentors. The field work to fill out the surveys have reached the following cities, villages and refugee camps: Nablus: Deir Sharaf, Beit Eiba, Awarta, Beita, Al Masaken Al Shabia, Askar refugee camp, Balata Camp Ramallah: Ramallah and Albiereh Industrial zones, beitounia, city center Jerusalem: Al-Ram, Abu-Dies, Azariya, Kufr Aqab, Semmi Ramis, and Kalandia Refugee Camp, Um al Sharayet, Wadi el-joz, Hebron: Hebron city, Al Thahriyeh, Al Samou, Yatta, Karazat al Ramadheen Gaza: Gaza City, different neighbourhoods. Filling out the surveys in each enterprise lasted between 3 hours to 3 days depending on the business and work load Interviews and Focus Groups Qualitative in-depth interviews and Focus Group Discussion (FGD) were conducted with the participation of 42 people in the West Bank and Gaza. Two FGD were conducted with AM representative and employers and Sewing representatives and employers, after conducting the surveys and getting preliminary findings to interpret the findings. As a result; 28 interviews and 2 focus group discussion were conducted, as the table below specifies. Table 3-5: People interviewed and participated in Focus Group Discussion Number interviewed Number participated in FGD Representatives of other sectors 13 AM and Sewing Representatives 8 11 Policy people and key informant (Employment, TVET and 10 Gender) TOTAL As a result 227 people have participated in the research, 185 filled out the surveys and 42 participated in interviews and focus groups. In addition to over 50 people representatives and stakeholders participated in the feedback workshops in West Bank and Gaza, Annex 1 has the details of people participated in the study. 10

25 3.6 Challenges and limitations Existing data challenges and Measures Taken Lack of National Statistics and data for the informal apprenticeship presented a challenge when collecting the secondary data regarding informal apprenticeship. This also presented a challenge in identifying the population for the survey, and hence for selecting the sample. Moreover; there is no other studies on informal apprenticeship, this is the first full-fledged study in the field. The only other resource was the ECIB inception study. OSH standards for the specific businesses did not exist, hence OSH standards for AM workshops and Sewing businesses were lacking. The existed were general for all enterprises Field Work Challenges and Measures Taken The Challenges faced during field work has varied according to different localities, but related directly to the status of the businesses, the sector it-self, and the relevant nearby WBL training. Challenges were: 1. The lack of population data of enterprises conducting informal apprenticeship had doubled the work in looking for different enterprises to survey. 2. Some enterprises refused to take part due to either being too busy or fearing authorities check, mainly in what was assumed to be informal businesses 3. The Mentor survey was too long, some got frustrated, and the field researcher had to fill-out the questionnaire through more than one visit. 4. In Ramallah challenges faced in finding the enterprises training informal apprenticeship has doubled. Due to the spread of formal school-based apprenticeship or other forms of formal Work-Based Learning (WBL) in the field of auto-mechanics, replacing informal apprenticeship practiced in the past, as an employer told us: you are 5 years late. The two institutes providing formal WBL are the Lutheran World Federation- Vocational Training Centre in Ramallah (LWF-VTCR) and the UNRWA Kalandia Training Center (KTC) for Refugees. Employers were satisfied with the formal supply of apprentices through these institutes. Measures Taken to address this challenge: surveying the ones in rural areas and engaging auto- Body Repairs to fill the gaps in the auto-mechanics sector (2 were engaged out of the sample of 6 for auto-mechanics workshop in Ramallah), although WBL is also provided in this field but at limited numbers. 5. In Gaza the link of the operation of businesses with the closure and the electricity cuts was a challenge, as during the survey time the closure was eased and hence raw material were allowed in and sewing factories were working shifts to deliver their work, it was not easy to interview. While the worsened economic situation has affected the services sector in general including the auto-mechanics enterprises, whom some have stopped providing informal apprenticeship due to the min work capacity. 11

26 6. In Hebron and Nablus: Some of the business owners refused to deal with us through the phone or give us their phone numbers; this is related to informality of the business presumably Limitations to the study The study is limited in the following aspects: Sample representation: The sample is Purposive sample using a snowball sampling technique to overcome the challenge of lack of population data, population is the enterprises using informal apprenticeship scheme, and to ensure meaningful data in targeted trades and governorates. Geographic: the surveys were conducted in five areas/governorates: Nablus, Hebron, Ramallah, East-Jerusalem and Gaza Time : the surveys were conducted during March-June 2016 Skills level: the surveys focussed on informal apprenticeship not on the TVET institutes and TVET graduates. 3.7 Data Validation and Analysis Validation and checking of filled out questionnaires was done, data entry from the four surveys was done on the designed SPSS program, further validation was achieved by checking data for data entry errors, as annex 2.2 explains. Statistical (quantitative) analysis of questionnaires using SPSS was conducted for each questionnaire, then grouping of questionnaires along fields and further analysis were conducted using Excel. The OSH questionnaire was analysed using Excel. Initial analyses were derived. Checking and explaining some of the initial findings were done through two FGD with the two sectors representatives and employers in the West Bank, as well as through in-depth interviews with same groups in Gaza. Qualitative analysis of open parts of the surveys, collected through filling out the surveys, and through matching with other findings of desk review, interviews and the focus groups and questionnaires was done. Main findings were derived and presented in the report, with all supporting data and info. Two final workshops were conducted with participation of stakeholders for confirmation of the findings, which were presented and discussed. The feedback was re-integrated in the study. 12

27 Part 2.1: Preliminary Findings of Informal Apprenticeship within Different Sectors 4 Informal Apprenticeship in Different Sectors Previous studies on informal apprenticeship in Palestine cease to exist. Hence there was a need to provide the overall understanding of informal apprenticeship in Palestine within the different sectors. This was conducted through desk review of the different sectors and in-depth interviews with key informants and representatives of the sectors in both the West Bank and Gaza. Main sectors investigated were; Construction, Information and Communications Technology (ICT), Tourism, Agriculture and Industrial sectors. Presented below is economic background on each sector and the existence of the informal apprenticeship within the sector, while the detailed understanding of the informal apprenticeship practices and rules was elaborated in the coming chapters based on the detailed surveys and qualitative methods used within the two selected sub-sectors; sewing and auto-mechanics. It has to be noted that there is an overall lack in quality assurance, accreditation and certification of informal apprenticeship, as indicated through the interviews with the different sectors representatives and key informants, in addition to the interviews with TVET and employment officials at the Ministry of Labour (MOL). 4.1 The Industrial Sector According to the Palestinian Federation of Industries there are 12 various industrial sectors in the Palestinian territory. They are: Leather and shoe Industry, Metal Industries, Chemical Industries, Construction Industries, Handicraft Industries, Textile Industries, Stone and marble Industries, Pharmaceutical Industry, Veterinary Industry, Food Industry, Plastic Industry and Paper Industry. The percentage contribution of this sector in total GDP has increased from 8% in the mid-eighties to 17% in the late-nineties, then dropped down after a decade and approached nearly 16%. During 2007, the industrial sector has employed an average of 81,586 sector workers, an average of 13% total work force (PFI, 2009). Percentage fluctuated but is back to 13% at the end of 2015 (PCBS 2016). Apprentices in the industrial sector are present in the industries because the characteristics of this sector are family based businesses. While, informal apprenticeship in the industrial sector exists, but their links to TVET institutions vary by sub-sector. Its presence can be found in sectors like textiles, handicrafts, metal smith and aluminium workshops as well as carpentry; training can last from 1 to 2 years and is rarely documented in a legal apprenticeship contract. The larger the enterprise the less unskilled apprentices present. Furthermore, large factories that do not need much skill for specific tasks also engage informal apprentices. Training is common to upgrade the skills of workers in the sector. Palestine Federation of Industries (PFI) trains its various union members. They in turn train their employees in the market. 13

28 While TVET institutes lack the ability to take in all applicants, special attention is being paid to TVET graduates by businesses these days. Work contracts are present, but not for training. In terms of geography, the middle of the West Bank is more likely to take TVET graduates; the south is mainly family businesses with likelihood to take TVET graduates, while the north is a mixture. Gaza is also family based. Within such status family based are more likely to go for informal apprenticeship. Health and Safety issues are important and there are serious shortfalls in this regard in the sector. The monitoring by Ministry of Labour and Ministry of Economy has increased, but so had both worker and owner awareness. Interviewees were not aware of the legal issues involved for the informal apprenticeship training, and had indicated variety in quality of training and preparation. 4.2 The Agricultural Sector According to the Palestinian Ministry of Agriculture, agriculture is a major contributor to the protection of land from confiscation and settlement. It supports the achievement of food security, provides employment albeit declining in 2015 compared to 2014 (from 10.4% to 8.7%) of the labour force, its GDP percentage contribution declined in 2015 to 3.3% from 3.8% in The sector contributed 4% of the capital of newly registered companies (PMA, MAS and PCBS, 2016). In 2014, it accounted for 21% of total exports. Moreover, in addition to its direct contribution to the improvement and preservation of the environment, it plays an important role as a supplier of requirements to various industries as well the consumer of inputs and services from other sectors (Palestinian Ministry of Agriculture, 2014). The Palestinian Territories are rich and unique for agriculture. Yet its limited control of land in 60% of the areas in the West Bank the most fertile areas and the restricted control over water limits the potential of agriculture and its contribution to the economy and employment, on the contrary it has been declining since the Oslo Accord. (World Bank 2015) Although agriculture has always absorbed an important share of both formal and informal labour force, this has declined over the years from 14% of the labour force in the year 2000 to 7.8% in the year 2015, most decline witnessed was in the female labour force in the sector. (PCBS 2016) Yet over 90% of all informal employment is absorbed by the agricultural sector. (PCBS 2008) The agriculture sector is dominated by small to medium scale, family-based farms in which youth work on plots of land owned by their families or larger farms of other Palestinian land owners. The availability for jobs in this sector varies across villages and depends on whether the family owns land, and in most cases is seasonal. Informal apprenticeship in this sector is apparent through family transition system. This was confirmed through data and interviews. PCBS has indicated that around one third of children who dropped out of the educational system or those not enrolled in education are working, around 60% of them working in unpaid jobs for their families, mainly in agriculture and trade (PCBS 2013). As important as agriculture is to the Palestinian reality, many issues need to be resolved to enable development in this sector. Among those issues the minimal opportunities of formal TVET. According to Centre for Economic Policy Research (CERP): the absence of agricultural and entrepreneurship training 14

29 facilities for young professionals, combined with poor labour market institutions, has a negative impact on the cost of doing business, and the productivity and profitability of the agricultural sector (CEPR Memo, 2012). This view was also seconded by interviewed key informant, who stated that agricultural knowledge and skills are mainly passed down generationally by farmers. Yet this is problematic, due to: 1) many of the new generation moving towards formal education and hence not learning traditional farming methods and leaving the agriculture work, 2) improper or wrongful practices are passed on as methodology and 3) a lack of introduction to new eco-friendly agriculture methods. Yet the Palestinian NGOs working in agriculture development, train farmers and give certification. The main method of training used is on-the Job training on exemplary-farms where farmers learn from professionals and other farmers simultaneously. This method is deemed successful yet would require more formalizing, institutionalizing, and recognition of certification by various state and non-state actors. The agriculture sector does not have formal links with the TVET institutes. Informal apprenticeship in this sector is mostly family based. Cooperatives provide contracts to their apprenticeship program, but no one provides OHS or health insurance. Interviewees were not aware of the legal issues involved for the informal apprenticeship training. 4.3 The Construction Sector According to the Portland Trust Beyond Aid report, the construction sector represented around 14% of GDP ($1.4bn) and around 15% of total employment in 2013, making the sector an important contributor to the economy. The report indicated that a large proportion of the sector s activities are unregistered, involve informal workers and employ old technology, resulting in low productivity and production inefficiencies. In addition, because high-end demand has been strong, little attempt has been made to capture a greater part of the value chain to reduce construction costs. If the value chain was better captured and costs were lowered the construction sector could grow to $2.8bn and employ more than 175,000 workers by 2030 (The Portland Trust, 2013). Latest MAS Economic and Social Monitor 3 rd Quarterly Report for 2015 indicated that the construction sector came third at 18% of all newly registered companies at JD 7.3Million in capital and 15.7% in West Bank and 3.8% in Gaza as distribution of workers in this sector, as well as 8.3% of GDP distribution of shares of economic sector for the year (MAS et al., 2016) Technology could be an important support for achieving sustainable construction by saving time, energy and by using the resources efficiently. However, at the same time the high cost of buying technology and the expenses needed to train staff may be considered as a key barrier to implementing sustainable construction in Palestine. (Osaily, 2010) Qualitative interviews in the construction sector have indicated that informal apprenticeship exists and that the linkage to TVET institutes is weak with no quality assurance on the training. The informal apprenticeship training can last for few months only without a formal contract and sometimes no payment takes place in the first month. The construction sector does not always cover the recruited informal apprentices with occupational, safety and health (OSH) insurance, and it does not provide for health insurance. Interviewees were not aware of any legal issues. It was noted that the numbers of workers that work in Israel in the construction sector are high and that many of them are university 15

30 graduates, labelling the sector as a last resort for finding quick employment with no need for vocational preparation. This indicates the clear presence for informal apprenticeship in the sector, with variety of quality. Last but not least, it was noted by the sector representatives, that the potential for the informal apprenticeship to be formalized and recognized by the industry representatives and officials exists and facilitates the introduction of new technologies that saves time and effort. 4.4 The Information and Communications Technology (ICT) Sector The ICT sector is currently contributing 7% to the GDP. There are over 300 ICT enterprises present in Palestine (of which 100 are PITA members). The continued increases in the volume in the sector are undeniable reaching US$1 billion in 2012 according to PCBS cited in the PITA ICT Strategy but the qualitative substance of said increases bears questioning (MAS 2012). PCBS has also reported that the ICT output is US$454.3 million and US$501.8 million in 2010 and 2011 respectively, where in 2011 PalTel net revenues were around US$500 million (PA 2012). There are around 5600 employees in the formal ICT sector. Formal companies normally accept interns and hire from formal education institutes. Informal employment in the ICT sector is seldom found within companies. This is because there is limited supply of ICT jobs in the formal sector to accommodate informal employment considering the number of graduates from IT disciplines estimated at 2000 annually. The Mercy Corps research described an opportunity gap as well as a skills gap: an insufficient number of jobs for which to compete (Mercy Corps 2013). A unique characteristic of the sector has become the informal work of freelancers due to the limited job opportunities, who are again graduates of formal education institutes. Freelancers engage in their own self-development to upgrade their skills and attempt to compete globally. Nevertheless, informal employment in the ICT sector can be found in retail shops (which can be informal as well) that sell computers and cellular phones and provide maintenance services (GIZ 2011). Qualitative interviews in this sector have also indicated that there is no evidence of informal apprenticeship at the Palestinian Information Technology Association of Companies (PITA) member companies. These companies do not have linkage to TVET institutes either. Their apprenticeship training is mostly catering to and is provided to university graduates and can last for three months without a formal contract and half salary payment is the norm. However, the program does not have a quality assurance mechanism. The ICT sector does not cover apprentices with OSH insurance nor with health insurance. Interviewees were not aware of any apprenticeship legal issues either. Furthermore, it is the finding of our research and interviews the most of the TVET graduates end up working in the informal sector such as mobile re-seller shops and personal computer vendors and not at PITA member companies. 4.5 The Tourism Sector According to the PalTrade Diagnostic Study (MoNE and Paltrade, 2013), the tourism sector in Palestine has seen something of a turnaround over the last five year and currently tourism accounts for around 14% of GDP. There are currently 93 hotels in the West Bank and 12 in Gaza in addition to some 70 guest 16

31 houses in the West bank and Jerusalem. There were some 3.5 million visits to tourist sites in Palestine during the period January to August The Portland Trust estimates that tourism provides about 2% of all employment (around 17,000 or 21,537). This estimate is comparable to those from the MAS and the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS) estimates of paid employees and around 8,500 of unpaid ones. Qualitative interviews in this sector have also indicated that there is evidence of informal and formal apprenticeship in this sector. There are different types of companies in this sector. Apparently not all of the companies have linkage to TVET institutes. The field research findings indicated that informal apprenticeship exists clearly. It also indicates that workers in the sector are from the following three categories: a) university students in order to pay for their college tuition and expenses, b) by TVET students and graduates as part of their training programs, c) individuals not from those two academic streams who simply are looking for work. Apprenticeship can last for three months with no formal contract with the apprentice. Full salary payment is the norm in this industry with insurance coverage for occupational, health and safety due to repeated accidents in the kitchen, but does not cover health insurance. Interviewees were not aware of any apprenticeship legal issues either. This research finding reflects that working in the tourism and hospitality industry is perceived to have a negative connotation in society. It is taken as a temporary job by workers, resulting in high turnover for the industry that already suffers from the seasonality of the visitors amongst other economic challenges. Overall The box below summarises the initial information available regarding the informal apprenticeship within the five main sectors and overall. Box 4-1: Summary of preliminary assessment of existence of Informal Apprenticeship within the different economic sectors (Agriculture, Industrial, Construction, ICT, Tourism ): Status : Existing in all except ICT ( no evidence) Links to TVET: None Quality : no quality control, as quality various according to enterprise within same sector, none has structured their training around agreed competences Duration: 1-2 years in industrial in West Bank, 3-6 months in industrial in Gaza, up to 3 months in rest Testing and certification: None has Contract: mostly no contract is provided Salary Payment : varies from none in agriculture, to pocket money or partial for construction and industrial, to full salary for the tourism sector OHS Insurance: not a common practice Health Insurance: none provides, excepts in Jerusalem ( as will appear in the coming chapters) Legal Issues: none of the interviewees are aware of any relevant legal framework, legal framework lacks for all as coming chapters will reveal This box is based on preliminary discussion with key informants and representatives, national research is required for these sectors to gain more insights similar to the one carried here for sewing and auto-mechanics. 17

32 Part 2.2: Main Findings of Informal Apprenticeship within Selected Sub- Sectors- Auto-Mechanics and Sewing The following chapters within this part of the report illustrate the detailed information regarding informal apprenticeship within the two selected sub-sectors, being Auto-Mechanics (AM) and Sewing, regarding forming, quality, practices and outcome. The following four chapters present the characteristics of businesses and workers, forming apprenticeship, decent work aspects, training outcome, financing and linking to TVET. Illustrated findings within these chapters are based on the quantitative and qualitative methods used. 5 Characteristics of Participated Businesses and Workers 5.1 Characteristics of the Participated Businesses Characteristics of surveyed businesses in terms of size, type and registration were identified, as well as load of work and related challenges. In addition membership in association and cooperation with other businesses were also identified. A well- known characteristic of the businesses conducting informal apprenticeship is that it s the small family business one, yet results have indicated that medium and big companies are also training on informal apprenticeship. Figure 5-1: Distribution of companies that provides apprenticeship according to size of company (number of workers) in comparison with national figures a. AM surveyed compared to national b. Sewing Surveyed Compared to National 100,0% 90,0% 80,0% 70,0% 60,0% 50,0% 40,0% 30,0% 20,0% 10,0% 0,0% AM Surveyed AM National 70,0% 60,0% 50,0% 40,0% 30,0% 20,0% 10,0% 0,0% Sewing Surveyed Sewing National Source of National Figure: PCBS, 2014, Establishment Census 2012-Main Finding, Ramallah-Palestine Most of the surveyed AM and Sewing were small and medium enterprises. Differences between both according to size was apparent, as graph illustrates, reflecting the difference between the two sectors on the national level. Results also indicated that the surveyed enterprises providing informal apprenticeship in both sectors were more in the bigger size companies compared to national figures as 18

33 graphs above indicate. Yet it has to be noted that sample is not representative, as mentioned in the methodology chapter, and this fact has to be validated through a national survey with representative sample. Most of the enterprises have individual ownership (93%); this is comparable to national figures as individual ownership companies represented (85%). (PCBS 2014) Figures have differed according to geographic location and sector, as most of those employing less than five were in the AM sector, while most of those employing more than nine were in the Sewing sector. At least one in three businesses are officially registered by the Ministry of National Economy (MoNE) being (38%), which is the main requirement for all other registrations, indicating that they are registered with Tax authority, indicating that over one in three enterprises are formal according to definition by PCBS as stated in the glossary section of the report. However, results indicate the vast majority of the enterprises providing informal apprenticeship have some type of registration, as more than double are registered with the municipality, and little more with chambers, those are old registration, prior to the PA existence. The national figures indicate that half of the businesses in Palestine are informal businesses (MAS 2015). The survey indicates difference according to trade, as only one in four AM are officially registered compared to one in two in sewing. Figure 5-2: Distribution of business according to registration obtained 7. Other 6. With none(unlicensed) 5. With tax authority 4. With the Ministry of Finance(Trade license) 3. With the Chamber of Commerce 2. With the Ministry of National Economy 1. With the municipality (Trade and Industries License) 3,3% 15,0% 36,7% 31,7% 43,3% 38,3% 83,3% In addition; the survey indicates difference in registered companies according to geographic location, as the graph illustrates. Most businesses in Ramallah are registered, while only half in Jerusalem are. Figure 5-3: Percentages of registered companies that provide apprenticeship according to geographic location Gaza Hebron Jerusalem Ramallah Nablus 21,4% 30,8% 38,9% 50,0% 70,0% 19

34 The registered companies operating in East Jerusalem were registered with different authorities (2/3 are registered with Palestinian MoNE and 1/3 with the Israeli authorities), reflecting the political status and complexity in East Jerusalem. Hebron businesses were from rural areas, indicating that businesses are least registered in these areas and depending on proximity to main city centre. With regard to membership of associations, 43% are members in professional associations, and none in cooperatives or other sort, professional associations are either professional unions: AM union, Sewing Union, Chambers of Commerce and industries, or Palestinian Federation of Industries. This percentage had differed according to trade and geographic locality, whereas half of AM workshops were registered compared to 37% of sewing shops/factories. The highest registration was in Gaza (77%), followed by Ramallah (70%), Jerusalem (40%), Nablus (39%) and none in Hebron, taking into consideration that the Hebron sample was mostly in rural areas. Cooperation with other businesses was apparent among those surveyed as 60% indicated their cooperation with other businesses in various ways including sharing or borrowing equipment (28%), sharing knowledge (28%), referring clients (13%), complimentary jobs (22%), cooperating in apprenticeship (8%). This has varied among geographical areas and trades, whereas sewing sector in Nablus was faced with fierce competition, when they mainly cooperate in maintenance of machinery, other areas as one sewing shop owner in Ramallah mentioned: We share work with other sewers and sewing workshops, if we cannot finish everything we send it off to other workshops so they can help out Results have varied according to trade, as 73% of AM were cooperating compared to 37% of sewing. With regard to type of cooperation sewing was high in cooperating in apprenticeship, both were equal in referring clients, while AM was higher in the remaining, significantly higher in sharing knowledge. Figure 5-4: Type of cooperation of companies with other companies according to trade Sewing AM Total Complemntry jobs Cooperation in apprenticeship Referring clients to other businesses Sharing knowledge, giving advice Sharing or borrowing of equipment 16,7% 10,0% 6,7% 8,3% 13,3% 13,3% 13,3% 6,7% 26,7% 21,7% 23,3% 23,3% 28,3% 33,3% 40,0% The sectors are affected by the context, and in specific the sewing sector, as 90% of the sewing shops mentioned that their work is seasonal, compared to 37% of AM. The sewing industry is highly subservient to the Israeli or export market that is controlled by the Israeli merchants. Hence reflecting 20

35 the effect of the context on the sector, moreover the head of the sewing union in Gaza has mentioned that the status in Gaza, the siege and blockade affects the sector, in addition to adopting the GATT 8 by the Israeli side has further hit the sector, as it opened the market to export and unfair competition Mr Al Ustath the head of the textile, clothing and leather industries union. 5.2 Characteristics of Participating Workers Surveyed workers in the enterprises were: the mentor, the apprentice and the skilled worker. In addition to the owner who was engaged if he/she concludes the contract not the mentor. Characteristics of participating workers are identified in terms of age, gender, age when started, education level, and if they finished the training Age Results have indicated that the average age of the apprentice is 21 years old; less than half of the mentor, and ten years below that of the skilled worker, indicating the young age of the apprentice, and the seniority of the mentor. Results are comparable to mentor and skilled workers ages, as that average age of the mentors when they started training were 20 years, finished their training at the age of 22. Table 5-1: Min, Max, Mean, and Median of age of Respondent by type of worker Age of the respondent Type of Minimum Maximum Mean/ Median worker Average Mentor/ owner Skilled worker Apprentice With an average of 40 month durations indicating young age of apprentices, similar to the current status, suggesting a similar career progression has been existing for some time. Nevertheless, the minimum age of apprentice was 15 years indicating child labour (2 cases were found at the age of 15), and the maximum was 50, as the table indicates. The average age of the apprentice has varied according to locality, being at 19, 20, 21, 24 and 25 for Gaza, Hebron, Nablus, Jerusalem and Ramallah respectively. The average age of the apprentice has varied according to the sector, as the average age in auto-mechanics was 19 and that of sewing was 24 years old. However the median age was almost similar for areas and varied from 19 to 22, and was 19.5 and 20 for AM and sewing respectively. Such results indicate that most of the apprentices are at a younger age while some were at an older age, especially women entering the labour market to support their families. The average age for female apprentices was 36 compared to 20 for males. This is similar to national findings regarding women participation in the labour force where women at the productive age were the least participating in labour force; again this is related to societal attitude for women work being a second choice after caring and rearing (PWRDC 2009). This is illustrated through the case of a woman in Jerusalem at the age of 44 who had to enter the labour market through informal apprenticeship to support her ill husband and daughter. 8 Adopting the GATT by the Israeli side has effects on the Palestinian market, as trade is high in both sides, especially from Israel to the Palestinian market, which affects Palestinian sewing sector and selling its products in both the Palestinian as well as in the Israeli markets. 21

36 Another important result related to context is seen in the young age of skilled worker in Jerusalem being at an average of 21, compared to years the age of same groups in other areas, hence reflecting the soaring issue of school drop-outs in Jerusalem and early joining of the labour market (PCBS 2010) Gender Results indicated that female workers did not exist in the surveyed sample of auto-mechanics, while it was noted by LWF director during an interview that they started since 2012 graduating females from Vocational Secretary specialization for non-conventional fields including auto-mechanics, as an administrative job not as a technical one. It should be noted that since 1996 women were graduated from electronics VET training, but not from auto-mechanics specialization. Moreover the head of the auto-mechanics union mentioned the possibility of integrating women in maintenance of the new technology of vehicles, and they are willing to participate in that. Nevertheless within the feminine sector of sewing and textiles, one in four apprentices were females, while female skilled worker were half that number. Surely, this will open the Figure 5-5: Distribution of workers according to gender and worker type in sewing sector question of employment of Male Female females after the 96,7% apprenticeship, which will be 86,7% 73,3% tackled more in detail later. Surprisingly, only 1 mentor out 26,7% 3,3% 13,3% of 30 was a female, the remaining were males, for a Mentor/owner Skilled worker Apprentice mixed body of both. Furthermore; none of the owners met were females although only one of the sewing shops was owned by a female and 2 others by group of people. The finding is not a surprise with the negative attitudes and practices towards women access to decision making positions and ownership, where many time women have the talents and capabilities are challenged by these attitudes, a phenomena known as glass ceiling, she can see the people at the top but can t reach. Gender has varied substantially according to areas were Ramallah and Jerusalem had more women than remaining areas, while Nablus and Hebron had quarter or less women. Surprisingly; in Gaza no women were surveyed, this is linked to two factors, the sector was severely hit during the past 16 years, and new ones were established recently. Figure 5-6: Distribution of apprentices according to gender and geographic location 100% 0% 25% 17% 27% 80% 50% 60% 75% 40% 75% 83% 100% Female 73% 50% 20% Male 25% 0% 22

37 The status of war and loss of jobs of most work force in the private sector in Gaza, has directed the unemployed males to all available jobs on the economic side. This is substantiated by the national figures of unemployment over the years in Gaza, as the rate of unemployment for males has almost doubled (1.89 times) between the years , meanwhile the rate of unemployment for females was more than tripled (3.15 times) for same period. (PCBS 2016) Hence; male substituting females in female oriented trades was witnessed due to the context-related high unemployment rates. In addition to the new social changes in Gaza, that has pushed women away from the private sector opportunities with mixed gender workforce. Moreover; and as explained by participants in feedback workshops, the contextual challenges faced by Gaza with on-going siege and lack of raw materials and fuel has created new conditions for work, as the electricity is only available for few hours during the day, and the blockade on Gaza is lifted for few hours, pushing owners and workers to work at night shifts or over time when such condition is present, a case which is not accepted for women s work by the society. The presence of women reflects the national figures. National figures indicate that only 2.6% of women are in the trade and industry in Gaza compared to 15% in the West Bank. (PCBS 2014) More than half (53%) of the mentors in surveyed sewing industry have trained female apprentices during the past 2 years, number trained ranged from 1 to 10. More than half of the remaining 47% of sewing shops has stated that no women has applied, or approached the business or asked to be an apprentice, or the place is small and can t have extra facilities, some already have female skilled workers, while the remaining shops mainly from Gaza had prejudice towards women working in the sector, or the whole shop has male workers, so they can t accept females, or they don t believe in coworking. None of the AM shops had trained females during the last 2 years, When mentors and owners of AM workshops were asked why the enterprise does not have females apprentices? They stated the male oriented business reasons and prejudice, as women can t do the job. Interesting enough, one of the interviewed owners in Hebron rural area mentioned: I have my 8 years old daughter with me in the workshop, I am training her on AM, and she will study engineering and join me in the workshop People with Disability 12% of the workshops have trained people with disability (PWD) before, mostly in sewing, only one AM workshop trained PWD in his workshop, Most of the companies/shops training PWD were from Ramallah and Jerusalem and none from Nablus and Hebron, while only one from Gaza. Part of them is motivated to assist PWD or the person himself/herself and most believe that they can do the work, as one of the owners mentioned: Having disabled people work does wonders for their personality, as it gives them confidence and assurance and also integrates them in the society and have them experience a normal social life. 23

38 When mentors were asked about reasons for lack of people of disability in their businesses around two out of three mentioned Disabled people can t do the job, this has varied according to trade (83% AM and 47% sewing). One in four mentioned that they need safety measures not available in the work place. Figure 5-7: Reasons for lack of disabled apprentices 5. Other 11,7% 4. Disabled persons cannot do this job 65,0% 3. Disabled person need special safety measures that is not 25,0% 2. Disabled persons did not ask to become an apprentice 6,7% 1. Disabled persons do not have interest in this vocation 11,7% One of the owners elaborated as follows: Having disable people work here scares me, as I feel if anything happens to them I will be responsible and I cannot deal with that, Household of the apprentice Most of the apprentices are coming from big families, (77% had 6 members or above), with income below the poverty line (89%) 9. 13% of the apprentices have either their mother or other member of the family as guardian; the remaining had their father as guardian. Almost one in two of the guardians had secondary education level, one in three had basic education (up to 10 th grade), and 3.4% had no education while the remaining had higher education level Residence Results indicate that all surveyed were born in the same governorate, either in the same city, nearby urban area or refugee camp. None were born in another governorate. Such finding is related to the context and its effects on mobility restrictions of persons and households. 9 According to PCBS; The poverty line and deep poverty line for the reference household (two adults and three children) stood at 2,293 NIS (637 USD) and 1,832 NIS (509 USD) respectively, factors affecting poverty being size of the family, availability of children, disability and illness. (The dollar exchange rate during 2011 was 3.6 NIS,-Source for the 2011 amounts is PECS-2012). 24

39 62% of Apprentices were born in the same city, which is little-less than remaining workers. 8.3% of apprentices and 6.7% of employers were from refugee camps, while one in four of mentors, apprentices and skilled workers were from rural Figure 5-8: Distribution of workers according to place of birth and worker type 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Refugee Camp Other governorate Other urban center near the city Rural area in the country areas. Results has varied according to geographic locations, as more apprentices were refugees ( 17%) and people from urban areas (77%) were from Nablus, and most were from the rural area in Hebron where survey was conducted, while one in five apprentices was from rural areas in Ramallah, and same number from refugee camps in Jerusalem Education and Skills Apprentices have lower degrees than mentors and skilled workers, as one in five apprentice has incomplete junior secondary or below, and this is double the number of mentors and skilled workers. On the other hand; two in three of the apprentices have finished junior secondary, have higher secondary incomplete or complete, while three in four mentors are in these categories and more than that of skilled worker. City Employers are spread over the board, with one in four have junior secondary incomplete and below, one in two has junior secondary, have higher secondary incomplete or complete, and remaining above. Such results indicate that half of the apprentices could not progress in VET as it requires a level above junior secondary complete. Or in higher education that requires higher secondary completed, an important finding to be considered for linking informal apprenticeship with qualification. Table 5-2: Distribution of workers according to highest educational level attained and type of worker Highest level of Mentor/ Skilled Apprentice Total education attained Owner worker None 0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% Incomplete 1% 0.0% 1.7% 1.1% Primary Complete Primary 4% 5.6% 3.3% 4.3% Junior Secondary 7% 3.7% 16.7% 9.2% Incomplete Junior Secondary 20% 25.9% 31.7% 25.4% Complete Higher Secondary 24% 37.0% 30.0% 29.7% Incomplete Higher Secondary 28% 22.2% 6.7% 19.5% Complete Higher Education 1% 3.7% 3.3% 2.7% incomplete Diploma 7% 1.9% 1.7% 2.2% Higher education 7% 0.0% 5.0% 4.3% Complete Total 100% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 25

40 None of the surveyed was illiterate or has no education level attained. 92% of the mentors have acquired skills for their profession through informal apprenticeship (90% automechanics and 93% sewing), while 6.7% have learned the vocation through a formal TVET institute (VTC, vocational school, technical college), one in five auto-mechanics have learned the vocation through nonformal vocational training such as evening courses, and around 40% learn the extra skills through observation, as graph illustrates. Figure 5-9: Source of mentor skills for the trade in addition and other than the informal apprenticeship Auto-mechanics Sewing 4. Other 3. Observation/guidance from relatives, friends(without being employed) 2. Non-formal vocational training (evening course) 1. Formal vocational training(training provider in the formal system, Vocational School, VTC, technical college) 3,3% 6,7% 0,0% 6,7% 6,7% 20,0% 40,0% 36,7% At least one in three AM mentors was trained in the place they are currently working in (37%). The percentage was higher for mentors in sewing sector (43%). Ninety per cent of the mentors mentioned that they found employment immediately (93% for AM and 88% sewing), 6.7% within six months of accomplishing the informal apprenticeship, half of the remaining within 6-12 months and the remaining more than 12 months. 42% of the mentors mentioned that they worked in another trade before the current one. This finding is substantial, as those mentors who worked in another trade are stable now after they gained informal apprenticeship and progressed in their work, indicating that informal apprenticeship is more likely to keep a worker in their trade. On the other hand; 91.4% of the apprentices did not do any formal or non-formal training before the informal apprenticeship. 6 Forming Apprenticeship This chapter will illustrate practices in informal apprenticeship including recruitment, reasons for apprentice joining, training contract, and progression of learning. 6.1 Recruitment Variant answers were received when mentors and owners were asked if they receive many applicants for apprenticeship as graph indicates. One sewing shop mentor mentioned: We stopped receiving apprenticeship during the past 7 years as the trade is in regression, which explains why 60% of the mentors in sewing would recruit all those applying. While it s the opposite case for AM, as they will be selective, as higher percentage of AM mentors will not accept whoever is applying (60%) as graph 26

41 indicates. Others were specifying that they will not be affected by the number of applicant but upon their needs. Figure 6-1: Mentors/Owners responses to recruitment based on the question: are you receiving many applicants? AM Sewing 33,3% 33,3% 26,7% 26,7% 10,0% 13,3% 16,7% 6,7% 13,3% 20,0% No, so all apprentices that approach me receive training No, but I don t take on everyone Yes, and I try to take them all on to train Yes, but I can t accept them all, so I have to be selective OTHER The highest agreement among mentors and owners for ways of findings apprentices when they need them was introduced by someone (80%), while one in two mentioned that apprentices approach them directly, this has jumped to three in four in medium size companies, to two out of three in Gaza, and little less in Ramallah and Hebron. while only one in twenty would look for apprentices (all in sewing trade). The informal apprenticeship is in the tradition of areas as Nablus, and usually parents bring their sons and daughters to the work place, introduced by others jumped to 88%, as one mentor mentioned: We usually receive them through their parents, the parent brings him and tell me find me a place for my son he did not do well at school, or I need him to work, I have to accept him. As such the social responsibility in carrying out the training is high, as one owner from Nablus mentioned: We take children and youth out of the streets through the training, they are our community at the end, sometimes I take more than I need just to keep them off the streets. While one owner from Hebron mentioned: I prefer to train females, especially those with special social conditions: the divorced, the widow as well as unmarried girls, as they are committed and in need of the training. The Criteria for the selection of apprentices by mentors and owners has varied as noted below, and varied according to trade and geographic location. The highest criterion was trustworthy, followed by talent for the trade, recommendation and then maturity, within neighbourhood or kinship. The fourth highest agreed criteria were the same among trades, while the trustworthy and talent were among the highest agreed according to locality, with differences in other criteria as the table below indicates. 27

42 Moreover; previous work experience was agreed among quarter of the surveyed as a criteria in Ramallah and one in five in Jerusalem, while kinship preceded recommendation in Gaza. Neighbourhood was fourth highest criteria in Hebron/rural and maturity was not selected as a criterion. Table 6-1: Criteria for selection of the apprentice by mentor or owner total and according to trade and geographic location Sector/Trade Geographic Location Total AM Sewing Nablus Ramallah Jerusalem Hebron/ Rural Gaza 1. Kinship/family ties 28.3% 36.7% 20.0% 22.2% 30.0% 0.0% 35.7% 38.5% 2. Neighbourhood 30.0% 26.7% 33.3% 27.8% 30.0% 0.0% 50.0% 23.1% 3. Recommendation from friend/colleague 65.5% 60.0% 71.4% 94.4% 40.0% 40.0% 78.6% 36.4% 4. From my same town of origin 1.7% 3.3% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 20.0% 0.0% 0.0% 5. Same religious affiliation 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 6. Level of formal education 3.4% 3.3% 3.6% 5.6% 10.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 7. Previous work experience 15.0% 13.3% 16.7% 0.0% 30.0% 20.0% 7.1% 30.8% 8. Talent for this trade 68.3% 70.0% 66.7% 55.6% 30.0% 40.0% 92.9% 100.0% 9. Their/ their parents ability to pay 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 10. No personal responsibilities (family, 1.7% 0.0% 3.3% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 7.7% children) 11. Maturity 40.0% 40.0% 40.0% 22.2% 50.0% 40.0% 0.0% 100.0% 12. Trustworthiness 75.0% 73.3% 76.7% 77.8% 40.0% 60.0% 85.7% 92.3% 13. Other (SPECIFY) 6.7% 6.7% 6.7% 0.0% 20.0% 20.0% 7.1% 0.0% Most mentors and owners have indicated that availability of work is the main factor on deciding upon the number of apprentices (78%), one in ten have mentioned the training capacity of the mentor. When asked what is the best age to start the training one in three of mentors and owners agreed that the best age is 16 and below, while one in two mentioned ages years, making up 90% at 19 and below. This percentage became 100% as stated by Hebron and Gaza mentors and owners, 94% in Nablus, 70% and 60% in Ramallah and Jerusalem respectively, indicating the preferences of mentors and owners for younger ages to start the informal apprenticeship, as mentioned by one of the owners: Being less than 18 years of age does not affect your level of productivity or awareness to health and safety; it all depends on how smart you are. The preference of mentors/owners for younger age for apprentices has changed according to gender as one mentor in sewing shop stated: is the best age for males and 17 to 19 for females, or actually the age of females is not important. The younger age was explained by an owner: Younger age is better for learning and for discipline. 28

43 Nevertheless, it was evident that two out of three mentors and owners specified that 18 is the legal age to start working, and little less than one out of three mentioned the age of 16, only one mentioned 12 and another mentioned 15. The Palestinian Labour Law Article (93) states: The employment of children before they reach the age of fifteen years shall be prohibited, Article (95) has specified conditions for the work of the minors, and the law has defined the minor to be years old. Most of the mentors and owners agree that the family decides on their sons/daughters below 18 years old enrolment in informal apprenticeship. Moreover most mentors and owners required a minimum level of basic education (72%); most of them required literacy and numeracy, while more than one in four did not require any minimum education. 6.2 Reasons for Apprentice Joining, Main reasons for apprentices joining were: to learn the skills of the trade and to earn some money now. These reasons were main factors regardless of age, gender and locality, with higher percentage of male, those from rural locality and age group for earning money, and higher percentage of respondents among female, age groups 15-29, urban and rural for learning skills, as illustrated in table below. Moreover; I dropped out of school followed for total respondents, this reason was the second reason for minors age 15-18, and it was high for age group 19-24, as well as for male, urban and rural. The fourth highest agreed reason was I didn t know what else to do, this was high among male and refugee camp in specific. While to open their business followed for total respondents, with higher respondents among rural, females and age group 19-24, while someone told me to do so was high among 25+ age groups and females. Remarkably; formal training was not the obstacle, as none claimed that it was expensive, or they did not meet the requirement, suggesting open access to TVET, but also how aware are the youth and families of these opportunities. Table 6-2: Apprentices reasons for joining informal apprenticeship Age of the Apprentice Gender Locality Total Male Female Urban Rural Refugee Camp 1. I didn t know what else 36.4% 12.5% 13.6% 12.5% 22.9% 0.0% to do 17% 12.2% 29.4% 50.0% 2. To learn the skills of the 45.5% 50.0% 46.9% 62.5% 68.6% 66.7% trade 33% 63.4% 64.7% 50.0% 3. To earn some money 63.6% 50.0% 39.5% 43.8% 57.1% 66.7% now 33% 43.9% 76.5% 50.0% 4. To open my own work 4.5% 12.5% 7.4% 6.3% 14.3% 0.0% in the future 0% 7.3% 17.6% 0.0% 5. Formal training is too 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% expensive 0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 6. I dropped out of school 30.9% 50.0% 48.6% 0.0% 0% 45.5% 12.5% 41.5% 47.1% 0.0% 7. I didn t meet the requirements of formal training 8. Someone told me to do so 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0% 4.9% 0.0% 5.7% 33.3% 17% 0.0% 0.0% 9.1% 25.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 9.8% 0.0% 0.0% 29

44 Moreover with regard to geographic locality, dropped out of school was the main reason with highest respondents for Nablus and Hebron (50% and 79% respectively), followed as third highest in Ramallah and Gaza (20% and 23% respectively). More respondents has selected the reason To open own business in Hebron and Jerusalem (29% and 20% respectively). The need to open their own business is related to context for Jerusalem as there are limited enterprises in East Jerusalem (20% compared to total of 7%), while for rural areas in Hebron (29%), people would rather develop their own communities and prefer to work near home with the increased risks of mobility to the centre due to context and its effect on mobility restrictions, as noted in several reports by UNOCHA ( While for females whom are affected by social restrictions, they prefer to work from home as self-employed and have their own work. One owner mentioned that many of the trained female apprentices are currently working from home per piece. Apprentices were gaining skills for better job while earning immediate income, as most of male apprentices has worked prior to joining the work place, mainly in unskilled work, such as cleaning, street vending, while most of the females got married or were engaged in other education opportunities prior to joining the work place. One in two apprentices further elaborated that they selected the trade, while one in three their parents did. This was the other way round for minors (age 15-18), in Gaza and Nablus. And the other way round for male apprentices, while none of the female apprentices had their parents decide for them, this is related to age as most of females were 35+, while most male apprentices were (within the age groups 15-24). Hence selection of the trade was highly age dependent. Almost one in two apprentices has chosen the workshop/company due to the fact that mentor or owner are friend of the family or family member, and one in five for being a neighbour, while 15% for the good reputation of the place. The good reputation was higher for females than males, which is expected, as females and their families would be cautious in male oriented society to apply for work in a work place without knowing of its reputation, or knowing and trusting the owners or mentors. Results indicated that 17% are family members with the owner; this was higher for males than females (18% and 13% respectively), 5% of apprentices where the sons, daughters or husband, 7% were second degree relatives and remaining other kinship to the owners 10. This resembles what the PFI representative has mentioned as informal apprenticeship was once the way to integrate family members in industry and trades, while currently owners are sending their kids to TVET and higher education. More than one in two of apprentices have introduced themselves to the mentor/owner (55%), while more than one in three were introduced by others to the mentor or owner, only 7% were approached by the mentor/owner. This result has changed according to age or locality, as higher percentage of younger age were introduced by others, opposed to higher percentage of older age introduced 10 Tthis percentage could not be considered national figure, due to limitation of the study as methodology explained 30

45 themselves. With regard to locality one in two in Nablus and 60% in Jerusalem were introduced by others. 6.3 Training Contract Only 60% of the apprentices confirmed having an agreement with the mentor/owner, out of whom only 2.8% have a written agreement while the remaining had oral agreement. The oral agreement is binding according to Palestinian Labour Law. The remaining 40% apprentices who did not conclude an agreement are mostly of a young age. While 92% of the mentors and owners confirmed having oral agreement, the variance between the mentors/owners and the apprentices is due to the fact that some of the minors are brought to the workplace by their parents, as they discuss the agreements rather than the apprentice, as explained by a mentor: When the parent brings the apprentice to train, he goes to work after I accept him, while I conclude the agreement with the parent, they are responsible for him, and I conclude an agreement with the elder. Hence most of the apprentices with oral agreement have approached the owner individually. Meanwhile; Only 6.7% of the enterprises concluded written agreements with apprentice or parent. The written agreements increased in the sewing trade to 10%, and reduced to 3% in the AM. It has increased according to increased company size as it reached 25% or more in companies employing 20 and above, while it was non-existent in small companies employing less than five. More than half of the mentors/owners and apprentices, who have agreements, mentioned that wages, working hours and holidays, transportation and coverage of work accidents are included in the agreement, while 47% and 40% of the apprentices in auto-mechanics mentioned the addition of food and transportation respectively, as noted below. Table 6-3: Elements included in the agreement AM Sewing Total Mentor/owner Apprentice Mentor/owner Apprentice Mentor/owner Apprentice 1. Food 60.0% 47% 30.0% 23.3% 45.0% 35.0% 2. Accommodation 0.0% 3% 6.7% 0.0% 3.3% 1.7% 3. Wage 83.3% 53% 93.3% 63.3% 88.3% 58.3% 4. Working hours 86.7% 47% 93.3% 56.7% 90.0% 51.7% 5. Holidays 63.3% 43% 76.7% 53.3% 70.0% 48.3% 6. Content of apprenticeship 16.7% 0% 10.0% 0.0% 13.3% 0.0% 7. Certification at the end of apprenticeship 3.3% 0% 0.0% 0.0% 1.7% 0.0% 8. Social protection 0.0% 0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 9. Health Insurances 3.3% 3% 6.7% 3.3% 5.0% 3.3% 10. Working clothes 3.3% 7% 0.0% 0.0% 1.7% 3.3% 11. Transportation 50.0% 40% 43.3% 20.0% 46.7% 30.0% 12. Coverage of Work 66.7% 43% 86.7% 46.7% 76.7% 45.0% 31

46 accidents 13. Other 3.3% 3% 3.3% 0.0% 3.3% 1.7% It was noted that apprentices approval to elements included in the agreement is two third that mentioned by the mentors/owners, such difference is due to various elements, first due to the fact that parents concluded the agreement in one third of the cases, second to different understanding of terms; for instance wage is considered pocket money for apprentices, thirdly due to lack of knowledge of work accidents coverage. Such contradiction due to lack of knowledge of the apprentice to their own rights and privileges raise the importance of written agreements and of inclusion of the apprentices in the agreement, even if apprentice was a minor. 6.4 Progression of Learning Duration of training One in three of the mentors/owners mentioned that the duration of the apprenticeship is agreed with the apprentice. Duration is trade specific, and as mentioned by mentors, the duration of the informal apprenticeship training differs according to apprentice and work load available, hence it could be as minimum as 1 month to 36 months for sewing with an average of 12 months, depending on complexity of work required as they stated, in many shops currently they only receive designed and cut fabrics to sew hence one to few months would be enough, while if other operations were involved including design then it could reach almost two years (22 months). Duration for AM is as minimum as 6 months to a maximum of 60 months with an average of 30 months, depending on type of workshop, type of jobs received, linked to new technology and complexity of tasks required. An AM workshop maintaining traditional cars would train less than one maintaining auto-electronics systems within the new cars. Figure 6-2: Duration of the informal apprenticeship according to trade in months The Agreed Apprenticeship Period The Actual Period Total AM Sewing 32

47 The difference between agreed and actual period of training depends on various factors, but as stated by mentors and owners it mainly depends on motivation and ability of apprentice, as mentioned by one mentor: Training period highly if not solely depends on the trainee's ability to understand and motivation to learn The difference between agreed and actual especially in sewing is due to the flexibility of such a system and its ability to deal with women social burden, as explained by the apprentice: There is a large amount of flexibility with work, as my daughter has kidney failure and I need to take her to the hospital every two days. The boss is very lenient and allows me to take days off whenever needed. The results indicated a variation between agreed and actual is according to gender as noted above. In addition variation was also witnessed according to the location where in Ramallah and Jerusalem the actual time was twice the agreed, it was three times or more in Nablus and Gaza, and almost similar in Hebron, but longer. The difference is also linked with measures and tests that are in the hand of the mentor/owner to decide upon concluding the training as will be noted in the coming section, where sometimes they prolong the training for different other reasons. On the contrary in Gaza it was noted that the average duration agreed was two months, after which they or the apprentice decide if they want to continue or not, hence considered a trial period prior to apprenticeship training. This period is less than the training period carried out by the skilled workers at the beginning of their career, reaching an average of 31 months. The AM apprenticeship period reached 37 months and the sewing reached 26 months, which is higher than the current apprenticeship, especially for sewing. Indicating the difference in the sewing industry over years as explained earlier. Yet it was noted that informal apprenticeship period changed over the years; as mentors average period was higher when they conduct it years ago, it reached an average of 40 months as a total, (46 months for AM and 34 months for sewing). Historical changes in trades were explained by two of the interviewed; an owner of one of the sewing enterprises and one of the AM union board members respectively: The import culture from China and Turkey has majorly harmed the local sewing factories, especially the smaller ones. The previous system was for a clothes shop to have a few sewers where they design, sew and sell at the same time, however having much cheaper options coming from China and Turkey this is no longer the case. Skills required from sewers and salaries have dropped drastically due to the same reason of import. Skills no longer pass on from one generation to the next. This is due to the nature and developments of the sector. Cars have changed a lot. Years ago all you needed to know where the 33

48 basics of mechanics and with experience you learned everything. Today cars have advanced electric systems, and circuit boards. This makes passing on the profession the old ways is no longer possible. In many circumstances, new graduates are more capable of teaching than old experienced mechanics. The case of sewing development has indicated the reduction of skills needed, while the automechanics Union has indicated the change in mentors qualifications over the years, as noted both factors have led to reduction of training periods Trial Period Most enterprises have a trial period (88%) for apprenticeship ranging from seven days to seven months, with an average of little less than two months (59 days). All sewing shops have the trail period, while 77% of AM workshops have a trial period. Average of the trial period for sewing was less than two months, while that of AM reached around two months and a half. The trial period was also affected by the geographic area, as one in two mentors/owners would request a trial period in Gaza, three out of four in Ramallah and all in Hebron, Nablus and Jerusalem would require a trial period. Duration was lowest in Jerusalem and highest in Hebron, which indicates that trial period is not only trade specific but also related to local contexts and cultures, as explained by two of the owners: The first period of two to three months is a trial period, I give him various jobs, I need to test his endurance, commitment, cooperation after which I start training him on the trade, this is also an opportunity for him to decide if he wants to continue or not. The apprentices are sons of relatives and friends I need to show them seriousness in the training, I tell them if you don t get through the trial period, you are back on the streets, but then I use this period to discuss with his parents the progress. Although it was worth noting that trainees saw their first period of training or trial period as being broom-stick-chauffeur, Table 6-4: Duration of the trial period for the apprentice according to trade and geographic location in days Minimum Maximum Mean Median Mentor Total Mentor AM Mentor Sewing Nablus Ramallah Jerusalem Hebron Gaza Concluding the Apprenticeship An average of five apprentices per enterprise have concluded their training during the last two years while an average of one apprentice per enterprise have left before concluding (dropped out of the 34

49 training), the drop-out rate is high and could be considered a call for improvement from the apprentice. Some enterprises did not have apprentices that concluded their training and maximum reached 40 (sewing and big enterprises), while the drop out has ranged between none to 20 during the past two years. The AM had an average of three concluding and one dropping out, while Sewing had an average of 7 concluding during the last 2 years and two dropping. The number is also dependent on company size, as in small ones three apprentices has concluded their training, compared to five in medium size and in large size, while dropping varied between one and four. Only one in three mentors and owners agree on the period for training as they elaborated. This number goes down to one in five in Jerusalem, and 31% in Gaza, while increases to 44% and 40% in Nablus and Ramallah respectively, and remains average in Hebron. Numbers did not vary according to sector, as one owner mentioned: Experience gained to conclude the training is not related to time, it is purely related to skills and motivation. The remaining two in three mentor/owner who did not specify a period for concluding the apprenticeship, stated that most would know of the concluding When the apprentice has learnt the trade (skills test) (74%), while 10% or less agreed with other reasons If apprentice is fit enough to get own clients, If apprentice is fit enough to start own his/her business or when the apprentice can work on his/her own, and others which included better response and understanding, quicker and full acquiring of the profession. This high rate of enterprises not confirming the period indicates the importance of certification and accreditation to avoid any intended or non-intended exploitation. Table below illustrates the difference between areas, as most mentors/owners consider learning the skill set as an indicator, this was not the case in Hebron as one mentioned: I consider the training is concluded when the apprentice can attract customers and manage his/her work alone. Table 6-5: Mentors/Owners ways of determining the end of apprenticeship AM Sewing Nablus Ramallah Jerusalem Hebron Gaza total 1.When the apprentice has learnt the trade(skills test) 75.0% 73.7% 90.0% 83.3% 75.0% 30.0% 100.0% 74.4% 2.If apprentice is fit enough to get own clients 15.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 30.0% 0.0% 7.7% 3.If apprentice is fit enough to start own business 10.0% 10.5% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 40.0% 0.0% 10.3% 4.Able to work on his/her own 0.0% 15.8% 10.0% 0.0% 0.0% 20.0% 0.0% 7.7% 5.Other 20.0% 5.3% 10.0% 16.7% 25.0% 20.0% 0.0% 12.8% The difference according to the sector was apparent, as those in sewing would decide if they can work on his/her own, while none would agree to get own clients, as they don t interact with clients, unlike AM for these two reasons, while most of those working in both trades agreed on the apprentice has learned the skills. 35

50 Meanwhile; more than half of the apprentices do not know the way in which their apprenticeship is concluded (57%), while one in three mentioned that the mentor will decide. In certain cases during field work it was recorded that mentor/owner will only prolong the apprentice training, other cases were they would not allow the apprentice to move to another business, using community and family pressure, especially for women and girls. The mentors have stated that the average period for apprentices to deal with customers reached 19 months, with a minimum of one month to a maximum of 36 months. This period is almost half of the duration of the training. Employing the apprentice and recruiting a skilled worker for a job by the mentors is evidence based, as more than one in two of mentors stated that they have to demonstrate their skills, or through a trial period, while none of the mentors would recruit based on formal certificate, while third came upon recommendations and fourth only when I knew them personally. These results were replicated for AM and sewing with higher agreements for sewing as indicated in table below. While the order of bases changed according to geographic location, as table below indicates. Table 6-6: Bases for selection and recruitment of skilled workers as stated by mentors: Sector/Trade Geographic Location Total AM Sewing Nablus Ramallah Jerusalem Hebron/Rural Gaza Formal Certificates 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% Upon 40.0% 33.3% 46.7% 38.9% 20.0% 40.0% 64.3% 30.8% recommendation Only when I know 35.0% 26.7% 43.3% 38.9% 10.0% 0.0% 28.6% 69.2% them personally They need to 58.3% 43.3% 73.3% 61.1% 40.0% 40.0% 71.4% 61.5% demonstrate their skills Trial period 55.0% 43.3% 66.7% 38.9% 60.0% 80.0% 78.6% 38.5% Mentors preferences for demonstrating their skills and a trial period had affected their decision to employ their own apprentices, as can be realized from the results of follow up of the apprentices after concluding their training, where almost one out of three apprentices are employed in the same place they trained in ( outcome section). 7 Decent work aspects 11 Decent work aspect contains four main pillars, employment, social protection, workers rights and social dialogue, as defined by the ILO and stated in the glossary. This chapter will cover the relevant issues of work conditions, Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) as well as Social security and protection. It has to be noted that the Palestinian Labour Law number 7 for the year 2000 covers various items of work conditions and rights for those employed (PA 2000). The Law is in accordance with International 11 Reference to all national figures quoted in this section, unless otherwise specified, is: Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS), Labour Force Survey: Annual Report: Ramallah - Palestine. 36

51 Labour Organisation (ILO) and Arab Labour Organisation (ALO) standards (MAS 2008). Within the following years, the PA has issued more than 30 bylaws to amend or support implementation of the law, including ratification of the minimum wage legislation in the year 2012, workplace safety and general safety standards, specific occupational issues, holidays (ETF 2014). 7.1 Work Conditions: Wages and working hours Half of the apprentices and most of the skilled Skilled workers are aware of their rights Work injuries 4,9% regarding wages, working hours and Health insurance 7,4% 7,4% little less on vacations, around one in three of skilled workers are aware of work injuries while 9% or less are aware of other rights. Social protection Vacations Working hours wages 9,3% 3,7% Figure 7-1: Apprentices and Skilled Workers awareness of their rights Apprentice 31,5% 39,5% 53,1% 51,9% 79,6% 85,2% 87,0% Workers and employees were granted with rights through the Palestinian Labour Law and bylaws which covers all of the above (PA 2000). The Minimum wage was set at 1450 ILS in the year Results indicate that although half are aware of part of the rights, with time more apprentices will be aware of their rights, yet rights related to insurance is still weak. Meanwhile the social protection law and regulations are still under preparation in Palestine. In addition to above rights granted by labour law, by tradition some of the work places for certain trades provide food, especially AM in this case, while others provide transportation for AM and sewing especially for women and girls in sewing, which are considered gained rights. Hence One in Four and one in five of skilled workers mentioned that they are aware of transportation and food respectively, these percentages went down to 5% and 3.3% respectively for apprentices. All apprentices get some sort of pay, they receive pocket money, or wage, and some receive tips on top of the wage or the pocket money, only 3% in Gaza AM trade don t get wage or pocket money, but gets tips. The average received of wage or pocket money reaches 70% of the national monthly minimum wage of (1,450 ILS), as noted in table below, for those who receive extra tips on top can have almost equivalent earning to min wage. The average wage is less than half of the national daily rate of (83.2ILS). It was recorded that 97% of the apprentices get wages or pocket money and 25% gets tips. Results have changed according to trade, as half of the apprentices working in AM receive tips from clients on top of their wage or pocket money, while none of the sewing does, as they don t interact with clients. In 37

52 addition; the average wage or pocket money of apprentice in AM was higher than that of sewing, as table illustrates. As for geographic localities, East Jerusalem is linked to Israeli earnings and minimum wage is three times the Palestinian one, which affected earning of the apprentice, as apprentices from Jerusalem, gets twice that of the overall. Moreover apprentices in Gaza and Nablus earn below that of Ramallah and Hebron, this is comparable to national daily rate of workers according to locality, as according to PCBS labour force survey of 2015, the daily rates of workers in Gaza reaches 26% below average daily rate of Palestine (83.2ILS), and that of the West Bank is 13% above it. Moreover; Daily rates of workers in Ramallah and Jerusalem are above the daily rates of the West Bank, while those of Nablus and Hebron are below it. Wages are also affected by locality being rural or urban or due to its proximity to the center, as noted by one of the owners: Sewing workshops work better in villages as they are not watched for minimum wage and life is generally cheaper, implying that salaries could be lower. Certainly wages are affected by gender, reflecting the 24% national gender gap of wages, linked with perception of gender roles and attitudes. One of the owners elaborated: Women get paid less than men, I pay a man 1000 NIS per month where a woman gets 700, that's because men smoke, women don t and men go out while women don't! Table 7-1: Min, Max, Average and Median of weekly Wages, Pocket Money and tips received by the apprentice for all apprentices and according to trade 12 Per Week Monthly Minimum Maximum Mean Median Average Total Average ( Wage / Pocket Money) per week (ILS) Average Tips/extra money from clients (on top of wage/pocket money) per week (ILS) per week AM Average ( Wage / Pocket Money) per week (ILS) Average Tips/extra money from clients (on top of wage/pocket money) per week (ILS) per week Sewing Average ( Wage / Pocket Money) per week (ILS) Nablus Average ( Wage / Pocket Money) per week (ILS) Average Tips/extra money from clients (on top of wage/pocket money) per week (ILS) per week Ramallah Average ( Wage / Pocket Money) per week (ILS) Average Tips/extra money from clients (on top of wage/pocket money) per week (ILS) per week Jerusalem Average ( Wage / Pocket Money) per week (ILS) Average Tips/extra money from clients (on top of wage/pocket money) per week (ILS) per week Hebron Average ( Wage / Pocket Money) per week (ILS) Average Tips/extra money from clients (on top of wage/pocket money) per week (ILS) per week Gaza Average ( Wage / Pocket Money) per week (ILS) Average Tips/extra money from clients (on top of wage/pocket money) per week (ILS) per week The Israeli Shekels (ILS) is the local currency used in Palestine 38

53 It s worth noting that none of the families or apprentices pay for the apprenticeship as appeared in the survey of the apprentices, yet one of the surveyed sewing companies was collecting fees, the interviewed apprentice was exempted due to her poor household conditions, hence 1.7% of the mentor/owner was getting fees. Moreover; almost none of the mentors/owners have stated that apprentices have to bring their own tools with them. As for the wage after concluding the apprenticeship the average expected earning was a little higher than the minimal wage, with around one third variance of minimum and maximum from the average. Again; expectations varied according to trade and geography, as Gaza average was almost half of the total, reflecting the difference in daily rate between West Bank and Gaza. Table 7-2: Min, Max, Average and Median of expected monthly earnings after concluding the apprenticeship as stated by apprentice and mentor/owner Minimum Maximum Mean Median Apprentice After finalizing apprenticeship, how much would you earn? Mentor/ Owner After finalizing apprenticeship, how much would a graduated apprentice earn in your workshop? Average (ILS) Minimum (ILS) Maximum (ILS) Average (ILS) Minimum (ILS) Maximum (ILS) The expectations compare with the skilled worker current earnings, as results indicated that the average wage is 2,317 ILS, with a minimum of 600 ILS and a max of 4,000 ILS, skilled workers have been working for an average of 14 years. The average expected earnings by the apprentices is 1.4 of their current average earnings, while the mentors mentioned that apprentice earning after concluding of the training could be at an average of 1824 ILS; which is 1.2 times higher than the apprentice expectations. Such results were noted by people in the community, one mentor has mentioned: who wants to impoverish his son should teach him sewing. As for the average working hours per day, it has varied between five to fifteen hours; between less than a working day and almost two shifts per day, with an average of nine working hours. Hence; apprentices are working at 54 hours weekly, higher than the national number of working hours weekly of 41.4 and opposed to labour law that sets the maximum working hours per week to 48. This is the case in the AM more than the sewing where the average is 48 hours a week, and the maximum is 9 hours as opposed to 15 hours in AM. Table 7-3: Number of working hours per day and the number of working days per week (Min, Max, Average and Median) for the total apprentices and according to trade Minimum Maximum Mean Median Total Hours/day Days per week AM Hours/day Days per week Sewing Hours/day Days per week

54 With regard to holidays; Only one in two apprentices takes a weekend, and less takes public holidays fully, as all private sector shuts in big feasts but not in other public holidays sums up to (7 out of 11 days). While; 8% does not take any sort of holiday or days off, same don t know. One in four can take a holiday upon request, which could provide them with days off. Figure 7-2: Days-off /Holidays enjoyed by the apprentice 47% 60% Weekend 53% 3% 0% 2% Annual Leave AM Sewing Total 43% 40% 37% Full Public Holiday 17% 33% Upon request 25% 13% 8% 10% 7% 8% 3% None Don t know Owners/Mentors have explained that apprentice is a trainee not an employee yet, and he/she needs to use the opportunities to learn as much as they can, moreover as more than half of the businesses are informal family business, with the apprentice being a family member or from the neighbourhood then informal family relations extends to the business, especially the small ones. 7.2 Working environment and Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) All enterprises had electricity, water and toilets; in addition 87.5% of those employing females had separate toilets for males and females. All mentors mentioned that the physical conditions of ventilation, lights, noise, for the working conditions fit the Occupational Safety and Health Requirements. Although the observation of the OSH noted that most were in compliance with regard to workplace environment, electrical installations, machinery and tools as well as first aid and sanitation, yet other safety measures such as accidents, fire protection, emergency exists require attention. While some of the other measures were not applicable to their type of business. The graph below indicates the areas of non-compliance, which cover all elements with different degrees, indicating that all elements would require attention and improvement. 40

55 Figure 7-3 Distribution of Workshops/ companies according to compliance with OSH (Percentages) 100,00 90,00 80,00 70,00 60,00 50,00 40,00 30,00 20,00 10,00 - Workplace Environment, Electrical Installation Machinery Hand & Power Tools Chemical materials Gas cylinders PPE Stores and storage Ladders & stairways Hoists Scaffolds Slings Safety signs Fire protection Emergency Exists First Aid Sanitation Train.& certificates Accident Pollutants Overall In Compliance NOT in Compliance NA Moreover, 60% did not have any workers who were trained on OSH or First aid, over 90% does not record the accidents although accidents occur. The average compliance of all measures is 43%, 34% not in compliance and 23% is Not Applicable. These results echo the fact that 62% of the enterprises are not registered, whereas some of these measures are part of the registration requirements, or within the OSH proposed Palestinian Law and the current regulations. Yet, the measuring of compliance is indicative to the deep problem of OSH within the private sector enterprises and specifically within informal businesses, as each of the elements could be killing factor. Hence compliance within OSH requires more work of supervision and inspection to be done by the Ministry of Labour (MOL) according to its mandate. According to interview with the head of OHS at the MOL, over 500 cases are recorded annually as work accidents, in 2015, 664 cases were recorded, 39% of which were in industrial sector compared to 19% in services sector and 17% in construction; over half of the construction sector injuries were fatal. They conduct regular inspection visits for the different establishments, but the lack of resources limits their regular visits and their reach. The work accidents report from Gaza MOL has indicated that one third of the accidents are due to work environment (33%), little higher (37%) are due to machinery operation, 10% due to transportation, 8% chemicals and materials, the remaining are due to other reasons. Sewing shop owners perceived their trade as less dangerous than others due to type of machinery used, underestimating the work environment and other aspects, one sewing workshop owner mentioned: 41

56 The sewing field is not a dangerous field, the worst injury that could happen is getting poked by a needle, according to insurance companies it is listed under 1% risk of injury. Some of the OSH requirements are part of the registration requirement, yet as 62% are not registered, then they were not asked to prepare the required work environment. It was noted by observation that some of these workplaces are unfit for their operations. With regard to AM the head of OSH unit at the MOL mentioned the higher risk in auto-body repair; this was also noted through observation. 7.3 Social security and protection Risks, work related accidents and illness 88% of apprentices mentioned that the master craftsperson made him/her aware of work-related risks, 93% of the AM apprentices and 83% of those in sewing trade. 95% of apprentices mentioned that the master craftsperson explained measures how to protect themselves from work-related risks. More than one in eight (13%) apprentices suffered work-related accidents at the work place. The same percentage existed in AM and sewing trades, the work accidents were: injury by needle by some, others by scissors, equipment dropped on an apprentice leg causing fractures, one fainted and another had a blast in the car battery. All cases were provided with medical support either on the premises or in hospital. Most mentors mentioned that in case of work injury they would cover the cost (76.5%). 15.7% mentioned that it will be covered by the insurance and the remaining (7.8%) by the apprentice or their parents. This has differed by locality as all mentors/owners in Nablus and Hebron will cover the work accident, while 40% and 60% will do in Jerusalem and Ramallah respectively, while the remaining 60% and 40% respectively will be covered by insurance. It was only in Gaza that apprentice or family pay (46%), while 39% of the mentors/ owners will pay and the remaining 15% will be covered by the insurance. In case apprentice stayed at home due to work injury mentors/owners will act differently, some would pay his wage/pocket money, or insurance will pay, others would say depending on his/her or parents economic conditions. In case of illness, two in three owners/mentors mentioned that parents or relatives of apprentice will pay, while more than one in five of owners/ mentors will pay (22%), and one in ten owners/ mentors mentioned that apprentice will pay, while 7% mentioned that insurance will pay (all were from Jerusalem, following Israeli Law). 42

57 In comparison between the two cases, it s obvious that most mentors/owners will pay for work injuries, while it s not the case for illness, those in Jerusalem will be covered by the insurance, while part of those covered by the parents in the West Bank and Gaza will be covered by medical insurance if they have one. Figure 7-4: Coverage of medication for work injury or in case of illness Injury Medical 75,0% 65,0% 10,0% 18,3% 15,0% 10,0% 6,7% 0,0% Mentor/ owner Apprentice Parents/relatives Insurance One of the issues raised by one of the interviewed regarding the role of insurance companies in Palestine, which is worth mentioning, as one of the buffers to provide protection for apprentices: The insurance companies run away from responsibilities, Insurance companies also run away from payments of work based injuries of workers, so people do not always pay for insurance. More than two in three mentors /owners mentioned that wage/pocket money will not be paid in case of absence due to illness or work injuries (71%), 15.5% mentioned that they will pay, while 5% will pay if it was work injury, some percentage will pay if his/her economic status is poor. Figure 7-5: Payment of wage/pocket money in case of illness or work injury 5% 1,70% 5% 70,7% 1,70% 15,5% Wage/pocket money will be paid Wage/pocket money will not be paid Will pay if it was a work injury will pay if his/her economic status is poor insurance will pay (Jerusalem) I do not pay any wage or pocket money Although by Palestinian law any worker is entitled to sick leave, but due to lack of clear regulations within the law in terms of apprenticeship and the high informality among business, it ended up with little more than one in six paying for sick leave due to illness or injury. 43

58 7.3.2 Treatment of Apprentices and Harassment at workplace Almost all mentors/ owners mentioned that they will make up for the damage caused by the apprentice during work (96%), only one enterprise (2%) mentioned that the apprentice will make up for the damage, another one of the mentors (2%) mentioned: Whoever take responsibility depend on who is responsible, if the owner/mentor is responsible then he should make up for the damages, if the apprentice is responsible he should make up for the damages. Almost one in two of the respondent mentors/owners would treat misbehaviour from the apprentice gradually, through guiding, warning then dismissal. Some would dismiss immediately and others would deal differently either with anger using verbal and physical abuse, just guiding, according to case or contact the parents, as graph indicates. Figure 7-6: Actions taken by Mentor/Owner if apprentice misbehaves- As noted by Mentors/owners Dismiss Immediately 8% 47% 4% 4% 15% 14% 8% Never happened Act of Anger (shout and beat) Gradient dealing (guidning, warning then dismissing if repeated) Accroding to case Report to the parents Guiding On the other hand, most of the apprentices responded that they will guide and correct, while others mentioned beating (physical abuse), but linked it with the relation with the owner, as two apprentices mentioned: My Father (who is the mentor) beats me and act strictly with me as he wants me to learn everything, My uncle (who is the mentor) beats me as he wants the best for me. These cases were only three, and verbal abuse another two, but reflect part of the practices within traditional apprenticeship. While others who the mentor/owner was from the community mentioned guidance as a reaction, as noted by one apprentice: Providing advice and guidance, he treats me as a son, as he is a friend of my father. They also mentioned according to the case, this was explained by the mentor: If he misbehaved with a client he is disciplined and asked to apologias to the client, but if his misbehaviour was in his work, in negligence for example, then he is guided more than once and if repeated will be dismissed. 44

59 When apprentices were asked if they were harassed physically and verbally only one (1.7%) mentioned he was, although according to the above, five apprentices mentioned being subjected to this abuse if they misbehaved (8%, i.e. five times that). This is due to the fact that its justified if they misbehaved, especially from close family members. Within the same context only one in twenty of apprentices have witnessed illegal actions or abuse. It was noted through the research that mentors/owners lack understanding of various aspects of the Palestinian labour law, general lack on how to apply this law and lack of knowledge on what this law states, hence are unaware of their obligations according to law, or disagreeing with some of its articles as one of the owners mentioned: The labour law is more harmful to our company than useful, as they ask for things that will never allow us to become a sustainable business, especially when it comes to end of service benefits. 8 Quality of Training and Training outcome 8.1 Quality of training Only 15.7% of the mentors mentioned that they have a prior prepared plan written or unwritten, this percentage became 3.8% for AM and 28% for Sewing. Most mentors who prepare the plans would do so based on their experiences, except for one who mentioned that he would use different training resources. Although written plan is not available for most mentors, yet they have elaborated on their approach of training, moving gradually from basic skills to the more advanced ones. Two of the mentors in AM and sewing explained the gradual process of training in both trade respectively: When the apprentice arrive I would be interested in first 2-3 months in making him acquainted with the workshop, the equipment and safety, so he does not hurt himself, then he would learn with whatever work comes to the workshop, he would watch first and help in handling the tools, and would then be trusted to unlock, tie parts, and gradually will be able to do some work accompanied by the skilled worker, of course it depends on the apprentice himself to develop his skills. During the first period of general training, and watching others, while adding buttons or removing extra threads, we then teach them to handle the sewing machine, how to operate it and maintain it, and then give them cloths to train on. Mentors explained that at a later stage; apprentices would be required to do the different jobs as defined by both trades and explained by a sewing shop owner: Learning in the place of work depends on their ability to learn the craft they develop in the workplace. The trainees rotate to the various parts, like the sewing division, the cutting division, the ironing division, and the final product check, this enables them to learn holistically about all the aspects of the work. Hence within 3 months to a year the trainee has gained experience. 45

60 Mentors have indicated the type of skills taught during the informal apprenticeship, as shown in graph below, as all mentors would train on technical skills, most on safe handling of tools and half on purchasing materials. Less than half of the mentors would provide theoretical background information, indicating the need to bridge the gap through the TVET-market interaction as noted by Head of the Sewing Union in Gaza: There is a large difference between what is taught in vocational schools and the market. The schools teach theory, apprenticeship training in the market teach the newest skills needed, in addition to being market relevant. The relation between the market and vocational schools needs to be gapped, they need to cooperate better Figure 8-1: Distribution of Mentors by Skills taught to apprenticeship 11. Other 10. Literacy/numeracy 9. Safe handling of tools and 8. Marketing and advertising 7. Negotiating with customers 6. Purchasing of materials 5. Accounting and cost calculation 4. Maintenance of machines 3. Workshop organization, workflow of production 2. Theoretical background information 1. Technical Skills 1,7% 10,0% 1,7% 16,7% 1,7% 20,0% 36,7% 45,0% 53,3% 88,3% 100,0% The adopted Arab Occupational Qualification (AOC) was used as a reference in evaluating the quality of skills gained evaluated by the mentor. The degree of gained skills by the apprentice has varied according to skills and trade. Tables below illustrate the degree of the skills that the informal apprenticeship trainee obtain and time to obtain it, for auto-mechanics, followed by sewing. Mentors and skilled workers were able to assess the degree of proficiency the apprentice will gain through his training in AM and time needed in months, both have similar answers, as table below illustrates. As noted the only difference is the auto-electrics systems which depend on the workshop itself if they were getting enough work in this area, equipped enough, or skilled, as one skilled work mentioned: we don t do much in auto-electrics. Within the same regard; one in fourteen (7%) of the mentors stated that they would send the apprentices to other places to get the skills they can t train in their enterprise, this percentage increased to 10% in sewing versus 3% in AM. 46

61 Table 8-1: Degree of the skills that the informal apprenticeship trainee obtains and time to obtain it (Auto-Mechanics) Degree of the skills that the informal Mentor Skilled Worker apprenticeship trainee obtain and when can Degree of proficiency Degree of proficiency he/she obtain it (Auto-mechanics)/degree of perfection Beginner Intermediate Proficient Average time (Months) Beginner Intermediate Proficient Average time (Months) Apprentice Average time (Months) 1. Knowledge of the basics of electrical and 26.3% 10.5% 63.2% 10 electronic circuits 16.7% 22.2% 61.1% Knowledge of tools and equipment for the % 7.7% 73.1% profession 8.7% 8.7% 82.6% Diagnose engine faults 20.8% 25.0% 54.2% % 30.4% 47.8% Vehicle diagnostic and Faults findings in its different systems 20.8% 33.3% 45.8% % 31.8% 50.0% Diagnosing malfunctions of vehicle electronic systems using electronic devices 25.0% 6.3% 68.8% % 23.5% 58.8% Scanning and diagnostics 6. Maintenance of engine head 20.0% 32.0% 48.0% % 34.8% 47.8% Maintenance of faults within Vehicle different systems 12.0% 36.0% 52.0% % 39.1% 47.8% Faults Maintenance of electronic injections 18.8% 18.8% 62.5% % 23.5% 64.7% Washing and lubricating the vehicle 13.0% 0.0% 87.0% 3 8.7% 13.0% 78.3% Balancing tires and the front corners of the vehicle body 11. Maintenance of supporting Electrical systems in vehicles 12. Occupational Safety and Health for the profession 21.7% 26.1% 52.2% 8 8.7% 39.1% 52.2% % 13.3% 73.3% % 23.5% 58.8% % 3.8% 80.8% 3 8.7% 13.0% 78.3% 2 2 As for sewing; mentors and skilled workers were able to assess the degree of proficiency the apprentice will gain through training and average time needed in months, as table below illustrates, there are similarities between the mentors and the skilled workers, as the highest proficient degree would be in the maintenance of machinery and OSH, as well as adding printing, embroidery, buttons and accessories. These are the first jobs the apprentice would do first two to three months, as explained by mentor. While the actual operation of sewing cloths will require the whole period, and the level of proficiency would be intermediate to proficient. It was noted that none have trained on Computer Aided Design (CAD), as enterprises are not using it, and as explained by a long experienced owner: we get the fabric ready from Israel designed and cut, we only have to do the finishing. There are some new Palestinian initiatives of designing, sewing and marketing cloths I hope they will succeed. Hence its evident that the skills used in the work place and trained through informal apprenticeship varies according to trade status, type of work and jobs available, equipment available and level of skills of the mentors, while most are not complementing the deficit in skills by sending the apprentice to other places, hence pointing out to the importance of formalising the apprenticeship, assessing the quality and providing certification. 47

62 Table 8-2: Degree of the skills that the informal apprenticeship trainee obtains and time to obtain it (Sewing) Degree of the skills that the informal apprenticeship trainee obtain and when can he/she obtain it (Sewing) /degree of perfection Mentor Degree of proficiency Skilled Worker Degree of proficiency Beginner Intermedia te Proficient Average time (Months) Beginner Intermedia te Proficient Average time (Months) Apprentice Average time (Months) 1.Taking measurements/the degree of perfection 14.3% 21.4% 64.3% % 7.4% 81.5% Prepare sketches: women's, men's or kids clothes 3. Preparation of cloth s sketches using computer software 0.0% 44.4% 55.6% % 0.0% 0.0% 4. Preparing and cutting of fabrics using patterns 10.0% 35.0% 55.0% Preparing, operating and maintaining of sewing machines 6. Sewing the cloth (Women / men / children cloth) 7.1% 3.6% 89.3% % 33.3% 66.7% % 22.2 % 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 21.7% 13.0 % 44.4% % % 3.3% 83.3% % 16.7 % 41.7% Adding the buttons and other accessories 10.7% 3.6% 85.7% % 3.3% 83.3% Adding Printings and embroidery 0.0% 0.0% % % 0.0% 40.0% Finishing off the cloth 10.0% 16.7% 73.3% % 7.1% 78.6% Occupational Safety and Health for the profession 7.1% 3.6% 89.3% % 3.6% 82.1% Moreover; 98% of mentors/owners have mentioned that the available equipment are enough to carry out the informal apprenticeship, one AM mentor mentioned that obtaining spare parts is a challenge to the training. While only one in three of the mentors have models or simulators for training, as they believe that training is practical and hands on uses the real equipment and faults, the one third are in Hebron, Nablus and Jerusalem (40%), Ramallah (one third) and none in Gaza. As noted by mentors, these models are old cars and parts for AM, or specific materials for sewing so that apprentice can train before working on the actual. 8.2 Training outcomes Out of the 309 trained in the 60 enterprises during the last two years, the mentors could record the cases of 67% of the apprentices. It was recorded that 94.6% of the graduates of the system are participating in the labour force. This rate is significant when comparing to national participation rates of youth which is only 32.7%, and when comparing to national participation rates of women which is 19%. (PCBS 2016) For those participating in the labour force, as illustrated in the graph, one in five apprentices was able to start their own business, two out of three of whom within their field of training. The figure is considered high in comparison with the national figures of 6.2% owners or employers according to (PCBS 2016). 48

63 In addition to the above; the results indicates that two out of three of the apprentices are employed. More than one in three of the apprentices are working in same business, two out of three of them within field of training. While more than one in four apprentices has found employment in another small business. While one in twenty found jobs in big businesses or public sector, mostly outside the field of training. Only 1% was recorded unemployed. Figure 8-2: Apprentice status after finishing their apprenticeship 13 Within field of Training Outside the Field of Training 26,7% 13,8% 8,2% 12,8% 1,5% 3,1% 19,0% 11,3% 1,0% 2,6% Set up own business Are employed in this business Found a job in large business or public sector Found a job in other small business Unemployed Other/ intermittent worker or work by piece These results are in line with future expectations of the apprentices as 91.5% thinks that informal apprenticeship could provide him/her with gainful employment. Results are also in line with reasons for joining informal apprenticeship, as 40% joined To earn some money now and 7% joined To open my own project in the future Skilled worker has stated that 76% found jobs immediately and 89% within six months of graduation, half of whom worked in the same workshop where they trained in. 91% of the skilled worker mentioned that the skills they have learned through informal apprenticeship was important for their current occupation. While 98% of the mentors mentioned that the skills they have learned through informal apprenticeship was important for their current occupation. 8.3 Skills recognition One in ten apprentices will get a certificate after the training ends, the percentage increased for AM to 14% and dropped to 7% sewing. With regard to geographic location; one in five will receive it in Jerusalem, Ramallah and Gaza, while none in Nablus or Hebron will receive a certificate. One of the mentors mentioned: No certificates are given, but verbal recommendation and reputation were important for employment. 13 It has to be noted that this is not a tracer study and based on records but based on mentor knowledge, and could give an indication for the qualitative study. 49

64 The certificate received would be a certificate of experience as stated by the apprentices and the mentors, it s not officially accredited. Hence various apprentices have suggested receiving an accredited certificate or accrediting their certificates as a means of skills recognition. This would enable them for further skills development within the formal training systems. One of the apprentices will try to get an official certificate to open a garage, according to regulations they have to have an experience and do tests at the Ministry of Transport, and also have to be formally vocationally trained in addition to the training experience, hence the apprentice would need formal training. Only 2% of the mentors/owners will do a graduation ceremony for the apprentices after accomplishing their apprenticeship. All except one mentor mentioned that apprentices do not follow formal assessment and certifications schemes offered by national training system or other training organizations. As mentioned by head of AM union in Nablus: We need to improve the informal apprenticeship through systemizing and recognizing the training in cooperation with vocational training centres and schools. 8.4 Skills development Apprentices who have accomplished informal apprenticeship have participated in a limited way in skills development outside their work places. One in three mentors mentioned that they would provide seven weekly hours on average for apprentices to participate in additional training if organised by TVET institutes or by private sector representative organisation (weekly hours varied from 1 to 20). One in three suggested the morning time as appropriate time for such participation, little less suggested the evenings, few others suggested on the weekend or during one day, some has mentioned any time is appropriate as he is not a worker and can decide upon his time. This attitude contradicts with the ones mentioning they will not provide the apprentice with any time for training. Willingness to provide time for apprentices training has differed according to trade, geographic location and company size. As it was noted that mentors who would provide more time for training outside the enterprise were, the AM, the ones working in Nablus and Jerusalem and the small-size company. It has to be noted that 88% of the apprentices did not have any training before, while most of the 12% have taken technical training. Mentors have suggested that apprentices would need several skills to be upgraded as the table below indicates. One in two mentors suggested technical skills, and 30% maintenance of machinery. These skills were higher in AM; safe handling of tools and materials was also higher for AM. The high need for skills upgrading in AM could be explained through the words of the AM union representative: Skills no longer pass on from one generation to the next. This is due to the nature and developments of the sector. Cars have changed a lot. Years ago all you needed to know where the basics of mechanics and with experience you learned everything. Today cars have advanced electric systems, and circuit boards. This makes passing on the profession not possible. In many circumstances, new graduates are more capable of teaching than old experienced mechanics. 50

65 Confirming the importance of technical skills and skills upgrading for apprentices is highly appreciated, one AM mentor stated: I am willing to send the apprentice to train on the new technology in a TVET institute and pay for his training, as long as it takes, I am a TVET graduate and appreciate such training, but how can I make sure that he will commit after graduation. Moreover; 25% and 28% of mentors and skilled workers would like to participate in future skills development trainings, they specified the requested trainings as table illustrates. Requested trainings by both skilled workers and mentors varied to include technical (the highest requested) and maintenance of equipment, but lower than that requested by mentor for apprentice. While management related, marketing, dealing with customers and accounting, was higher. Skills as safe handling of tools and materials as well as workflow production were also requested by skilled workers as well as for apprentices by part of the mentors. Table 8-3: Skills to be upgraded by Skilled Worker and Mentor and those suggested for Apprentices by the Mentors Apprentice (suggested Skilled by mentor) Worker Mentor 1. Technical skills 53.3% 26.7% 21.7% 2. Theoretical background information 3.3% 3. Workshop organization, workflow of production 11.7% 6.7% 6.7% 10.0% 6.7% 4. Maintenance of machines 30.0% 21.7% 13.3% 5. Accounting and cost calculation 6.7% 8.3% 10.0% 6. Purchasing of materials 6.7% 10.0% 5.0% 7. Negotiating with customers 3.3% 6.7% 10.0% 8. Marketing and advertising 1.7% 3.3% 3.3% 9. Safe handling of tools and materials 10.0% 13.3% 8.3% 10. Literacy/numeracy 3.3% 13.3% 5.0% 11. Other(specify) 3.3% 6.7% 8.3% The results indicated that only 3% of the mentors suggested theoretical background training for apprentices, as stated by one mentor: I do not trust courses, they cannot give me the information I need, I feel more knowledgeable than any course and people benefit more by learning here. Work flow production was more relevant to sewing and bigger enterprises. Surprisingly, higher numbers of skilled workers included literacy and numeracy, which echoes the request of half of the mentors/ owners to have an apprentice with basics in literacy and numeracy. One in fourteen skilled workers has participated in other skills upgrading or business related courses, after an average of 13 years of accomplishing the apprenticeship. One in seven of mentors has participated in other skills upgrading or business related courses, after an average of 23 years of accomplishing the apprenticeship, and 12 years starting to train apprentices. 51

66 The graph below indicates reasons for not participating in trainings or capacity building. Where no time to attend such course is the highest agreed reason by both (around two third), followed by No need for further upgrading higher agreed by mentors, then no money by the skilled worker and appropriate course not available by the mentors. Figure 8-3: Reasons for not attending skills development training by Skilled Worker and Mentor Skilled Worker Mentor 68,3% 63,3% 20,0% 15,0% 20,0% 21,7% 25,0% 11,7% 10,0% 13,3% 1. Appropriate course not available 2. No time to attend such a course 3. No money for attending such a course 4. No need for further skills upgrading 5. Other(specify) As for apprentices participating in upgrading courses, only 3.4% of the mentors mentioned that they do, half of which will pay for the apprentice and the other will be paid by the apprentice. Mentors are better able to pay for their trainings than skilled worker, as 59% of mentors specified their ability to pay for the upgrading versus 13% of the skilled worker. Most skilled workers and mentors would acquire new skills through talking with other crafts person, followed by observing other businesses and own ideas, while only 11% of mentors and 5% of skilled workers would look for training. Table 8-4: Ways of acquiring new knowledge and skills Mentor Skilled Wprker 7. Other(specify) 6. Read books/ instruction material/ internet 5. Hire a new employee 4. Participation in skills upgrading courses 3. Own ideas 2. Observe other businesses 1. Talk with other crafts persons 5,0% 3,3% 11,7% 8,3% 0,0% 1,7% 11,7% 5,0% 13,3% 25,0% 31,7% 36,7% 75,0% 81,7% 52

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