PROCEEDING OF INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND BUSINESS

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2 PROCEEDING OF INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND BUSINESS AUGUST 20-21, 2015 DARMAJAYA INFORMATICS AND BUSINESS INSTITUTE SUHENDRO Y. IRIANTO CHAIR AND EDITOR

3 Proceeding of International Conference on Information Technology and Business Bandar Lampung, Indonesia Novotel Hotel Thursday, 20 August, 2015 Suhendro Yusuf Irianto, Ph.D Conference Chair and Editor of the Proceeding Sponsored and Organized by 2015 The authors Informatics and Business Institute Darmajaya

4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Suhendro Yusuf Irianto,Editor and Chair of the Proceedings, would like to thank and acknowledge the following people: Sri Karnila Nurfiana Sahli Ramadhon Rio Kurniawan Betty Magdalena for thier typesetting assistance Anuar Sanusi Yulmaini Winda Rika Lestari Rahmalia Syahputri Abdi Darmawan Dedi Putra Sri Lestari Muhammad Ariza Eka Yusendra for thier administrative support Sutedi M Said Hasibuan Lila Rahmawati Fajrin Armawan Sadat Pulungan Dwi Lianiko Fitria Linda Septarina for thier technical and web based support

5 FOREWORD I am delighted to introduced the International Conference On Information Technology And Business. By doing this I am continuing a university tradition to publish its dissemination s research, to give support and encouragement to work of our research, and I fully intend to continue with this commitment. The papers that are presented in this volume will be followed by next years publications in having both depth and breadth. The conference spectrum is represented here with topics ranging from performance modeling, through AI and adaptive systems, to image processing, mobile television, Business Performance Management, Communications Management, Customer Behavior, Corporate Governance, Cost Management-Business and E-Commerce, E-Government, and E-Education. This conference is an opportunity for researchers to submit their work for scrutiny by their peers and colleagues within universities and beyond. It is an important step in their journey to publishing their work in a wider context, and the defense of their ideas in front of a critical but supportive audience is one that will give them the confidence to progress and to take their ideas to new arenas of academic debate. It is only by presenting our research for discussion and by sharing our ideas that we can ensure we are moving in a positive direction and that our hypotheses are well founded. In this way we can continue to progress, incorporate new proposals in our current work and build upon the existing body of knowledge to create new and exciting directions and projects. This is the purpose of this conference and I hope all those who participate and attend will leave with new inspiration. Before closing I would like to express thanks to all my colleagues for again doing an excellent job of organizing the conference and for administrative support and for the contributors for their work in writing the papers and preparing the presentations. I m sure that this conference will not only enhance the research of those participating, but will also encourage the investigation of new areas and the forming of new collaborations that will be represented in future workshops. The Head of Research Centre Anuar Sanusi

6 International Conference On Information Technology And Business The Proceedings contain research papers and long abstracts on the latest researches. Printed in Indonesia ISSN Copyright 2015 The Authors Authors are encouraged to complete and publish their works in specialized journals. Edited by: Suhendro Y. Irianto Conference Chair and Editor

7 Table of Contents ANALYSIS THE EFFECT OF VOLUNTARY DISCLOSURE TO THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CORPORATE GOVERNANCE AND EARNINGS MANAGEMENT FAUZI, ANUAR SANUSI...1 INVESTIGATING PERFORMANCE ZERO-FORCING OF SOURCE WEIGHTING MATRIX IN MIMO RELAY COMMUNICATIONS APRIANA TODING, RISMAWATY ARUNGLA BI...9 THE IMPLEMENTATION OF SPEAK ENGLISH WITH ME PROGRAM ON SPEAKING ABILITY OF STUDENTS OF ENGLISH COURSE AT UPT BAHASA OF IBI DARMAJAYA IN THE ACADEMIC YEAR OF 2014/2015 BETTY MAGDALENA...14 THE GLOBALIZATION STRATEGY OF VIETNAMESE IT ENTERPRISES IN THE CONTEXT OF ASEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY VIA THE CASE STUDY OF FPT CORPORATION HOANG VAN CUONG, (DIRECTOR OF INTERNATIONAL MOBILITY DEPARTMENT, FPT UNIVERSITY VIETNAM) HOANG VAN CUONG...22 TOPOLOGICAL COMPARISON-BASED WORMHOLE DETECTION FOR MANET KING SUN CHAN, MOHAMMAD RAFIQUL ALAN...28 DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR SCHOLARSHIP IN BALI STATE POLYTECHNIC USING AHP AND TOPSIS NI GUSTI AYU PUTU HARRY SAPTARINI1, PUTU MANIK PRIHATINI A PREDICTION SYSTEM DESIGN FOR THE AMOUNT OF CORN PRODUCTION USING TSUKAMOTO FUZZY INFERENCE SYSTEM FITRIA...47 ROLE OF COOPERATION IN THE IMPROVEMENT OF THE AGRICULTURAL ECONOMY HD. MELVA SITANGGANG ASSOCIATION RULE METHOD FOR INFORMATION SYSTEM EPIDEMIC DENGUE MAPPING BASED ASSOCIATION OF RISK FACTORS IN PALEMBANG ERMATITA, SUCI DESTRIATANIA S-GIS: DIGITAZING SKIN DISEASE SPREAD IN LAMPUNG PROVINCE INDONESIA RAHMALIA SYAHPUTRI, MUHAMMAD SAID HASIBUAN...71 LEADERSHIP STYLE RIGHT IN THE DEMOCRATIC TOGU HARLEN LBN. RAJA...74

8 INTERNET HELPS PEOPLE IN DELIVERING INFORMATION WITHIN THE COMMUNITY IN INDONESIA AS A DEVELOPING COUNTRY TRUFI MURDIANI...80 SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP AS THE SAVIOR OF FOOD SECURITY ISSUES AMONG THE ELDERLY: A PROPOSAL SHAMSHUBARIDAH RAMLEE1*, NORNGAINY MOHD TAWIL1, SITI SURYANI MAT NASIT,...84 OPTIMIZATION OF WIRELESS PRICING SCHEME FITRI MAYA PUSPITA, KAMARUZZAMAN SEMAN, BAHOK M. TAIB, ISMAIL ABDULLAH...89 PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION MODEL OF STOCK MUTUAL FUNDS BASED FINANCIAL INFORMATION SYSTEM ABSHOR MARANTIKA PERSPECTIVE TEXT MINING ANALYTICS INTELEGENT INFORMATION EXTRACTION FOR IMPECT OF INDONESIAN SOCIAL MEDIA AGUS SURYANA, SRI IPNUWATI BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES & CHALLENGES FOR INDUSTRIES, WORKERS, AND GOVERNMENT OF INDONESIA IN THE ASEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY IMPLEMENTATION INDRA BUDI SUMANTORO MULTIMEDIA BASED APPLICATION DESIGN OF SELECTION EXAMINATION AS A SUPPORT FOR PAPERLESS OFFICE IN PPKD EAST JAKARTA HENRI SEPTANTO, PETRUS DWI ANANTO OPTIMUM FEATURE FOR PALMPRINT IMAGE AUTHENTICATION RATIH AYUNINGHEMI, DWI PUTRO SARWO SETYOHADI GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS DESIGN OF TOURIST ATTRACTION AND NEAREST FACILITY IN BANDAR LAMPUNG CITY DEVI KATHINA RANI, YULMAINI LEARNING PROCESS OF INTRODUCTION TO LAMPUNG SCRIPT THROUGH ICT (INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES) FOR KINDERGARTEN STUDENTS OF TK RASYIDUL JANNAH BANDAR LAMPUNG ACADEMIC YEAR DHARLINDA SURI IMPROVING RELAY MATRICES FOR MIMO MULTI-RELAY COMMUNICATION USING GRADIENT PROJECTION APRIANA TODING DETERMINATION MODEL OF INDEPENDENT BUSINESS CREDIT "GRAMEENBANK" PATTERN USING SIMPLE ADDITIVE WAIGHTING (SAW) METHOD TO ENHANCING THE

9 RURAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT SATRIA ABADI, SRI HARTATI COMPOSITE STOCK PRICE INDEX (IHSG) MACRO FACTOR IN INVESTMENT IN STOCK (EQUITY FUNDS) ANDI DESFIANDI, ABSHOR MARANTIKA THE ANALYSIS OF PRODUCTIVE ASSETS QUALITY ON BANK HEALTH RATING OF COMMERCIAL BANKS IN INDONESIA ANGRITA DENZIANA, HANINUN, ERWIN OCTAVIANTO THE EFFECTIVE OF IMAGE RETRIEVAL IN JPEG COMPRESSED DOMAIN SUHENDRO Y. IRIANTO THE INFLUENCE OF SERVICE QUALITY ON STUDENTS SATISFACTION AT PRIVATE UNIVERSITIES IN BANDAR LAMPUNG RINA MILYATI YUNIASTUTI, VITRATIN, NOVITA SARI THE INFLUENCE OF PROMOTION MIXTURE TOWARD DECISION OF BUYING HANDPHONE SAMSUNG (CASE STUDY AT SAMSUNG PLAZA IN BANDAR LAMPUNG) RATIH AMELIA, VITRATIN IMPLEMENTATION OF RFID (RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION) FOR STUDENT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM NURFIANA, PUTRI THE DESIGN OF OBJECT-ORIENTED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR TEACHERS IN ISLAMIC BOARDING SCHOOL OF ROUDLATUL QURAN METRO CITY SULISTIYANTO, SRI KARNILA AN ANALYSIS OF OBSTACLES OF QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM APPLICATION ISO 9001:2008 AT SMK SMTI BANDAR LAMPUNG FITRIAH WULANDARI THE USAGE OF WARD AND PEPPARD METHOD IN IS/IT STRATEGIC PLAN COMPILATON IN DISHUBKOMINFO EAST LAMPUNG ABDUL LATHIF SAMPURNA, ABDI DARMAWAN, HANDOYO WIDI NUGROHO AN EVALUATION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT OF ASSEST AND LOGISTIC MANAGEMENT BUREAU USING COBIT 4.1 YUNI PUSPITA SARI THE EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENT HEALTH CAMPAIGN COMMUNICATOR CREDIBILITY ON HEALTHY LIFE HASAN BASRI

10 MODEL ANALYSIS OF LEADERSHIP AND WORK DISCIPLINE AGAINST REVENUE SERVICE PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT A.K YOHANSON EMPLOYEE S PERFORMANCE THORUGH EDUCATION AND TRAINING AS WELL AS RENUMERATION ADITYA IRAWAN COMPETITIVE BUSINESS INDONESIA M. APUN SYARIPUDIN AN ANALYSIS OF SECURITY AND SERVICE QUALITY TOWARD PURCHASE DECISION ON E-COMMERCE AND ITS IMPLICATIONS OF CONSUMER LOYALTY ARDIANSYAH AN ANALYSIS OF MOTIVATION AND COMPENSATION ON LECTURERS JOB PERFORMANCE AT INFORMATICS AND BUSINESS ISTITUTE (IBI) DARMAJAYA BESTI LILYANA THE EMPLEMENTATION OF ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE PLANNING (EAP) MODEL FOR INFORMATION SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT AT HUMAN RESOURCE DEPARTMENT HALIMAH YUNUS THE EFFECTS OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AND INDIVIDUAL CAPACITY ON BUDGETARY SLACK USING PARTICIPATIVE BUDGETING AS MODERATING VARIABLE AT IBI DARMAJAYA PEBRINA SWISSIA QUALITY AUDIT IN BANKING INDUSTRY TULUS SURYANTO AN AUDIT ANALYSIS ON SERVICE INFORMATION SYSTEM AT ACADEMIC ADMINISTRATION BUREAU OF INFORMATICS AND BUSINESS INSTITUTE DARMAJAYA BANDAR LAMPUNG THROUGH COBIT 4.1 AMNAH IMPLEMENTATION OF NAÏVE BAYES CLASSIFICATION METHOD TO PREDICT GRADUATION TIME OF IBI DARMAJAYA SCHOLAR KETUT ARTAYE USING QUALITY OF SERVICE VIRTUAL PRIVATE NETWORK (VPN) ON E-KTP BANDAR LAMPUNG NOVI HERAWADI SUDIBYO, MUHAMMAD SAID HASIBUAN

11 A CONCEPTUAL APPROACH OF ENTERPRENEURSHIP AND INNOVATIVE ENTERPRENEUR S ROLES TO CONTINUAL DEVELOPMENT MIEKE RAHAYU THE EFFECT OF SPECIAL PRICE GIVING ON THE LAMPUNG POST DAILY NEWSPAPER ON COLLEGE STUDENTS BUYING INTEREST IN BANDAR LAMPUNG ZURIANA MEASUREMENT OF SERVICE QUALITY AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION MOHAMMAD MACHRUS...312

12 THE ANALYSIS OF EFFECTS OF VOLUNTARY DISCLOSURE TO THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CORPORATE GOVERNANCE AND EARNINGS MANAGEMENT Fauzi 1, Anuar Sanusi 2 1) STMIK Prengsewu 2) Informatics and Business Institute Darmajaya Bandar Lampung ABSTRACT This study is aimed at examining the relationship between corporate governance mechanisms and earnings management with voluntary disclosure (voluntary disclosure) as a moderating variable. Corporate governance is proxied and measured by Managerial Ownership (MGR) Institutional Ownership (INST), board size (BSIZE), and the independent Commissioner (KI). Voluntary Disclosure of Earnings Management proxied in this study uses the value of discretionary accruals, and Voluntary Disclosure is proxied by the disclosure index. The population of this study is all listed manufacturing companies in Indonesia Stock Exchange from 2006 to The results of this study are first, there is an empirical evidence to suggest that there are negative effects of discretionary accruals managerial ownership, institutional ownership and a positive influence on the size of the board of directors. Overall, these results are consistent with research conducted by Pranata (2003) and Rajgopal (1998) that managerial ownership and institutional ownership become a constraint on earnings management practice. Second, testing the relationship between voluntary disclosure mechanism between corporate governance and discretionary accruals indicate that the earnings management practices will be carried out if the company is getting a lot of information. These results are consistent with the research conducted by Aryati (2003). Third, the composition of the independent commissioner was not statistically significant to the earnings management measures, and voluntary testing of these revelations on the relationship between the practice of earnings management and corporate governance mechanisms remains to show that the composition of an independent commissioner is not significant. This gives evidence that the ineffectiveness of the company's independent commissioner. KEYWORDS: Earnings management, Voluntary Disclosure, Corporate Governance A. INTRODUCTION Several accounting studies have examined the relationship between corporate governance mechanisms and earnings management. Warfield et al. (1995) found a negative relationship between managerial ownership and discretionary accruals as a measure of earnings management and a positive relationship between managerial ownership with the content of information in earnings. Midiastuty (2003) replicates the study by Warfield et al. (1995) that examined the relationship between corporate governance mechanisms and earnings management, and tested the quality of the reported earnings of the Indonesian capital market. Corporate governance mechanism is tested on managerial ownership, institutional ownership, board size and earnings management that affect the behavior and the quality of earnings. As a result, managerial ownership and institutional ownership are negatively related to earnings management, while the size of the board of 1 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

13 directors is positively related to earnings management. The opposite result was found by Gabrielsen et al. (1999) who found a positive effect between managerial ownership on earnings management and information content of earnings by using the Danish stock market data, the opposite result may be caused by different ownership structures among companies in the United States and in Denmark. Ownership structure in Denmark is characterized by concentrated ownership structures, while in the United States it is pread further. Khomsyiah (2003) provides an evidence of an association between the levels of implementation of corporate governance disclosure. Companies that implement good corporate governance will provide more information, in order to reduce information asymmetry. The information provided indicated the level of disclosure, the better the implementation of corporate gorvenance by a company, the more information is revealed. This study was aimed at examining the relationship between corporate governance mechanisms and earnings management with voluntary disclosure as a moderating variable. Research Trueman and Titman (1988) revealed that the information asymmetry is a necessary condition to perform earnings management. Richardson (1998) found an evidence that information asymmetry as measured by the difference in the supply and sale prices (bid-ask spread) and the difference with the predictions of analysts is positively related to the level of earnings management. Therefore, when information asymmetry is high, shareholders do not have the resources, encouragement, or access to relevant information to monitor the actions that can bring earnings management practices. B. LITERATURE REVIEW Jensen and Meckling (1976), and Scott (2000) describe the relationship of agencies as a relation that arise, because of the contract specified shareholder (principal) that uses the management (agent) to perform services of interest to principal, in this case there is a separation between ownership and control of the company's contractual relations to run smoothly, the principal will delegate decision-making authority to the agent, and this relationship also needs to be in a contract that typically use accounting figures stated in the financial statements as the basis. In terms of the contract appropriate to align the interests of agents and principals that will bring up a conflict of interest, this is what is at the core of agency theory (Scott, 2000) Healy and Wahlen (1998) reveal that earnings management occurs when certain management uses judgment in financial statements and transactions to alter financial reports as a basis for the company's performance that aims to mislead the owners or shareholders or to influence contractual outcomes that rely on accounting figures reported. Corporate governance is a mechanism used to ensure that the shareholders of the company to obtain the return of the activities undertaken by the manager, or how shareholders exercise control over managers (Schleifer and Vishny, 1997). Khomsyiah (2003) conducted a study that examined the relationship of simultaneous implementation of corporate governance with the level of information disclosure in annual reports of public companies listed on the JSE. These results provide evidence of an association between the level of disclosure to the implementation of corporate governance, the better the implementation of Corporate Governance is done by a company, the more information is revealed. Conversely, companies that provide high disclosure in the annual report will show the implementation of corporate governance in the company. Information asymmetry that occurs between managers and shareholders as users of financial statements because shareholders can not observe all the performance and prospects of the company perfectly. In situations where the shareholders have less information 2 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

14 than managers, managers can use the flexibility to perform their owned earnings management. Trueman and Titman (1998) reveals that the asymmetry of information is a necessary condition to perform Earnings management. Richardson (1998) finds an evidence that information asymmetry, as measured by the difference in the supply and sale prices (bid-ask spread) and the difference with analysts' forecasts, is positively related to the level of earnings management. So, when information asymmetry is high, stakeholders do not have the resources, encouragement, or access to relevant information to monitor the actions of managers, who can bring the practice of earnings management. Based on some of the results of the above studies, alternative hypotheses formulated in this study are: H1: Managerial ownership, institutional ownership, size and composition of the board of directors of independent commissioners have a significant effect on discretionary accrual H2: With the voluntary disclosure it will reduce the association between discretionary accruals for managerial ownership, institutional ownership, size and composition of the board of directors of independent commissioners C. RESEARCH METHODS 1. Sample Selection The data used in this study is a secondary data obtained from the annual report, the publication of the Business Data Centre Indonesia (PDBI), Capital Markets Data Center (PDPM), Gadjah Mada University Yogyakarta and other JSE publications includeing Managerial Ownership, size of the board of directors, Institutional Ownership, Independent Commissioner, financial statement data to calculate discretionary accruals and non-discretionary accruals, market value of equity, leverage, earnings before extraordinary items, earnings per share and net income, voluntary disclosure of data. The population of this study is all listed manufacturing companies in Indonesia Stock Exchange (ISE) from 2006 to2011. The sampling technique was done by using purposive sampling. 1. Independent Variables Mechanism Corporate governance is proxied and measured: Managerial ownership (MGR) is the percentage of shares owned by management who actively participates in decision-making process (commissioners and directors) Institutional ownership (INST), ie the percentage of shares owned by institutional investors. Institutional bias comes from the government or non-government as a company that has a great importance to the investment Size of the board of directors (BSIZE), ie the number of board members The Independent Commissioner (KI), the number of independent commissioners who joined the company commissioner. This study uses a dummy variable that is 0 for the companies with independent ownership and 1 for the commissioner which does not have. 2. Dependent Variable Earnings Management can be achieved from a variety of events, such as the value of discretionary accruals or change in method of accounting. This study used a value of discretionary accruals. It used the Modified Jones' model (Dechow, 1995) to measure the level of earnings management or discretionary accruals (DTAC). This model uses total accruals (TAC) 3 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

15 classified as discretionary component (DTAC) Dannon discretionary (NDTAC). It is defined as follows: TAC = NDTAC + DTAC TAC = + DTAC NDTAC The first step taken for the measurement of discretionary accruals is the value of total accruals as the dependent variable in the regression aimed at getting the parameters for calculating the nondiscretionary accruals value. TAC = net income (net income) - Operating cash flow (cash flow from operation)... (1) Next is to compute non-discretionary accruals estimated using the model of Jones (1991) estimated by OLS regression equation: The total value of the accrual of the estimated OLS regression equation as follows: TAC t / N t-1 = a 1 [1/TA t-1] + a 2 [ REV t / N t-1] + a 3 [PPE t / N t-1] +... (2) By using the above regression coefficients, it can be determined parameters (a 1, a 2 and a 3) of each company. The value of non-discretionary accruals (NDTAC) can be calculated by the formula: NDTAC = a 1 [1/TA t-1] + a 2 [( t REV - REC t) / N t-1] + a 3 [PPE t / N t-1]... (3) DTAC = TAC t /TA t-1 TAC DTAC = t / N t-1 - NDTAC..(4) NDTAC... (4) Where: TAC = total accruals in period t NDTAC= Value of non-discretionary accrual DTAC= Discretionary accrual REV t = Changes in net sales in the period t REC t = Changes in net receivables in period t PPE = Property, Plan, and Equipment a 1 a 2 a 3 = coefficient of regression equation (2) a 1 a 2 a 3 = Fitted coefficient obtained from the regression equation (2) 3. Moderating Variables Voluntary Disclosure For each sample firm, voluntary expression index is obtained by comparing scores with the scores obtained by the company that may be acquired. The company was given a score of 1 if it expresses items of information in the instrument and given score 0 if it is not revealed. Method of Data Analysis Normality Test was done prior to hypothesis testing, to determine the distribution of the data to test the model Kolmogorov Smirnov normality. Regression Model study used multiple regression to examine the relationship between the dependent variable, moderating variable and independent variable.overall, the OLS regression equation models used are: Model analysis for Discretionary Accruals DTAC i,t = MGR+ 2 INST+ 3 BSIZE+ 4 CI it.(6) Model analysis for the three components of corporate governance and earnings management are moderated by the voluntary disclosure. DTAC i, t = MGR + 2 INST + 3 BSIZE + 4 CI + 5 index + 6 index * MGR + 7 index * INST + 8 index * BSIZE + 9 index * CI + i... (7 ) D. Results Descriptive Statistics The result of the normality test shows that significant Kolmogorov-Smirnov> 0.05 for institutional ownership. So it can be concluded that the data were normally distributed in this study only for institutional ownership data, while discretionary accruals and managerial 4 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

16 ownership and board size were not normally distributed. If the data by the number N> 30 was not normally distributed by Central Limit Theorems, then testing can be obtained by using parametric test. (Gujarati, 2004) Since all probabilities are below 0.05 unless the composition of an independent commissioner, it means that the correlation between discretionary accruals with managerial ownership and institutional ownership and board size shows a negative relationship, meaning that managerial ownership, institutional ownership and board size the higher the discretionary accrual will be smaller and vice versa. Hypothesis Test 1 This hypothesis was tested by using multiple regression test that showed the value of t-test for accrual discretionarry the managerial ownership is with a probability value = two-sided. The effect was statistically significant at the level of Discretionarry accrual demonstrates the value of institutional ownership as with a t -test probability value = two-sided. The effect was statistically significant at a level of Coefficient indicates a negative value is , which means that the direction is negative. The effect was statistically significant at the level of This means that statistically favor the alternative hypothesis, that there is a negative effect of discretionary accruals on Institutional Ownership. Discretionarry accrual of property size board shows the value of t-test with a probability value = twosided. The effect was statistically significant at a level of Coefficient indicates a positive value as This result means that it statistically favor the alternative hypothesis, that there is a positive effect of discretionary accruals on Board Size, while discretionarry accrual to independent commissaries t -test showed the value of with a probability value = two-sided. This result means that statistically it does not support the alternative hypothesis, that there is no effect of discretionary accruals on the composition of an independent commissioner. Testing Hypothesis 2 This hypothesis was tested by multiple regression test that showed the value of t-test for the accrual discretionary for managerial ownership, institutional ownership, and board size was statistically significant less than The effect was statistically significant at the level of With the moderating variables, ie voluntary disclosure to discretionarry accrual for institutional ownership, managerial ownership, board size showed a statistically significant influence on the whole below 0.05, at a rate of This result means that statistically it favors the alternative hypothesis, namely discretionary accruals as a voluntary disclosure is smaller. However, the composition of independent commissioners remained statistically significant above 0.05 or not statistically significant. Discussion The results indicate rejection of the null hypothesis that the empirical evidence supports the alternative hypothesis that there is a significant influence on the mechanisms of discretionary accruals for govenance corporate or managerial ownership, institutional ownership and the size of the board of directors, while the composition of an independent commissioner shows that it supports the null hypothesis or not there is an influence between the accrual discretionary composition of an independent commissioner. These results are consistent with the results of the research conducted by the Flower Institutions (2003), from the results of testing the dependent variable (discretionary accrual) with managerial ownership, institutional ownership and the size of the board of directors showed a negative effect. These results suggest that managerial ownership in Indonesia to become good corporate governance mechanisms that can reduce the problem of misalignment between the interests of managers with 5 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

17 owners or shareholders. These results are also consistent with the research conducted by Jensen and Meckling (1976) and Warfield et al (1995) in the United States. For managerial ownership this study is consistent with the results of the study by Pranata (2003) which proved that Institusonal Owners also have a significant negative effect on discretionary accruals. It means that the greater the number of board of directors is, the higher the earnings management is. It means that the small size of the board of directors will be more effective in carrying out the functions of monitoring over financial reporting, thereby reducing the incentive for managers to manipulate earnings. These results are also consistent with the research done by Jensen (1993) and Vafeas (2000). The composition of independent commissioner showed no significant results. It means that the composition of an independent commissioner can not be used as a tool to prevent opportunistic managers from performing actions. This is because in Indonesia the number of independent commissioners composition may not affect the company's performance, consistent with the results of the research by Aryati (2005) which states that the independent commissioner is not able to affect the company's financial performance, even in Indonesia there are still many companies that do not have an independent commissioner The results of testing the second hypothesis implies that it statistically supports an alternative hypothesis, namely the smaller discretionary accruals as a voluntary disclosure. However, the composition of an independent commissioner remains statistically insignificant despite voluntary disclosure. These results are consistent with the result of the research by Veronica (2003) that prove that the disclosure of financial statements has a significant negative correlation. Companies with low levels of disclosure tend to do a lot more earnings management and vice versa, the company does a lot of earnings management tend to disclose less information. E. Conclusion Based on the hypothesis testing and discussion, it is concluded as follows. First, there is an empirical evidence that supports the alternative hypothesis, which states that there is a negative effect of discretionary accruals on managerial ownership, institutional ownership and a positive effect on the size of the board of directors. Overall, these results are consistent with the researches conducted by Pranata (2003), Rajgopal (1998), and Jensen and Meckling (1976) mentioning that managerial ownership, institutional ownership as a constraint on earnings management practice. Second, the relationship testing between voluntary disclosure mechanism corporate governance and discretionary accruals indicates that the practice of earnings management will be smaller if the company is getting a lot of information. These results are consistent with the research conducted by Aryati (2003). Third, the composition of the independent commissioners was not statistically significant to the earnings management measures, and voluntary testing of these revelations on the relationship between the practice of earnings management and corporate governance mechanisms remains to show that the composition of an independent commissioner is not significant. This gives an evidence of the ineffectiveness of the company's independent commissioner. REFERENCE Chtourou SM, J. Bedrar, and L. Courteau, Corporate Governance and Earnings Management. Working Paper Universite Laval, Quebec City, Canada. Dechow, R. Sloan, and A. Sweeney Detecting Earnings Management. The Accounting Review, p The Accounting Review, p International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

18 Gabrielsen, G., JD Gramlich and T. Plenborg Manajerial Ownership, Information Content of Earnings and Discretionary Accruals in A Non US Setting. Working Paper. Healy and JM Wahlen A Review of Earnings Management Literature and It's Implication for Standar Setting. Working Paper. Herwidayatmo Implementation of Good Corporate Governance for Public Companies in Indonesia. Entrepreneur, October 10 Th. XXIX,p Jansen, M. Jansen, M. Dan W. And W. Meckling Theory of The Firm: Managerial Behavior, Agency and Ownership Structure. Journal of Financial Economic, p Khomsyiah, Relations Corporate Governance and Disclosure: In Simultaneous Testing. Procceding National Accounting Symposium VI, October 16 to 17. Surabaya. Klein, April Audit Committe, Board of Director Characteristics and Earnings Management. Working Paper. Lang, Mark dan RJ Ludholm. Lang, Cross- Sectional Analysis determinant of Rating of Corporate Disclosure. Journal of Accounting Research, 31, p Mediastuty, Pratana Puspa Relationship Analysis Corporate Governance with Management Earnings (Earnings Management) and earnings quality. Thesis S2, UGM Jogjakarta. Rajgopal, S., Venkatachalam M and J. Jiambalvo Is Institusional Ownership Assosiated with Earnings Management and The Extent to Wich Stock Price Reflect Future Earnings?. Working Paper. Richardson,VJ Information asymmetry and Earnings Management: Some Evidence. Working Paper. Scott, WR Financial Accounting Theory. Scott, WR Second Edition. Prentice Hall: Canada. Trueman, B., and S. Titman An Explanation for Accounting Income Smoothing. Journal of Accounting Research 26 (Supplement), p Warfield, W. And Wild Managerial Ownership, Accounting Choices, and Informativeness of Earnings. Working Paper. 7 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

19 Correlation Model 1 (Constant) MGR INST BSIZE CI Unstandardized Coefficients Stand. Coefficients Std. B Error Beta t Sig Testing Hypothesis 1 Model 1 (Constant) MGR INST BSIZE CI Unstandardized Coefficients Stand. Coefficients Std. B Error Beta t Sig Testing Hypothesis 2 Model 1 (Constant) MGR INST BSIZE CI Inter MGR Inter BZISE Inter INSZ Inter CII Unstandardized Coefficients Stand. Coefficients Std. B Error Beta t Sig International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

20 Investigating Performance Zero-Forcing of Source Weighting Matrix in MIMO Relay Communication Apriana Toding 1, Rismawaty Arungla bi 2 Dept. Electrical Engineering 1,2 Universitas Kristen Indonesia Paulus, Makassar, Sul-Sel 90245, Indonesia 1, 2 ABSTRACT In this paper, we study the zero forcing (ZF) algorithm for a two hop multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) relay communication system consisting of one source node, one relay node, and one destination node. We consider amplify-and-forward (AF) strategy at relay node and destination node, respectively. We propose Pre-ZF equalization on the transmitter side. We have evaluated the proposed system by comparing with existing algorithms. The proposed Pre-ZF equalization algorithm has a significant improvement in the system bit-error-rate (BER) performance. Key words: multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO), MIMO relay networks, relay system, beamforming, zero forcing. 1. Introduction In order to provide a reliable wireless transmission, one needs to compensate for the effects of signal fading due to multi-path propagation and strong shadowing. One way to address these issues is to transmit the signal through one or more relays [1]-[6], which can be accomplished via wireless network consisting of geographically separeated nodes. And then the basic motivation behind the use of cooperative communications lies in exploitation of spatial diversity provided by the network nodes [7] and [8], as well as the efficient use of power resources [9]-[14] which can be achieved by a scheme that simply receives and forwards a given information, yet designed under certain optimality criterion. Relay schemes can be broadly categorized into three general groups: amplify-and-forward (AF), decode-andforward (DF), and compress-and-forward (CF). in the AF scheme, the relay nodes amplify the received signal and rebroadcast the amplified signals toward the destination node [3]-[6]. In the DF scheme, the relay nodes first decode the received signals and then forward the reencoded signals toward the destination node [7]. In the CF method, the relay nodes compress the received signals by exploiting the statistical dependencies between the signals at the nodes [16]. In this paper we consider the AF strategy which is easier to implement compared with the other two approaches. When nodes in the relay system are installed with multiple antennas, we call such system multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) relay communication system. Recently, MIMO relay communication system have attracted much research interest and provided significant improvement in terms of both spatial efficiency and link reliability [4], [6], and [13]-[16]. In this paper, we investigated the performance of zero forcing (ZF) relay communication system consisting of one source node, relay node, and one destination node in terms of bit error rate (BER). Note that the ZF algorithm has already been studied with single-hop MIMO [17] and MIMO relay channel [18]. And then, in [15], pre-zf has been investigated for single-hop MIMO channel and two-hop MIMO relay channel. We have evaluated the proposed system by comparing with existing algorithm. The proposed Pre-ZF equalization algorithm has a significant improvement in the system bit-error-rate (BER) performance. 9 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

21 The rest of the paper is organized as follows: the system model is described in Section II; In section III we study the weight matrix on the transmitter side in a MIMO relay system; Section IV shows the simulation results which justify the performance gain with relay Pre-ZF algorithm and the conclusion is given in Section V. 2. System Model 2.1 General Assumptions Fig. 1 illustrates a two-hop MIMO relay communication system consisting of one source node, K parallel relay nodes, and one destination node. We assume that the source and destination nodes have N s and N d antennas, respectively, and each relay nodes has N r antennas. Fig. 1. System model. The generalization to the system with different number of antennas at each relay node is straightforward. To efficiently exploit the system hardware, each relay node uses the same antennas to transmit and receive signals. Due to its merit of simplicity, we consider the amplifyand-forward scheme at each relay. 2.2 System Model Throughout the paper, we make a practical assumption that the source node and the relay nodes have their own transmit power constraints, i.e., P s and P r. All channels are assumed to be slow, frequency flat Rayleigh fading model which the coefficients are independent and identically distributed (i.i.d), circularly symmetric complex Gaussian random variables with zero mean and unit variance. The communication process between the source and destination nodes is completed in tow time slots. In the first time slot, the N s x 1 modulated symbol vector is linearly precoded as (1) Where W is an N s x N s source weight matrix. is the N s x 1 transmit data vector with E[ H ] = I Ns. The precoded vector S is transmitted to the relay nodes. The received signal at the i th relay node can be written as (2) i = 1,.., K where is the N r x N s MIMO channel matrix between the source and the i th relay node, and are the received signal and the additive Gaussian noise vectors at the i th relay node, respectively. In the second time slot, the source node is silent, while each relay node transmits the amplified signal vector to the destination node as xr,i = fiyr,i (3) i = 1,.., K where fi is the N r x Nr amplifying matrix at the i th relay node. Thus the received signal vector at the destination node can be written as (4) Where is the Nd x Nr MIMO channer matrix between the i th relay and the destination node, and are the received signal and the additive Gaussian noise vectors at the destination node, respectively. Substituting (1)-(3) into (4), we have (5) Where we define [ Here (.) T denotes the matrix (vector) transpose, bd(.) stands for a block-diagonal matrix, Hsr is a Nd x KNr 10 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

22 channel matrix between all relay nodes and the destination node, Vr is obtained by stacking the noise vectors at all the relays and F is the KNr x KNr block diagonal equivalent relay matrix. The diagram of the equivalent MIMO relay system described by (5) is shown in Fig. 2. Thus we see from the above equotation that the received signal vector at the destination can be equivalently written as (6) Where is the equivalent MIMO channel and v= is the equivalent noise. 3. Proposed the Source Weight Matrix for MIMO Relay System We study the following detection algorithms for MIMO relay systems: the ZF algorithm at the transmitter side technique. If we consider the received signal vector at the destination in (4) then our proposed MIMO relay channel (Fig.1) reduces to a MIMO channel (Fig.2) with the equivalent channel matrix of the signal vector of and the equivalent noise vector of v=. Fig. 2 Equivalent MIMO Channel Now we can analyze the signal detection Pre-ZF equalization with equivalent MIMO channel. The Pre-ZF Algorithm The weighting matrix at the transmitter side to be described in this paper is Pre-ZF equalizer. The Pre-ZF equalization can be represented by a Pre-ZF equalizer weight matrix W and thus, the precoded symbol vector S can be expressed as (7) Where is the original symbol vector for transmission. In case where the ZF equalization is employed, the corresponding weight matrix is given as (8) Where is a constant to meet the total transmitted power constraint after pre-equalization and it is given as (9) Where (10) A simple approach to design the relay is to treat it as an all-pass AF unit, which we construct as F = I Nr, where is the amplifying factor of the relay and I Nr, is an identity matrix of dimension N r. We can find from. Here Ps > 0 and Pr > 0 are the transmit power available at the source and the relay nodes respectively, (.) H denotes matrix Hermitian and tr{.} indicates trace of matrix. 4. Simulation Results and Discussion In the simulations, the transmission signaling is in spatial multiplexing mode (i.e., the source transmits independent data streams from different antennas) with total transmit power uniformly distributed among the transmit antennas. Also, all simulations are conducted in a flat-fading Reyleigh environment using the BPSK constellation, and the noise variances are assumed to be the same for all antennas. We transmitted 10 3 randomly generated bits in each channel realization and the BER results are averaged through 200 channel realizations. We plot BER curves versus SNR. In this example, we simulate Ns = Nr = Nd = 2 and compare the BER performance of the proposed Pre-ZF equalization algorithm with Transmit zero forcing (TxZF) algorithm [15] in MIMO relay channel with varying SNR in the source-to-relay link (SNRs) keeping the relay-todestination SNR (SNRr) at 20 Db. From Fig. 3, it can be seen that the TxZF algorithm has the worst performance, 11 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

23 we achieve a 7 Db gain from TxZF to Pre-ZF in BER = Fig. 3 BER versus SNRs. Ns = Nr = Nd = 2 and SNRr = 20 Db for MIMO relay channel. 5. Conculsion In conclusion, we have demonstrated the advantage of using source weight matrix algorithms for Parallel relay in MIMO relay network. We designed relays as all-pass amplify-and-forward (AF) units which are simpler to implement. Our result demonstrate that Pre-ZF algorithm outperform the TxZF algorithm. References TxZF Algorithm [15] [1] H. Bolukbasi, H. Yanikomeroglu, H. Falconer, and S. Periyal- war, On the capacity of cellular fixed relay networks, in Proc. Electrical and Computer Engr., Canadian Conf., May 2004, vol. 4, pp [2] R. Pabst, B. H. Walke, D. C. Schultz, D. C. Herhold, H. Yanikomeroglu, S. Mukherjee, H. Viswanathan, M. Lott, W. Zirwas, M. Dohler, H. Aghvami, D. D. Falconer, and G. P. Fettweis, Relay-based deployment concepts for wireless and mobile broadband radio, IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 42, no. 9, pp , Sept [3] H. Hu, H. Yanikomeroglu, D. D. Falconer, and S. Periyalwar, Range extension without capacity penalty in cellular networks with digital fixed relays, Proc. Glob. Telecom. Conf., Nov. 29- Dec , vol. 5, pp [4] B. Wang, J. Zhang, and A. Host-Madsen, On the capacity of MIMO relay channels, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 51, no. 1, pp , Jan [5] I. Kang, W. Sheen, R. Chen, and S. Lin C Hsiao, Throughput improvement with relay-augmented cellular architecture, IEEE mmr , Sep [6] T. Tang, C. B. Chae, R. W. Heath. Jr., On achievable sum rates of a multiuser MIMO relay channel, in Proc. of IEEE ISIT 06, Seattle, WA, Jul [7] J. N. Laneman and G. W. Wornell, Distributed space-time coded protocols for exploiting cooperative diversity in wireless, Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 49, no. 10, pp , Oct [8] J. N. Laneman, D. N. C. Tse, and G. W. Wornell, Cooperative diversity in wireless networks: Efficient protocols and outage behavior, Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 50, no. 12, pp , Dec [9] H. Sampath, P. Stoica, and A. Paulraj, Generalized linear precoder and decoder design for MIMO channels using the weighted MMSE criterion, IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 49, pp , Dec [10] S. Serbetli and A. Yener, Transceiver optimization for mul- tiuser MIMO systems, IEEE Trans. Signal Processing, vol. 52, no. 1, pp , Jan [11] A. Zanella, M. Chiani, and M. Z. Win, MMSE reception and successive interference cancellation for MIMO system with high spectral efficiency, IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 4, no. 3, pp , May 2005 [12] K. Sayana, S. Nagaraj, and S. B. Gelfand, A MIMO zero forcing receiver with soft interference cancellation for BICM, IEEE Workshop on Signal Proc. Commun., vol. 4, pp , 2005 [13] Y. Rong and Y. Hua, Optimality of diagonalization of multi- hop MIMO relays, IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 8, no. 12, pp , Dec [14] Y. Rong, X. Tang, and Y. Hua, A unified framework for optimizing linear non-regenerative multicarrier MIMO relay communication 12 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

24 systems, IEEE Trans. Signal Processing, vol. 57, no. 12, pp , Dec [15] Joham, M., Utschick, W., and Nossek, J. A., Linear transmit processing in MIMO communications systems, in IEEE Trans. Signal Processing, vol. 53 no. 8, pp , 2005 [16] S. Simoens, O. Munoz, J. Vidal, and A. D. Coso, Compress- and-forward cooperative MIMO relaying with full channel state information, in Proc. IEEE Signal Theory and Commun., Nov [17] K. Sayana, S. Nagaraj, and S. B. Gelfand, A MIMO zero forcing receiver with soft interference cancellation for BICM, IEEE Workshop on Signal Proc. Commun., vol. 4, pp , [18] Apriana Toding and Yue Rong, Investigating successive in- terference cancellation in MIMO relay network, Proc. IEEE TENCON, Bali, Indonesia, Nov , International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

25 THE IMPLEMENTATION OF SPEAK ENGLISH WITH ME PROGRAM ON SPEAKING ABILITY OF STUDENTS OF ENGLISH COURSE AT UPT BAHASA OF IBI DARMAJAYA IN THE ACADEMIC YEAR OF 2014/2015 Betty Magdalena Lecturer at Informatics and Business Institute Darmajaya Bandar Lampung Jalan Z.A. Pagar Alam No.93, Labuhan Ratu, Bandar Lampung, Lampung ABSTRACT This research is aimed at knowing the implementation of Speak English with Me program toward speaking ability of students of English course at UPT Bahasa of IBI Darmajaya. This research uses random sampling technique where there are 50 out of 685 students of Elementary English 2 (level 2) taken as the sample. In the research, there are two kinds of tool used to collect the data; they are questionnaire and documentation. The result of the research shows that Speak English with Me program can be implemented to improve speaking ability of students of English course at UPT Bahasa of IBI Dasrmajaya. KEY WORDS Implementation, Speak English with Me, English course 1. Introduction In the era of globalization the ability to communicate in English has become a demand to people from different fields of study, such as education, health, business and technology. English as a language in common used by people all over the world is still a foreign language to the people of Indonesia. In other words, it is neither mother tongue nor the second language of the nation. To be able to communicate in English well, a person must master the four language skills, listening, speaking, reading and writing and language components such as grammar, vocabulary, and pronunciation. Speaking ability is one of productive language skills where a speaker can communicate information to a listener. In fact, it is sometimes considered as a parameter of a person s language competence. On the other side, many learners intensively taking an English lesson at English courses have to feel dissatisfied with their achievement after their study because they cannot get what they expect. This might be caused by some factors such as too big number of students in one course class, limited practice time for learners, and low motivation and unself-confidence. Those problems are, in fact, faced by most students taking English course at UPT Bahasa of IBI Darmajaya that they feel like to have very little time to practice their English. Based on the result of students English competence after joining the course, it indicates that their achievement in English is not remarkable yet. Many students still get difficulties in communicating and applying their knowledge and skill of English either orally or in a written form. The problems of the research can be formulated as follows: (a) Can Speak English with Me program be implemented to the students of English course at UPT Bahasa IBI Darmajaya? (b) Is Speak English with Me program able to improve the speaking ability of the students of UPT Bahasa IBI Darmajaya? The objectives of the research are (a) to know how much Speak English with Me program can be implemented to the students at UPT Bahasa? (b) find out the correlation between English English with Me 14 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August, 2015

26 program and speaking ability of the students of the English course at UPT Bahasa Furthermore, this result of the research is expected to be able to be (a) used practically as a reference by English teachers, lecturers or instructors for teaching speaking effectively, and a supporting reference for other researches to conduct further researches, and (b) used theoretically as a supporting theory to enrich former relevant theories, and as a specific concept on learning styles in group learning theories. 2. Literature Review and Hypothesis 2.1 Literature Review Speak English with Me Program Speak English with Me program is an alternative program to improve languages skills especially speaking ability of students at UPT Bahasa IBI Darmajaya where they have to demonstrate or practice their speaking ability through dialogs or conversations in pairs talking over a topic provided by an instructor. He/she will observe and give scores on a control card for their conversation. This speaking activity is usually done by the end of the class or at the beginning of class as a review. This program can be an alternative solution to help improve speaking ability of the students, encourage them to practice their speaking more. Furthermore, it is a sound solution to the problems faced by the students having difficulties in communicating in English Speaking Speaking, an important language skill, is an act of expressing thought, feeling, or opinion orally where it involves a speaker and a listener. According to Siahaan (2008: 2) speaking is a productive language skill that a person is able to communicate information to another. In addition, Lado (1991 : 240) defines speaking as (a) an act of expressing oneself to a real world, (b) an ability to tell about actions or situations verbally, and (c) an act of communicating or expressing ideas smoothly. Therefore, it can be concluded that speaking is a person s act or ability in expressing ideas, feeling, or experiences to another Speaking Ability Speaking ability is the ability to express ideas, thought, feelings and opinions orally. Siahaan (2008: 2) states that, the spoken productive language skill is called speaking. It is the skill of speaker to communicate information to listener or group listener. Additionally, speaking ability is one of language abilities to be learned and mastered by the students in learning a foreign language. By practicing speaking the language learned, the students will more easily master it. Speaking is limited to the ability to conduct a simple conversation on some subjects, while speaking skill is a difficult one to access with precision since it is a complex skill to acquire. In communicating with other people, it is important to know the situation whether it is formal or informal. Besides, it is also important to know that the language used, in this case English, can be standard or non-standard so that they can communicate effectively. According to Littlewood success is measured not only in the functional effectives of the language, but also in the terms of the acceptability of the forms that are used. in other words, it can be concluded that students speaking ability is their ability to express their ideas, opinion, thought, experiences and feelings using English with good mastery of grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation, fluency and comprehension Activities to Promote Speaking There are many activities to promote speaking. According to Kayi (2006), there are thirteen activities to promote speaking, which are: a. Discussions b. Role Play c. Simulations 15 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August, 2015

27 d. Information Gaps e. Brain Storming f. Storytelling g. Interviews h. Story completion i. Reporting j. Playing Cards k. Picture Narrating l. Picture Describing m. Find the Differences Based on the thirteen activities to promote speaking above, Role play is a relevant speaking promote activity in which students are to work in pairs or in peers playing roles of different characters provided by an instructor. According to Djamarah and Zain (2002 : 67) there are some advantages of role play: a. Role play helps students train themselves to understand and memorize the role play material. b. It enables students to be initiative and creative. c. It is able to help foster students language competence. d. It helps students get accustomed to accepting and sharing responsibilities with others. e. It helps students practice using a correct language. 2.2 Hypothesis Based on the formulation of problem, objective of the research, and theoretical framework, the hypothesis can be formulated as follows: a. Speak English with Me program can be implemented to the students of English course at UPT Bahasa IBI Darmajaya. b. Speak English with Me program is able to improve the speaking ability of the students of UPT Bahasa IBI Darmajaya. 3. Research Method 3.1 Population and Sample Population of the research is all students of level 2 at UPT Bahasa in the period of April-June 2015 with the total number of the students as 685 distributed into 46 classes. The sample taken is students of level 2 because the course material at level 2 is more communicative and the students speaking ability is better than those at level 1. The sample is taken by using random sampling technique, meaning that each has the opportunity to be selected as a sample (Sugiyono : 2003 : 74-78). Further, the sample is 50 students of level 2 taken randomly from 3 classes by picking out 15 to 20 students out of those classes. 3.2 Variables of the Research Sugiyono (2009 : 38) defines research variable as an attribute or characteristics of a person, an object, or an action that has specific variation determined by a researcher to study and then to draw a conclusion. In the research, there are two variables, (a) Speak English with Me program as independent variable (X), and Speaking Ability as dependent variable (Y). On Speak English with Me program is given 13 question items with 5 dimensions, and at the students speaking ability is given 7 questions with 5 dimensions. 3.3 Location of the Research There are two techniques used to collect the data of the research. They are: (a) Questionnaire. In this research, the researcher uses direct close questionnaire because the respondents just have to give a cross mark (X) on the answer they choose. This technique is applied to obtain qualified descriptive data used to test the hypothesis through index scale model with 5 options for each question. The four options are (1) Extremely Agree (SS) with score 5, (2) Agree (S) with score 4, (3) Neutral (N) with score 3, (4) Disagree (TS) with score 2, and Strongly 16 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August, 2015

28 Disagree (STS) with score 1. In this case, Likert scale is used to measure the speaking ability. According to Sugiyono (2012: 93) Likert scale is used to measure attitude, opinion, and perception, or a person or a group of people on a case or social phenomenon. (b) Documentation. According to Arikunto (2006: 158) documentation is searching data and collecting data in the form of notes, transcription, books, newspaper, magazines, and agenda. In this research, the researcher makes videos on conversations or dialogs between student and student or student and instructor. The dialog is made based on the topic on the control card given by the instructor. Every pair should perform the dialog in 5 to 10 minutes. Besides video making, the research takes pictures of students activities taken from the three classes. 4. Research Result Analysis 4.1 Descriptive Table of Data Taken from the R es X 1 Questionnaire Given to 50 Respondents. X 2 X 3 X 4 X 5 X 6 PERTANYAAN X X 8 X 9 X 1 0 X 1 1 X 1 2 X 1 3 To tal Descriptive Table of Variable Y (Speaking Ability) Data Resp. Item Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 Y5 Y6 Y7 Total 17 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August, 2015

29 Recapitulation Table of Variable Data Respondent Variable X Variable Y International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August, 2015

30 From the data above, it can be seen that 50 respondents for Variable X with the highest score as 56 and the lowest score as 26. On the other side, for Variable Y the highest score is 35 and the lowest score is Data Tabulation Table No SS S N TS STS (5) (4) (3) (2) (1) Score From the computation result, it is gained that the highest score is 84 and the lowest score is Table of Respondents Answer Characteristics Item toward Variable X ( Speak English with Me Program) SS S N TS STS F % F % F % F % F % P P P P P P P P P P P P P Total Based on the result of computing respondents with 13 questions at variable X ( Speak English with Me Program), it is gained that 170 respondents choose SS, 357 respondents choose S, 67 responents choose N, 106 respondents choose TS, and 34 respondents choose TS. 4.5 Table of Respondents Answer Characteristics Item toward Variable Y (Speaking Ability) SS S N TS STS F % F % F % F % F % P P P P International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August, 2015

31 P P P Total Based on the result of computing respondents with 7 questions at variable Y (Speaking Ability) Program), it is gained that 153 respondents choose SS, 112 respondents choose S, 64 responents choose N, 17 respondents choose TS, and 4 respondents choose TS. 4.6 Interval Determination Characteristics Interval for Variable X ( Speak English with Me Program) Below is interval determination proposed by Slovin. R = (Number of Question X) X ( Highest Score) 5 R = ( 13 x 5) (13 x 1) 5 R = R = 52 5 R = 10.4 = 10 (Number of Question X) X (Lowest Score) Characteristics Interval for Variable Y (Speaking Ability) R = (Number of Question X) X ( Highest Score) (Number of Question X) X (Lowest Score) 5 R = ( 7 x 5) (7 x 1) 5 R = R = 28 5 R = 5.6 = Determining the class for Variable X ( Speak English With Me program) with interval 10 No. Range Poor Bad Fair Good Scaling Norm Very Good 4.8 Determining the class for Variable X (SpeakingAbility) interval 5 No. Range Poor Bad Fair Good Scaling Norm Very Good 4.9 Averarage Scoring Percentage for Variable X ( Speak English with Me Program) Total Questionnaire Questions (PXI PX13 ) Number of questions Based on the average scoring percentage, it is seen that for Variable X ( Speak English with Me Program) respondents respond GOOD because it can be used to improve their speaking ability Average Scoring Percentage for Variable Y (Speaking Ability) Total Questionnaire Questions (PYI PY7 ) Number of questions 20 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August, 2015

32 Based on the average scoring percentage, it shows that for Variable Y (Speaking Ability) the speaking ability of the students become VERY GOOD because their speaking becomes well-controlled and their speaking ability gets much improved. 5. Conclusion and Suggestion a. Conclusion Based on the result of analysis and discussion, it can be concluded that Speak English with Me program can be implemented well to the students of UPT Bahasa IBI Darmajaya since their speaking ability, after joining the program, becomes much improved. b.suggestion Based on the result of analysis and discussion, it suggested that: 1. Instructors should be to allocate time for students to practice their English. There should be good time management for activities in class. Student talking time and teacher talking time should be properly managed. 2. Instructors should be more selective in providing topics familiar to students in order that they are able to express their opinion or experiences comfortably. (2) Arikunto, Suharsini. Prosedur Penelitian Suatu Pendekatan Praktek. Yogyakarta. PT. Rineka Cipta (3) Djamarah, Syaiful Bahri & Aswan Zain, Strategi Belajar Mengajar, Jakarta, Rineka Cipta (4) Harmer, Jeremy. How to teach English. England: Pearson Longman (5). Practice of English Language Teaching. Longman, England (6) Kayi, Hayriye. Teaching Speaking Activities to Promote Speaking in a Second Language. The Internet Journal. Vol.XII,no 11 Teaching Speaking. html (7) Little Wood, William., Communicative Language Teaching, Cambridge University Press. (8) Siahaan, Sanggam. The English Paragraph. Yogyakata: Graha Ilmu (9) Setiadi, Ag. Bambang. Metode Penelitian Untuk Pengajaran Bahasa Asing. Yogyakarata: Graha Ilmu (10). Teaching English As a Foreign Language. Graha Ilmu, Yogyakarta (11) Sugiyono, Metode Penelitian Bisnis. Bandung. Pusat Bahasa Depdiknas (12) Sugiyono, Metode Penelitian Kuantitatif, Kualitatif dan R & D. Penerbit Alfabeta, Bandung (13) Suprijono, Agus. Cooperative Learning Teori dan Aplikasi Paikem. Pustaka Pelajar. Yogyakarta (14) Wilkins, D.A. Linguistics in Language Teaching, London, Edward Arnold Publisher REFERENCE (1) Ardhana in Meleong Lexy J,. Metodologi Penelitian Kuantitatif. Bandung, Rosda Karya International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August, 2015

33 THE GLOBALIZATION STRATEGY OF VIETNAMESE IT ENTERPRISES IN THE CONTEXT OF ASEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY VIA THE CASE STUDY OF FPT CORPORATION HOANG VAN CUONG, (DIRECTOR OF INTERNATIONAL MOBILITY DEPARTMENT, FPT UNIVERSITY VIETNAM) Hoang Van Cuong Hanoi Foreign Trade University President Assistant at FPT University in ABSTACT Vietnam IT Industry has been growing rapidly during the past 15 years. It has been considered as the main short cut to develop the Vietnamese economy from a low income to a middle income country (MIC). From 2002 to 2013, the revenue of software industry increased 52 times to reach nearly 3 US$ billion; and the revenue of hardware industry increased 70.5 times to reach 36.8 US$ billion. Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City the two biggest cities in Vietnam have been ranked in the Top 100 outsourcing destinations by Tholons (an advisory firm for global outsourcing and investment). ASEAN is one of the key markets for Vietnam s IT industry. The region also provides a high potential labor force market to solve the human resource problems of the IT enterprises. In this context, ASEAN Economic Community will have a significant influence to the development of Vietnam s IT enterprises. This paper will discuss the globalization strategy of Vietnamese IT enterprises in the context of ASEAN Economic community via the case of FPT Corporation the leading IT Company in Vietnam which currently has its office in Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar, Indonesia and the Philippines. 1. Overview of Vietnamese IT Industry 1.1. About Vietnam Vietnam is a medium country in South East Asia, shared the border with China in the North; Laos and Cambodia in the West. It has a long coast of around 3,200 km along Eastern Sea (South China Sea). Vietnam is a young country (over 50 million out of 90 million population aged under 35). This is a huge potential for IT human resource. Some facts about Vietnam: Area of land: 330,972.4 km 2 Population up to date 31 st December 2014: 89,708,900 people GDP of 2014: billion USD GDP per capita of 2014: 1,908 USD Growth rate of GDP in 2014: 5.42% Export value of 2014: 132,143.9 million USD Import value of 2014: 132,125.9 million USD (Source: General Statistic Office of Vietnam) Vietnam has been known as a communist country with the long history of a subsidy economy. After the Vietnam America war ended in 1975, Vietnamese government still keeps the old economic management system until it shows the failure in the end of 1980s. The inflation rate increased up to % while the socio economic situation was at the worst during many years. The 6 th National Congress of the Vietnamese communist party (CPV) has set up the Renovation strategy ( Doimoi ) with some main changes: Privately owned enterprises were permitted in commodity production (and later encouraged) by the Communist Party of Vietnam 22 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

34 DoiMoi reforms led to the development of what is now referred to as the Socialistoriented market economy, where the state plays a decisive role in the economy, but private ICT developed much faster than ever. This is one of the key condition for Vietnam to use ICT as a leverage for its economic development Overview of Vietnamese IT Industry enterprise and cooperatives play a significant After nearly 15 years of successful role in commodity production. DoiMoi helped Vietnam establish diplomatic relationships with the capitalist West and East development, IT industry in Vietnam has achieved the next level of matured stage and obtained a new power. The IT Industry in Vietnam is combined from Asia in the 1990s. Vietnam joined ASEAN in three main sub-industries, including: hardware, 1995, and normalized the relationship with the US in the same year. With DoiMoi, Vietnam officially opens its software, and digital content. There are about 14,000 IT enterprises totally in Vietnam (2014) with 50% in the software industry. door to the international community at the time when Total number of registered enterprises in the IT industry sector (enterprises) Sector Hardware 992 1,273 2,763 2,431 2,485 Software 1,756 2,958 7,044 7,246 6,832 Digital content 2,844 2,312 3,289 3,883 4,498 (Source: Authority of Business Registration Management, Vietnam Ministry of Planning and Investment, 2015) For market size, the total revenue of the whole IT industry in Vietnam is 39,530 million USD enterprise is only 2.86 million USD/ year (small and medium enterprises) (2014), means that the average revenue per Vietnam Information Technology Market Revenue of IT Industry (million USD) Growth rate Hardware 4,627 5,631 11,326 23,015 36, % Software 850 1,064 1,172 1,208 1, % Digital content ,165 1,235 1, % Total 6,167 7,629 13,663 25,428 39, % (Source: Authority of Business Registration Management, Vietnam Ministry of Planning and Investment, 2015) Human resource is the key factor for the development of Vietnamese IT industry. The IT workforce counts around 450,000 employees (2014) of which over 200,000 ones are postgraduates and graduates. Young students in Vietnam are trainable, motivated, intelligent and strong in mathematics. They can easily move beyond routine tasks and come up with solutions. However, the weaknesses of Vietnamese IT workforce is the working skills and foreign language (English, Japanese). There are nearly 300 universities and colleges together with more than 200 vocational schools are offering training courses on IT majors with the total annual enrollment quota of 65,000 students. This is not really match with the need of the industry while it s still remain a big gap between the universities and the industry. 2. The globalization strategy of Vietnamese IT enterprises in the context of ASEAN Economic community via the case study of FPT Corporation 23 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

35 Technology is the foundation for any development of the IT industry, including its globalization. Technology itself is the best example of globalization. Never as before, the world is driven by technology and deeply influenced by technology. A new technology can be spread widely over the World in just a few weeks, even a few days. SMAC (Social, Mobility, Analytics, and Cloud) becomes the newest and most popular platform for the World s technology. The table below shows that SMAC is being considered as the newest IT Era: IT Era Dates approximate Computers Applications Users approximate approximate approximate Mainframe ~ 100,000 Thousands Millions Mini-computing ~ 10M Thousands Ten of millions PC & Client/ server ~ 100M Ten of thousands Hundreds of millions Internet (Web) ~ 1B Hundreds of Billions thousands SMAC (?) ~ 10B Millions Billions (Source: computerworld.com) (The model of SMAC) In this paper, the author will not focus on the technology site of SMAC but just emphasize SMAC as the new trend for globalization of Vietnamese IT industry. Vietnam s IT enterprises have many good foundations to apply and develop SMAC as a leverage for the development in this new era. All biggest Vietnamese IT companies (FPT, VNPT, Viettel, CMC, etc.) have officially state SMAC as their development and globalization strategies. Under 24 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

36 this strategy, software industry, particularly software outsourcing becomes the most effective way to internationalize Vietnamese IT industry. Vietnam is in the Top 10 most attractive destinations for software outsourcing in Asia with the advantages of labor force market. In terms of market, Japan, America and Europe are the biggest markets for Vietnamese software industry. To be able to get bigger scale, some big Vietnamese IT companies have developed its software outsourcing development centers outside Vietnam to take the advantage of human resource in the region. In this context, ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) will create an important framework. AEC is the most important milestone in the development of ASEAN and its regional economic integration which will create a free labor force market and encourage investment within the region. This paper will study the case of FPT Corporation as an example for the globalization strategy of a Vietnamese IT enterprise (particularly in the software industry) in the context of ASEAN Economic Community Overview of FPT Corporation Year of establishment: 1988 Number of staff: 24,000 Company member: 07 Business areas: Software (System integration, IT service, telecommunications, digital content, training service, distribution, manufacturing and retail of IT and telecommunication products), Information System, Online, Trading, Retail, Education Oversea offices: in 19 countries, including the US, Japan, France, Germany, Singapore, etc. Consolidated Revenue: 1.65 billion USD (2014) General introduction Founded 1988, for nearly 27 years of development, FPT Corporation has always been the leading ICT company in Vietnam with the revenue of more than VND 35,114 billion, equivalent to nearly USD 1.65 billion (financial statement 2014), creating more than 24,000 jobs for the society. The company s market capitalization (as of Feb 28, 2014) reached VND 17,608 billion, being one of the largest private enterprises in Vietnam (ranked by Vietnam Report 500). Through conducting core businesses in the fields of information technology and telecommunications, FPT has been providing services to all sixty three cities and provinces of Vietnam and continued expanding its business to the global market. FPT has had clients or opened representative offices and companies in 19 countries including Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, America, Japan, Singapore, Germany, Myanmar, France, Malaysia, Australia, Thailand, United Kingdom, Slovakia, UK, Philippines, Kuwait, Bangladesh and Indonesia. FPT has intensive experience of establishing and implementing large scale business models. After nearly twenty six years, FPT is now the No. 1 company in Vietnam specializing in Software Development, System Integration, IT Services, Distribution and Manufacturing of IT products, and Retails. In telecommunications area, FPT is one of three biggest Internet services providers in Vietnam. In regard to content development, FPT is now the No. 1 online advertising company in Vietnam, owning an e- newspaper with more than 42 million page views per day, which is equal to the number of Internet users in Vietnam. In addition, FPT is one of the best IT training service providers in Vietnam with college and vocational training system, attracting nearly 17,000 students SMAC as the globalization in technology of FPT Corporation Understanding the role of SMAC as the keyword to change the ICT sector in the near future, FPT commits to bring more values to the customers through SMAC the based business model of smart services and solutions. 25 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

37 FPT has developed several projects related to SMAC technology, including: - FPT Play HD: a television service, integrating the most modern and smartest entertainment technology, provides TV viewers an infotainment system.- FPT.eGOV is a comprehensive system comprising 31 subsystems (applications). Each subsystem, used for one field, helps manage the administrative activities of State bodies and delivers IT applications to all levels of the province or city. The system is designed to apply the latest IT technology to establish and develop an exclusive database system that enables users to increase access and processing speed. They can also retrieve and supply exact, timely, complete and synchronous information. - E.click: a smart advertising network based on Big Data collected via users interaction on online products and services. Advanced algorithms are used for behavior analysis, subgroup, data mining to display relevant ads, helping advertisers optimize their efficiency and publishers optimize their revenue. - FPT.eHospital is a comprehensive software system for hospitals that manages all activities of patient from the time they into the hospital to the time they leave the hospital. FPT.eHospital is divided into 35 modules which combined to create a unified information flow, giving the hospital complete control. FPT.eHospital has versions which are suitable for each type of hospital: public hospital, health center, private hospital, specialty hospital, general hospital, etc ASEAN in the globalization strategy of FPT Corporation In the globalization strategy of FPT Corporation, ASEAN has a very important influence. FPT currently has its office in Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, Myanmar, Singapore, Malaysia, Philippines and Indonesia. Among that, besides head office and main development centers in Vietnam, FPT has set up its telecommunication companies in Laos, Cambodia and Myanmar; FPT Software development centers in Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand and the Philippines; and FPT Information system in Singapore and Indonesia. With this operational network, FPT is taking the advantage of ASEAN Economic community to expand its presence in the region. Especially with the software development centers in the Philippines and Thailand, FPT is using the best human resources in the region to provide software solutions and services to clients around the World. Employees from Thailand or the Philippines with a better background of foreign languages (especially English) can support FPT in its globalization strategy. For education, FPT University the member of FPT Corporation also develop a lot of exchange programs and other kinds of cooperation to the ASEAN universities. FPT University is founding member of P2A (Passage to ASEAN) a network to develop the mobility of students among the region and increase their awareness of ASEAN Economic integration. These activities are expected to not only develop the English ability of students but also to create a good culture foundation for students to be able to work in any country in the region after they graduate. 3. Conclusion and policy recommendation Vietnamese IT industry, particularly software industry is developing fast but it is also facing with the problem of human resource. The gap between universities and industry is bigger especially when technology moving so fast like today. Universities should be more independent to develop its curriculum and update the latest technology to its program; otherwise students will be left behind. ASEAN Economic Community will also create a big change in the labor force market of the region. For the companies, this is a good chance for them to recruit the best employee and open the offshore development centers in the region. For students, this is also an ideal opportunity to get their global career. In this context, higher education institutions will need to take a more important role; and we expect to see more framework/ 26 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

38 platform for the cooperation among universities in the region. References: White book on Information and Data on Information and Communication Technology Vietnam 2014, Ministry of Information and Communication of Vietnam (2015) Vietnam s 30 leading IT companies 2014, Vietnam Software and IT Services Association (2015) 27 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

39 TOPOLOGICAL COMPARISON-BASED WORMHOLE DETECTION FOR MANET King Sun Chan 1, Mohammad Rafiqul Alan 2 Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering Curtin University, Bentley, Perth, 6102 Australia 2 ABSTRACT Wormhole attack is considered one of the most threatening security attacks for mobile ad hoc networks (MANET). In a wormhole attack, a tunnel is setup in advance between two colluders. The colluders record packets at one location and forward them through the tunnel to another location in the network. Depending on whether or not the colluders are participating in the network functions, the wormhole attack can be further divided into two categories: traditional wormhole attack and Byzantine wormhole attack. Existing researches focusing on detecting traditional wormhole attacks can be classified into three categories: one-hop delay based approach; topological analysis based or special hardware/middleware based approaches. Unfortunately, they all have their own limitations. Most of the researches detecting Byzantine wormhole attack are not addressing the Byzantine wormhole attack directly. Instead, they focus on observing the consequence after a Byzantine wormhole attack, like packet dropping or modification. In this paper, we propose to detect both traditional and Byzantine wormhole attacks by detecting some topological anomalies introduced by wormhole tunnels. Simulation results show that our scheme can achieve both high wormhole attack detection rate and accuracy. Our scheme is also simple to implement. KEY WORDS Wormhole attack, Byzantine wormhole attack, manet, topological comparison. 1. Introduction Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) attracted a lot of attention recently in networking community. Most of the previous ad hoc networking research has focused on routing protocols and communication methods in a trusted environment. However, many applications need secured communication [1]. MANETs are vulnerable to a number of security attacks due to their flexibility in network configuration, openness of the wireless medium and absence of any centralized controller. Recently, there are many papers focusing on providing security for MANETs. Authors in [2] proposed a passwordauthenticated group key exchange protocol for MANETs. Authors in [3] proposed two-layer INS concept to secure routing protocols. A detection framework called separation of detection authority is proposed in [4] for detecting selfish nodes on 28 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th 21 th August 2015

40 MANETs. In this paper, we focus on one particular network layer attack: wormhole attack. Depending on whether or not the attackers are also actively participating in network layer functions, the wormhole attack can be further divided into two categories: traditional wormhole attack and Byzantine wormhole attack. In the traditional wormhole attack, an attacker overhears the packets in its vicinity, records them and then tunnels them to another location where they are replayed by another colluding attacker. As a result, two far away nodes consider themselves as one-hop neighbours. In the Byzantine wormhole attack, the attackers also participate in the network functions, like routing, flooding, authentication, etc. In Byzantine wormhole attack, when one colluder receives a packet, it first takes action according to the network function requirement, and then tunnels the packet to the other side of the tunnel. The other colluder, after receiving the forwarded packet from the tunnel, will then process it and then take appropriate action as if it is received from a direct legitimate neighbour. As the colluders also participate in all network functions, Byzantine wormhole attack is more difficult to detect. The motivation of this paper is to develop a unified scheme to detect both traditional and Byzantine wormhole attacks with high detection rate and simple implementation. As short wormhole links may not attract a lot of traffic and will not be of much use to the adversary [5], we consider the wormhole tunnel to be at least two hops long in this paper. As a wormhole tunnel will introduce some topological anomaly, we focus on topological analysis to detect such topological anomaly for detecting both traditional and Byzantine wormhole attacks. Simulation results show that our scheme can achieve both high wormhole detection rate and detection accuracy. The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, we review existing wormhole detection methods and their limitations. Our proposed solution for detecting traditional wormhole attack is presented in section 3. We extend our scheme to detect Byzantine wormhole attack in section 4. Finally, our conclusion is drawn in Section Related Works Wormhole attack attracts a lot of attention in MANET security research community recently. In this section, we first briefly review existing schemes for detecting traditional wormhole attack. Then we move to cover the existing schemes for defending against Byzantine wormhole attack. 2.1 Existing methods for detecting traditional wormhole attack Existing approaches for detecting traditional wormhole attack can be classified into three categories: one-hop delay based approach; topological analysis based or special hardware/middleware based solutions. 29 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th 21 th August 2015

41 Schemes proposed in [6-12] are one-hop delay based. In [6], a wormhole detection method based on round trip time (RTT) and neighbour number is presented. When the RTT between two nodes is considerably longer, they check the neighbour number. If the value of neighbor number is greater than the average neighbor number, there is a suspect that a wormhole link is in between. This method assumes that all network nodes use the same hardware and software configuration. Moreover, they assume the network nodes are uniformed distributed, which may not be true in some mobile ad hoc networks. Schemes in [7-12] also rely heavily on measuring one-hop delays to detect wormhole attack. Another approach of combating wormhole attacks is to use graph analysis. Maheshwari et al. in [5] proposed a wormhole detection algorithm which looks for forbidden substructure in the connectivity graph that should not be present in a legal connectivity graph. Unfortunately, this approach is very complicated and impractical to real system.lee et al. in [13] propose a method where each node gathers information of its neighbors within two hops. Each newly joined node broadcasts an announcement, which is valid only within the next two hops. The requirement of maintaining two hops neighbors, keyed hash and TTL limit the applicability of this method in a distributed system where exists a wide variety of participants. Dong et al. in [14] propose to analyse the topological impact introduced by traditional wormhole tunnels. Unfortunately, the presented detection scheme requires the network to run Dijkstra shortest path routing algorithm which may be a heavy burden to many mobile ad hoc networks. The solutions belonging to the third category of combating wormhole attack use a special hardware device, strict time synchronization or special network protocol. Packet leashes are used in [1] to detect and defend against wormhole attacks. However, the accuracy of GPS devices is low in presence of physical obstacles. Another detection method in [15] uses directional antennae to obtain relative directional information and verify possible neighbors. This method suffers from antenna s directional errors. In NEVO [16], a firmware upgradation of the MAC layer is needed so that the sender can passively monitor the forwarding of broadcast type packets by its neighbors. Moreover, NEVO uses network layer verification, which is a time consuming task. It can be seen that most of the existing traditional wormhole detection methods rely on measuring one hop delays. The major advantage of this type of solutions is simplicity and easy implementation. However, delays are not only caused by the presence of wormholes but also some other factors like link congestion, queuing delays, difference in intra-nodal processing capabilities etc. In our scheme, instead of only looking at the round trip delays, we turn to detect the topological anomalies introduced by the wormholes. Using this topological feature, we can 30 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th 21 th August 2015

42 detect traditional wormhole tunnel with high accuracy. 2.2 Existing methods for detecting Byzantine wormhole attack Most of the existing solutions for detecting Byzantine wormhole attack rely on encryption and authentication. As the compromised nodes will drop or modify the user packets, these solutions try to detect the dropped packets or modified packets to identify the Byzantine attacks. In ODBSR [17], reliability is chosen as the metric in routing. Each link and then path consisting of multiple links is assigned a weight. If the packet loss rate is over some threshold, the source launches the binary search to determine which link is in fault. The faulty link will be assigned a larger weight and eventually avoided in the future connection setup phase. In SRAC [18], the authors proposed an algorithm to detect Byzantine attacks by using both message and route redundancy during route discovery. Multiple copies of the same packet are received by a node. After comparing all multiple copies, it is possible to detect any missed or modified copies and identify the compromised nodes. Unfortunately, all these schemes are very complicated and only focusing on packet dropping or modification. If the compromised nodes are only interested in analysing traffic or spoofing, all these schemes fail. In our approach, we intend to address byzantine wormhole attack directly. We focus on detecting abnormal topological features introduced by byzantine wormhole tunnels. Therefore, it is possible that paths including Byzantine wormhole tunnels can be completely avoided and thus minimizing the adverse impact. 3. Detecting traditional wormhole attack In this section, we present our proposed scheme for detecting traditional wormhole attack. This scheme will be extended to cover the Byzantine wormhole detection in section IV. Our scheme is based on the following two observations of traditional wormhole attacks: 1) Temporal anomaly: Two fake one-hop neighbours with a wormhole tunnel in between have longer RTT, compared to the RTT between two true one-hop neighbours. 2) Topological anomaly: Two true one-hop neighbours usually share common true one-hop neighbours among them, and two fake one-hop neighbours do not share common true one-hop neighbours Neighbor List Construction Each node in the network maintains its own onehop neighbor list and average RTT (RTT avg ) to its direct neighbors. The neighbor list consists of two parts: trusted and suspected. The nodes included in the trusted part are considered true direct neighbors while the nodes included in the suspected part are suspected as under the traditional wormhole attack. Nodes exchange HELLO and HELLO_REPLY packets for populating their neighbor lists. The HELLO packet contains the following fields: source node ID and sequence number. The 31 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th 21 th August 2015

43 HELLO_REPLY packet contains the following fields: source field, destination field and sequence number. The details of the HELLO and HELLO_REPLY exchange are described in the following: 1. The source node broadcasts a HELLO packet to its one-hop neighbors. 2. A node receiving a HELLO packet unicasts a HELLO_REPLY packet back to the source node. 3. After receiving a HELLO_REPLY packet from one neighbor, the RTT between the source node and the neighbor is first measured. Based on the relationship between the measured RTT and the maintained RTT avg, this neighboring node may be put into the suspected or trusted part of the node s neighbor list: if the measured RTT is greater than three times of the current RTT avg (RTT > 3 RTT avg ), this neighboring node is included into the suspected part of the neighbor list; otherwise, this node is considered a trusted neighbor and RTT avg is updated. 3.2 Calculating RTT avg Round Trip Time (RTT) is measured as the delay between when a HELLO packet is broadcasted and when the corresponding HELLO_REPLY is received by the initiator. Each node maintains an average value of one-hop RTT between itself and its one-hop neighbors. This value, denoted by RTT avg in this paper, is measured using the following formulae: 3.3 SUS and TRST parts of a Neighbor List Based on measured RTT, we can populate the SUS and TRST parts of a node s neighbor list. However, the list may not be accurate enough as RTT is affected by many factors. We use topological comparison to eliminate as many as possible true neighbors from the SUSP part to improve the detection accuracy. 3.4 Topological Comparison As we have noticed in observation 2), if two nodes are true one-hop neighbors, they usually share other common true neighbors. However, the nodes around a traditional wormhole tunnel get a distorted view of the network topology. Therefore, two far away nodes consider themselves as direct neighbors but this particular topological feature may not be held anymore. We can use this property to improve the performance of our scheme. If a node s SUSP part of the neighbor list is not empty, it sends ENQ packets to all nodes in its SUSP part of the Neighbor List. In response to ENQ, the recipients reply with their respective TRUS part of their Neighbor List back to the ENQ source. After receiving the reply, the node can use Algorithm 1 to conduct topological comparison. The parameters used are shown in Table I. 32 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th 21 th August 2015

44 Table I parameters for Algorithm 1 S Sender of ENQ packets r Receiver of ENQ packets TRUS s TRUS list of s TRUS r TRUS list of r me TRUE/FALSE, denotes whether s is in TRST r trusted No. of nodes in TRUS r TRUS s Algorithm 1 Detectingtraditional Wormhole 1. ifme = TRUE then 2. Delete r from SUSP s 3. Insert r into TRUS s 4. end if 5. else if me = FALSE then 6. if ( trusted=0 ) then 7. link with r contains wormhole tunnel 8. else 9. delete r from SUSP s 10. Insert r into TRUS s 11. end if 12. end if 3.5 Performance evaluation We use ns-2 to evaluate our scheme. And parameters are listed in Table II. Table II Simulation parameters Simulation area 1000m 1000m to 1400m 1400m Number of nodes 10, 15, 20, or 30 Transmission range 250m Routing algorithm AODV Simulation runs per 100 scenario We use detection rate and detection accuracy as performance measurement of our scheme. Figure 1 shows the detection rate versus tunnel length for different network sizes. It can be seen that the detection rate increases as the tunnel length increases. It is because that, with longer tunnel length, the RTT between a pair of fake direct neighbours is longer and easier to be identified. It can also be seen that higher detection rate is achieved with larger network size. It is due to the fact that, with larger network size, each node has more genuine neighbouring nodes which leads to more accurate RTT avg estimation and thus less likely to misclassify fake neighbouring nodes as trusted neighbours. We also compared the detection rate of our scheme with that of scheme developed in [7] in Figure 2. It can be seen that our scheme achieves much better performance. It can also be noted that the improvement of our scheme is more significant when the tunnel length is short. It is because that the scheme in [7] relies on RTT only to detect wormhole attack. 33 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th 21 th August 2015

45 introduce some anomalies which can be observed for detecting such attacks. Our schemee is based on the following two observations: Figure 1 Detection rate vs. Tunnel length Figure 2comparisonwith the scheme in [7] 4. Detecting Byzantine wormhole attack In this section, we turn our attention to detectt the Byzantine wormhole attack. As we have explained earlier, two nodes with a Byzantine wormhole tunnel in between consider themselvess as three-hop wormhole attack case, a Byzantine wormhole tunnel will neighbors. However, as in the traditional also 1) Temporal anomaly: two fake three-howormhole tunnel in between have longer RTT. neighbors with a Byzantine 2) Topological anomaly: two true three-hoother s one-hop neighbors as no-more-than-three-hop true neighbors, except the one involved in this pair s three-hop connection. 4.1 Neighbor List neighbors have some of the Each node in the network maintains its own neighbor list which includes all neighbors no less than three hops away. The neighbor list consists of two parts: trusted part (TRUS) and suspected part (SUSP). As we only consider the Byzantine wormhole attack, we assume all one-hop and two- hop neighbors are true neighbors. Therefore, the suspected part only includes the three-hop neighbors which are considered under the Byzantine wormhole attack. The procedure for constructing the neighbor list is similar to Section 3 and we exclude the details due to space limit. 4.2 Topological Comparison If two nodes are true three-hop neighbors, they usually consider some of the other s one-hoexcept the neighbors as trusted neighbors, one 34 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th 21 th August 2015

46 involved in the pair s three-hop connection. However, the nodes around a Byzantine wormhole tunnel get a distorted view of the network topology. Therefore, two far away nodes consider themselves as three-hop neighbors but this particular topological feature may not be held anymore. Therefore, we can use this feature to detect Byzantine wormhole attacks in MANET. We modify the topological comparison algorithm we developed in section 3 for detecting Byzantine wormhole attack. Table III Notations used in Algorithm 2 S Sender of ENQ packets r Receiver of ENQ packets SUSP s SUSP list of the neighbor list of s ONL s One-hop neighbor list of s TRUS r TRUS list of the neighbor list of r ONL r One-hop neighbor list of r me TRUE/FALSE, denotes whether s is in TRUS r trusted s No. of nodes in TRUS r ONL s trusted r No. of nodes in TRUS s ONL r Each node in the network has its own Neighbor List. After the neighbor discovery process a node sends ENQ packets to all nodes in its SUSP list of the Neighbor List. In response to ENQ, the recipients reply with their respective TRUS part of their Neighbor List back to the ENQ source. After receiving the reply, the node runs Algorithm 2 for detecting the Byzantine attack. The parameters used in comparison are shown in Table III. In this phase, the TRUSparts of a Neighbor List is modified when a suspected node proves its credibility. Algorithm 2Detecting Byzantine Wormhole 1. ifme = TRUE then 2. Delete r from SUSP s 3. Insert r into TRUS s 4. end if 5. else if me = FALSE then 6. if (trusted s =1 and trusted r =1 ) then 7. connection with r contains Byzantine wormhole tunnel 8. else 9. delete r from SUS s 10. Insert r into TRST s 11. end if 12. end if 4.3 Simulation results We have also simulated our scheme with simulator ns-2 to evaluate the performance. Simulation parameters are similar to those shown in table II, except that the simulated area is limited in a square field of size 1000m * 1000m with 30 randomly generated nodes. Figure 3 shows the detection rate versus Byzantine wormhole tunnel length. It can be seen that detection rate increases as tunnel length increases. It is because the RTT between a pair of fake three-hop neighbours is greater with longer tunnel length, and therefore easier to be identified. In Figure 4, the 35 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th 21 th August 2015

47 detection accuracy versus tunnel length is shown. It can be seen that our scheme can achieve very high accuracy. Figure 3Detection rate vs tunnel length wormhole detection schemes focus only on traditional wormhole attacks. And they rely on observing longer RTTs between neighbouring nodes under the traditional wormhole attack which may lead to poor detection performance. Existing schemes for Byzantine wormhole attacks focus on the consequences of Byzantine wormhole attacks, like packet dropping and modification to detect the existence of Byzantine wormhole attacks. In this paper, we try to detect both traditional and Byzantine wormhole attacks directly. We propose to detect the topological abnormality introduced by the traditional and Byzantine wormhole attacks. By detecting wormhole attacks directly, those links under wormhole attack can be avoided completely during the routing phase and thus limiting the adverse consequence from wormhole attack to the minimum. Simulation results show that our scheme can achieve both high detection rate and accuracy of alarms. The implementation of our scheme is also simple. REFERENCES Figure 4Accuracy vs tunnel length 4. Conclusion Wormhole attack is considered one of the most challenging and threatening security attacks in mobile ad ho networks. Most of the existing [1] Y.-C. Hu, A. Perrig, and D. B. Johnson, Wormhole attacks in wireless networks, IEEE JSAC, pp , Feb [2] D. He, C. Chen, M Ma, S. Chan, and J. Bu, A secure and efficient password-authenticated group key exchange protocol for mobile ad hoc networks, International Journal of Communication systems, [3] A. Le, J. Loo, A. Lasebae, M. Aiash, and Y. Lou, 6LoWPAN: a study on QoS security threats and countermeasures using intrusion detection system approach, International Journal of Communication systems, [4] Z. Chong, S. Tan, B. Goi, and B. Ng, Outwitting smart selfish nodes in wireless 36 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th 21 th August 2015

48 mesh networks, International Journal of Communication systems, [5] R. Maheshwari, J. Gao, and S. R. Das, Detecting wormhole attacks in wireless networks using connectivity information, in Proc. INFOCOM 2007, pp [6] Z. Tun and A. H. Maw, Wormhole attack detection in wireless sensor networks, in Proceedings of World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, [7] F. Nait-Abdesselam, Detecting and avoiding wormhole attacks inwireless ad hoc networks, IEEE Comm. Mag., pp , Apr [8] T. Van Phuong, N. T. Canh, Y.-K. Lee, S. Lee, and H. Lee, Transmission time-based mechanism to detect wormhole attacks, in Proc. 2nd IEEE Asia-Pacific Service Computing Conference 2007, pp [9] M. Khabbazian, H. Mercier and V. K. Bhargava, Severity analysis and countermeasure for the wormhole attack in wireless ad hoc networks, IEEE trans. Wireless comm., pp , [10] S. Choi, D. young Kim, D. hyeon Lee, and J. il Jung, Wap: Wormhole attack prevention algorithm in mobile ad hoc networks, in Proc. IEEE SUTC 08, [11] H. S. Chiu and K. S. Lui, DelPHI: wormhole detection mechanism for ad hoc wireless networks, Proc. Int l Symp. Wireless Pervasive Comp., [12] J. Biswas, A. Gupta, and D. Singh, WADP: A wormhole attack detection and prevention technique in MANET using modified AODV routing protocol, Proc. 9 th Int l Conference on Industrial and Information Systems (ICIIS), [13] G. Lee, J. Seo, and D. Kim. An Approach to Mitigate Wormhole Attack in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks, in Proc. ISA2008. [14] D. Dong, Mo Li, Y. Liu, X. Li, and X. Liao, Topological detection on wormholes in wireless ad hoc and senser networks, IEEE/ACM trans. Networking, 2011, 19(6): p [15] L. Hu and D. Evans, Using directional antennas to prevent wormhole attacks, Proc. 11th Network and Distrbuted System Security Symposium, [16] X. Su and R. V. Boppana, Mitigating wormhole attacks using passive monitoring in mobile ad hoc networks, Proc. IEEE Globecom2008, [17] B. Awerbuch, R. Curtmola, D. Holmer, et. al., ODSBR: An on-demand secure Byzantine resilient routing protocol for wireless ad hoc networks, ACM Trans. Inf. Syst. Secur., (4): p [18] M. Yu, M.C. Zhou, and W. Su, A secure routing protocol against byzantine attacks for MANETs in adversarial environments, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, (1): p International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th 21 th August 2015

49 DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR SCHOLARSHIP IN BALI STATE POLYTECHNIC USING AHP AND TOPSIS Ni Gusti Ayu Putu Harry Saptarini 1, Putu Manik Prihatini 2 Informatics Department, Bali State Polytechnic 1,2, Kampus Politeknik Negeri Bali Bukit Jimbaran, Kuta Selatan, Badung Bali, PO BOX 1064 Tuban Kode Pos Telp. (0361) Fax. (0361) 1,2 1, 2 ABSTRACT One effort to help people in continuing their education is through a scholarship program. Currently there are many scholarship programs from the government and stateowned enterprises or private. With the help of these educational, students race to achieve in order to offset the cost of education which is currently quite expensive. The number of students applying for the scholarship would require a separate time to filter out students who meet the requirements and then rank students based on the criteria of the scholarship. The complexity of the problems occur because each criterion has its own priority. Screening and grading manually would require considerable time and susceptible to human error. This research, developed automatic screening and decision support system to rank students according to given criteria. The method used is analytical hierarchycal process (AHP) to give weight to each criterion based on its priority, and the technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) to rank students based on its values of each criterion. By construct this decision support system, then selecting scholarship recipients can be faster and valid. The system that was built provide recommendations by rank students based on the final calculation. KEY WORDS Decision Support System, AHP, TOPSIS, Scholarship. 1. Introduction Education is a very important thing. A good standard of living can be achieved by one of them with a good education. By having a higher education, the opportunity to obtain a better life will be higher as well. Today many students experiencing economic constraints in higher education. One way to alleviate the burden is by providing scholarships. Scholarships are usually awarded by certain agency or organization. Scholarships given can be varied as scholarships for poor students or achievements. This programs are expected to help students in education funding so that more people can take higher education. Bali State Polytechnic (PNB) is one vocational education institutions located in Jimbaran Bali. On the academic year of 2013/2014, the number of students were In PNB there are many types of scholarships are offered. In last 3 years, there are between 10 to 11 types of scholarships are offered each year. Eachoffered scholarship has some assessment criteria for determining who is entitled to a scholarship student. The criteria used usually in the form of GPA, parents income, number of family members covered parents, academic and nonacademic achievement (SKKM). Every applicant will be compared to get student with the highest score to receive scholarship. The number of applicants for each scholarship at PNB, resulting in resource needs both time and human to do the 38 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

50 selection criteria by comparing one by one applicant.this problem becomes complex because the combination ofmany applicants and criteria used for selecting scholarship applicants. Thus we need a decision support system (DSS) to assist decision making recipients in PNB. Using DSS, the time for decision-making can be more quickly and scholarship recipients are students who fit all criteria. This study using TOPSIS method for the decision-making process by comparing the valuesof each criterion of the applicants, while the weighting of each of the criteria used in the assessment usingtwo choices, inputting weights based on the preferences of decision makers or using AHP. AHP method is a method that is quite simple but good in the weighting and comparison of several criteria. TOPSIS method not only produces a decision that comes closest to the positive criteria, but at the same time also resulted in the decision by far the most negative criteria. Some studies for decision making using AHP has been done by Tahriris et al[1] to assist decision making to supplierelection.syamsuddin and Hwang [2] using AHP in its research to develop a decision support system for the banking industry related to security issues e- banking.triantaphyllou and Mann [3] using AHP to assist decision-makers in the field of engineering.wei et al. [4] using the AHP in building decision support system in the election of the Enterprise Resource Planning system (ERP). The Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) is a method that is widely used in making a decision. There are several studies conducted by TOPSIS method as practiced by Jahanshahloo et al. [5] using TOPSIS method for building decision support system on problems with the data which the fuzzy, where fuzzy numbers normalized value is calculated using the concept of -cuts.ataei [6] using TOPSIS and fuzzy TOPSIS to build a decision support system for the design layout of the plant. Rahimi et al [7] to build a web-based decision support system for medical diagnosis with TOPSIS method. Athawale and Chakraborty [8] using TOPSIS to build a decision support system in evaluating the CNC machine of the specifications and costs. Several studies have been done to build a decision support system for granting beasiswa.wimatsari et al [9] using TOPSIS method for building decision support system with Fuzzy TOPSIS at the University Udayana.Wibowo et al [10] using Simple Additive weighting method (SAW) to build a support system Bank BRI grantee's decision at the Islamic University of Indonesia. In this study used AHP to compare the level of interest among the assessment criteria, which is a synthesis of the pairwise comparison matrix will be the weight for each criterion. By applying the method of AHP, is expected to better reflect the weight of each criterion which is formed between the level of importance of each criterion in which the weights will be used in the matrix calculation on TOPSIS method. By combining both methods is expected DSS built will be able to improve the process and quality of admission scholarship in PNB, so as to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the decision making process. 2. Research Method This research using AHP and TOPSIS to make a decision support system. AHP is used to gain weightof each criterion by compared their priority. TOPSIS then used to rank all of candidate. TOPSIS will give the best candidate who has the shortest distance with positive ideal solution and the longest distance to negative ideal solution. 39 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

51 2.1 Analytical Hierarchycal Process Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is a measurement theory through pairwise comparisons and rely on the judgment of experts to get the priority scale. AHP will buildthepairwise comparisonmatrix between a criterion with other criteria. Comparison matrix for decision variables on each criterion will also be built. Table 1 is a scale that is used for charging the pairwise comparison matrix in AHP Table 1 Saaty Rating Scale for Pairwise Comparison Matrix[11] Intensity of Importance Definition Explanation 1 Equal importance Two factors contribute equally to the objective 3 Somewhat Experience and judgement more slightly favour one over the other importance 5 Much more Experience and judgement strongly favour one over the other 7 Very much Experience and judgement very more strongly favour one over the important other 9 Absolutely more important The evidence favouring one over the other is of the highest possible validity 2,4,6,8 Intermediate value When compromise is needed This is the step done in this research using AHP : 1. Build a pairwise comparison matrix for each of the criteria according to Table 1 2. Perform the synthesis of each alternative decision 3. Calculate the consistency index (C.I.) 4. Perform a comparison between criteria and alternatives 5. Calculate the final ranking 2.2 The Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) Technique for Order Performance by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) is one method in decision-making which is in producing a decision will choose the alternative that is not only the most positive approach the ideal solution, but also the most distant from the negative ideal solution. According Zahedy F. [12], with m criteria and n alternative, then the steps are performed in TOPSIS method is: 1. Build a normalized decision matrix. In TOPSIS, the performance of each alternative is calculated using Equation Build a normalized weighting matrix The ideal positive and negative solution A- A + can be determined based on the normalized weight rating (yij) as follows: 3. Determine the ideal solution both positive and negative Positive ideal solution matrix can be calculated with Equation 3, while the negative ideal solution matrix can be calculated by Equation 4 40 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

52 4. Calculate the distance of each alternative decision of the positive and negative solutions idela The distance between the alternative Ai with a positive ideal solution can be calculated by Equation 5 Start Input scholarship Input criteria for scholarship Determining criteria weight using AHP Read data of students that apply for the scholarship The distance between the alternative Ai with negative ideal solution can be calculated with Equation 6 Fuzzification on every criterion of student Calculate closeness for every student using TOPSIS 5. Determining the value of the preference for each alternative Preference value for each alternative (Vi) is given by Equation 7. Sort student ascendingly based in their closeness Finish Figure 1. Flowchart of System Context diagram (CD) for this system is shown in Figure 2, and data flow diagram (DFD) is shown in Figure 3 3. Result and Analysis 3.1 System Analysis and Design The flowchart of decision support system built is shown in Figure 1.AHP is used to determining criteria weight based on its priority input by user in pairwise matrix. For every student, the fuzzification will be done and the result will be used to calculated the closeness value using TOPSIS. Figure 2. Context Diagram of System 41 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

53 Entity relationship diagram (ERD) for the system is shown in Figure 4. There are nine entities in the system. Every entities has their relationship to others. Figure 3. Data Flow Diagram of System Figure 4. Entity Relationship Diagram of System 42 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

54 Fuzzy graph for GPA, economic condition (parents income/number of family members covered parents), academic and non-academic achievement (SKKM) is shown in Figure 5,6, and 7 respectively. There are five kinds of linguistic for each criterion. Figure 8. Inputted Priority in Pairwise Matrix Figure 9. The weight for each criterion resulted by AHP Figure 5. Fuzzy Graph of GPA Figure 6. Fuzzy Graph of Economic Figure7. Fuzzy Graph of SKKM 3.2 AHP Method In this study, we use AHP to get the weight of each criterion based on their priority compared to others. User needs to input the priority in pairwise matrix. The value inputted to pairwise matrix based on Table 1. Figure 8 show example input for each criterion. User only input above the diagonal, while the rest will calculated automatically. The weight for Figure8 is shown in Figure 9, which is used for TOPSIS method as a weight for each criterion. In Figure 1, A is GPA, B is SKKM, and C for economic condition (parents income/number of family members covered parents). 3.3 TOPSIS Method This study use 25 student data as experiment to test TOPSIS method. Figure 10 shows data of 25 students use to held the experiment. Linguistic is gotten from fuzzy graph in Figure 5,6 and 7. Data in Figure 10 is normalized using Equation 1, and then the weighted normalized matrix is calculated using Equation 2. In this case we use 3 criterion, which is GPA and SKKM as positive criteria and economic condition as negative criteria. The positive ideal solution for positive criteria isthe maximum weighted of all students in that criterion, while for negative criteria isthe minimum weighted of all students. On the contrary, the negative ideal solution for positive criteria isthe minimum weighted of all students, while for negative criteria isthe maximum weighted of all students. The positive and negative ideal solution is shown in Figure 11. Y 1 is for GPA, y 2 for SKKM, and y 3 for economic condition. The next step is calculating the distance for solution ideal positive and negative using Equation 5 and 6 respectively. The last step for TOPSIS is calculating closeness value using Equation 7. Closeness is a measurement that guaranteed the candidate to close to positive ideal solution and far from the negative ideal solution. The TOPSIS result is shown in Figure 12, where those data is sorted descending based on closeness value. 43 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

55 Figure 10. Data Testing and Fuzzy Linguistic for Every Student Figure 11. Ideal Positive and Negative Solution for Each Criterion 44 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

56 Figure 12. TOPSIS Result Ordered By Closeness in Descending Order The student who has the highest closeness value is the based on their closeness value. The best closeness value is first priority to get scholarships based on TOPSIS method. the first priority to get scholarship. 4. Conclusion It can be conclude that applying AHP and TOPSIS for scholarships program selection can be done. Structured system design is modeled by context diagram and data flow diagram. The database design is model by entity relationship diagram. AHP can be applied to determine the weight of each criterion through pairwise matrix. Those weight then use in TOPSIS method. Fuzzy is used to represent linguistic for every student. TOPSIS method give a value of closeness for every student, that value represent both distance, to negative and positive ideal solution. The final result of the DSS is the rank of student References [1] Tahriri, F, Osman, M. R., Ali A., Yusuff R. M., Esfandiary A., AHP Approach for Supplier Evaluation and Selection in a SteelManufacturing Company. Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management 01(02).hal [2]Syamsuddin I., Hwang J., 2009,The Application of AHP Model to Guide Decision Makers: A Case Study of E-Banking Security. Fourth International Conference on Computer Sciences and Convergence Information Technology 45 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

57 [3]Triantaphyllou E., Mann, S. H., Using the Analytic Hierarchy Process for Decision Making in Engineering Applications: Some Challenges. Inter l Journal of Industrial Engineering: Applications and Practice, Vol. 2, No. 1, hal [4]Wei CC., Chien C., WangMJ., 2005,An AHP-Based Approach to ERP System Selection. Int. J. Production Economics 96 (2005) hal [5]JahanshahlooG.R., Lot F. H., Izadikhah M., 2006,Extension of The TOPSIS Method for Decision-MakingProblems With Fuzzy Data. Applied Mathematics and Computation 181 (2006) hal [6] Ataei E., 2013,Application of TOPSIS and Fuzzy TOPSIS Methods for Plant Layout Design. World Applied Sciences Journal 24 (7),hal International Journal of Computer Science Issues, Vol. 10, Issue 1, No 2, January 2013 [10] Wibowo H.S., Amalia R., Fadlun M. A, Arivanty K., 2009,Sistem Pendukung Keputusan untuk Menentukan PenerimaBeasiswa Bank BRI Menggunakan FMADM (Studi Kasus: Mahasiswa Fakultas Teknologi IndustriUniversitas Islam Indonesia). Seminar Nasional Aplikasi Teknologi Informasi 2009 (SNATI 2009) ISSN: , Yogyakarta, 20 Juni 2009 [11] Saaty, T. L., 2008,Decision Making With the Analytic Hierarchy Process. Int. J. Services Sciences, Vol. 1, No. 1 [12] F. Zahedi, 1977, The Analytic Hierarchy Process-A Survey Of The Method and Its Applications, Interfaces, Vol. 16, hal [7] Rahimi S.,Gandy L.,Mogharreban N., 2007,A Web- Based High-PerformanceMulticriteria Decision Support Systemfor Medical Diagnosis.International Journal of Intelligent Systems, Vol. 22, hal [8] Athawale V. M., Chakraborty S., 2010,A TOPSIS Method-based Approach to Machine Tool Selection. Proceedings of the 2010 International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations ManagementDhaka, Bangladesh, January 9 10, 2010 [9] Wimatsari G. A. M. S, Putra I. K. G. D., Buana P. W., 2013,Multi-Attribute Decision Making Scholarship Selection Using a Modified Fuzzy TOPSIS. IJCSI 46 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

58 A PREDICTION SYSTEM DESIGN FOR THE AMOUNT OF CORN PRODUCTION USING TSUKAMOTO FUZZY INFERENCE SYSTEM Fitria 1 Department of Informatics Engineering. The Informatics and Business Institute Darmajaya Jl. ZA Pagar Alam Bandar Lampung Indonesia No Tel: Fax: ext ABSTRACT Fuzzy inference system is a computing framework based on fuzzy set theory, fuzzy rules in the form of IF-THEN, and fuzzy reasoning. Fuzzy inference system receives input crisp. This input is then sent to a knowledge base that contains fuzzy rules in the form of IF-THEN. Fire strength will be sought at every rule. If the number of rules is more than one, it will be the aggregation of all the rules. Furthermore, the aggregation results will be defuzzy to get crisp value as output system (Kurniawan, 2004). The method used in building this system is the method of Tsukamoto fuzzy inference system. Tsukamoto method is an extension of the monotonous reasoning. In Tsukamoto method, each consequent upon the rules that forms If - Then shall be represented by a fuzzy set membership functions are monotone. The results of this study are to predict number of information systems on corn production in the SPSS South Lampung District Court and to get the desired results KEY WORDS: corn production information system, the prediction system I. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background Optimization of the production of maize in farmer groups Alam Jaya affects the financial sector because it can estimate the expenditure of raw materials, while also in terms of production costs and the cost of transportation and storage. For that reason we need a method that can predict the amount of corn production of the maize and maize production optimization problems. Many methods and techniques used. The most commonly used method is the logic firmly set. But logic firmly set cannot be operated or used by the general public (only the analysis), because in addition to rather complicated in the calculation, constraints in production will also complicate the completion of maize production optimization problems. Besides logic firmly set, fuzzy logic can also be used in corn production optimization problems. Alam Jaya Farmers Group has been producing corn as much, so much the rest of the corn stored in inventory warehouse. Due to the large supply of corn stored in warehouse, very large costs incurred due to a decrease in the quality of maize. So, the Farmers Group Alam Jaya requires a system that can predict the amount of corn production. The application of fuzzy logic to the completion of maize production problems uses fuzzy inference system. The problem resolved is how to determine if corn production uses only two variables as input data, namely: demand and supply. The first step problem solving corn production using fuzzy method in determining the output variable is set firmly, the second step is to convert the input variables into fuzzy set with fuzzification process, the next step is the third data processing and fuzzy set with maximum method. And the last or the fourth step is to change the output to be set firmly with the defuzzification process, so it will obtain the desired results. 1.2 Problem Formulation The formulation of the existing problems in this research is how to design and build a system to predict the amount of corn production using Tsukamoto Fuzzy Inference System. 47 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

59 1.3 Research Objectives The objective of this study is to develop and produce the number of corn production prediction systems using Tsukamoto Fuzzy Inference System at Farmers Group Alam Jaya in the great teak. 1.4 Benefits of the Research The benefits of the research to be carried outa are: a. Software for designing prediction system helps Farmers Group Alam Jaya in Jatiagung in determining the amount of corn production using Tsukamoto Fuzzy Inference System. b. The result of the research can be used as one of the basic considerations in the decision making corn production quantities using Tsukamoto Fuzzy Inference System. II. LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Fuzzy Inference System Fuzzy logic approach is broadly implemented in three stages which can be described as follows (Kurniawan, 2004): 1. Phase blurring (fuzzification), the mapping of input to the set of fuzzy firmly. 2. Phase of inference, namely the generation of fuzzy rules. 3. Phase assertion (defuzzyfication), the transformation of the output of fuzzy value to the firm value. Input Decisive Blurring inference averment output decisive Figure 1. Stages of Process in Obscure Logic 2.2 Method of Tsukamoto Tsukamoto method is an extension of the monotonous reasoning. In Tsukamoto method, each consequent upon the rules that form If-Then shall be represented by a fuzzy set membership functions are monotone. As a result, the output of the inference results of each rule is given explicitly (crisp) by -predicate (fire strength). The final result is obtained by using a weighted average. (Kusumadewi, 2010). The steps to resolve Tsukamoto method is as follows: 1).Input fuzzy set, 2) Determine the membership degree of fuzzy sets, 3) Calculate the predicate rule ( ), 4) Defuzzyfication At this stage of the calculation of Defuzzyfication average (Weight Average / WA) of each predicate in each variable is done by using the following equation: Description n= predicate value to-n Zn = index value to the output n 2.3 System Design Context Diagram Context diagram is the highest level in the data flow diagram and only contains one process, showing the overall 48 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

60 system. The process is numbered zero. All external entities are shown in the following context data flow diagram-major data flow to and from the system. The diagram does not contain simple data storage and seem to be created, so external entities as well as the flow of data-flow of data to and from the known system analyzer of interviews with users and as a result of analysis of documents (Pressman, 2002). Diagram Context highlighted a number of important characteristics of a system (Pressman, 2002): a.the user group, the parties will provide data to the system b.data, what is received / generated by the system from / to the outside world c.storage of data, a system must provide information or reports d. Limitation, which distinguishes between system and environment 2.4 Method of Software Development Method Using the System Development Life Cyclemodel Waterfall In this research, the method of software engineering that is used is the Waterfall model as shown in the following picture: III. METHODS 3.1 Data Collecting Methods Data collecting method is used in this study to obtain data. The data in the research gained from: a). Field studies, b).interview, c).observation, d).documentation 3.2 Application of Tsukamoto Fuzzy Inference System (FIS) In the base model is, in general, there are three steps to predict the amount of corn production are: define variable, inference, and defuzzification (specify the crisp output). The valuea analyze the large amount of corn production with numbers, with a range of 0 to infinity, while the variable is considered that the number of requests and the amount of inventory Defining fuzzy variables (Fuzzyfication) This stage, the value of the current set membership searched using fuzzy set membership functions with due regard to the maximum value and minimum value of each variable is variable. Each variable consists of 2 fuzzy sets, namely: up and down Determination of the amount of production in the manual Tsukamoto method (Tsukamoto-based Model) Table 1. Assessment of Fuzzy Association and Range Figure 2. Waterfall Model Development Method Description (Dennis, 2003): 1).Planning,2).Analysis,3).Design,4).Implementation,5).Sys tem Variabel Input Fuzzy Set 1. Demand Down Normal Up 2. Supply Few Normal Many Range 0 75 (quintals) (quintals) (quintals) 0 50 (quintals) International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

61 (quintals) (quintals) Output Rice production Diminish Normal Increase 0 80 (quintals) quintals) (quintals) The design of the variable input and fuzzy output variable (fuzzification) 3.3 Structure Design of Tsukamoto fuzzy method Based on the nine fuzzy rules, will be determined value of min for each rule Figure 3. Structure of the Tsukamoto FIS The specification: Input is a number All rules are evaluated in parallel defuzzification Output of the number 3.4 Calculation of Tsukamoto FIS Table 2. Variable Value Table No. Name Demand Supply 1. Farmer groups Alam jaya Variable Demand (100): Down for x 50; then Down = 0 Normal = ( ) / (125-75) = 25/50 = 0.5; then Normal = 0.5 Up = (100-75) / (125-75) = 25/50 = 0.5; then Up = 0.5 Variable Inventory (60): if x 25; then Bit = 0 Normal = (75-60) / (75-50) = 15/25 = 0.6; then Normal = 0.6 Many = (60-50) / (75-50) = 10/25 = 0.4; Many then = 0.4 The rules are rules used in the function MIN implications: [R1] IF demand falls and stocks are low then the maize production is normal -predikat1 = Request (Down) Inventory (Slightly) = Min ( Request (0) Supplies (0) ) = Min (0; 0) = 0 [R2] IF demand falls and inventory is normal, then corn production is reduced [R3] IF demand falls and supplies much then corn production is reduced [R4] IF demand is normal and then supply of corn production is increased slightly [R5] IF demand is normal and supply is normal, then maize production is normal Z (Normal Production down) = (130-Z) / (130-80) = 0.5 = (130-Z) / 50 = 0.5 = 130-Z = 50 (0.5) = 130-Z = 25 = Z = = 115 Z (Normal Production ascending) = (Z-50) / (80-50) = 0.5 = (Z-50) / 30 = 0.5 = Z-50 = 30 (0.5) = Z-50 = 15 = Z = = 65 [R6] IF demand is normal and supply is much, then corn production is reduced 50 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

62 Z (Production Decreased down) = (80-Z) / (80-50) = 0.4 = (80-Z) / 30 = 0.4 = 80 Z = 30 (0.4) = 80 Z = 12 = Z = = 68 [R7] IF demand rises and supplies are slight, then corn production is increased [R8] IF demand rises and inventory is normal, then corn production is increased Z (Production Increases ascending) = (Z-80) / (130-80) = 0.5 = (Z-80) / 50 = 0.5 = Z-80 = 50 (0.5) = Z-80 = 25 = Z = = 105 [R9] IF demand rises and supplies are great, then maize production is normal Z (Normal Production down) = (130-Z) / (130-80) = 0.4 = (130-Z) / 50 = 0.4 = 130-Z = 50 (0.4) = 130-Z = 20 = Z = = 120 Z (Normal Production ascending) = (Z-50) / (80-50) = 0.4 = (Z-50) / 30 = 0.4 = Z-50 = 30 (0.4) = Z-50 = 12 = Z = = 62 In Tsukamoto method, to determine the output of firm used an average defuzzification centralized, namely: z = (a1z1 + a2z anzn)) / (a1 + a an) for nine fuzzy rules, the average formula is centralized as follows: is output on the problems of the prediction of the amount of corn production. Table 3. Table of Value defuzzification Defuzzification (0*50) +(0*80) +(0*80) +(0*80) +(0,5*65) +(0,4*68) +(0*80) +(0,5*105) +(0,4*62) Z = ,5+0,4+0+0,5+0,4 (0) +(0) +(0) +(0) +(32,5) +(27,2) +(0) +(52,5) +(24,8) Z = 1,8 137 Z = = 76,111 1,8 Firm value obtained is Then the number of predicted amount of corn production is 76 Quintal. IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4.1 Weather Prediction Amount of Production Farmer Alam Jaya clicks the link production quantities. In this page there is a form input data for the prediction of the amount of corn production. It can be seen in Figure 4. Below z = Firm value can be obtained by using the formula for the average centralized 9 fuzzy rules above. The middle value Figure 4. Page on Predicted Amount of Production 51 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

63 4.2 Predicted Results Page on Amount of Production In this page the results of predicted amount of corn production can be seen in Figure 5 below Figure 7. Pages of Predicted Total Production (Administrator) 4.5 Page of Result of Predicted Amount of Production This page contains Prediction Result of Details Total Production. It can be seen in the image below. Figure 5. Page of Results of Predicted Amount of Production 4.3 Home Rule This page contains a list of rules that can be seen in Figure 6. below. Figure 8. Predicted Result Details Page of Amount of Production Figure 6. Rule Page 4.4 Weather Prediction of Total Production (Administrator) This page contains a prediction page of production quantities. It can be seen in Figure 7 below: 4.6 Testing Software testing serves to determine the achievement of objectives based on the criteria. In this case the testing is done by connecting each entity of the system in accordance with the specifications of the hardware and software. Application performance testing is only done on the processing of applications related to the database in Dreamweaver 8 program and MySQL database. Whereas, testing is done with the variation in the number of databases should be executed. In addition, the performance of the software is related to the condition of the used database connectivity. 52 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

64 After Xampp installed for temporary server used is localhost. Arrangements can be made through phpmyadmin database that serves to create, modify and delete databases. With this facility will facilitate the making of the mysql database because it does not use the command (syntax) sql manual. 4.7 Test Results The software is implemented in accordance with the specification requirements on the analysis and design. This is evidenced by the success of each subsystem do what the specification as has been asked in the test results above, so that the process is happening already with the procedures specified. The number of tables is not a barrier to process the data. But while this is the access delay is the time required to complete the application process all the data but it can also be caused by the quality of the server used. To perform maintenance or care that these websites should have their own server as the use fresshosting will have difficulty, for example, at the time of opening the website will take a long time because the server does not support the program. In the web hosting has to be considered available capacity that can support the programming language PHP and MySQL scripts and supporting software used and the cost to get hosting. Hakim, Lukmanul Book Way Being True PHP Programmers. Media Solutions. Yogyakarta. Kadir, Abdul Web Programming, Andi: Yogyakarta. Kristanto, H Concepts and Database Design. Andi Offset. Yogyakarta. Kusumadewi, Sri "Artificial Intelligent (Techniques and Applications)". Yogyakarta: Graha Science. Kusumadewi, Sri Fuzzy Logic Applications for Decision Support.Graha Science: Yogyakarta Sidik, B MySQL. Bandung Informatics. Bandung. Sutanta. E Database Systems. Graha Science. Yogyakarta. Pressman, S. Roger Software Engineering. Andi Offset. Yogyakarta. V.CONCLUSION Based on the analysis and discussion of the problem, the conclusions of this study are as follows: a. The result of the study can be used to generate a prediction of the amount of corn production system using Tsukamoto Fuzzy Inference System. b. Prediction of the amount of corn production system helps farmers to determine the amount of rice production to the fore. REFERENCES Dennis, A. & Haley Wixom, Barbara System Analysis Design. Second Edidition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., United States of America. 53 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

65 ROLE OF COOPERATION IN THE IMPROVEMENT OF THE AGRICULTURAL ECONOMY HD. Melva Sitanggang 1 Fak. Agrotechnology University Prima Indonesia ABSTRACT Indonesia is an agricultural country rich in natural resources and livelihood of the Indonesian population of predominantly agricultural products. In the development of the agricultural economy caused by a problem in the field of agriculture as well as in the availability of venture capital that will be used by farmers in the provision of seeds and fertilizer as well as maintenance until production is required for the role of cooperatives in alleviating bebab of farmers. According to the Act - Act No. 25 in 1992, said that "Cooperatives are business entities whose members - the person or legal entity which bases its cooperative activities based on the principle of cooperation as well as people's economic movement based on the principle of the family" With the role of cooperatives in the provision of soft loans in the availability of venture capital and cooperatives can play a role in the marketing of agricultural products. In addition to the effort, this study also describes the effect of the economy toward ter cooperative farmers and also to the social and cultural life of society. And the role of cooperatives in increasing the incomes of farming communities and also its role in the sustainability of agriculture and social life. KEY WORDS : agriculture, farmers I. Background Indonesia's population continues to increase, from statistical data in 2014 that the total area of Indonesia 1,919,440 which consists of land and oceans million. State of Indonesia as an agricultural country said this was due largely Indonesian population works in agriculture and natural resources are diverse and have a fairly wide area. In the agricultural sector GDP increase is a sector that needs to be considered because Indonesia is an agricultural country. The agricultural country, agriculture has an important role in both the economy or subsistence or food, with the increasing population, food consumption will also be increased so as to boost the economy for farmers. Deputy Production Statistics Central Statistics Agency (BPS), Adi Lumaksono 54 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

66 revealed that the agricultural sector's contribution to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has been declining since the period 2003 to 2013 from percent to percent or below average other sectors. This may be due to a lack of cooperative role in the provision of capital in agriculture either as seeds, fertilizers and lack of knowledge about agriculture as well as in the marketing of agricultural products in which farmers can only rely on middlemen who come to agricultural products at a low price. To realize the goal of populist economic development, especially in the agricultural sector, it is necessary to prepare a strategic policy to increase or accelerate the growth of the agricultural sector and this may be a growing point for other sectors eg the industrial sector, particularly the increase in income and welfare of the community through the cooperative. One way to achieve these objectives is the development of co-operative well-planned and related to the development of other economic sectors, especially in rural areas. II.LITERATURE REVIEW A. Definition Cooperative Cooperative is an organized movement that is driven by ideals - ideals of the people reach an advanced society, equitable and prosperous as mandated by the 1945 Constitution, particularly Article 33 paragraph (1) which states that: "The economy is structured as a joint effort based on the principle of family". And "wake-up company that is in accordance with the cooperative". Because the impulse ideals - ideals that the people, laws - laws on cooperatives No. 25 of 1992 states that in addition to the cooperative business entities are also economic movement. " Law - Law No. 25, 1992, gives the definition of "Cooperative is a business entity consisting of people - person or legal entity which bases its cooperative activities based on the principle of cooperation as well as people's economic movement based on the principle of the family". Based on the limitations of cooperatives, cooperative Indonesia contains five elements as follows: Cooperatives are business entities (Business Enterprise) Cooperative is a collection of people - and the people or entities - legal entity cooperative Indonesia Cooperative is a cooperative that works based on the "principle - the principle of cooperation". Cooperative Indonesia is "Movement of People's Economy". Cooperative Indonesia "based on the principle of kinship" So that the agricultural sector can be increased and following the competition an increasingly competitive atmosphere where in 55 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

67 2015 has been the era of free trade, so the existence of the cooperative efforts required to be able to compete with other businesses, because these institutions are considered sufficient repsentatif in empowering farming community's economy. With the role of community agricultural cooperatives to the economy resulting in a significant improvement to the acceleration of the regional economy, and therefore the need for partnerships in the development of cooperatives. Partnership in question is in the form of participation of all elements related to the development of cooperatives. Improvement of a business largely depends on the existence of cooperatives. According to an International organization of cooperatives provide a more detailed definition of cooperatives and international impact given by the ILO as follows: "Cooperative defined as an association of persons usually of limited means, who have voluntarily joined together to Achieve a common economic end thorough the formation of a democratically controlled business organization, making equitable contribution to the capital required and accepting a fair share of risk and benefits of undertaking". Definition cooperative raised by the ILO, there are six elements contained in the cooperative as follows: Cooperative is a gathering of people - people (Association of persons). Merging people - the person based on volunteerism (Voluntarily joined together). There are economic objectives to be achieved (to Achieve a common economic end). Cooperative formed is a business organization (entity) that is monitored and controlled democratically (formation of a democratically controlled business organization) There is a fair contribution to the capital required (making equitable contribution to the capital required) Members of the cooperative receive the balance of risks and benefits (Accepting a fair share of the risk and benefits of the undertaking). In order to increase the GDP of a region cooperative development is necessary because it is one of the strategies of each regional head of economic development. The existence of cooperatives has been known so far as an institution that is considered able to help people in solving problems in order to reach the ideal of enhancing the well-being of the people. Cooperative is an autonomous institution that organization, and being in the socio-economic environment, where the existence of the cooperative can benefit each member, administrator and leader and all members, 56 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

68 administrators and leaders to formulate goals autonomously and realize objectives through work by activities that have been agreed upon and can be carried out jointly. In the opinion of Sukamdiyo (5: 1997), First, cooperation is seen as an institution that operates a certain business activities, and those activities are needed by the community. Business activity may be referred to the financial needs of the service or credit, or marketing activities or other activities. At this level are usually cooperative penyediakan services business activities that are not provided by other business organization or other business institutions can not implement them due to regulatory barriers. This can be seen in the role of several credit unions in the provision of funds is relatively easy for members compared to the procedure to be followed to obtain funds from banks. Secondly, the cooperative has become an alternative to other business organizations. In this condition, people have felt that the benefits and role of koperasilebih good compared to other institutions, the involvement of members (or not members) with the cooperative is due consideration rasioanal who viewed the cooperative is able to provide better service. Cooperative who has been in this condition assessed to be at a level more high visible role for society. Some KUD for some certain business activities were identified were able to provide the benefits and role which is better than the other business institutions,thus Similarly, the credit cooperatives. Third, the cooperative into an organization owned by its members. This sense of ownership is considered to have been a major factor that led to the cooperative is able to survive on a range of difficult conditions, by relying on the loyalty of members and kesediaaan members to jointly cooperative experiencing difficulties. As an illustration, when conditions banks became uncertain with very high interest rates, the loyalty of cooperative members make the members do not move existing funds in the cooperative to the bank. The consideration is that the relationship with the credit unions which have longstanding, and to date the credit union is able to serve, member-owned organizations, and the uncertainty of the attractiveness of bank interest. According to Prof. Marvin, A. Schaars, a professor from the University of Wisconsin, Madison, USA, provides a definition "A Coorperative is a voluntary business is owned and controlled by members of patrons, and operated for them and by them an a non-profit or cost basis". Which means, "Cooperative is an entity that voluntarily owned and controlled by members who are also its customers and 57 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

69 operated by them and for them on a nonprofit basis or on the basis of cost". TYPES AND FORMS OF COOPERATION In everyday life there are two (2) types of cooperatives are quite known to the public, namely KUD (Koperasi Unit Desa) and KSP (Credit Unions), which grew and flourished during the reign of the new order. While KSP (Credit Unions) grow and thrive in the current era of globalization. Village Unit Cooperatives very existence helps the economy because of the cooperative unit adheres to the principle of family village. to produce certain types of goods and help sell and market these productions. Members should consist of similar production units. b. Cooperative based on the level and broad daerahkerja 1. PrimaryCooperative Primary Cooperative is a cooperative that is a minimum of a membership of 20 individuals. 2. Cooperative Secondary Cooperative which consists of a combination of cooperative bodies and has a wide working area compared to the primary cooperatives. I.1. TYPES OF COOPERATION a. Types of Cooperatives by Function: 1. Cooperative Consumption The cooperative was founded to meet the general needs of its members daily. What is certain goods sold in the cooperative should be cheaper slammed in another place, because the cooperative aims for the welfare of its members. 2. Cooperative Services The cooperative was founded to provide financial services in the form of loans to its members. Of interest are set to be lower than borrow money other places. 3. Cooperative Production Its business is helping supply of raw materials, production equipment supply, helping c. Cooperative By Type Efforts 1. Credit Unions (KSP) Cooperative which has a single business that accommodates ni Melaya member savings and borrowing. Members who save (store) will get a fee for the borrower and charged services. The amount of services for savers and borrowers are determined through members. from meeting here, cooperative business activities can be said to be "of, by, and for the members." 2. Business Multipurpose Cooperative (KSU) Cooperative that its business manifold. For example, savings and loan business unit, the unit stores to serve the daily needs of members as well with the needs of society, the production 58 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

70 unit 3. Cooperative Consumption Cooperative whose scope of business providing the daily needs of members. The need is for example the need groceries, clothing, home furnishings. 4. Cooperative Production Production cooperative is a cooperative whose scope of business making the goods (manufacture) and selling the jointlysama.anggota cooperative generally own efforts and through cooperative members get funding and marketing. I.2. FORMS OF COOPERATION According to Regulation 60 of 1959 that the cooperative form is divided into two forms namely: 1. Primary Cooperative Cooperative is the primary form of cooperative whose members consist of people with the number of members a minimum of 20 people, who have in common activities, interests, goals and needs of the economy. 2. Cooperative Secondary Cooperatives formed by at least three cooperatives are legal entities both primary and secondary. By taking the example of the cooperative that is known now, meaning the center of the cooperative established by at least three primary cooperatives. II.Cooperative Porpuse We know that the information we get from farmers in conducting agricultural sector at the present time is terms of the availability of seeds and fertilizer problem that costs soaring and often empty in the market. So is the case with the marketing problems faced due to production facilities and infrastructure that do not support the development of the agricultural sector. If we look at Indonesia's laws and regulations set forth in Article 3 of Law No. 25 in 1992, said that the purpose of the cooperative is Promoting the welfare of cooperative members and the community (Promote the welfare of members of Cooperatives and community) Participate in developing national economic order (Participate in building a national economic order) in order to create a society that is prosperous, just and developed with still based on Pancasila and the 1945 Constitution. III. Function And Role of Cooperatives Running a business, we can not be separated from management functions because in a company have an organization consisting of existing employees in the company. All members of the existing organization has a function, and the role of each in running the organization as well as with cooperative organizations. In cooperatives that exist in 59 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

71 Indonesia has a function and a role as follows: 1. Develop and build the capability and potential of cooperative members in particular and society in general to improve the socioeconomic welfare. 2. Participate actively (role Actively) in order to increase and improve the quality of life of members of the cooperative and community. 3. Strengthen and mengkokohkan economy as the basic resilience of the Indonesian people and the strength of the national economy by the cooperative as a cornerstone of his teacher. 4. Trying to realize and develop the national economy which is a joint venture based on the democratic principle of the family and economists. In carrying out the functions and role of the cooperative depends on what the sector needs to be developed in the development of an area so that the existence of a cooperative is beneficial in improving the economy of society. B. Definition of Agricultural Economics Indonesia is an agricultural country and agriculture is one sector that is dominant in the life of Indonesian society. It can be seen from the majority of the population who are farmers and supported by soil fertility conditions and tropical climates can grow a variety of crops. Agriculture in Indonesia is divided into two, namely: 1. Agricultural crops (rubber, palm oil, etc.). 2. Agricultural crops (rice, beans, corn, etc.). The science of agricultural economics is a science related to the good management of the availability of capital, seed, fertilizer and marketing of agricultural production. Along with the times in which the development of agricultural economics increasingly gained a place after the formation of the Association of Indonesian Agricultural Economics (PERHEPI) in February 1969 in Ciawi, Bogor. According Mubyarto 2003, said that the agricultural economy is the study of phenomena and problems related to agriculture both macro and micro. In Indonesia, agricultural problems caused by the lack of government's role in empowering the agricultural sector, where this can we see the lack of agricultural policy for empowerment of farmers and agricultural infrastructure such as: capital of farmers, fertilizers and pesticides, agricultural extension workers, and agricultural markets. I. Problem In Agricultural Economics In carrying out agricultural activities, many of the problems faced by the farmers that we know very influential on the availability of capital, seeds, fertilizers and marketing. The sustainability of agriculture is strongly influenced by the yields obtained by 60 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

72 farmers and prices give a traders. Income derived dati agriculture is expected to be sufficient lives of farmers. Problems faced by farmers in general are weak in terms of Capital resulted in a low level of use of inputs for farmers generally have a narrow land area and because of being pressured financial problems when the production of agricultural products declined. Besides the production of quality agricultural sector is still low, due to the pattern of Indonesian agriculture is still oriented to meet the needs of the family (subsistence), If the results of market-oriented agricultural community is then farmers will try to make improvements to agricultural output. Still length of the chain of the agricultural trade system, causing farmers can not enjoy better prices, because traders have taken profits from the sale are too large. In addition to the internal problems faced by farmers in the field of management of agriculture, problems that also affect the availability of supporting factors such as infrastructure, rural economic institutions, the intensity of illumination, and government policies that give effect to an increase in activities in agriculture and increase farmers' access on demand market. The high rate of population growth of Indonesian society while the land is fixed. This causes the existing agricultural land will be converted into residential land. If this happens, it is expected that the role of government in finding a solution to conduct training in the field of agricultural science undertaken by PPL to effect improvements in the pattern of agricultural development for example do Diversification of Agriculture. Increased agricultural productivity in Indonesia is experiencing a variety of problems where this is caused by several things, among others: 1. Aspects paradigm where agribusiness system should be based shifted to farmers and entrepreneurs, while the role of governments as facilitators and perceived role of local government is still lacking. 2. Aspects of production where the business scale is still small farmers and agricultural land conversion to non agriculture is very high, very minimal irrigation canals and many are damaged, the lack of war of agricultural extension workers, the high human dependence on rice, the traditional agricultural system in which the public farming is still dependent on natural conditions, we still smallholder farmers who have small land sanagat bahkaan still many yanag rented land and low agricultural technology farmers. 3. Aspects of distribution where price fluctuations are very high, uneven 61 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

73 distribution management throughout the region, demand from outside the region is very high, which has not been recorded rice reserves. 4. Aspects of consumption where food safety, food insecurity and malnutrition, food diversification as well as people's purchasing power is inadequate. 5. Aspects of coordination where each agency only focus on their respective duties and the lack of role of leader among agencies to cooperate in the improvement of agriculture. 6. Financial aspects where the farmer is very difficult to get funding in agriculture so that farmers are less than the maximum in the improvement of agriculture. (Journal of Defense Studies RI, May 15, 2013 edition). II. Scope of Agriculture Based on the development of agricultural activities carried out by the Indonesian peasant society is divided into two types of agriculture are: a. Extractive agriculture, namely farming is done by simply taking or collecting natural results without the effort of reproduction. This kind of agriculture include fisheries and extraction of forest products. b. Agriculture generative ie agricultural patterns that require breeding or breeding, processing, maintenance and other agronomic measures. Based on the stage of development of agriculture generative divided into two groups: 1. Shifting cultivation (shifting cultivation), 2. Agricultural settled (settled agricultured) Furthermore, based on the economic characteristics inherent in each style agriculture are two categories namely agricultural subsistence farming and commercial farming. Subsistence agriculture is characterized by a lack of access to markets. In other words, agricultural products are produced to meet family consumption only, not for sale. Commercial agriculture was on the side dichotomous subsistence agriculture. Commercial agriculture generally characterize agricultural companies (farm) where the manager has a market-oriented farming. Thus the entire agricultural output is generated entirely sold and not consumed alone. III. Problems Impact on Growth of Agricultural Economy In Indonesia Positive impact Indonesia is a country rich in natural resources are abundant, especially related to the agricultural sector, such as; land, water, climate and variety of crops where there is a problem about the high rate of population growth while agricultural land remain and even less. 62 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

74 When existing agricultural land can be put to good use and maximum intensification and diversification of agricultural crops, the agricultural sector has a huge potential in the development of the agricultural sector. The agricultural sector is expected to absorb the labor force due to the increase in population increase where it will have an impact on the decrease in the unemployment rate. If we compare the condition of agricultural land and many people then this condition should be a very big yaang capital for the government in managing agricultural and empowering communities. In the financial crisis that hit Indonesia in 1998 when it was then of all production sectors in Indonesia had been swept away, but the agricultural sector which can survive and revive the monetary crisis in Indonesia. Negative Impact Exploration The natural resources without excessive attention to local wisdom and the environment that will lead to reduced and destruction of natural resources owned so will hamper the development of the agricultural sector. If population growth continues to increase is not in control and supervised it would also cause a serious problem for food needs. C. The Role of Cooperatives in Agricultural Economics. ` At this time the cooperative development received less attention from the government because of the cooperative showed less performance and a better image than ever before. This situation is one proof that the government's commitment is still lacking in the development of cooperatives and the number of farmer cooperatives that are not growing even close because they do not have the capital in its activities. To support the advancement of the agricultural sector, the role of cooperatives very great influence starting from the availability of capital and production factors needed in agricultural activities and the marketing of the products of the agricultural community. Development of the agricultural sector is a process that must be sustained. The next question how cooperative prospects in the future. Indonesian Society for the existence of the cooperative already familiar, the cooperative is characterized by an establishment or family togetherness. Cooperatives in Indonesia engaged in various fields that point in giving a loan in conducting business activities so as to achieve the welfare of the community, and one of the benefits of cooperatives to agriculture. Indonesian communities largely live off the farm so that the role of cooperatives have a considerable influence in the beginning does the farm until the end of the farm as expected cooperative activities can be as a container to 63 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

75 accommodate the agricultural products of the community so that the community is no pressure on prices for agricultural production. Businesses in agriculture is an activity that many obstacles facing them is the application of agricultural management, capital, information, education and technology. Cooperative is an effort to address the constraints faced by farmers, but until now the role expected by the Cooperative can not be implemented properly and even many cooperatives that can not perform its functions BIBLIOGRAPHY Annonimius, 2013, Enhance Agricultural Productivity To Achieve Food Security in the Context of National Defense, Defense RI Research Journal, Issue 15, May Hutasuhut D, Arman Scientific Journal "Management and Business" Program Management Studies, Faculty of Economics, University of North Sumatra Muhammadiyah. Riau: UMSU, Press. Krisnamurthi, B Building Cooperative Member Based in the Framework of Economic Development of the People. People Economic Journal. Year I. 4. June Mubyarto, 2013, Introduction to Agricultural Economics, Publisher LP3ES, Jakarta. Law No.25 of 2000 on the National Development Program Wolf, Eric R Farmer A Review of Anthropology. Jakarta: PT Rajawali 64 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

76 ASSOCIATION RULE METHOD FOR INFORMATION SYSTEM EPIDEMIC DENGUE MAPPING BASED ASSOCIATION OF RISK FACTORS IN PALEMBANG Ermatita 1, Suci Destriatania 2 Computer Faculty of Sriwijaya University 1, Public Health Faculty of Sriwijaya University 2, Palembang City. Indonesia 1, Palembang City. Indonesia 2 1, 2 ABSTRACT Endemic diseases dangerous such as dengue fever must be handling seriously for the risk minimize by the disease. Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) is disease has not been found vaccine or cure is powerful. It is necessary treatment to prevent the occurrence of dengue fever, especially when it came to the incidence of dengue fever endemic in certain areas by doing Epidemiologist dengue fever. Epidemiology is identification of risk factors for DHF to find level of area risk. Risk factors of hemorrhagic fever endemic must be identified to prevent the occurrence of dengue fever. Identifying risk factors and risk factors association can potential increase the occurrence of dengue fever. This study developed mapping information system Dengue epidemic through Association rule method of data mining. The information generated in the map of epidemic DHF level based association of potential risk factors that cause hemorrhagic fever endemic. Analysis with the Association Rule to determine level of DHF epidemic area based data reporting system. KEY WORDS information system mapping, data mining, Association Rule, endemic, Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF). 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background Endemic disease is serious problem faced by an area (region). Endemic diseases dangerous such as dengue fever must be handling seriously to minimize the risk disease. Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) is disease which has not been found vaccine or cure is powerful. Endemic dengue is often found in Palembang city. Various articles have revealed that Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) often occurred in Palembang. Head of Health Office Palembang city, Anton Suwindro mention in the newspaper Sindo December 23, 2013 stated, cases of dengue in Palembang at 2012 recorded 725 cases and 2011 as many as 500 cases. Meanwhile, until the beginning of December 2013, the number of dengue cases already can be reduced to 450 cases. Therefore, prevention of dengue cases in Palembang continued. Palembang consists of 14 sub-district with 103 villages including region endemic in the province of South Sumatra. Found 85 villages (83.5%) and 16 endemic villages (15.5%) are sporadic and only one area of the village belongs to the category of potential-free. (DHO Palembang, 2005, Prop South Sumatra Health Office, 2005). By region by district / city in South Sumatra Province, dengue morbidity in Palembang is high ( International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

77 every 100,000 population), Prabumulih (49.93 every 100,000 population), Banyuasin (26.22) and Lubuk Linggau (15.66). (South Sumatra province health office 2008, Hamza Hashim, 2008). Of the 14 districts, Ilir Timur I was the District with the most dengue cases with 117 cases per 100,000 population with CFR 1%. Based on the case every year, the city of Palembang considered endemic region (Santoso, 2008) in (Hamzah, et al, 2009). Therefore, it takes a work program to combat and control the spread of dengue fever in the city of Palembang. To prevent and control dengue endemic should be understood risk factors that can lead to endemic dengue. There are many risk factors that can lead to the incidence of dengue fever. Among other risk factors cause a lot of population, high population mobility, low areas, weather, population age, gender and densely populated. In accordance with the Minister's decision 581/1992 on efforts to combat dengue fever, the efforts to control the disease must be done by looking at three (3) important matters, namely: 1) human resources, such as counseling and education; 2) policy agents, such as government / cross-sectoral and community; 3) action, in the form of preventive and curative. (Kurniati, 2009). 2. Literature Review 2.1 Information System The basic concept of information systems dengue fever According Sutabri (2004), the system is group of elements that are closely related to one another, which function together to achieve certain goals. Furthermore Suyanto (2004) describes the information is data process into more useful form and better meaningful to humans. Application of information systems within the organization to support information needed by all levels of management. It is known that the information is very important for the Management in decision making. The information system is system within organization that brings daily transaction processing needs to support operations function managerial organization with strategic activities of organization be able to provide certain outside parties with the necessary reports (Sutabri, 2004) Components of the information system According to Burch Grudniski (1986) said that the information system referred to as term building blocks, among others input block, model block, database block, technology block and control block. Six of the block is interact with each other unity form to achieve their goals Basic Concepts Database Database is collection of computerized information with respect to certain topics (Suyanto, 2003). According to Kadir (2003) referenced in Ariansyah (2004), the database is system of organizing data with the help of computer that allows data to be accessed easily and quickly. Database can organize the information interrelated and to be logical form for easy access (Suyanto, 2003). 2.2 Epidemiology Dengue Cases Dengue is vector-borne disease, which could potentially cause Extraordinary Events. Proactive effort to prevent the occurrence of Extraordinary Events Dengue can be done by controlling risk factors, such as environmental risk factors physical (vector breeding sites), biological environment (vector), as well as the social environment (knowledge, attitudes and behaviors) that can be done through study Risk Factors DHF aims to identify environmental risk factors (physical and social) based on regional approach, measured variables of risk factors physical and social environment include the level of knowledge about dengue and the presence of larvae in the homes of respondents, with the parameters of House Index (HI ). The existence of high HI indicates that in the 66 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

78 surveyed area has the potential for the occurrence of dengue transmission in the region because there are sources of infection (patients with DHF). Even in the absence of DHF patients was still chance for the occurrence of dengue transmission if the mosquitoes in the region has occurred Vertically transmission, i.e the transmission of Dengue viruses occur vertically from the mosquito Aedes aegypti larvae mature to derivatives so that when adults are infective without having to bite people with dengue, (Ludfi Santoso Eni Ratna Mintarsih, Hadi Suwasono, 1996, Enny Muchlastriningsih et al, 1997). Actually, the Indonesian people already know the signs and modes of transmission of DHF, because DHF entered Indonesia since 36 years ago. Prevention is simple and does not need high technology. To combat dengue clear and simple steps are needed to foster changes in attitudes and awareness of all parties and the community in keeping the environment clean. With large population, supposedly helping people and worked together to clean up the environment, just with simple steps mosquito nest eradication (PSN) conducted by 3M activity, the chain of transmission of the mosquito Aedes aegypti as the cause DHF can be cut, so as not to spread widely. (Rita Kusriastuti 2004, Wiku BB. Adisasmito M. Hasyimi, 1997) incidence of dengue cases has increased more years with different clinical manifestations. It is transboundary disease, which can actually be predicted and anticipated by the model-based integrated management of infectious diseases in the region comprehensive perspective. (Umar Fahmi Achmadi, 2005, Dep.Kes RI, 2002b, Gubler DJ, 1988, Santoso, 2008). identify risk factors of dengue fever. This study enroll 6 risk factors to be studied there are: Age, Sex, Topography, rising temperatures, climate change and population density. Results of research showed the age group most affected (data of patients by sex and age) 5-9 years old and 9-14 years age group. While male gender that suffered most were. This may imply that risk factor age and risk factor gender had impact on the Dengue Fever endemic. These data indicate that the incidence of dengue fever affected by weather and climates which is a lot of rainfall will affect the high incidence of dengue fever. Conditions weather is risk factor that affects dengue too. Risk factor of topographical areas many marshes relative incidence of dengue fever becomes more. It shows that Topography affects dengue epidemic. Based upon risk factor that has been stated above, sought the association of each risk factor that can amplify the incidence of dengue fever. The results will be showcased in the mapping of areas prone to epidemics of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever. To analyze the effect of concurrent risk factors that can lead to an epidemic of dengue fever, a technique used association rule. Occurrence of a particular set of items is determined by counting the frequent item sets. Following simulations on systems that have been developed. Initially will be selected health centers of villages in the city of Palembang. Region predetermined point is the determination of the location of health centers to be sampled. As shown Figure 1. below: 3. Results and Discussion Results of this study is mapping information system Dengue epidemic DHF at Palembang city. The system developed based on the analysis and design of 67 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

79 comparator. So we get the data as follows Figure 1. Location of health centers to be sample Above is the result of data output by specifying the coordinates health centers sako Once completed, determine the value of an epidemic of a new sample data that we have input. By selecting the menu Factors> Risk Factors Figure..3 The existing comparator Once we get the value of the largest possible potential of an area. Then it will be displayed as shown below. Calculations using avg value of the existing potential. Figure 2. Risk Factor Select the Village that will be made Assessment. And enter a value of 1 and 0 as Substitute and no. After successful entry into the next menu. Menu Factor> Factor Comparison Select the Village, then select comparison. After doing repeatedly throughout the existing Figure 4. The value of the largest possible potential of area Here is a picture on the home page, where the data is displayed in a manner that appears most frequently value. And on the following pages, the menu mapping Epidemic total. By looking for the maximum value 68 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

80 obtained from the calculation of the epidemic that we created earlier. By using the calculation of the total value of the results of the comparison. And provide the possibility / biggest percentage that will happen. 2. Association of several risk factors can increase the potential of endemic dengue. 3. The system developed for mapping the dengue fever epidemic that is based on the association of risk factors, can identify areas that have some association with the risk factors that can lead to an epidemic of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever. References [1] Mintarsih, E.R, Santoso, L, Suwasono, Effect of Temperature and Humidity on Term Life Natural Air Aedes aegypti females in Salatiga Municipality and Semarang, Cermin Dunia Kedokteran, International Standard Serial Number: X,1996 Figure 5. Result of calculation on map And the calculated value epidemic in total, we can see, same potential value. So that the colors on the map did not under go changes. Results of level dengue epidemic potential of associated risk factors. Dengue fever epidemic potential, according to calculations by Association Rule method. In Figure.5 above shows the blue color of the village shows that the potential is at level 4. This means that the association of some of these risk factors is high enough potential cause of the epidemic of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever. 4. Conclusion Based on the research that has been done and the results of discussions which have been described previously, it can be concluded that: 1. The risk factor is a factor that can give potential dengue trjadinya 2] Enny Muchlastriningsih,E, et All, Haemagglutination Test Results Analysis of Patients with Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever in Jakarta,, Cermin Dunia Kedokteran, International Standard Serial Number: X, 1997 [3] Erdinal and Hasyim, H, Spatial Analysis of Risk Factors Dengue dengeu In the province of South Sumatra PSKM FK Unsri, DIPA DIKTI,2008 [4] Jogiyanto, H.M, Introduction of ComputerBasic Computer Science, Programming. Information Systems and Artificial Intelegenti Yogyakarta: Penerbit Andi. 888, 1999 [5] Kurniati. D, Sanitation Hygiene study DHF in Palembang, South Sumatra in 2009, [6] Hasyimi. M, Wiku Bb. Adisasmito (1997) Impact of Community Participation in Dengue Fever Prevention against the vector density in the district of East Jakarta Pulogadung, Cermin Dunia Kedokteran, International Standard Serial Number: X, 1997 [7] Robert H and Friis, T, Sellers Epidemiology for Public Health Practice, Boston, Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 2004 [8] Roux, A.V. Diez, A Glossary for Multilevel Analysis. Journal Epidemiology Community Health, , 2002 [9] Santoso, Knowledge,Attitude and Practice Relationshipof The Community Towards Dengeu 69 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

81 Hemorraghic Fever (DHF) in Palembang City South Sumatra Province. Jurnal Ekologi Kesehatan, 7, , 2008 [10] Sithiprasasna R, Et.Al (2004 ) The geographic information system as an epidemiological tool in the surveillance of dengue virus-infected Aedes mosquitos. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health, 2004 [11] Sutabri, T, Analysis of Information Systems, Yogyakarta : ANDI Yogyakarta, 211, 2004 [12] Suyatno. 2003, Microsoft Access 2000 Fundamental. Bogor : Training Database and Networking Biodiversity. National Biodiversity Information Network-LIPI. 76, 2003 [13] W.J Parks, Et.Al, International Experiences In Social Mobilization And Communication For Dengeu Prevention And Control, Overview. Dengeu Bulletin, WHO., 28, 2004 [14] Who, Demam Berdarah Dengue Diagnosis, Pengobatan, Pencegahan dan Pengendalian., Jakarta, Buku Kedokteran EGC, International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

82 S-GIS: DIGITAZING SKIN DISEASE SPREAD IN LAMPUNG PROVINCE INDONESIA Rahmalia Syahputri 1, Muhammad Said Hasibuan 2 Faculty of Computer Informatics and Business Institute Darmajaya Lampung Province, Indonesia 1, 2 ABSTRACT Skin disease is a common disease whether in urban or rural area. Various types are listed in this category. Some of them are easily transmitted and turn into epidemic. To help the health department or other parties to map the spread of the diseases as well as to broadcast the information easily to the citizen, thus it is important to develop a system that able to provide data based on gograpfical. Furthermore, the data should be easily to be accesed. To enable related parties to be able to collect, store, and analyze the spread of skin disease particularly in Lampung Province Indonesia, a geographical information system has been developed. In addition, this system acts as a monitoring tool for Government or Agencies that responsible for the health issues in Lampung and Indonesia. KEY WORDS: geographic information system, skin diseases spread, Lampung Province. 1. Introduction Lampung Province is located in the most south of Sumatera island of Indonesia. The province had a population of 7,880,769 at the 2013 census [1] and has total area 35,376 km 2 [2]. Lampung is subdivided into twelve regencies and two autonomous cities [2]. In Lampung, according to data from the Department of Health from , a number of people who was infected by leprosy, one of skin disease, was slightly rose from previous period for about 0, 33 per 1,000 people. The level of cure rates from this disease, however, still less than 90% [3]. In specific area, for instance Bandar Lampung, the graphics are same. For period , the New Case Detection Rate (NCDR) of leprosy tends to rise (figure 1) [4]. Figure 1. Leprosy Distribution in Bandar Lampung City To facilitate the health department and related parties to map the spread of the skin diseases, the geographic based information system, called S-GIS is built. In addition, this system is able to be a center of information about the diseases. Hence, the public will be easy to access the information as well as monitor it. 2. Geographic Information System in Health Geographic Information System is widely used in the health field to map the spread of a particular disease area. According to Musa, et al [5] GIS has been used in the health sector since the 5th century country China, Greece, and India. In the 18th century, the first modern map of the disease had been created by Leonhard Ludwig Finke. This map is an important tool for 71 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

83 understanding the spread of the disease and the relationship between the diseases and environmental conditions. With the development computer science in the 20th century, the map can be made more quickly and more precise calculations. In addition, the spread of the disease can be easily mapped and analyzed. In 2012, Loughnan, et al [6], uses GIS to map the risk of heat stroke in urban areas while the summers are very extreme region Melbourne, Australia. While Curtis, et al, utilizes video spatial data which is then translated into the GIS to analyze the risk of diseases associated with changes in the urban environment [7]. In 2015 [8], Ebener, uses GIS to map the health of mothers and newborns to support develepment Millennium Goals. In the same year, Ayanlade, et al, uses GIS and Remote Sensing Technigue to manage the spread of epidemic meningitis in Northern Nigeria. 3. Proposed System The system is built to be able to run on personal computer, laptop, notebook and other media that support connection to internet and has a web broser application installed as well. Users can use various web browsers such as Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome or Opera. The sytem covers information the spread of skin dieases in all regencies and autonomous cities of Lampung. User access the Skin Diseases Database (SDS), where all the data are stored, and view the map through the server. The user of this system is divived into three categories: administrator, operator, and guest. The administrator is responsible to manage the entire system, adding new operator, adding new data of regencies and autonomous cities. The operator has responsibility to input the data. The guest is people or other parties who want to view and get the information from the system. Figure 3 Use Case for Administrator The system is built using PHP language program, while the database is using the MySQL. The maps menu is linked to google maps. 4. Result and Discussion The information system has six main menus which are home, maps/peta, disease/penyakit, patient/penderita, and login. Each of menus has it own function. For instance, home menu has function to be a front cover of the information system. Figure 4. Home Menu Figure 2. Architecture System On menu Disease/Penyakit, there are three fileds that need to be filled by the operator system, the code of disease, the disease itself, the image and the symtomps of the disease. This menu is itended to give information about the various skin diseases and to let the viewers or visitor able to check their skin if infected by one of the diseases. 72 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

84 to detect skin diseases, how to cure them, and other information. Hence, the viewers will get numerous of valuable information and aware about their health. Figure 5. Various of Skin Diseases Menu/Jenis Penyakit Kulit To be able to map the spread of the skin disease, the operator needs to provide information about the data of patients. This data will be not published, to ensure the confidentiality of the patient, only operator and administrator who able to view this page. However, for the few parties who have right to get this data, they will be able to request it by contacting the operator. Figure 8 News/Berita 5. Conclusion In Conclusion, the system to provide information regarding the spread of skin disease based on geographic of Lampung Province has been built. This system helps health department to broadcast the information to increase the awareness of health in society. To take full advantage of the system, some functions such as type of skin diseases and news have been sucefully added. Figure 6 Menu Data of Patient/Data Penderita Once the data of patients have been entered, the operator will be able to view a number of patients in particular area. This information helps the viewers to see the data largely. Thus, they will be able to see the dissimilarity of the patient in particular period. Figure 7 Maps/Peta To optimize the function of the system, news menu is developed. Operator can publish information about how Acknowledgement(s) Thank you to Directorate of Research and Community Service, Directorate General Higher Education of Republic Indonesia for the grant to conduct this research. References [1] Pusat Data dan Informasi Kementrian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia, Data dan Informasi kesehatan Propinsi Lampung, [2] [3] Profil Kesehatan Provinsi Lampung Tahun [4] Profil Kesehatan Kota Bandar Lampung Tahun [5] Musa, George J., et al. Use of GIS mapping as a public health tool-from cholera to cancer. Health Services Insight (2013): 111. [6] Laughan, Margaret., Neville Nicholls., and Nigel J. Tapper. Mapping heat health risks in urban areas. International Journal of Publication Research (2012). [7] Curtis, Andrew, et al. A ubiquitous method for street scale spatial data collection and analysis in challenging urban environments: mapping health risks using spatial video in Haiti. International Journal of Health Geographics 12 (2013): 21. [8] Ebener, Steeve, at al. The Geography of maternal and newborn health: the state of the art. International Journal of Health Geographics 14 (2015): International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

85 LEADERSHIP STYLE RIGHT IN THE DEMOCRATIC *Togu Harlen Lbn. Raja Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Ekonomi LMII Medan *Dewan Pembina Yayasan IMII, Ketua LPPM STIE LMII Medan. Doktor bidang Manajemen dari Universitas Padjadjaran Bandung. ABSTRACT Each leader has a leadership style that is different to be adapted to the work environment so as to avoid internal conflicts between superiors and subordinates. No leadership style that has been attached since the man was still in the womb, but some are derived from experience and knowledge about leadership. In an era of democratization takes leaders who have a democratic leadership style that promotes democratic values that exist so that the subordinate was given the opportunity to cooperate and coordinate with colleagues in the organization. Keywords: Style Leadership and Democracy. Preliminary. In everyday life we can see the various types of leadership that is both small in size and large size that are around us. The leader of the smallest is the leader in the household where the husband is the leader in every household that will bring to the direction in which the destination of the household and is responsible for the entire household activities. Talking about the leader is not unusual but it is not unusual because every day we hear people talking about leaders and leadership. We can hear and read the story of the leaders in the world that began in the days of the prophet, the royal era to the present age of the millennium. President Jokowi is a leader at any time discussed in Indonesia and even abroad because each leader will be a concern for the people around him. President Jokowi is one of the leaders who attract the attention of the people of Indonesia and even the international community because of the presence of the President Jokowi become President of the people of Indonesia, where he comes from ordinary people become President. President Jokowi career ranging from the Mayor of Solo, Jakarta Governor and now as the President of the Republic of Indonesia which is the first time in Indonesian history records about the hierarchy obtained by someone from a small office to large office. This success is quite remarkable that earned by a man named Joko Widodo, who is believed to be the President of the Republic of Indonesia to 7. Obviously the success of President Jokowi influenced by the type of leadership that exist in itself and the democratic system in Indonesia as a democratic state. With the democratic system adopted in our country then there is the opportunity for every citizen to choose and choose to be leaders in our country ranging from village elections, election of regent / vice regent and mayor / deputy mayor, the election of governor / deputy governor and presidential elections and vice president. Indonesian public's attention is very focused on the attitudes and policies taken by President Jokowi in organizing government has entrusted to him during the next 5 years. The success of an organization both small organizations and large organizations highly dependent on the leader and the type of leadership that exist in the leadership of the type of leadership 74 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

86 where one will be able to affect change in the behavior of others to follow the direction of leadership. We hear many famous leaders were greatly admired by the international community because of persona and the type of leadership that the implementation can affect people who hear it. 1. In a rule, the leadership pattern is determined by a number of determinants, among others: 2. Philosophy of the country as a way of life and worldview (lebensanschauung and welanscahuung). 3. Factors ideological, political, economic, social, cultural, defense, national security is growi in the country concerned. Personality leaders with all the characteristics, habits, temperament and character thatdefine the style of the organization that will be used, helpers that surrounds him, the means used, professed ideology and objectives to be achieved. (Kartini Kartono, 2011). There are few international figures who greatly admired by the international community of its leadership as: Ir. Soekarno President of the Republic of Indonesia, Mahatma Gandhi in India who are able to invite people to strive together in seizing independence. Many other figures who succeeded in carrying out their duties in carrying out the mandate given to him based on the type of leadership that is adhered respectively. The presence of a leader in the middle of the community is needed because people want to live together with a sense of peace side by side so we need a leader who can to save. We also heard many stories about the greed of leaders ranging from ancient times to the present repression against its members. Understanding the Leader. Hearing the words of a leader that is in our mind is that there is someone who is a role model in an environment. The presence of the leader in a place influenced by a number of reasons and certainly one is based on the attitudes and behaviors that exist in itself which can convince others. Any person or organization in desperate need of a leader is firm and bold, especially to fight for the rights and the fate of its members and is always present when the members of the organization requires. The organization is a group of people who are in a container that cooperate in achieving goals together with utilizing all the resources that exist in the organization. From the above understanding can be explained that the elements of the organization are: 1. The existence of a group of people. 2. The existence of cooperation. 3. The existence of a common goal. Thus, the three elements that will have a bottleneck in the achievement that does not have a leader who is able to coordinate with existing members in it. Definition of a leader is a person who has the skills and advantages (especially in the field) to be able to influence others to jointly undertake certain activities in order to achieve one or more objectives. (Syamsul Arifin, 2012). Then Matondang, 2008, said that a leader is someone who is able to influence others to do or not do something to be desired as desired. A leader is someone who has the ability to lead means to have the ability to influence the behavior of another person or group without regard to the form of the reason. (Susilo Martoyo, 2001). 75 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

87 From the above understanding is clear that the presence of a leader is needed once in an organization because it will be able to manage all the resources available to the organization for the welfare of its members live. In a democracy the presence of a leader can be born at once because there are no rules that hamper the emergence of a leader in the midst of society, another case with the ancient times when the royal era where there will be a leader if it comes from the kingdom or the son of a king for generations. Currently there are still some countries that embrace the kingdom such as: Thailand, Malaysia, Brunei, Japan, Britain, the Arab countries, etc. In a country that adheres to the kingdom then people will not get the chance to be king of the common people so that is possible to be king. In Indonesia, which adheres to the republican system of government gives an opportunity to every people of Indonesia to be anything in the government that has the ability to carry out their duties. From the seventh President of the Republic of Indonesia, the Indonesian president only one person who has a relationship with his parents as a President is Mrs. Megawati, but not because of bloodlines as the son of the President which resulted in Mrs. Megawati became president, but because of the nature of democracy that exist in Indonesia which provides the opportunity for anyone to become a leader in Indonesia. When we consider that a successful leader when the leader is able to perform the function of leadership there is in him that is able to influence others to carry out his orders. Leadership values that exist in a leader can come from a variety of reasons such as: 1. The instinct of existing born attached to him since the human being in the womb. 2. Experience in get by someone on the activities done in everyday life that can be emulated surrounding community. 3. The knowledge gained by someone on the leadership that the leader be a leader on knowledge gained. Such leaders are deliberately prepared by the government to meet the required number of leaders and quality leaders expected. Preparation is done to get a quality leader expected leaders so as to bring the organization's direction and objectives for the future. The Government issued a huge cost to make and prepare prospective leaders in both government institutions and the military and police agencies through increased formal education and training. Faustino, 2001, said that the training is any attempt to improve the performance of the worker to a particular job is becoming a responsibility or a job that has to do with his job. Leadership. Said leaders have a relationship with the word leadership where these two words have a close relationship. Leader means a human figure, while leadership is in the process of carrying out the functions leader attached to a person. The goal of the training is carried out: 1. Increasing appreciation of life and ideology. 2. Increasing labor productivity. 3. Improving the quality of work. 4. Increase the provision of human resource planning. 76 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

88 5. Increase the stimulus so that employees are able to perform maximal. 6. Improve health and safety. 7. Avoid Obsolescence (Obsolescence). 8. Increase employee development. (Anwar Prabu Mangkunegara, 2001). Based on the background of a person who has a variety of leadership styles leadership then it should be able to adjust the attitude and personality of its members. This is called it is the art of management (Management is art) means that every leader must have the art in leading his soldiers through its leadership attitude that can be adapted to anyone and in different situations. Leadership is behavior and attitude shown leadership in others in the face of everything, especially in communicating with the people he leads. (Hadari Nawawi, Martini Hadari, 2004). Then J.K. Hemphill & Coons AE, 1957 in Sutarto, 2001, said: "leadership is the behavior of an individual when he is directing the activities of a group toward the goal" (Leadership is the behavior of the individual when he directs the activities of the group to achieve a common goal). Democratic Leadership Style. Leadership style of a leader is different and depends on the attitude and personality of each of the leaders in every organization. Each leader must be clever to adjust its style of leadership that subordinates can receive his superior leadership style in carrying out the tasks assigned to subordinates. In the current era of democratization is certainly leadership style should be played is a leadership style appropriate to the era of democratization so that there is no conflict between superiors and subordinates. There are several types of leadership, namely: 1. Leadership charismatic type of leadership that is in him that has the power to influence others through charisma that is in the leader. 2. Leadership is a type of leadership paternalistic fatherly type of leadership which assumes that the subordinate is not very mature so it needs to be directed and need to be empowered and protected. 3. The democratic leadership that is the type of leadership that provides guidance to his subordinates and always coordinated with subordinates, good cooperation and full responsibility. 4. Leadership militaristic is the type of leadership that exist in military organizations where subordinates lack the opportunity to give an opinion and always obeys the laws of superiors and can not refuse orders from superiors. 5. Etc. From some type of leadership that is there then we will see the right type of leadership in the democratization era in which democratic leadership type is the type of leadership that is appropriate to the era of democratization. Syafei, 2003, said that the democratic leadership style of government that is the way and the rhythm of a government leader in dealing with subordinates and society by means of the method the division of tasks with subordinates, as well as the subordinate tasks evenly divided, then the selection is done with an open task, among subordinates recommended discussions about its existence to discuss its work, even though both the low employee may submit suggestions and recognized rights, with the consent and consensus so possessed by mutual agreement. 77 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

89 Hasibuan, 2006, said that the democratic leadership style is the style of leadership that has the power to motivate subordinates to improve the motivation to work and carry it out with a persuasive leader it will create a harmonious cooperation between subordinates and superiors, subordinates and foster loyalty is important is able to foster the participation of subordinate. Democratic leadership provides the opportunity for subordinates to carry out its activities in accordance with its expertise and there are no restrictions on the rights and obligations of each subordinate. In Indonesia, democracy is very precise type of leadership to serve as the basis and soul of every prospective leaders in our country Indonesia. Leadership type of democracy that exist in Indonesia is very in keeping with the values of Pancasila and the 1945 Constitution which became to follow for every citizen of our country because of the Pancasila and the 1945 Constitution has been explained that the Pancasila ideology contained in the principles of Pancasila describes the attitude and personality of the Indonesian nation. There are several values of Pancasila and the 1945 Constitution that have a relationship with the leadership, among others: 1. In 1945 explained that every resident of Indonesia secured its independence in thought, prayer, etc. 2. Pancasila as the state, as the nation's personality and outlook on life as a nation. The values of the principles of Pancasila which Almighty God, just and civilized humanity, unity of Indonesia, Democracy, led by the inner wisdom of deliberations representation and social justice for all Indonesian people. 3. Leadership Pancasila will be able to maintain the noble values of our ancestors. Kartini Kartono, 2012, explained that the leadership of Pancasila is in accordance with the characteristics of the Indonesian nation with be based on to: 1. Ketuhanan Yang Maha Esa (Belief in God Almighty). 2. Hing ngarsa sung tulada (in front of an example). 3. Hing madya mangun karsa (in the middle of building motivation and willingness). 4. Tut wuri Handayani (behind giving strength). 5. Waspada purba wisesa (alert and power based on authority and power). 6. Ambeg Paramarta (have the correct properties). 7. Prasaja (are simple). 8. Satya (faithful). 9. Hemat (Gemi, nastiti, ati-ati) / thrifty, careful, meticulous and careful. 10. Terbuka (Open). 11. Legawa/rela dan tulus erta ikhlas (willing and genuine and sincere). 12. Bersifat Ksatria (noble character and praiseworthy). Democratic Leadership research. 1. Mardiana, 2014, explaining that the democratic leadership style has a positive influence on the performance of employees at the Secretariat Office of Samarinda at %. 2. Son, Raniasa and Sobiri, Kgs, M. And Alfatih, Andi, 2006, said that the democratic leadership style have a relationship with the performance of employees in the Office of Industry, Trade and Cooperatives, Small and Medium Entrepreneurs Ulu Ogan Ogan at International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

90 3. Dwi Windu Satya Adriana, 2014, There is a principal's leadership style influence on the performance of the National Starch teacher in high school. 4. Husnaini Mailisa Safitri, Amri, M. Shabri, 2012, where the results of the research explained that there is an influence on the performance of democratic leadership style described by t hitung > t table (3.462> 1.645). Menengah Kabupaten Ogan Komering Ulu, Kapasitas Jurnal Kebijakan Publik, 1 (1). Pp , ISSN (10) Susilo Martoyo, 2001, Manajemen Sumber Daya Manusia, Edisi Ke 3, Penerbit BPFE, Yogyakarta. (11) Sutarto, 2001, Dasar-Dasar Kepemimpinan Administrasi, Penerbit Gadjah Mada University Press, Yogyakarta. (12) Syamsul Arifin, 2012, Leadership Ilmu Dan Seni Kepemimpinan, Penerbit Mitra Wacana Media, Jakarta. REFERENCES (1) Anwar Prabu Mangkunegara, 2001, Manajemen Sumber Daya Manusia Perusahaan, Penerbit PT. Remaja Rosdakarya, Bandung. (2) Dwi Winda Satya Adriana, 2014, Pengaruh Gaya Kepemimpinan Dan Komunikasi Interpersonal terhadap Kinerja Guru di SMA Nasional Pati, Jurnal Ilmiah PPKN IKIP Veteran, Semarang. (3) Faustino Cardoso Gomes, 2001, Manajemen Sumber Daya Manusia, Penerbit Andi Offset, Yogyakarta. (4) Hadari Nawawi, Martini Hadari, 2004, Kepemimpinan Yang Efektif, Penerbit Gadjah Mada University Press, Yogyakarta. (5) Husnaini Mailisa Safitri, Amri, M. Shabri, Pengaruh Gaya Kepemimpinan, Kerjasama Tim dan Gaya Komunikasi Terhadap Kepuasan kerja Serta Dampaknya Terhadap Kinerja Pegawai Pada Sekretariat Daerah Kota Sabang, Jurnal Ilmu Manajemen Pascasarjana Universitas Syiah Kuala, pp. 1-17, ISSN , Vol. 1, No. 2, November (6) Kartini Kartono, 2011, Pemimpin Dan Kepemimpinan, Penerbit PT. Raja Grafindo Persada, Jakarta. (7) Mardiana, 2014, Pengaruh Gaya kepemimpinan Demokratis Terhadap Kinerja Pegawai Pada Kantor Sekretariat Daerah Kota Samarinda, ejournal Ilmu Pemerintahan, 2 (1) 2014 : , ISSN , ejournal.ip.fisip.unmul.ac.id. (8) Matondang, MH, 2008, Kepemimpinan; Budaya Organisasi Dan Manajemen Strategik, Penerbit Graha Ilmu, Jakarta. (9) Putra, Raniasa and Sobiri, Kgs. M. And Alfatih, Andi, 2006, Hubungan Kualitas Sumber Daya Manusia dan penerapan Kepemimpinan Demokratis Pancasila Dengan Kinerja Oragnisasi Pada Dinas Perindustrian Perdagangan dan Koperasi Pengusaha Kecil 79 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

91 INTERNET HELPS PEOPLE IN DELIVERING INFORMATION WITHIN THE COMMUNITY IN INDONESIA AS A DEVELOPING COUNTRY Trufi Murdiani, S.T., M.A. Gajah Sakti Poly Technique Prasetiya Mandiri Group Lampung Zainal Abidin Pagar Alam Street/Pelita I Number 24 B Kedaton ABSTRACT In the past time when ancient kingdoms still exist, Indonesian people have unique methods in communicating and announcing important news of information in community. In the villages and some small cities, people applied these ancient communicating methods. It s affective and cheap on cost. Until nowadays, those methods still common. One most ancient method is applied for announcing something important that related with the community interest. The village leader goes to religion house such as mosque, church, and temple. Another way is implemented by knocking bamboo gong. For each sound of bamboo gong represents the vary occurred events such as the sounds for many times knocking is to fire, sounds with a bit long and a few times is to announce a theft case, different sounds are to inform citizens about the volcano eruption, flood, earthquake and other kind of disasters. Currently, when the internet era is emerging, the method to informing something important in the community is also done by internet. Moreover, Indonesia with area of 1,919,440 Kilo-Metres squares with 33 provinces and an island country, is a very big country in terms of range and population. The existence of internet eases the delivering information in the community. 1. INTRODUCTION People in most of developing countries have a very close kinship to each other and live in traditional values, including in communication way. As one of the developing country, people in Indonesia are also upholding the values of togetherness and kinship in the community. Indonesian people have unique methods in communicating and announcing important news of information in community. Since the internet and even telephone trend did not occur yet and still until nowadays, especially in villages and some small cities, people applies these ancient communicating methods. Indonesian people find it s affective and useful even it s very traditional and cheap on cost. Indonesian people do these methods as a hereditary tradition. The first method is very common in all provinces in Indonesia. For announcing something important and very urgent that related with the community interest, one person who is usually a leader of the village or even the smaller community than village, just need to go to the religion house such as mosque, small mosque or surau/musala, church, and temple or pura in the village. KEY WORDS: information, ancient method, internet. Then, she/he can announce the information through a megaphone, microphone or other sound loader equipment 80 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

92 and all people in the village/community would hear its announcement. Beside house of worship, the same way could also be done in other public places. Like public/village night guardhouse, village hall, or even in traditional market. Things that could be announced from small mosque or village hall usually related with community could be happiness, meeting schedule or even sadness things. For instance, about a birth of a baby of one family in the village, meeting agenda, Quran recitation or pengajian, and even the death of someone who lived in the village. Whereas, the village night guard house usually knock the bamboo gong when natural disaster happen. And people have already recognize the meaning of knocking bamboo gong sounds that represent the occurred events. For example, the sounds for many times knocking is to fire, then gong hit sounds with a bit long and a few times is to announce a warning because of the theft, as well as the meaning of sounds to inform citizens about the volcano eruption, flood, earthquake etc. The second way, people walk around the village to announce the important information and supported with bamboo gong plus megaphone. And later, this way has emerging by the truck or pickup car. information. Those modern tools such as telephone, mobile phone, and even which part of the convenience tool that offered by internet. As the internet has been available and many people use it, the way to convey information to the public, especially in villages and small towns, still obtain by an announcement from the mosque. And it's still done until today. Currently, when the internet era is emerging, the method to informing something important in the community is also done by internet. Moreover, Indonesia with area of 1,919,440 Kilo-Metres Square and the 15th largest country in the world is a very big country in terms of range and population. In addition, with 33 provinces that spread in many islands, Indonesia is also the island country. So, in addition to delivering information, the existence of the internet is very helpful for people among community in Indonesia. 2. THEORETICAL BASICS Mowlana (n.d.) emphasized, The central question in the new communication and cultural era is who owns and controls the production and distribution of information, for what purpose and intent, and under what conditions and values (p.20). By that background, the mass communication or more specifically the way to convey information to the public that very traditionally made the sense of kinship in Indonesian society became closer. And along with the rapid development of technology, choice of methods as well as supporting tools in communicating for Indonesian society more diverse. Because of the old ways were still being used while the community also has the other modern equipments so as to speed the process of conveying Regarding on source of information, the using of internet in Indonesia can be as backgrounds and additional related information. As Baird (2010) said, We understood the internet to be not just a source of information, fun and power, but as basic right a right that is crucial to democracy, diplomacy and open government (n.p.). And Calabrese (n.d.) in The MacBride Report: Its Value to a New Generation concluded: Today, modern media technologies, particularly the internet and satellite communication, have become 81 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

93 the infrastructure that has made possible a new global market system and a new context for the spread of political, economic and cultural ideas. Emerging with these new powers have come opportunities for the elimination of global poverty and the greater capacity for citizens of the world to bear witness to and fight against violation of human rights, wherever they may happen. But alongside the many positive changes are the perils that must be avoided, not least of which are the uses of these new means of communication by some to violate the dignity and humanity of others through public deception, economic exploitation, political surveillance and repression, and other abuses of power. (p.24). Since the internet era has came, the way of getting and giving information Indonesia as a developing country was change. Andrew Calabrese (n.d.) added in The MacBride Report: Its Value to a New Generation: The MacBride Report projects a spirit of hopefulness about how a better world is possible, about the continued importance of public institution as means to ensure global justice at local, national and transnational levels, and about the value of global communication as a means to knowledge, understanding and mutual respect. (p. 25). The existence of the Internet has proven can facilitate people in delivering information in the community in Indonesia which is one of developing countries in Asia. It is not only in getting additional background and supporting data, but also in communicating quickly and inexpensively with the stringers could be done with internet tools such as and chat and even the internet based social networks sites like Facebook and Twitter. In addition to facilitate the working of delivering information, the internet also began as a medium to preach about Indonesia as developing country. Chris Paterson (2006) said in News Agency Dominance in International on the Internet that: Yahoo was the first to develop a strategic relationship with the Reuters news agency in the mid- 1990s to facilitate such sites, and their model was widely copied. The second type of provider were content-producing online media, which tended to combine original content (written by the company s own journalists or commissioned for the company) with news agency content. (p. 4). 3. CONCLUSION 1. Indonesia with area of 1,919,440 Kilo-Metres squares that spreads in 33 provinces and as an island country, is a very big country in terms of range and population. 2. People in Indonesia have a very close kinship to each other and live in traditional values, including in communication way. 3. Indonesian people have unique methods in communicating and announcing important news in community. Especially in the villages and some small cities. Indonesian people use the various traditional and cheap method in delivering information as a hereditary tradition. 4. The first method is using megaphone, microphone or other sound loader equipment at religion house such as mosque, small mosque or surau/musala, church, and temple or pura in the village. The same way could also be done in other public places like public/village night guardhouse, village hall, or even in traditional market. 5. The announcing person usually knocks the bamboo gong with various sounds when natural disasters 82 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

94 happen. People have recognize the meaning of knocking bamboo gong sounds that represent the occurred events like the sounds for many times knocking is to fire, then gong hit sounds with a bit long and a few times is to announce a warning because of the theft, as well as the meaning of sounds to inform citizens about the volcano eruption, flood, earthquake. 6. The other method, people walk around the village to announce the important information and supported with bamboo gong plus megaphone. And later, this way has emerging by the truck or pickup car. 7. Currently, when the internet era is emerging, the method to informing something important in the community is also done by internet. REFERENCES Baird, J. (2010). Freedom should trump privacy. Article. (n.p.). Calabrese, A. (n.d.). The MacBride report: Its value to a new generation. Monographic, 21, Mowlana, H. (n.d.). The MacBride report revisited. Monographic, 21, Paterson, C. (May 2006). News agency dominance in international news on the internet. Papers in internatiomnal and global communication, 01/06, 4. Profil Indonesia. (December 27, 2005). Retrieved on April 10, 2015 from 83 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

95 SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP AS THE SAVIOR OF FOOD SECURITY ISSUES AMONG THE ELDERLY: A PROPOSAL Shamshubaridah Ramlee 1*, NorngainyMohd Tawil 1, SitiSuryani Mat Nasit 1, SarmilaMd Sum 2, Center for Entrepreneurship and SMEs Development 1 Faculty of Science Social and Humanity 2 UniversitiKebangsaan Malaysia, 1 2, ABSTRACT Food security among senior citizen is a new phenomenon in the caring of senior citizens. Apart from making food affordable with the required nutrients, sustainability of the supply at affordable prices is of utmost importance. Relying on government funds as in most care centers in Malaysia; and donations in providing food to enhance the better health qualities is not sustainable. In a Laureate project involving a living lab in the outskirts of Kuala Lumpur, we piloted a caring service to transform the well-being of the senior citizens. With the community assets available in the vicinity of the lab, we present a proposal on monetizing the community assets available around the senior citizen s home. Solving the food security problem will be approached from the perspective of social entrepreneurship where an initial proposal of a community based food security project is proposed, known as the Enterprise Social Preneur Project. This paper will introduce the trends of the aging society in Malaysia and define food security in the context of social entrepreneurship. This will be followed by a description of the Laureate project at the Al-Fikrah Living Lab where the idea of food security started. The next section will discussed on the findings of the community assets and finally propose a solution to ensure sustainability of the food security and caring services from among the senior citizens. KEY WORDS Social business, enterprise social preneur, Food Safety, Health Qualities, Senior Citizen, Al-Fikrah Living Lab. 1. Introduction In a statistics published by the Department of Statistics, 2010 the population of Malaysia will grow from 28.6 million to 32.4 million in 2020 with those above the age of 65 will increase from 5% to 6.8% when Malaysia reached its developed nation status. The dependency ratios for the young to care for the elders will increase from 7.4% in 2010 to 16.6%. Whether this group of population cared by their children or in senior citizens care centers, feeding and caring for them will remain an issue that needs to be addressed. Senior citizens above the age 65 years are on the average less productive and less healthy due to morbidity requires more care and healthcare services. This affects health expenditures spent by the Malaysian government. Healthcare expenditures have grown to more than 11% since 2009 according to an unpublished report by the Malaysia National Health Accounts: Health Expenditure Report [1].With the rising costs of living, making food available, accessible, affordable, safe and nutritious can be challenging. These rising costs are even more challenging with a reduced arable land in the urban or sub-urban areas. 84 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th 21 th August 2015

96 Almost 60% of the healthcare expenditures are for the curative hence increasing the cost of medication [2,3,4]. Efforts are being done to reduce the dependence on medication and increase the preventive approach in treating diseases among the population and the senior citizens in particular. Being active with proper nutritious diets among seniors will help prevent non-communicable diseases where nutritious food will be an alternative to medicine [5,6,7]. This will reduce the expenditures for medication and food consumption if food is made available in a more sustainable manner approached from the perspective of social entrepreneurship. 2. Food Security Initiatives in Malaysia Food security is defined by Food and Agriculture Organization s [8] as access for all people at all time to adequate food for healthy and active life include three components such as adequacy in food production, stability in food supplies and physical and economic access by vulnerable groups. Food security is getting more attention because increase in population givesan unbalance food production to the nation [9]. Malaysia will face food crisis if there are no action taken. There are three aspects for food security which are availability, accessibility andcontrolled utilization of pesticides and that requiresimmediate and precautionary action by government. Currently, Malaysian government hadtaken action concerning both micro and macro levels for sustaining food security [10]. At the micro level,malaysia focused in developing rural area, rural education, healthcare, nutrition education and the stability of food system. Food security also can be sustained by improving the land water management, adopting ecofriendly technologies and initiating good agricultural practices [11]. These are implemented by agriculture agencies. At the macro level, Malaysia government play role on policy control over the sectorial composition of income from the cultivation of crops. 3. Social Entrepreneurship in food security Social entrepreneurship and enterprise is a new brand of entrepreneurship wave in Malaysia. Leveraging from the rising number of youth involved in volunteerism activities, resources are deployed to see if these activities can be turned to a business endeavors. While caring for the senior citizens used to be a community based activities, it is now transformed according to the business framework to help designed a value proposition for the intended customers namely the senior citizens. The current funding from the Ministry channeled to welfare home utilised for the consumption of food can now be replaced by cultivation of crops within the vicinity of the homes. This will therefore make the food supply more sustainable and if crops were cultivated in a safer conditions and standards, this will result in a more nutritious food able to reduce diseases among senior citizens in the homes. 4. Laureate Project UKM-CESMED under Laureate Project conducted a research in providing general and health care services among the senior citizens. The AlFikrah has been chosen as a living lab to conduct the research where it housed 75 senior citizens. The lab is situated on a 3 acre piece of land with reasonable infrastructure with community assets like fertile land to grow crops and poultry farming. The operation of the lab is assisted by the nearby community and relevant agencies from the welfare department. UniversitiKebangsaan Malaysia s (UKM) Faculty of Public Health, Faculty of Social Science, Faculty of Economics and Management and the Faculty of Engineering and Architecture provided the academics and students to 85 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th 21 th August 2015

97 mobilize the idea of social entrepreneurship. A community mapping of the Al-Fikrah Homecaree as a lab and its community were done and were located at JalanCheras, Kajang, Selangor in a suburban area not far from Kuala Lumpur. attack, stroke and other disease. All 75 residents are above the age of 60 years old with no beneficiaries who were sent by hospitalss after they were given treatment. Four of the residents are individuals with disabilities and Al-Fikrah Home Care has five converts. Al-Fikrah Home Care was opened on January 2013 and it located on a land donated by a member of the community. This home care is home to75 senior citizens; men and women that have chronic disease, with no beneficiaries, and person with disabilities, elderly and Muslim converts. In this action project, researchers formulate health and general care modules with the help of agencies such as the Welfare Department, Ministry of Health, City Council, Selangor and MARDI an agriculture department, these modules were used as a pilot with the senior citizens. 5. Finding and discussion 5.1 Category of Senior Citizen The Al-FikrahHome is a living lab which is a non-profit organization whose funding come mainly from funds received from the Welfare Department in Malaysia and donations from corporations and individuals. Most of the dwellers are sent by hospitals or send by individuals. Below are the demograhics of the occupants of the home. Table 1.Category of Senior Citizen at Al-Fikrah Home Care No 1. Category Chronic disease No. of Residents No beneficiaries Person with disabilities 4 4. Elderly/senior citizen Converts 5 Table 1 show the categories of senior citizen at Alfikrah Home Care, 75 of residents are where 50 are males and 25 females. Among 75 senior citizens, 25 of them suffered from chronic disease such as diabetic, blood pressure, heart 5.2. Elderly Expenditures The amount of funding received were mainly utilised for the upkeep of the building, medical and disposable items and food. The figure 1 illustrates the purpose of expenditures untulised for the senior citizens. They usenearly half of their funds received for food expenditure which is 48 %, 22% for medical and disposable 22%, another 22% in utility bills and remaining in utility bills. Elderly Expenditures 6% Food 22% 48% Medical and Disposable 22% Utility Bills Rental Figure 1.Categories of Expenditure in AlFikrah Home 5.3 Community Asset Utilization Al-Fikrah Home Care sitss on a 3 acre fertile land that grows corps and poultry farming (Figure 2). Healthy senior citizens will take a slow walk within the vicinity as part of their daily activities. The healthier residents will work at the field and grow vegetable such as eggplant, okra, chili, cucumber and bitter ground. The residents also plant rambutan tree and papaya as local fruits to give more nutrition food for them. Other than that, they also do poultry farming, rearing quails and cat fish. This piece of land gives more benefit to the senior citizen in getting better 86 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th 21 th August 2015

98 nutrition from food. The produce from this activity will be used as food to the residents and help in the saving of food expenses apart from having enough nutrition in their food in order to maintain their conditions. 6.0 Recommendation In recommendation, there are model that can create an help of communities in the area, the project not only can provides food but also encourage production, processing, distribution and consumption of the food. The figure 3 is a model that can be developed where the care center with community formed a wholly enterprise social preneurstartup company established by entrepreneurs whose funding is from the individuals. The second model is Figure 2. Crop Cultivation and poultry rearing Figure3: Proposed Community Nutrition Project Model (M2PK) opportunity to senior citizen to increase the health qualities. Figure 3 shows the Community Nutrition Project Model (M2PK) which can be used by agencies in helping senior citizens. This model is use to generate income and help senior citizenin having more nutritious food. Through social entrepreneurship, local council, health sectors, business network and NGO s can help the senior citizen in producing their own food and income [12, 13,14]. With the a business set up by a joint venture between the community and trading companies whose funding comes from grants obtained through the care center only. The third model utilised both grants and investment from care centers and trading partners. The last model is by using a private company who invest solely on investments and without grants who act as a full pledged enterprise social preneur. All produce will following standards required in food safety 87 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th 21 th August 2015

99 and can only be done with the network from among relevant town councils, health sectors, business trading networks and Non- Profit organizations. CONCLUSION In an effort to reduce the burden on Government and relying on unsustainable funds from donations to provide funding for the caring of senior citizens, we proposed that the community assets available in the AlFikrah Home Care Center be transformed into a social business activity. Efforts can only materialized with the concerted efforts among community members such as the town councils, NGOs, Agriculture Agencies and Welfare Departments [15]. Models involving the pure social enterprise companies with inviduals investments, social enterprise startups using individual social entreprenuer s fund and a social enterprise using grants and investments were presented. Acknowledgement Thanks to UKM-CESMED for giving this opportunity to conduct a research for senior citizen transformation plan. Also thanks to Al-Fikrah Home Care for collaborating with us as a living lab and all students and academics from UKM FSK, UKM FSSK, UKM FEM and UKM FKAB who participate in this research. This research was supported by LAUREATE grant. References [1] H.A. Karim,.The senior citizen in Malaysia.Demographic trends.medical Journal of Malaysia, 52(3), 1997, [2] R. Wolf, L. Daichman, G. Bennett. World Report on Violence and Health Organization. Chapter 5: Abuse the senior citizen. Health Organization, Geneva, [3] A.S.Suhaimi, A. Halimah and M. Norma.Population aging and social protection in Malaysia.International Conference on Population Aging: Issues and Challenges [4] N.Y Siti and A.B.Gorgiana. Aged Society: The Way Forward. International Journal of Trade Economic and Finance,4(4),2014. [5] M.N.M. Nik and Y.A. Mohamed.Senior citizen environment in Malaysia: Impact of multiple built environment characteristics. Procedia- Social and Behavioral Science.49, 2012, [6] H.S. Minhat, A.R. Mohd and K.Shamsuddin. Late-life leisure constraints among Malaysian ederly: A Qualitative Approach. Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine,12(2), 2012, [7] D.P. Selvaratnam, A.B. Norlaila and H.I. Nortini.Economic well-being and morbity of senior citizen in Malaysia.Journal of Modern Acconting and Auditing,6(4), 2010.Vol 6 No.4. [8] Food and Agriculture Organization. A reappraisal of the concept and approaches.report on World Food Security Committee on World Food Secutrity.Eighth Session [9] I.M.R Mohamad, S.M.A.H. Afzan, A. Norazira, I. Rafidah and I Zakimi.Sustaining Food Production for Food Security in Malaysia.Journal of Economics and Development Studies, 1(2), 2013 [10] L.C.L Wong. Food security and growth: Malaysia s strategic approach and future adjustment [11] K. Shetty, S. Ayyappanand M.S.Swaminathan.Climate change and suatainable food security.national Institute of Advance Studies, [12] A.A.G. Zuhairah, M. Herna andh. Zarinah. Legal Eagle Entrepreneurship Education for Law Students: Special Reference to International Islamic University Malaysia. Journal of Science Social and Humanities, 22, 2014, [13] Z.Y. Mohammed, A.I. Ibnor and A.H. Mohamad.Who is the social entrepreneur? Easy question, difficult answer.international Conference on Business and Economic Research, [14] M. Yunus.Creating world without poverty: social business and the future of capitalism. Global Urban Development, 4(2), [15] A.Z. Fakrul, N.W.D. Wan, A. Zulhamri, R.Y. Mohd. Social entrepreneurship practices in Malaysia- The case of social NGO. National Journal of Academic Reseach in Busienss and Social Science, 4(12), International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th 21 th August 2015

100 OPTIMIZATION OF WIRELESS PRICING SCHEME Fitri Maya Puspita 1, Kamaruzzaman Seman 2, Bahok M. Taib 2, Ismail Abdullah 2 Mathematics Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, 1, Faculty of Science and Technology 2, University ofsriwijaya, Inderalaya, OganIlir, South Sumatera, Indonesia 1, UniversitiSains Islam Malaysia, Nilai, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia 2 1,{drkzaman, bachok, 2 ABSTRACT The wireless service providers obtain surplus from consumers who applied the service. That pricing strategy is developed by considering the linearity factors, elasticity price, price factors, acceptance factor and unit service price. Previous researches are focussed on the introduction of the models in general. This new approach of the model is by considering the model as the nonlinear programming problem that can be solved optimally using LINGO The optimal solution could give information on decision variables and objective function to maximize the revenue for the providers. The several objectives to be achieved by service providers are by setting the increment or decrement of price change due to QoS change and amount of QoS value. KEY WORDS Optimization, price change, QoS change, amount of QoS value 1. Introduction The pricing scheme has been a critical topic in business. The service providers has the obligation best QoS based on certain services [1, 2]. The research on internet pricing in multi service network in wired networks [3-5], and wired multi QoS network [6, 7] have been discussed. The results mainly inform about the choice of ISP decision to adopt the model by fixing the base price, quality premium and QoS level. Recently, the development of wireless networks rapidly grows importantly in business life by approaching the network as optimization problem [8]. By using the volume discounts as the nonlinear pricing model the profit of consumers can be achieved. However, due to static condition, the dynamical situation of the models are still in slow progress [9]. Their simulation results show the connection between acceptance factor with the user price elasticity. Past research [10] focussed on modelling the wireless nonlinear pricing scheme by applying some factors such as the linearity factors, elasticity price and price factors. The idea of modelling the wireless pricing strategy is powerful to be applied in mathematical model. So, in this paper, we propose the new approach of wireless pricing model originated by [9, 10] by considering the model as the nonlinear programming problem that can be solved optimally using LINGO The idea to transform the model into nonlinear programming model is to enable us to identify the connections between the acceptance factor, the price, the revenue, the amount of decrement or increment of QoS change and price change. 89 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

101 2. Literature Review Table I summarized some of those research focusing on the wireless network schemes. Some pricing models do not explicitly describe the availability for QoS differentiation. Table I Several Past Research On Internet Pricing Pricing Strategy Responsive Pricing [11] Pricing plan [12] Pricing strategy [1] Optimal strategy [13] pricing Paris Metro Pricing [14, 15] Pricing strategy by [16] Strategy of pricing proposed by [17] Models for internet pricing proposed by [18] Pricing scheme proposed by [19] How it Works Three stages proposed consist of not using feedback and user adaptation, using the closed-loop feedback and one variation of closed loop form. It Combines the flat rate and usage based pricing. Proposed pricing scheme offers the user a choice of flat rate basic service, which provides access to internet at higher QoS, and ISPs can reduce their peak load. Based on economic criteria. They Design proper pricing schemes with quality index yields simple but dynamic formulas. Possible changes in service pricing and revenue changes can be made The schemes are Flat fee, Pure usage based, Two part tariff. Supplier obtains better profit if chooses one pricing scheme and how much it can charge. Two part of analysis homogenous and heterogeneous. Different service class will have a different price. The scheme makes use of user partition into classes and move to other class it found same service from other class with lower unit price. Discussion about the measurement of QoS network service performance based on bandwidth, delay and delay jitter, throughput and loss rates. Pointed out the importance of multiservice networks such as assisting ISPs in spending their allocations, increasing the effectiveness of network usage by giving incentives to customers, to aid well established market view since new services can gain more sustainability. The utility function of a user can be in the form of probability of packet loss, average packet delay, probability of packet tail, delay of maximum packet and also throughput. Pricing schemes based on QoS levels in different allocations that control congestion and load balance. Furthermore, the research on dynamic pricing models and wireless design network is summarized in Table II. The research on this pricing has been begun in last decade and critically improves to fit in dynamical situation in wireless network. Pricing Strategy Pricing for 3G network proposed by [10] Pricing strategy proposed by [20] Pricing strategy proposed by [21] Social Optimal Pricing by [8] Simulation method for designing network proposed by [22] Concept of Dynamic pricing introduced by [23] Pricing QoS strategy proposed by [24] 2. Models Table II Some research on dynamic pricing model How it Works By considering the linearity factor, acceptance factor, elasticity price, the provider able to maximize the price for user and class. By considering the optimal pricing strategy for specific service as function of time. Their proposed model was created then comparing with the existing approaches available. The models focus on continuous models solved heuristically the dynamic pricing scheme proposed by setting up the model as a partial differential equation (PDE) and solving it numerically. The pricing scheme proposed mainly for pricing companies. Their work utilizes the PDE background by utilizing necessary and sufficient condition of Lagrange. So by solving the boundary conditions the pricing scheme involving company debt can be calculated. Pricing strategy that is based on profit maximization of provider. The model is transformed into optimization model. Able to examine the schemes that are not reached by network testing and able to improve model and performance. The process to fluctuate prices between consumer and provider. In market condition, the re -priced can often occur. utility function and cost function are proposed, and pricing mechanism is based on QoS service classes. Models used in this framework are adapted from [9, 10] but the approach is the nonlinear programming approach. So the model will consist of the objective function to be maximized subject to sets of constraints. Then, the models are solved using LINGO 13.0 software to obtain the optimal solutions. Based on four cases of the model by considering the increment or decrement of price change 90 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

102 due to QoS change and increment or decrement of number of QoS needed we can set up the models required. Basically, the models attempt to maximize the total price for a connection based on QoS parameter. The total price is the summation between basic price for a connection and the price change due to QoS change. We have i users and j class. 3. Result and Discussion The objective of the research is to obtain the revenue for the provider. The model provided by [10] and then work done by [9] are available. However, we create the models by gathering all information about parameter and variables. So, the objective function will maximize where is the basic price for a connection for user i and the class j and Lx is the linearity factor. The QoS attributes used are bandwidth and end to end delay. Then, a ij which defines the linear price factor in user i and class j, the linear factor and the traffic load t l. So, Lx is a linearity factor that depends on the linearity parameters of a and. Then With x is assumed between 0 and 1. The traffic load will be determined by setting the range for the traffic load is between the prescribed value arranged by the providers. The linear price factor a ij is set up between prescribed values determined by the provider, say f and g. So, which means to maximize the revenue that consists of the combination of acceptance factor, the price for a connection with QoS available andthe price change over that QoS and price of unit of service. The objective function has limitation to be satisfied to obtain the revenue which is called the sets of the constraints. The first constraint states that the price change will depends on the factor of the price, that involves the bandwidth as QoS attribute, the basic price at user i and class j, and also the factor of linearity. Gather all information, we have the sets of the constraints as follow. The range of allowed traffic load is also determined by the providers, say h and k. Then, For x as the amount of increment of decrement in QoS value, we range between 0 and 1 implying 0 is in best effort service case while 1 means in perfect service case. B is arranged between 0.8 and 1.07 since in this range, the best network quality occurs [10]. For parameter value PR ij, the provider arranges the value to have a connection. It also happens in a as the linearity parameters that keep the ratio of the price between floor and ceiling of QoS value is not really high. Next step, for a model described above, the optimal solution for 4 cases involving decrement or increment of 91 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

103 price change due to change of QoS and decrement or increment of QoS value is conducted by using LINGO Table II and III summarize the solver status for all cases and the decision variables, respectively. Table III Solver Status Of Nonlinear Programming Model Of variables Model Class Wireless Pricing Scheme PQijincrea se x increase PQijincrea se x decrease PQij decreas e x increas e PQij decreas e x decreas e NLP NLP NLP NLP Local Local Local Local State Optima Optima Optimal Optimal l l Objective Infeasibilit 3.1x10-5.9x x10-12 y 8 Iterations GMU ER 1s 0 1s 0s 1.07x10-13 In Table III, model class for each class I defined as nonlinear programming, having local optimal state. The best objective value to maximize the price for each user is achieved when increases with decrease of x. Iterations involve in the highest objective value is the lower or the same value with other case. Next, in Table IV, the decision variables for 2 users and 2 classes are presented. The price change due to QoS change for each case appears to have different value if we increase or decrease the condition of the change. The value of linearity parameter B, in three cases is the ceiling of the requirement set up for B. The value of the unit of service price is the same value for all cases. The traffic load value is the floor of the predetermined range while the linearity factor has the same value for all cases. It is shown in the Table IV that by setting up the increment of the price change due to QoS change and decrement the amount of QoS change, the providers gain best revenue. Table IV Decision Variables Of Nonlinear Programming Model Of variabl es PQijincre ase x increase Wireless Pricing Scheme PQijincre ase x decrease PQijdecre ase x increase PQij decrea se x decrea se PQ PQ PQ PQ x x PB PB PB PB a a a a B Q Q Q Q t l Lx Conclusion The goal to maximum price is achieved when the provider set the increment of price change due to QoS change and the decrement of amount of QoS value. The QoS attribute used is bandwidth and end to end delay. The linearity parameter set up for most cases is obtained in ceiling 92 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

104 value. Linear price factor ranges between the prescribed values especially cases when we increase the price change due to QoS change and increase the amount of QoS values. Acknowledgement(s) Theresearchleading to this paper was financially supported by Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia for support through Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (FRGS) References [1] Byun, J. and S. Chatterjee. A strategic pricing for quality of service (QoS) network business.inproceedings of the Tenth Americas Conference on Information Systems New York. [2] Bouras, C. and A. Sevasti, SLA-based QoS pricing in DiffServ networks.computer Communications, : p [3] Puspita, F.M., K. Seman, B. M.Taib, and Z Shafii, A new approach of optimization model on internet charging scheme in multi service networks.international Journal of Science and Technology, (6): p [4] Puspita, F.M., K. Seman, and B.M. Taib, The Improved Models of Internet Pricing Scheme of Multi Service Multi Link Networks with Various Capacity Links., in Advanced Computer and Communication Engineering Technology, H.A. Sulaiman, et al., Editors. 2015, Springer International Publishing: Switzeland. [5] Puspita, F.M., K. Seman, B. M.Taib, and Z. Shafii, An improved optimization model of internet charging scheme in multi service networks.telkomnika, (3): p [6] Puspita, F.M., K. Seman, B. M.Taib, and Z. Shafii, Improved Models of Internet Charging Scheme of Single Bottleneck Link in Multi QoS Networks. Journal of Applied Sciences, (4): p [7] Puspita, F.M., K. Seman, B. M.Taib, and Z. Shafii,, Improved Models of Internet Charging Scheme of Multi bottleneck Links in Multi QoS Networks. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, (7): p [8] Huang, J. and L. Gao, Wireless Network Pricing, ed. U.o.C. Jean Walrand, Berkeley. 2013, Hongkong: Morgan & Claypool. [9] Grubb, M.D., Dynamic Nonlinear Pricing: biased expectations, inattention, and bill shock.international Journal of Industrial Organization, January [10] Wallenius, E. and T. Hämäläinen, Pricing Model for 3G/4G Networks, in The 13th IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor, and Mobile Radio Communications. 2002: Lisbon, Portugal. [11] MacKie-Mason, J.K., L. Murphy, and J. Murphy, The Role of Responsive Pricing in the Internet, in Internet Economics J. Bailey and L. McKnight, Editors. 1996, Cambridge: MIT Press. p [12] Altmann, J. and K. Chu, How to charge for network service-flat-rate or usage-based?special Issue on Networks and Economics, Computer Networks, : p [13] Wu, S.-y., P.-y. Chen, and G. Anandalingam, Optimal Pricing Scheme for Information Services. 2002, University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia. [14] Ros, D. and B. Tuffin, A mathematical model of the paris metro pricing scheme for charging packet networks. The International Journal of Computer and Telecommunications Networking - Special issue: Internet economics: Pricing and policies (1). [15]Tuffin, B., Charging the internet without bandwidth reservation: An overview and bibliography of mathematical approaches. Journal of Information Science and Engineering, (5): p [16] Hwang, J. and M.B.H. Weiss, On the Economics of Interconnection among Hybrid QoS Networks in the Next Generation Internet, in XIII Biennial Conference of the International Telecommucations Society (ITS). 2000: Buenos Aires. [17] Paschalidis, I.C. and Y. Liu, Pricing in multiservice loss networks: static pricing, asymptotic optimality, and demand substitution effects. IEEE/ACM Transactions On Networking, (3): p [18] Gottinger, H., Network economies for the internetapplication models.ibusiness, : p [19] Gu, C., S. Zhuang, and Y. Sun, Pricing incentive mechanism based on multistages traffic classification methodology for QoS-enabled networks.journal of Networks, (1): p [20] Safari, E., M. Babakhani, S.J. Sadjadi, K.Shahanaghi, and K. Naboureh,Determining strategy of pricing for a web service with different QoS levels and reservation 93 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

105 level constraint. Applied Mathematical Modelling, [21] Castillo, D., A. M. Ferreiro, J. A.García-Rodríguez, and C.Vázquez,Numerical methods to solve PDE models for pricing business companies in different regimes and implementation in GPUs. Applied Mathematics and Computation, 2013: p [22] Kennington, J., D. Rajan, and E. Olinick, eds. Wireless Network Design Optimization Models and Solution Procedures. International Series in Operations Research & Management Science, ed. F.S. Hillier.Vol , Springer: Dallas, Texas. [23] Smyk, D., Optimization of Dynamic Pricing in Mobile Networks Deriving greater value out of existing network assets. 2011, Telcordia. [24] Jang, H.-C. and B. Lu, Pricing-Enabled QoS for UMTS/WLAN Network.JCIS, Atlantis Press, International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

106 PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION MODEL OF STOCK MUTUAL FUNDS BASED FINANCIAL INFORMATION SYSTEM Abshor Marantika 1 Informatics and Business Institute Darmajaya Bandar Lampung ABSTRACT The lack of public information on how to invest to be a major cause of the lack of public interest on capital market investment. Besides of that, for the certain instrument such as mutual funds of society will get difficulty in judging and choosing the mutual funds which be able to give optimal performance and benefit influences the slowness of mutual funds development. Result from this research activity is for finding the measurement of the performance mutual funds stock by using stage of stock rotation and stage of stock mutual fund which is made to be a accounting management information system and financial. With this stock mutual fund performance measurement model so that can be tool of important information for investor, society about the investment will have good potency of financial and the major elements causeof the performance of that mutual funds in capital market. Therefore, society can value and choose mutual fund which be able to give performance and optimalization in benefit especially in capital market. Explanatory research, this research has the goal to explain the relationship between the research variable through the hypotheses based on the data, such as: rotation stage and risk stage concerning the stock of mutual fund performance. Multiple regression analysis will be used to test the effect of two or more independent variables on the dependent variable. independent variable in this research is rotation stage and risk stage. Meanwhile in independent variable is the stock mutual fund performance. The research result for the simulation of measuring stock of mutual funds model, to measure the stock mutual funds performance. KEY WORDS: performance, mutual funds, stock risk. 1. INTRODUCTION Before investing in mutual funds, we need to know the kinds of mutual fund that is suitable with the goal and the investment necessity. There are 4 kinds of mutual fund that is served in Indonesia based on instrument category in investment, characteristic of benefit potencial and the risk, such as: money market mutual funds, fixed income funds, stock funds and mixed funds.the first mutual funds, money market mutual funds is the mutual funds that invest 100% on the money market securities such as debt securities with a maturity of less than one year. The second, fixed income funds is the mutual funds that invest atleast 80% from manages portfolios into debt securities such as bonds. The third, stock funds is the mutual funds that invest atlest 80% from portfolios that is managed in the equity effect (stock). The last, mixed funds is the mutual funds that invest in the equity effect and debt effect that its located do not include in the category of fixed income and stock funds. In 2009 based on the Bapepam data on December 2011 (Bapepam 2011), the amount of managing all of mutual funds kinds Rp 116 billion. With condition of stock market which is better, managing funds of mutual funds will increase. Data of Badan Pengawas Modal dan Lembaga Keuangan (Capital Supervisory Agency and Financial Institution)/(Bapepam-LK) show per December 2011 the total value aktiva bersih (NAB) Rp 193 billion. Panjaitan(2011), said that since the introduction the mutual funds in Indonesa in 1996 untul now, mutual fund has increased well, even in the crisis economics the mutual funds got the decreasing. Based on the BAPEPAM data (2011), on the last December 2011 has been noted there are 646 the mutual funds. Whereas in 1996 only there are International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

107 mutual funds. The mutual funds has existed in Indonesia since 1995 but the mutual funds has not been published in society. The lack of people information about how to invest to be a major cause of the people interest to invest in market capital. Besides of that to do the certain instrument such as society mutual funds gets difficulties in measuring and choosing the mutual funds which be able to give the performance and the ptimal benefit influences the slowness of mutual funds development. 2. LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Investment Eduardus Tandelilin (2010 : 2) Investment is the commitment for the amount of funds or the other resource that is done right now, with the goal to get amount of benefit in the future. An investor buys stock righ now with the hoping will get benefit from the incresing of the stock or the amount of deviden in the future, as the benefit for the time and the risk which is related to that investment. Based on Eduardus Tandelilin (2010 : 12) the process of decision in investing will be 5 steps until getting the best investment decision. 2.2 Mutual funds The first mutual funds is Massachusetts Investors Trust that is applied in 21 March 1924, that was only 1 year had 200 mutual funds investor with the asset US$ In 1929 when the stock exchange got decresing so the industry of this mutual funds development to be slow. Pozen (1998) said that Amutual funds is an investment company that pools money from share holders and invest in a diversified of securities. Investments in mutual funds attractive to investors because the investors do not require the investment analysis and monitoring market conditions on an ongoing basis and does not require a relatively large funds, investments are made through intermediaries other parties, namely the investment manager. 2.3 Investment risk According to Harry Markowitz 's theory in the book ( Zalmi Zubir, 2011: 19) defines risk as the difference between the expected results ( expected return ) and its realization. The bigger the return, the greater the level of risk. Investors in making any investment decision always trying to minimize the risks that arise, both the risk of long-term and short-term risks. Any changes in economic conditions will also encourage the formation of a variety of conditions requiring an investor to decide what to do and what strategies are applied in order to obtain the return arrives investors expected. With so investment risk can be defined as the likelihood of the difference between the actual return and expected return ( E ( R ) 3. STATEMENT OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS H 1 : rotation stage influences to the stock of mutual funds performance Ha 1 : rotation stage influences to the stock of mutual funds performance H2 : risk stage influences that mutual funds stock Ha 2 : risk stage influences that mutual funds stock 4. RESEARCH METHOD In this researchh method appies explanatory research that is research that explain the correlation kausal and korelasional among the variables through hyphoteses test. This Explanatory research has the goal to explain the correlation among the research variables through the hypotheses test based on the field data, such as: rotation stage and risk stage with the stock mutual funds performance. Mutual linear regression analysis is done to 96 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

108 know the linear similarity. Like this one, will be shown the The sample in this study is a mutual fund result of calculating mutual regression analysis. shares listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange period 2009 to the period Data Collection The data used in this research is secondary data 4.2 Methodology sources, because in this study the researchers did not The linear regression similarity between the rotation stage conduct direct observation to the Indonesia Stock and the risk stage to the stock of mutual funds performance Exchange. but through the medium of an intermediary such is: as literature related to the research. Source of data in this KR = + TP + TR + e study can be obtained from the Indonesia Stock Exchange ( IDX ) through Bapepam - LK through In this research model used estimation model that Bank Indonesia through used to form multiple linear regression similarity with the ordinary least square metode (OLS): Tabel 4.1 Hasil Estimasi OLS (Ordinary Least Square) Variabel Coefficient Std. Error t-statistic Prob. C TP TR determination coefficient (R 2 ) is got 0.639, it From the estimation result by using OLS method, on the means around 63.9% the stock mutual funds performance table 4.11 will get the similarity sech as: will be influenced of the rotation stage and risk stage KR = TP TR + e factor that can measure the stock of mutual funds performance from (table 4.8) and the rest will be 5. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS influeced of another variable. That thing will be matched 5.1 Conslusion with the criteria of decision taking, it can be seen from the 1). The influence analysis of rotation stage trogh the value Sig < from alpha value 0.05 on the table stock of mutual funds performance before (table 4,8), so HO is rejected and receive H1, In Turnover has big influence to the success of mutual another word the decision that is taken shows that the funds. Total turnover refers to how often the buying and rotation stage influence the stock of mutual funds selling securities. A high turnover ratio means that these performance. funds are very active and frequent buying and selling. The high of turnover ratio means that investment Mutual funds that have a very high turnover ratios, manager does not anticipate the change of the market like indicate that the investment manager buying and selling many kinds of issue that exist, with the economics activity with high frequency. Good performance of condition that influences the asset price then. Trading mutual funds occurs in mutual funds with high activity Activity which is high shows that investment of manager Tradding. The higher the turnover rate, the greater the effort in applying maximal return in doing the trade. This return that may be obtained. result suitable with the explanation of Erich A Helfert From the test result is got value R or correlation coefficient that show the correlation among the variable (1997), he said that the rotation stage which is higher. For 97 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

109 that to reveal that the rotation stage (turnover) related to the mutual funds performance. 2). The risk stage with the stock of mutual funds performance Every changes of economical condition will push the form of many kinds condition that must an investor to decide what should be done and what strategy that should be applied in order the investor gets the return that is hoped. The highest return on the stock of mutual funds shows the mutual funds is optimal, higher the risk of certain mutualfunds so it will be highest for the reslut (return), that is got, so that it will be better the mutual funds performance. The risk stage of mutual funds on the wisdom of asset allocation, it means how invesment manager allocates the funds on th asset classes that exists and how many funds for its distribution.. from the result test will get R value or correlation coefficient that shows the cprrelation between variable determination coefficient R 2 around that shows the stock of mutual funds performance will be influenced the risk stage around 67.5% on the table before (table 4.10) and the rest is influenced by another variable. That is matched with the criteria of decision taking, it can be seen that the value of Sig < Alpha value 0.05 on the table before (table 4.8), so HO is rejected and receive H1, with another word the decision taking shows that the risk stage inluences to the stock of mutual funds performance. The risk stage is the possible stage actual return will not be as hope as because of the factors that is foolowed. The higher of the the return so it will be better of the mutual funds performance. This reslut is suitable with Harry Markowitz explanation that the risk is the difference between the expexted return and its realitation. The higher return, so the higher for its risk stage. 5.2 Recommendations 1) Indonesia goverment must increase the relationship in invesment with the other countries, especially US, Singapore and the other developed countries. This thing will increase the capital inflows to Indonesia. 2) Investor should attend how the movement of US dollar exchange rate and Straits times index that can influence the Indonesia capital market performance, this thing will give the benefit for the investor to determine the ideal position, should buy, sell or save the stock that is had of Indonesia capital market. Then, investor does not have to worry with the inflation movement, becuase inflation will not influence the capital market performance as long as the movement of inflation still low (less than 10% per year). As well as Dow Jones Industrial Average, investor does not have to worry with up and down of the indexs as long as US economic condition is still good, it will not influence the others economic countries. REFERENCES Elviandari Laily, Analisis Variabel-Variabel yang Berpengaruh Pada Kinerja Reksadana Di Indonesia. Jurusan Akuntansi Faultas Ekonomi Universitas Brawijaya. Fahmi, Irham Pengantar Pasar Modal. Alfa Beta. Bandung Ghozali, Imam Ekonometrika Teori: Konsep Dan Aplikasi Dengan SPSS 17. Universitas Diponogoro. Semarang. Hasyi, Penilaian Kinerja Saham: Pendekatan Model Treynor. Jurnal Akuntansi Politeknik Negeri Ujung Pandang. Jogiyanto, Teori Portopolio dan Analisis Investasi, Edisi 3. Yogya. Mardalis, Metode Penelitian Suatu Pendekatan Proposal. PT. Bumi Aksara. Jakarta. Nurcahya, Analisis Pengaruh Kebijakan Alokasi Aset, Pemilihan Saham, dan Tingkat Risiko Terhadap Kinerja Reksadana Saham di Indonesia. 98 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

110 Fakultas Ekonomi Universitas Sebelas Maret. Surakarta. Panjaitan Osin, Analisis Faktor-Faktor Yang Mempengaruhi Kinerja Reksa Dana Saham. Fakultas Ekonomi Universitas Sumatera Utara. Medan Reilly, Frank K. dan Edgar A Norton, Investment. The Dryden Press. Florida. Rusman, Teddy Statistik Penelitian dengan SPSS. Bandar Lampung. Samsul, Mohamad Pasar Modal Dan Manajemen Portofolio. Erlangga. Jakarta. Sari, Analisis Kinerja Manajer Investasi dan Tingkat Risiko Terhadap Kinerja Reksadana Saham. Fakultas Ekonomika dan Bisnis Universitas Diponegoro. Semarang. Simatupang, Mangasa Pengetahuan Praktis Investasi Saham Dan Reksadana. Mitra Wacana Media. Jakarta. Sugiyono Metode Penelitian Bisnis. CV. Alphabet. Bandung Waelan, Kemampuan Memilih Saham dan Market Timing Manajer Investasi Reksadana Saham Di Bursa Efek Indonesia. Jurnal Akuntansi dan Auditing Indonesia, Vol 12, No 2, pp Zalmi Zubir, Manajemen Portofolio. Salemba Empat. Jakarta. 99 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

111 PERSPECTIVE TEXT MINING ANALYTICS INTELEGENT INFORMATION EXTRACTION FOR IMPECT OF INDONESIAN SOCIAL MEDIA 1 Agus Suryana, 2 Sri Ipnuwati Departement of Information Science, STMIK Pringsewu Lampung Indonesia ABSTRACT The development and growth of the Indonesian nationbuilding which consists of various cultures and religions changed the way the public life of the state and the nation of Indonesia. Social media plays an important role in the ideological aspect, the social aspect, cultural aspect, the religious aspects, and aspects of defense and security of the ethnic diversity of the community. Social media is the social interaction among people in which they create, share or exchange information and ideas in virtual communities and networks. While the future of social media is uncertain, current trends suggest that there they will become increasingly widely adopted. Our research focuses on the perspective of the influence of social media and the development of those aspects that affect the people of Indonesia by using text mining and information extraction. Index Terms Social Media,Text Mining Analytics, Information Extraction, Indonesian Social Media. I. INTRODUCTION Indonesia is a country that has the largest internet users in Southeast Asia. Internet in Indonesia today has become a primary requirement for its users, the development of social media is also becoming one of the important factors the amount of internet users in this country. Not only do it just based on the Survey Data Global Web Index, Indonesia is a country that has a social media users are most active in Asia. Indonesia has 79.7 % of active users in the social media beat the Philippines 78 %, Malaysia 72 %, China 67 %. Believe it or not, that the statistical development of the Internet in Indonesia reaches 15 % or 38,191,873 of the total population of Internet users we 251,160,124, Medium internet users using mobile / smartphones reached 14 % of the population. Naturally, our country is tempting targets for smarphone marketing today. Based on statistical indicators of Internet users in Indonesia who we get, the average time it takes users to access the Internet via a PC or laptop information around 5 hours 30 minutes every day, the percentage of Internet users via mobile or smarphone 14 % of the total population. Being the average time spent by Internet users via mobile or smartphones or mobile technology in Indonesia about 2 hours 30 minutes each day. Based on statistical indicators of social media users in Indonesia, we get that, for the percentage of social media users in Indonesia, 15 % of the total population, the average time it takes a user to access social media in Indonesia is about 2 hours 54 minutes each day. Being the percentage of users who access social media through mobile or smarphonenya 74 %. A company used to be able to create a brand image in the minds of the public through advertising alone. Today, advertising is only a part of the brand-building process. Consumers are making more deliberate, considered purchases as opposed to impulse purchases, which are all researched online. That research inevitably includes reviews by experts with blogs, customers with opinions and friends with recommendations. The quantity and polarity of online, written communication about almost any product or service has become statistically significant and sways purchases. Given the trust imbued in friends and experienced customers and the skepticism felt toward promises delivered by vendors, what people say 100 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

112 about you online is becoming more influential than advertising. The leading social media website, Facebook, was reaching 700 million users by mid-2011, while Twitter is coming close at 500 million users by February One of the explanations behind its popularity is the network effect: social media s utility increases when more people use it. The utility comes from the users finding social media more effective and efficient in reaching a larger number of people and the information they provide (Dijk 2006). Social media, however, is particularly fascinating because it differs from traditional media such as newspapers and television in three important ways: (1) it is able to facilitate two-way interaction with a large number of people at the same time; (2) actors are connected with each other directly, without middlemen that control contents; (3) and popular social media websites are free to join, making the cost of usage very low by modern standard. These advantages lead to an important conclusion: social media makes it easy for people to evaluate their counterparts actions and therefore beneficial as an bussineas strategy. Many-to-many communications have given the public enormous influential power. Public opinion is more trusted and respected than the promotional declarations of a company. Text analytics are our only hope for monitoring, comprehending and participating in public discourse. While the variety of technologies may be perplexing, the uses for them are vital for calibrating the success of social media investments, and maintaining good relations and a competitive edge. From the advertiser s perspective, success is measured in the reach required to generate awareness. Text analytics strive to derive meaning from the written word. This is massively complex because human communication is so context dependent. II. LITERATUR REVIEW A. Social Media Social media is the social interaction among people in which they create, share or exchange information and ideas in virtual communities and networks. [1] Andreas Kaplan and Michael Haenlein define social media as "a group of Internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0, and that allow the creation and exchange of user-generated content." [2] Furthermore, social media depend on mobile and web-based technologies to create highly interactive platforms through which individuals and communities share, co-create, discuss, and modify user-generated content. They introduce substantial and pervasive changes to communication between organizations, communities, and individuals. [3] These changes are the focus of the emerging field of technoself studies. Social media differ from traditional or industrial media in many ways, including quality, [4] reach, frequency, usability, immediacy, and permanence. [5] There are many effects that stem from internet usage. According to Nielsen, internet users continue to spend more time with social media sites than any other type of site. At the same time, the total time spent on social media in the U.S. across PC and mobile devices increased by 37 percent to 121 billion minutes in July 2012 compared to 66 billion minutes in July [6] For content contributors, the benefits of participating in social media have gone beyond simply social sharing to building reputation and bringing in career opportunities and monetary income, as discussed in Tang, Gu, and Whinston (2012). [7] Kaplan and Haenlein (2010) define social media as a group of Internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0, and that allow the creation and exchange of user generated content. To be specific, social media has many different types, which includes blogs, social networking sites, communities, video or photo sharing sites, and so on. Antony Mayfield (2008) identified social media from customers (users) perspective: social media is best understood as a group of new kinds of online media. And he believed that main social media types share most or all of the following characteristics: 1. Participation: Social media encourages contributions and feedback from everyone who is 101 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

113 interested. It blurs the line between media and audience. 2. Openness: Social media encourages voting, comments and the sharing of information. They are rarely any barriers to accessing and making use of content. 3. Conversation: Social media is better seen as a twoway conversation or catalyst for it whereas traditional media is about broadcast and a one-way communication from a media broadcasting company to mass audience. 4. Community: Social media allows communities to form quickly and communicate effectively. Because of those characteristics, social media started to be accepted by more and more users and there are always new social media types emerging into the market. Conversations between the people that communities as well as the networks that connect the social web. B. Intelegent Information Extraction Information Extraction is the mapping of natural language texts (such as newswire reports, newspaper and journal articles, electronic mail, World Wide Web pages, any textual database, etc.) into predefined, structured representation, or templates, which, when filled, represent an extract of key information from the original text [14]. The intelegent information extraction concerns entities of interest in the application domain (e.g. companies or persons), or relations between such entities, usually in the form of events in which the entities take part (e.g. company takeovers, management successions etc.). Once extracted, the information can then be stored in databases to be queried, data mined, summarised in natural language, etc. C. Text Mining Text Mining is the discovery by computer of new, previously unknown information, by automatically extracting information from different written resources. A key element is the linking together of the extracted information together to form new facts or new hypotheses to be explored further by more conventional means of experimentation. Marti A. Hearst. 20 This definition is limitative as it refers to by computer, extracting, and written resources. Moreover, the reference to more conventional means of experimentation is vague and does not pertain to a definition (such exploration might not always take place). Text mining attempts to discover new, previously unknown information by applying techniques from information retrieval, natural language processing and data mining. This definition is text-specific ( textmining ) and refers to a non-exhaustive list of techniques from information retrieval, natural language processing and data mining. Data mining is here only a subset of text mining (while we would tend to consider that the opposite is true instead). A computational process whereby text or datasets are crawled by software that recognizes entities, relationships and actions. This definition confirms our assumption that data analysis does not always go deep into content as it refers to crawling and not necessarily extracting 23. Text and Data Mining means to perform extensive automated searches of Publisher s Content, the sorting, parsing, addition or removal of linguistic structures, and the selection and inclusion of content into an index or database for purposes of classification or recognition of relations and associations. D. The Development Of Indonesian Social Media As the rapid development of technology today it is also in line with the development of existing applications. Can even put aside differences of space and time at the same time. In other words, the technology has grown rapidly this allows us to communicate with someone who is way down in the absence of an obstacle. These days the internet is one of the facilities are very effective and efficient when compared with other communication tools. 102 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

114 At this time in 2013 has a lot of the inventor or inventors who create social media applications to achieve the effective and efficient communication among existing Facebook, Twitter, Friendster, Tumblr, MySpace, Plurk, Path and so on. Half of Earth's population uses the application and Indonesia is no exception. With the rise of social media users in the country is not without any problems such as the one infidelity, cybercrime, fraud and so on. The types of people who make use of this app is also different, some are just looking for a friend or a mate, some use it as a place to sell, nothing to make fake accounts, and that is rampant is alay accounts ( read : kids kites ) were always make eye sore to see if the username or the status and usually they make them " live "on Facebook (username alay example : zhiieciinakanchol yankchlallugalu ). Range of applications are very well known social media in this country is up, carrying millions of active users are in this country. Beginning of the 2000s we know applications such as Friendster and 2004 began to go into the Facebook (250 million users worldwide online) that shifts the fame of Friendster with more complete features and annually Facebook itself increasingly in demand because in addition to the features that constantly updates there also provided an online game which in turn make the user more comfortable to be on Facebook. Other applications are popular in Indonesia other than Facebook is Twitter. The existence of other applications lacking a place in the hearts of social networking users in Indonesia. The use of social media should be accompanied with responsibility and awareness of the user so as not to abuse and needed the attention of parents in supervising their children in the minors make use of these applications are increasing more rapidly each year. Many of the users who complain or vent about the problems in the real world even some who tells his personal life and diumbar into cyberspace. Therefore we are writing this short does not stop here because we will continue to observe the changes and developments of existing social media in the future. III. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Intelegent Information is hidden in the large volume of web pages and thus it is necessary to extract useful information from the web content, called Intelegent Information Extraction. A. Intelegent Information Extraction Framework Fig. 1:Intelegent Information Extraction Framework Intelegent Information Extraction (IE) is the process of automatic extraction of structured information such as entities, relationship between entities and attributes describing entities from unstructured texts. Mostly useful information such as names of people, places or organization mentioned in the text is extracted without a proper understanding of the text. Traditional data mining systems assumes that the information to be mined is already in the form of relational database. B. Social Media Research Methods 1) Interviews 1. Surveys Creating a group variable questionnaire on social media data sources. 2. Content analysis Data collection phase of social media by digging Indonesia contents of the material: Facebook Walls Tweets Deliciuous Bookmark Youtube Comments Flickr Comments, Tag Yahoo!Answer question, answers, comments, ratings Blog Articles Wiki Articles 103 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

115 International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN ) Data mining offer change in society, and adherence to a set of ideals Gain knowledge of social media by following the where conformity alre already ady exists, through a normative Data Mining process that includes : thought process. Ideologies are systems of abstract thought as opposed to mere ideation applied to public matters and thus make this concept central to politics. Implicitly every political tendency entails an ideology whether or not it is propounded as an explicit system of whether thought. Pancasila in Indonesia is very important, because Fig.2:Data Mining Process Ideology Indonesia or Pancasila can awaken our spirit to build Indonesia to be better country than another country, provide guidance about the wo world rld and its content and 3) Data from human subjects Conducting interviews and surveys to professionals build spirit to struggle to move against the occupation. such as : Pancasila is the most important in Indonesia because Pancasila is Ideology for Indonesia, where that ideology Social Media User has function for filter influence from Indonesia. Many College Students people who study or work in neighbor country. When Nurses they back to Indonesia, they take along until they back to Patients Indonesia. Because they has a long time to stayed in Librarians neighbors country, because that they familiar with IV. PERSPECTIVE SOCIAL MEDIA INDONESIA western style. That influence had some impacts for Indonesia. The Ideology of Pancasila impact for Indonesia such us, Indonesian used a sexy National Defense and Security clothes, used harsh words, more popular modern dance Indonesian Social Media Political than traditional dance, and so on. Many culture in Indonesia where must we protect and we continue because a lot culture in Indonesia ttaken aken by another Economic Social Culture country. So, we must protect our culture. Fig.3.. Perspective Social Media Indonesia. Indonesia A.. Perspective Intelegent The Ideological Indonesian other country see our country is not good country because much Indonesian used a bad attitude. Maybe relationship Nation An ideology is a set of aims and ideas that directs one's goals, expectations, and actions. An ideology can be thought of as a comprehensive vision, Impact for our relationship with the other country is the as a way of looking at things, as in common sense and several philosophical tendencies, or a set of ideas proposed by the dominant class of a society to all members of this society or a 'received consciousness' or product of socialization. The main purpose behind an ideology is to between Indonesia with th thee other country is not good and so on. So, we must used a good attitude and filter influence from the other country, because influence from the other country is not good for Indonesian where Indonesia have religion and have principles for build good country. countr Proclamation of August 17, 1945 has given birth to the State of RI State Equipment complete PPKI tools a 104 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 220th -21th August 2015

116 hearing on August 18, 1945 and successfully passed the Constitution in section four which consists of opening the 4th paragraph of Pancasila formulation contained therein. Formulation of Pancasila is a legitimate and constitutional right as the basis of the state of RI PPKI passed by the representative of the entire people of Indonesia. Five Principles according to the Jakarta Charter adopted on June 22, 1945 the following formula : 1. Belief in the Islamic obligation to run a followerfollowers. 2. Humanity is just and civilized; 3. Unity of Indonesia; 4. Democracy guided by the wisdom and deliberation amongst representatives; 5. Social justice for all people of Indonesia. Pancasila Indonesia is taken from the culture and traditions of cultural acculturation Indonesia and India (Hindu-Buddhist), Western (Christian), and Arabic (Islamic). According to Sukarno's "Belief" is a native of Indonesia, "Justice Social" inspired by the concept of Messiah. Sukarno was never mentioned or propagandizes "Unity". That's statement It is from Soeharto version pancasila Philosophy. Based on the above explanation is understanding the general philosophy of Pancasila is the result of thinking / thinking deeply of the Indonesian people who are considered, trusted and believed to be something the truest, most just, most wise, best and most suitable for the Indonesian nation B. Perspective Intelegent Of Political Indonesian in Social Media Conclusion of the various terms of Pancasila is a legitimate and constitutional right of Pancasila which is listed in the Preamble UUD 45, it is strengthened by the MPRS decree and Presidential Instruction No. NO.XXI/MPRS/ dated 13 April 1968 which confirms that the pronunciation, writing and formulation of the State of RI Pancasila legitimate and correct which is as stated in the Preamble UUD After that, we can know point of view about ideology of Indonesia or Pancasila from philosophy of pancasila, the original philosophy, base on Soekarno speech, base on Soeharto speech, After we knew philosophy of Indonesia is Pancasila. In fact the definition of philosophy in the philosophy of Pancasila has been modified and interpreted differently by some philosophers Indonesia. Pancasila discourse made since Pancasila philosophy is always updated in accordance with the "demand" of the ruling regime, so that Pancasila is different from time to time. Originality of Pancasila philosophy. Philosophy of Pancasila and developed by Sukarno from 1955 until the end of his rule in1965. At the time of Sukarno always stated that the original philosophy of According to a report published by International Foundation for Electoral Systems, 51% of Indonesians vote for the same party most of the times, compared to 41% who always vote for different parties. This shows that Indonesian voters core and swing divisions are quite even. Indonesians also state that they prefer to vote for a candidate directly (77%) rather than to vote for only a party (17%). In making their selections, however, candidate s personality is still the most important factor (40%), compared to other qualities such as candidate s platform (11%), and party affiliation (5%) (IFES 2010). The variety of voters and their preferences lead candidates to use a variety of strategies, such as policybased strategies to target swing districts, and valence-based strategies to target core districts. In terms of their campaigns, there is also a certain balance between partymobilization strategies and personal-mobilization strategies. What I am interested in this thesis is that as an electoral strategy, whether social media aids party or personal vote mobilization, and whether social media complements valence or policy-based strategies. The main findings of this thesis are social media is a personal-vote mobilization tool, and it complements policy-based strategies. Online social networking media as one of the products enough communication technology used in the election campaign McLuhan concept which states that technology 105 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

117 is a basic concept that the media form the basis for the analysis of this case. From McLuhan's concept down into several theories Seyang linked and can also be a knife in the analysis of numerous cases in politics. The results of the discussion and the conclusion is that the ever-evolving communication technologies lead to influence on politics through campaign activities today is developed through new media and technological deternism visible presence in the community because many people are so dependence on technology functions so life is dominated by technology. As social beings, humans will never be able to live alone and it is also confirmed one aksimoma of communication that "we can not not Communicate" (Ruben, 2006). Is true that people can not not communicate. This communication is communication both verbal and non-verbal. Communication itself is a process of communication of beam from the sender to the receiver through the media. Departing from the axioms of this one, the technology is growing so fast without us knowing it fully. Over time, the rapidly evolving technology and the emergence of so many rmenimbulkan new media that have an impact on the social life of the community, "... New media technologies impact our life culture by offering new lifestyles, creating new jobs and eliminating others, demanding regulations and presenting unique new social issues... "(Straubhaar, 2012) It is improper for the menjadai forgotten is that the base is": the language, Acronyms, and discussions in communications technology (CT) are based on the fundamental ideas that can be Considered systems. Understanding the fundamental Reviews These systems allows knowledge of various information technologies to be added, brick by brick, to build on understanding of current and developing technologies. One of the primary systems in CT is signaling. "(Jones, 2009) From the notion of fundamental importance and that social media was born. Like Facebook, MySpace, Linked In or Twitter with nearly millions of people of the world have joined together in a variety of the many types of social media set. Any kind of social media such as Facebook, MySpace and others have each different from one another. (Grant, 2010) With so many types and users on every social media now makes many of them developing and the impact it senggaja utilizing social media to achieve the goals to be achieved in almost all aspects of life. (Mirabito, 2004) One of the areas are pretty much very dependent on communication technology is the field of politics. Because in this political field of political communication is very important in politics. One form of political activity that is known to the wider community is a lot of political campaigns. In this case, the campaign itself is divided into several categories such as legislative campaigns, presidential campaigns and election campaigns in the head area etc. What is also very interesting to observe is a shift form dilakukanoleh political campaigns of candidates in the campaign. We knew before berkembanganya communication technology is still very much in the encounter how the campaign by putting up large banners, banners - banners seseluruh road, billboard posters also meet throughout the city that actually quite so much to have both positive and negative impact on it. Now, as time goes by, and the development of communication technologies is also rapid, as described earlier about the emergence of new media to make a shift in the campaign. Many who use the new media in a campaign to attract as many times and to vote in elections. In the near future, Indonesia will celebrate one of the bigest democratic party for the new 2014 election for the next term. From some of the participants of the election has started doing way to entice the masses and memlihi election. A variety of ways ranging from the old ways like the use of billboards, posters also deploy various banners. It comes in various television shows with a variety of existing imaging was also performed by all couples cagub cawagub. Some participants of the election campaign team was also utilizing social media as a means to attract the attention of the masses. Almost all social media there are also utilized one of which is a forum for social networking and online media. Social media has greatly affected the lives of men. (Liu, 2007) including in the political field is also affected by the existence of social media. In the political field itself in which there are also political communication that the 106 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

118 public can be affected to choose a candidate to get a power. B. Perspectivee Intelegent Social Culture Indonesia's telecommunication industry has grown very remarkable since 2000 the number of cellular subscribers in Indonesia has reached 236 million subscribers by the end of That is to say the market penetrationn has reached 99% of the total population in 2010 of 237 million Indonesian population despite the high number of accumulated cellular subscribers this is due to theree are some customers who subscribe to more than one operator. The operators were competing to offer various services to access the Internet either via mobile phone or using a modem. With the price of internet access via mobile technologies are getting cheaper resulting in nearly 40% of mobile subscribers have access to the internet via their mobile phone which on average they access social media networks like facebook and twitter. Based on data from insidefaceboo ok.com in September 2010 that Indonesia has become the 3rd largest user in the world under the USA and the UK with 27.8 million users. b. c. d. Promoting social cohesion and political processes through assimilation with the isolated community of common community / forward. Improving the way and quality of public services delivery government. Stimulating population. the equilibrium distribution of e. Eliminating the social and economic gap between the information rich and the information poor. From the above discussion we can seee that so many positive effects on the progress of the technological advances of ICT on economic issues, increased knowledge and improved government service or other business institutions to the community. But technological progress is like a double-edged sword, of which there are negative aspectss arising when people are not able to filter and judicious in the use of the technology it self.. Is social media? According to Wikipedia, social media is an online media where userss can easily participate, share and create contents include blogs, social networks or social networks, wikis, forums and virtual worlds. Blogs, social networking and wikis may be a form of social media that is most commonly used by people around the world. Fig.4.Facebook Top 10 Growth Markets. The government has an active role to improve the use of the Internet to remote rural areas through the project Universal Service Obligation (USO). The purpose of the project Universal Service Obligation (USO) is not solely to provide telecommunications facilities to a person or group of people, but is to : a. Increase productivity and economicc growth. In Indonesia, the development of social media is rapidly increasing. This development is supported with easy access to the internet via mobile phones. Now to access facebook or twitter for example, can be done anywhere and at any time simply by using a mobile phone So quickly people can access social media resulted in a major phenomenon of the flow of information not only in developed countries but also in Indonesia. Because the speed of social media is also starting to look obviate the conventional mass media in spreading news. In fact, many social and political changes caused by the influence of social media networks. Internet marketing methods used by Barack Obama to win the election in the United States is an examplee of the influence of social 107 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

119 media networks that can affect the preferences of a voter to vote in the presidential candidate superpower. The most obvious example of the effectiveness of the Internet in Indonesia in community issues is a 'liberation movement' seed-chandra on facebook which is a key strategic victory of the people face the cruel politics of law enforcement officers. After the liberation of the internet back helps Pritchard of pressure arrogant institution assisted law enforcement officers.. But besides that, the other negative side is rioting in London England recently where the riots were driven through social media networks. So it is no exaggeration to say the internet is a bastion of democracy. As a weapon of public, social media is a two-bladed sword. In the hands of a good person, he brings improved. In the hands of a bad person, he supported the crime. Fortunately for us that people are far more good than bad people.. Another negative impact of the social aspect is the increasing individuality of the people of Indonesia who frequently interact through social media networks. Individuality here is they do not really care about the people who are around, but more busy with the handsets they hold from chat, statuss updates on facebook or twitter ngetweet. So some say that social media networks are connecting people but disconneted family. And as we all know that the people of Indonesia have a tremendous respect for the culture of the meaning of family. With the high usage of social network media in the age range years based on data from inside facebook where users in the age range up to 70% of total users in Indonesia. So it becomes fear the future, the younger generation be the generation that is individualistic and forget the values of their ancestors that upholds the nature of family and togethernesss in social life. Fig.5.Facebook Audience Demographics Indonesia To reduce the negative influence of networks necessary to take a comprehensive of all stakeholders ranging from institutions, government and providers operators the Internet itself. social media family, educational and network. From the family of each parent should always have sufficient knowledge about the internet and they can teach their children about the negative impacts of the internet. Besides, they also have to exercise control of their children, especially in terms of access to any web site on the internet and also with whom they befriend virtual world. Parents must actively teach the values of togetherness and kinship.. In terms of educational institutions should be taught how to use the internet to their students healthy. So the students before using the internet and access social media network has been equipped with adequatee knowledge to counteract the negative effects that may arise. And also conduct activities that increase the togetherness like the scouts. From the government side should be a regulator for content and information circulating in the social media network. The positive things that have been tried by the government is blocking access to porn sites that could damage the morale of the nation Indonesia.. In terms of telecommunications service providers must actively assist the government to block access to content that could damage the morale of the people, especially the younger generation. 108 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

120 C. Perspective Intelegent Economic There was a time when the construction in Indonesia looks so left in the middle of a rapidly growing trend in other Asian countries. But it did not take long for Indonesia to shine again and go beyond the countries in Asia are growing most rapidly, particularly India and China. Today, practitioners of marketing, communications, business and politics in the world are increasingly eyeing Indonesia as the latest Asian tiger. Economic growth plays an important role in encouraging the development of this country. Since the economic crisis in 1997, Indonesia's economy continues to grow rapidly with the growth of gross domestic product (gross domestic product - GDP) figures were consistently reaching 6-7% annually over the last 3 years. From the eyes of economists, this growth means huge potential that has attracted foreign investors to take advantage of the Indonesian consumer market is also growing rapidly. Not only being the 3rd most populous country in Asia after China and India, Indonesia also has the highest birth rate of all three, which makes the consumer market in Indonesia will continue to grow in the coming years.. From the eyes of the public, the story of Indonesia may sound pretty familiar: a state with a dense population will be middle class segments more shine and made it through the global financial crisis. A country that is now offering millions the opportunity to enter a market of consumers who continue to hunt for brands that they see in the movies, hear music and discuss online. But the online discussion is what distinguishes the Indonesian market with China and India (and even other countries throughout the world). When talking about engaging online, Indonesia has created a new platform.. Indonesia has its own uniqueness in the online world. Currently 80% of Internet users, or commonly called by netizens, active in a wide variety of social media, the internet connection in Indonesia is still in the lowest order in the region with a percentage of 22.4% according to Marketplus. But on the other hand, Indonesia is now the third largest market for Facebook after the United States and India, and the fifth largest for Twitter. This may be driven by the fact that almost half of Indonesia's population under the age of 30. Interestingly, according, jakartaupdates.com site, nearly one-third of the global trending topic on Twitter came from Indonesia in Given the size and growth of Indonesia's young demographic, the brand owner must work extra to attract the attention of consumers in Indonesia. They must be quick and precise in taking steps to benefit from the intensity and the willingness of this consumer group. They now have to promote two-way communication to get the attention of consumers in this unique market.. Some companies have begun to take strategic steps to capture the opportunities in social media. One example is a fast food restaurant from the United States. After using a strategy that focuses on the use of social media to increase brand awareness and disseminate updates its promotional activities, the company managed to grab the attention of consumers in Indonesia, which later led to loyalty and publicity outside of the online realm. By using Twitter to directly reach its target audience is young consumers, the brand managed to get continuous coverage in social media and traditional media in a large national scale. The success of this brand surpassed its competitors as the top choice of consumers and be an accurate example of how effective use of social media for business practices in Indonesia.. It can also be a trigger to change the low level of internet penetration of an obstacle into an opportunity to tap into a huge market that contains more than 250 million people and relatively not been touched. Internet penetration rate is low does not mean the decline. The penetration rate continues to rise consistently from 17.5% in 2010 to 22% last year, this matter is supported by the increase in mobile web usage is also becoming consistent. Now, the majority of mobile phones are sold in Indonesia can access the sites on the internet, and with telecommunications services very affordable (less than $ 109 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

121 12 a month for unlimited data package), it is not likely that Indonesia will possess a number of netizens largest in Southeast Asia. Plus an increase by 61% annually in smartphone shipments, growth rate internet access in Indonesia will show double-digit growth this year. And not something that is too early to forecast that mobile marketing will be a vital medium for reaching consumers in Indonesia. Although today it is still in its early stages, but is expected to be a sharp increase in mobile advertising and marketing as well as e-commerce as a result of this online trend. Therefore, it is clear that there is a vast opportunity for growth in this field... Audience in Indonesia is very unique and they are hoping to get the treatment and services are unique as well. Many companies are already aware of this fact and try to achieve success by creating local sites as well as on various social media profiles specifically designed specifically for the Indonesian market. What do these companies have to prove is that the direct digital communication between the consumer at any time with them has been the key to establish a strong online community and gain the loyalty of consumers in Indonesia. In other words, this is a shift of only spreading a message to consumers becoming interactive communication with the fans. Localization online will continue to be a trend that is in control. Companies that benefit most from these trends is that they managed to establish consistent communication with their audience.. Indonesia has slowly established itself as a global hub of social media. As the market is just starting to reach maturity, it gives the challenges and opportunities for companies and business practitioners to take part in it. Businesses, whether it be in the beginner level as well as leading brands, which successfully reap the benefits of social media obsession Indonesia to be a great success. While they were not informed only be left with many questions. D. Perspective Intelegent National Defense and Security After the end of the cold war (cold war) in 1989 marked the collapse of the Berlin Wall, making the United States became the sole superpower the world coupled with the development of science and technology and invested in the form of computer-based technologies have spurred the United States to transform the information technologybased change and then known as IRMA it (Information Technology Revolution in Military).1 this change also resulted in threats faced by a nation transformed from a threat that is for traditional (conventional) uncconvensional threat or Asymmetric Warfare. The threat of war began to change both the shape and the ways used. Entering 1990, the war did not use the traditional way, but using a new method that is better organized, carried out by non-state actors and not tied to place and time used. War is called "Global War on Terror". The pattern of fighting and strategy used has changed and shifted toward ways asymmetric warfare (Asymmetric Warfare). "Asymmetric Warfare is violent action undertaken by the" have-nots "against the" haves "have-nots whereby the, be thet state or sub-state actors, seek to generate profound effects-at all levels or warfare (however defined), from the tactical to the strategic-by Employing Reviews their own specific advantages relative against the vulnerabilities of much stronger opponents The threat in the era of globalization and information technology not only to the military, but non-state actors are the main actors in performing any action threat. The threat of non-state actors is often done today is the threat of terror (terrorism), an armed separatist movement (insurgency), and threats in cyberspace (cyber crime). The threat of non-conventional or asymmetric warfare such as environmental degradation, human rights abuses, smuggling, sea property theft, illegal immigration, ethnic conflict and communal conflicts, poverty, hunger, and others that can destabilize national security and sovereignty. In that sense, the state is obliged to nullify all the sources of threats that conventional or nonconventional for every citizen. Thus, Indonesia needs to make a national defense system that integrates with all 110 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

122 components from Sabang to Merauke.. The development of social media or social media marked a very high amount of use of blogs, social networks (Facebook, Twitter, WorldApp, Line, WeChat), and a forum for communication in cyberspace makes humans can communicate to exchange information regardless of time and space. The presence of social networking among people has become an extraordinary phenomenon and become part of the lifestyle even become a necessity in society, whether old or young. These practices will bring positive and negative effects of public life in a country, the positive impact of technological advances on the internet can be is that the information can be obtained quickly and easily delivered, resulting in faster communications implemented and accepted by all personnel, while negative impacts that can be caused by these developments is the risk of spreading information that is not on target, may result in leakage of confidential information that may harm themselves, other people, or other groups. On the other hand, the negative things caused by the development of Internet technology is many criminal acts in cyberspace or better known as cyber crime. Crime cyber crime generally refers to criminal activity with a computer or computer network as its main element, the term is also used for traditional criminal activity where a computer or computer network used to facilitate or enable the crimes occurred. Internet crime (cybercrime) are often performed include: carding, cracking, joy computing, hacking, The Trojan horse, leakage of data, the data diddling, software piracy, cyber espionage, forgery of data, unauthorized access to computer and service, and others. Crimes committed in the era of globalization and information technology done by actors covert (non-state actors) with different aims and objectives that conflict with national objectives as stated in the fourth paragraph of the Preamble of the 1945 Constitution, namely: "Later than that to form a government Indonesian state to protect the people of Indonesia and the country of Indonesia, to promote the general welfare;,, the intellectual life of the nation, and participate in the establishment of world order based on freedom and social justice. "the threat posed by non-state actors can threaten the stability of and national security that needs special attention in the deal according to the level and pattern of threats made. Facing the threat of new patterns and shapes as in the era of globalization and information technology today, can not be done simply by relying on the force of arms (hardpower), but the use of diplomacy or means other approaches (softpower) or the incorporation of both (SmartPower) more effective in handling. As the Chinese philosopher Sun Tsu in his book On War says: "Getting a hundred victories of a hundred battles is not unusual, but can defeat the enemy without fighting is incredible" National defense system now needs to be developed by utilizing the entire defense components are integrated in a network of the national defense system of the 21st century. This system is called Network Centric Warfare Indonesia (NCWI) of the 21st century. NCWI an amalgamation of all components of the national defense system and then integrated in a system of information technology, where the military as the holder of command and control in performing every operation homeland security and sovereignty. NCWI to be formed later on the development of C4ISR (Command, Control, Communication, Computer, Intellegence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance) that already exist. An integrated defense system of the universe by using information technology and sensing equipment and satellite radar crate. Sensing Technology (RADAR / Radio Detection And Ranging) is useful for detecting, measuring distances, and create folder objects such as aircraft, motor vehicles and information other. In military use, the satellite is used to help convey important information with defense and security systems both nationally and internationally. V. FUTURE RESEARCH The development of social media is growing, it is interesting to study further research focus on how to create a social media strategy implementation and 111 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

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125 OPPORTUNITIES & CHALLENGES FOR INDUSTRIES, WORKERS, AND GOVERNMENT OF INDONESIA IN THE ASEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY IMPLEMENTATION Indra Budi Sumantoro Darmajaya Institute of Business & IT Bandar Lampung ABSTRACT The ASEAN Economic Community (MEA) era has arrived, but the echo is still not being a major concern, both for the majority of community nor the government of Indonesia. Things are more political noise and feels lumpy always happened all the time, rather than discuss anything that has to be prepared and conducted in the MEA era. This paper would like to remind again community and government to do preparation in the era of MEA. This paper is in principle underlines that the opportunities and challenges for the industries, workers, and government, as the tripartite, is very important to be used as a foundation in drawing up action plans to face the era of MEA. KEY WORDS: Opportunities, Challenges, Industries, Workers, and Government. 1. Introduction Along with the signing of the ASEAN Economic Community Blue Print by 10 heads of States of ASEAN members, Indonesia as one of the countries that signed this document, claimed to be committed to running what is mandated by the blueprints. In point 8 of chapter II of the blueprint as intended, there are 4 characteristics that will be reached by the ten ASEAN member countries, namely the single market and production base, the high economic competitiveness, the area with equitable economic development, and fully integrated with the global economy. Each of these characteristics has the components described in brief as follows: A. Single market and production base 1. The Free Flow of Goods The free flow of goods is one of the primary means of achieving a single market and production base. Single market for goods (and services) will also facilitate the development of a production network in the region and increase the capacity of ASEAN as a global production centre or as part of the global supply chain. The pillars as the basis to perform actions in the free-flow of goods are as follows: a. The Elimination of Tariffs; b. Removal of Non Tariff Barriers; c. Provisions of the Origin of the Goods; d. Facilitation of Trade; e. The Integration of Customs; f. The ASEAN Single Window; g. Standards and Technical Barriers to trade. 2. The Free Flow of Services The free flow of services sector is one of the important elements in realizing the ASEAN economic community, in which there are no barriers to ASEAN services suppliers in the provision of services in a cross-country in the region, according to the domestic rules in each Member State. Service sector liberalization negotiated in several rounds of negotiations, particularly through the ASEAN Coordinating Committee on Service (CCS). Negotiations 114 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

126 for certain sectors such as financial services and transportation of the country shall be executed through the Ministry. In the service sector, liberalization is not allowed to pull back the commitment and flexibility which was agreed by all ASEAN member countries. In facilitating the free flow of services sector in 2015, ASEAN is also preparing the recognition of qualifications of professionals, with the goal of facilitating its movement in the region. For the financial sector, efforts to liberalize financial services sector should allow the Member States to ensure the development of the financial sector and maintaining financial stability as well as economic socialization. 3. The Free Flow of Investment The grammar rules of a free and open investment is the key to enhance ASEAN'S competitiveness in attracting foreign direct capital in planting (Foreign Direct Investment/FDI) including intra-asean investment. The inflow of new investment and increased investment that has been there (reinvestments) will encourage and ensure the economic development of ASEAN. The pillars are the basis to perform actions in the free-flow of investment is as follows: a. Protection of Investment; b. Facilities and cooperation; c. Promotion and Awareness. 4. A Freer Flow of Capital The pillars are the basis to perform actions within a freer capital flow is as follows: a. Strengthen the development and integration of ASEAN capital markets; and b. Allow higher capital mobility. 5. Free Flow of Skilled Workforce The pillars are the basis to perform actions in the free flow of skilled workforce is as follows: a. Allow managed mobility and facilitate the entry of labour involved in the trade of goods, services and investment in accordance with the regulations applicable in the country of the recipient b. In order to facilitate the free flow of trade services (not later than in 2015), the ASEAN also seeks harmonization and standardization, in order to facilitate the movement of labour in the region. 6. Integration of Sector priorities and Cooperation in the Fields of Food, Agriculture, and Forestry As many as twelve economic priority sectors have been identified to speed up economic integration. Some Member States have played a role as a coordinator for each sector. The priority integration sectors each have a road map that combines specific sector initiatives with broader sector initiatives in cross-cutting policy such as trade facilities. The pillars are the basis to perform actions within a freer capital flow is as follows: a. Enhance cooperation, technology transfer and joint approaches among countries members of ASEAN with regional organizations and international as well as the private sector. b. Encourage cooperation ASEAN agricultural cooperatives as a means to empower and enhance market access for agricultural products, building network mechanisms linking agricultural cooperatives, and meet the goal of agricultural cooperatives to provide benefits for the farmers in the region. B. The High Competitive Area of Economy 1. Business Competition Policy The main objective of competition policy effort is reinforcing a culture of healthy competition. The Institute and legislation related to competition policy effort has 115 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

127 recently been formed in some ASEAN countries. At this time there is not yet an official body for ASEAN cooperation CPL (Competition Policy Law) that serves as a network for business competition agencies or entities related to someone of experience and institutional norms regarding CPL. 2. Consumer Protection The establishment of an economic area with integrated approaches on society has made ASEAN matter that consumers cannot be excluded in the process of integration. Consumer protection efforts continue to be developed in line with the economic policies is recommended. 3. Intellectual Property (IP or HKI) In principle, copyright/ip policy can become a strong driving force for (a) cultural, intellectual Creativity and art as well as commercial aspects; (b) the implementation and the use of advanced technology efficiently; and (c) the learning process in order to achieve expected balanced performance. Copyright/IP policy can also foster a culture of creativity and innovation, as well as ensure access and benefits for all stakeholders equally, both on traditional and HKI. Furthermore, the copyright/ip policy can affect the volume and quality of investment and foreign trade, as well as the transfer of advanced technology. Creativity HKI is a major factor that determines the value of local and external competitiveness. 4. Infrastructure Development Cooperation on transport, the transport network is efficient, safe and integrated in the ASEAN is very important to realize the potential of the ASEAN free trade area is in full, and enhance the attractiveness of ASEAN as a region as a single tourist destination, production and investment, as well as narrowing the gap of development. ASEAN transport also has significance for connecting the neighbour countries in the North-East and South Asia. 5. Taxation Action is taken in this pillar is completing bilateral agreements on double taxation avoidance between ASEAN member countries in 2010, if possible. 6. E-commerce Action is taken in this pillar is drawing up policies and legal infrastructure in the area of e-commerce and through the implementation of the e-asean framework agreement and is based on the common frame of reference. C. Areas with equal economic development 1. The Development of SMES ASEAN policy blueprint for SME development (APBSD) outlines a framework for SME development in ASEAN. APBSD consists of 31 strategic work program, policy measures, and the expected output. 2. ASEAN Integration Initiative Initiative for ASEAN Integration (IAI) launched in November 2000 provides direction and sharpen the focus of the joint efforts to narrow the gap of development, not only in ASEAN but also between ASEAN and other parts of the world. At the moment, IAI covering the areas of priority, namely 32, HR, ICT infrastructure, capacity building for economic integration of the region's climate, energy, investment, tourism, poverty alleviation and the improvement of quality of life. D. Fully integrated with the Global economy 1. An integrated approach towards External economic relations ASEAN should maintain centrality of ASEAN in external economic relations, including, but not limited to, 116 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

128 negotiation of free trade agreements (FTAS) and comprehensive economic partnership (CEP). 2. Increased Participation in Global Supply Chain ASEAN should also increase participation in the global supply chain through: a. Continue the application of best practices and international standards in the field of production and distribution, if possible. b. Develop policy packages help comprehensive techniques for ASEAN member countries who has not yet developed to enhance the skills and productivity in the industry so that it can increase its participation in various global and regional integration initiatives. In his paper, Baskoro analyzes the opportunities, challenges, and risks for Indonesia in general with the ASEAN Economic Community (MEA) as described below: For Indonesia itself, MEA will be a good opportunity because of trade barriers will likely diminish even be nonexistent. It will have an impact on increasing the export that will eventually increase the GDP of Indonesia. On the other hand, emerging new challenges for Indonesia in the form of its homogeneity issues traded commodities, e.g. for agricultural commodities, rubber, wood products, textiles and electronic goods (Santoso, 2008). In this case the competition risk would arise with many imported goods that will flow in large quantities to Indonesia which would threaten local industries in competing with foreign products in a much higher quality. This will ultimately increase the deficit of trade balance for Indonesia itself. On the investment side, these conditions can create a climate that supports the entry of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) that can stimuli the economic growth through the development of technology, job creation, the development of human resources (human capital) and easier access to world markets. However, the condition can bring up the exploitation risk. Indonesia still has a less binding regulation level so that it can give rise to acts of exploitation on a large scale against the availability of natural resources by foreign companies coming into Indonesia as a country that has abundant natural resources in comparison to other countries. No possibility of exploitation also performed foreign companies could damage ecosystems in Indonesia, while the regulation of investments in Indonesia have not been strong enough to maintain natural conditions including availability of natural resources is contained. From the aspect of employment, there is a big chance for job seekers because it can be widely available employment opportunities with a variety of needs for a wide range of expertise. In addition, access to go out of the country in order to find a job even easier, could be without any obstacles. MEA also became a great opportunity for the entrepreneur to find the best worker in accordance with the desired criteria. In this case could bring the risk of employment for Indonesia. Seen from the side of education and productivity of Indonesia still compete with labour that came from Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand as well as the Foundation of the industry for Indonesia itself makes Indonesia ranks fourth in ASEAN (Republika Online, 2013). With the presence of this MEA era, Indonesia has the opportunity to take advantage of economies of scale advantages within the country as a base for a profit. However, Indonesia still has a lot of challenges and risks that will arise when the MEA has been implemented. Therefore, the risk professional is expected to be more sensitive to the fluctuations will occur in order to anticipate the risks-risk appropriately. In addition, a beautiful collaboration between State authorities and the perpetrators of the effort required, infrastructure both physical and social (law and policy) needs to be addressed, 117 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

129 as well as the need for improved skills and competitiveness of the workforce and companies in Indonesia. Indonesia should not just be a spectator in his own country by From the results of analysis of Baskoro above, need to be addressed in more detail about the opportunities and challenges of the industrial aspect of Indonesia, employment policies, and in the face of the era of the MEA. The most important things that need to be discussed further associated with these three aspects are what are the opportunities and challenges for Industries, labour, and Government in the face of the era of the MEA. These are discussed in the following chapter. 2. The Opportunities & Challenges for the Industries, Workers, and Government The Industrial Opportunities Sector ) producer in the world after Thailand. There are many industries that cultivate rubber for tires and have managed to export to various countries. Automotive (number Indonesia this year of labor and became ASEAN's ) largest automotive market. These opportunities in automotive principals to open factories in Indonesia. This time slowly has started exporting products. Challenges movement of the price of rubber in the world market. If the rubber price is corrected, the performance of the rubber industry fell, while export value plunged. The industry is growing well. The challenge is how this industry maintain growth and become the number one automotive production base in ASEAN beat Thailand. A. Industries Based on the results of the analysis presented in the Food & drink (the amount of labor and ) Indonesia has some of the food and beverage industry This industry must compete with food produced by other KONTAN Daily Business & Investment, Monday 7 July 2063 as quoted by Krisna and Utami, here are the opportunities and challenges for industries in facing the era of MEA: that has already mastered the domestic market and also export to different countries, as countries in ASEAN. The challenge of making food and drink that could be accepted by the tastes The Industrial Sector Opportunities Challenges done by Indofood Group and Mayora Group. of local communities. The industry should also be alert with Metal, iron and steel (number of labor This industry relied upon Indonesia to Raw material for industrial production health standards in other countries & ) expand the market in ASEAN. Quality steel production, metal iron, and Indonesia is better than other ASEAN countries. was partly still imported. Not only that, the industry is also still has to compete with imported products finished goods from other countries. Footwear and footwear (number of labor and ) Indonesia could expand ASEAN market. The reason for this is only Indonesia which has a casual and sport shoes factory. No other ASEAN Indonesia currently relies on a sports shoe accessories from China by 50%. While the import duty gear is still high. Rubber (the amount of labor and Indonesia is the second largest rubber The industry is very sensitive with the countries which produce both 118 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

130 The Industrial Sector Opportunities Challenges The Industrial Sector Opportunities Challenges simultaneously. use ceramics sales Textiles and Textile Indonesia could The industry is facing results. Products (the amount become exporters of difficulties in recent Basic Chemistry (the Indonesia had a basic Raw material for of labor textile and textile years. The amount amount of labor chemical company industrial production and ) products in the world keeps shrinking and ) that is integrated from is still part of the and Southeast Asia. There are many upstream to import. The Because the article is challenges this downstream. The weakening of the the primary human industry, start the basic chemistry of the value of the rupiah needs. engine is old, labor interior needs also overloads the wage rise, the continue to grow production expenses increase in electricity along with the needs for the cost of raw rates, until a flood of of other industries materials. imported products. that use basic Fertilizer (no data on the amount of labor) Became one of the chain's national food This industry is heavily dependent on chemical raw materials. security cycle. raw materials with Cement (there is no Cement industry has The inclusion of a Fertilizers help gas. The issue, in the data on the amount of a huge market, along number of improve agricultural domestic gas supply labor) with the growth of conglomeration in the productivity that is frequently the property and industry, enliven pushes the national interrupted. If gas various infrastructure competition cement food security. So that went well, fertilizer projects in and industry. Electricity countries do not need from Indonesia outside the country. tariff increase to import food. favored in other burdens the industry. countries primarily in Asia. The above table shows generally that: Ceramics (no data the number of labor) The domestic market is still very large, tiled along with the growth of residential properties and This industry had a challenge in the form of the supply of raw materials in the form of natural gas that is 1. The industry with the largest number of labour (labour intensive) is a textile and textile products, followed by food and beverage industry. 2. On both the industry, Indonesia has a great opportunity projects in Indonesia. Most of the ceramic manufacturers also have been exporting their products. not fixed. Gas is often preferred for export rather than to meet the needs in the country. The growth as the exporter based on this experience and the importance of both the industry in meeting the basic needs for many people. 3. As for the challenge on the textile industry and textile of the industry is also vulnerable to exchange rate turmoil with the rupiah, because natural gas is products are the amount that continues to shrink due to old machine, labour wage rise, the increase in electricity rates, until a flood of imported products. 4. While challenges in the food and beverage industry is purchased using us dollars, while most on the level of competition, adaptation to the tastes of local communities, and health standards in other countries. 119 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

131 B. Workers Based on the Wuryandani s paper in the month of September 2014, following are the challenges and opportunities for the workforce: From the aspect of employment, there is a big chance for job seekers because it will be available with different employment needs of the diverse expertise. In addition, access to go abroad in order to find a job is easier even likely with no particular barriers. MEA also became a great opportunity for the entrepreneur to find the best worker in accordance with the desired criteria. On the contrary, such a situation also gave rise to a risk of employment for Indonesia. Seen from the side of education and productivity of Indonesia still compete with Labour that came from Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand. Report of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the International Labour Organization (ILO), MEA can create 14 million additional jobs or increase 41 per cent in 2015 because of the increasingly free movement of skilled labour. Regional economic growth can also be increased 7 percent. Indonesia, however, the possibility of not much benefited. New employment estimates reached only 1.9 million or 1.3 per cent of total workers. While the ILO estimates the demand for middle-class work force will increase 22 percent or 38 million and a low level of labour increased by 24 percent or 12 million. According to the study, about half of the workforce highly skilled foreseen will work in Indonesia. Unfortunately, most of the jobs it will be contested by candidates who are less trained workers and minimal education. As a result, it will reduce the skills gap of productivity and competitiveness of Indonesia. As for some of the fundamental issues still faced by Indonesia in order to face the MEA First, there are still high numbers of unemployment disguised (disguised unemployment). Second, the low numbers of new entrepreneurs to accelerate the expansion of employment opportunities. Third, workers of Indonesia are dominated by workers not educated so that their productivity is low. Fourth, the growing number of unemployed educated Workforce, a result of the discrepancy between college graduates with the needs of the labour market. Fifth, labour productivity imbalances between sectors of the economy. Sixth, the informal sector dominates the field of work, where this sector has not been optimal attention from the Government. Seventh, unemployment in Indonesia is the highest in unemployment from 10 ASEAN member countries, including the unpreparedness of skilled Labour in the face of MEA Eighth, the demands of workers have against the minimum wage, labour contract, employment and social security. Ninth, the labour issue Indonesia (TKI) that many are scattered abroad. Indonesia still has enough time to renegotiate about key points agreed to give you an advantage in the position of Indonesia. The pattern or model which has been implemented by the Member States of the European Economic Community (EEC) should not be applied on the agreement MEA. Most points at MEE must be avoided on MEA so MEA should be more guarantees the delivery of the decision to each of the Member States. In this context the importance of Indonesia can play a role. Socialization of government must also be done in the context of preparation MEA. The socialization is not simply about how to penetrate the ASEAN market but much more important is how the national entrepreneurs can survive in the local market amid the magnitude of trade in services from ASEAN, which certainly will involve a workforce HR expert and skilled every sector will require coordination and cross-sector consolidation. In line with that, the required control of the acceleration of infrastructure development so that Indonesia could take the positive benefits of the ASEAN community. A new era 120 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

132 of ASEAN community is certainly also sparked intense rivalry between regions in the future as a result of the increased trade and capital flows. Nevertheless, this liberalization also assessed potentially sharpening inequality. Most employment opportunities will be touched on trade, construction, transportation, and the informal workings filled more power men rather than women. The level of displacement of workers of low to medium-sized skilled will also be increased. It thus requires increased protection efforts. Therefore, the government needs to recognize the importance of the regulation of the placement of foreign workers better though jobs requiring low skills are still widely available. Indonesia benefited on the chemical sector, construction, trade, and transportation. But the third sector may require high skills. Therefore, various HR improvement program can be implemented in cooperation between the government, private sector, universities and communities to prepare the work force of high skilled. Moreover, it can also be done through the introduction of science and technology, because of the impact brought about by the technology in the era of globalization, in particular information and communication technologies, is very broad. This technology can eliminate the geographical limits on the level of the country or the world. With the economy in the aspect of science and technology, human resources of Indonesia will increase along with the process of knowledge of the technology. So indirectly will also affects the improvement of economy in Indonesia. In addition to what has been described above, the authors provide additional as follows: 1. The total minimum labour costs consisting of minimum wages and employers contributions on social security programs as well as the allocation of severance payments that tend to experience increased from year by year, must be accompanied by increased productivity. 2. Each region has different total minimum labour costs depending on the level of inflation. This is where industry peers can choose which area ratio a comparison between the minimum labour costs with the best productivity among others. 3. In the era of MEA, industries can choose the best ratio that compares total minimum labour costs with the labour productivity levels between ASEAN member countries. 4. It is this ratio ASEAN member countries are expected to compete in providing human resources effectively and efficiently. C. Government Referring to the Wangke s study in May 2014, the following below is an analysis of what should be done by the government in facing the era of MEA: In order to welcome the ASEAN free trade era in twelve sectors agreed, Indonesia has given rise to important regulatory Act No. 7 Year 2014 concerning trading that has been introduced to the public as one of Indonesia's strategy of stemming the flood of imported products entry into Indonesia. This Act regulates general provisions about licenses for businessmen who are involved in the activities of trade in order to use the language of Indonesia in the labelling, and the increased use of domestic products. Through this Act the government are required to control the availability of the material basic necessities for the entire territory of Indonesia. Then determine the prohibition or limitation of the goods and services for the national interest such as to protect national security. It feels important when considering trade conditions that Indonesia has not been optimally exploit the market potential of ASEAN. In period January August 2013 for example, Indonesia's exports to the ASEAN market recently reached 23% of the total value of exports. This is among other things because the export destination of Indonesia is still focused on traditional markets such as the 121 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

133 United States, China and Japan. ASEAN tariff preference level utilization used exporter Indonesia for the ASEAN market penetration recently reached 34.4%. Indonesia's ranking according to the global competitiveness index is still at 38 th position from 148 countries. While Singapore ranked Malaysia at position 2, to 24, Thailand at position 37, 70 th for Viet Nam, and the Philippines at position 59. Tight competition in the ASEAN market further away can be listened from the Indonesia trade performance in Until March 2014, Indonesia trade surplus deals of up to million US dollars. Surplus obtained from the difference between the export values reached billion with imports billion US dollars. The March surplus was the second month of February amounted to million US dollars. Nevertheless, Indonesia needs to give special attention to the trade deals with Thailand which will be jointly involved in MEA In March 2014, Indonesia suffered a deficit with Thailand to billion US dollars. Furthermore, Indonesia trade surplus in 2014 is not reflecting the power of the export structure of Indonesia. Export product processing industry still relies on imported raw materials. This condition is particularly vulnerable because it means Indonesia relies heavily on the availability of raw world. Therefore the direction of economic policy in Indonesia starting in 2015 should be more clearly in line with the introduction of the free market of ASEAN. Therefore, the face of MEA 2015, Indonesia still has a range of homework should be improved to have competitiveness. For the social pillar of culture, Indonesia still need hard work considering there are still many citizens of Indonesia who have yet to find out about ASEAN. But one of the key successes of MEA is the connectivity or contact between one citizen with other ASEAN nationals. The understanding of the citizens in Southeast Asia against the MEA is not yet up to 80 percent. Therefore, socialization MEA becomes very important to all citizens of Indonesia which has the largest population in ASEAN. Worries that arises is, Indonesia will only be a market for similar products from other ASEAN countries. For the pillars of the economy, Indonesia is also still has to enhance Indonesia products. Indonesia still needs to develop industry-based added value. Therefore, Indonesia needs to do the hard work of down-streaming products. From the upper side, Indonesia has become a reliable manufacturers ranging from agriculture, marine and estates. But all of these products have not been up to the downstream to reduce imports of finished goods, as Indonesia has had sufficient raw material. From the side of the trade liberalization, practical products Indonesia not too face problems because almost 80 percent of trade in Indonesia already Freeway. Even the economic populist-based (SMEC) is a chance to penetrate the market of ASEAN countries. The Government has made efforts the acceleration of equitable development as part of the strengthening of the people's economy. Between the years investment Indonesia, many directed at areas outside Java by providing the stimulation of a tax holiday. Thus, the Centre of economic growth in the future is not just concentrated in Java but also outside of Java. Other businesses that the Government does it, is to form a cluster for the construction of small medium enterprises in order to have competitiveness. Not only the challenges that will be faced, but also opportunities. Sectors that will be seeded Indonesia in MEA 2015 is natural resources (SDA), information technology, and the Creative Economy. The third sector is the strongest sector of Indonesia if compared to other ASEAN countries. In addition, the impact of the influx of foreign labour (TKA) to Indonesia should certainly speak Indonesia is good and correct. 122 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

134 According to the Executive Director of the Center of the Reform on Economics (CORE) Hendry Saparini, Indonesia's readiness in the face of MEA new 2015 reached 82 percent. It identified four important issues that need immediate Government in the face of anticipated MEA 2015, namely: 1) Indonesia is potentially just a supplier of energy and raw materials to industrialization in ASEAN, so that the benefits derived from the wealth of natural resources is still minimal, but the deficit of the trade balance of goods Indonesia which is currently the largest among ASEAN countries growing, 2) widen trade deficit in services as an increase in trade in goods, 3) freeing the flow of labour so that Indonesia should anticipate by preparing a strategy because of the potential flood of foreign labour (TKA), and 4) the influx of investment to Indonesia from inside and outside ASEAN. Thus in free trade there will be positives and negatives that will be experienced by each of the countries involved in it. The challenge for Indonesia is currently realizing the changes for society in order to be ready in the face of free trade. In addition to the results of the study, the authors also have the views as follows: 1. Related to the implementation of the programs of the national social security which was also imposed for the shortest TKA worked for six months in Indonesia, the Government needs to prepare a regulation regarding cooperation between social security governing body in ASEAN countries, given some ASEAN countries such as the Philippines include also the migrant workers in the social security system in his country. 2. If it is not done, then either labour or industries will tend to the injured party (in terms of overpaid contributions by the employers and/ employees as well as single benefit for beneficiaries although following more than one benefit program), especially on programs that have the benefits related to the medical services such as health insurance and work accident insurance. III. Conclusion According to Wangke s paper (2014), a free trade deal with ASEAN, the first step the government should do is to improve the competitiveness of Indonesia's products given the population Indonesia enormous potential to become a market for similar products from neighbour countries. Improvement of competitiveness of it includes both a superior product and is not seeded. In addition, Indonesia's parliament could help the government with the task of preparing a variety of regulations that aim to protect the market from the Indonesia invasion of goods products the ASEAN countries. Steps of this kind are not intended as a protection against Indonesia's market, but merely to seek a balance between exports and imports. While Wuryandani (2014) says that the perpetrators of the economy indirectly will face many problems in increasing competitiveness in the era of the MEA. The limited working capital, HR capacity is low, and the lack of mastery of the sciences, foreign languages and technologies are some of the problems encountered. Efforts to improve the quality of HR can be reached by the efforts of synergy between Government, businessmen, and academics to set standards of competence of professionalism in each sector. Efforts to improve the quality of HR to compete in the face of MEA 2015 should be immediately implemented in order to achieve progress and the pursuit of the backwardness from other countries. Along with the positions and the role of labour is very important in the implementation of national development, the momentum of the enactment of the national agenda should be the MEA in organizing Labour issues during this time. Therefore, the revision back in the Law No. 13 of 2003 concerning Manpower ever worth considering as an umbrella law in raising the quality of Labour in General 123 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

135 in accordance with the dignity and the dignity of humanity. The new paradigm of labour quality improvement rests on three main pillars, namely competency standards work, competency-based training and competency certification by an independent agency. In this framework, collaboration between the Government, the house of representative (legislators), and the actors (private) effort is urgently needed. In addition, infrastructure both physical and social (law and policy) needs to be addressed. Attempt the upgrade as well as labour and competitiveness of companies in Indonesia for example, can be done by providing ease in acquiring an education/training and certification in the field of expertise. Thus, Indonesia can avoid as the audience in the country alone after the enactment of the MEA. In closing, the authors provide additional conclusions as follows: 1. Related to the implementation of the MEA, in order that the Government immediately focuses on capacity building of HR. 2. The continuation of bureaucracy reform towards effective & efficient bureaucracy that is free from corruption, collusion, and nepotism is indispensable in the MEA era competition. 3. Cabinet Affairs with minimal political intervention might be necessary in supporting the capacity building of human resources and the bureaucracy reform as mentioned above. [4] Krisna, Benedict,. Utami, Sinar. in RI%20Belum%20Siap%20Hadapai%20MEA.pdf [5] The Roadmap for an ASEAN Community In munity.pdf [6] Wangke, Humphrey in 20Singkat-VI-10-II-P3DI-April pdf [7] Wuryandani, Dewi in 20Singkat-VI-17-I-P3DI-September pdf References [1] ASEAN Economic Community Blueprint. in [2] Bahasa Version of the ASEAN Economic Community Blueprint. in omunitas%20ekonomi%20asean.pdf [3] Baskoro, Aryo in International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

136 MULTIMEDIA BASED APPLICATION DESIGN OF SELECTION EXAMINATION AS A SUPPORT FOR PAPERLESS OFFICE IN PPKD EAST JAKARTA Henri Septanto 1,Petrus Dwi Ananto 2 STMIK Bina Insani Jl. Siliwangi No. 6, Bekasi Indonesia ABSTRACT Selection test potential trainees an early stage that must be passed by the prospective trainees PPKD Vocational Computer Operator in East Jakarta. If they pass the test of selection then they will be declared acceptable in Vocational Computer Operator PPKD East Jakarta. Exam selection of participants aimed to screen potential participants vocational training Computer Operator to produce the trainees who have the ability to match qualifications set by PPKD East Jakarta. Selection is done through two kinds of tests, the first test on paper contains questions about the basic knowledge of the computer after it conducted the interview. Application design exam multimedia-based selection we made is aimed at reducing the use of paper at the reception the selection of trainees so that the concept of paperless office that has been socialized can also be applied in East Jakarta PPKD albeit merely in vocational Computer Operator Application design exam multimedia -based selection is expected to bring some positive impacts, among others, about the inspection saves time and also save paper exams and answer sheets, further away from the exam application design multimedia-based selection can help preserve nature because it saves material usage raw paper derived from nature that the trees in the forest. Keywords: Aplication Design, Selection Examination, multimedia, paperless office 1.1 Introduction Since in recent years the government and the private sector has much to invest for the procurement and use of Information and Communication in organizations/institutions. PPKD East Jakarta as one part of the government is required to participate implement and utilize information and communication technology in its operational activities in accordance with the duties and 125 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th 21 th August 2015

137 scope of vocational training as a place for the community, especially for the graduate from SLTA. Paperless Office is one of the benefits of the application of Information and Communication Technology in the office, which is saving the use of paper in the activities of daily work in the organization. The design of multimedia -based application was created as a form of support for the movement of the "paperless office" in PPKD East Jakarta. About the use of multimedia applications is expected to reduce paper consumption in East Jakarta PPKD although it is still limited to the small scope is the selection exam in Vocational Computer Operator, but can be the first step for the implementation of Paperless Office movements in other parts. 1.2 Problem Formulation The formulation of the problem in this research is how to reduce the use of paper for the exam process selection in PPKD East Jakarta to support the movement of the paperless office? 1.3 Scope of Research This study is limited regarding the design of application programs exam participant selection PPKD multimedia based in East Jakarta to support the movement of paperless office through the use of the Adobe Flash. 2. Review of Literature 2.1 Multimedia According to William Ditto in Ariasdi ( 2013 ) that " the definition of multimedia in science include some aspects of synergy, between text, graphics, static images, animations, movie and sound ". One of the research on multimedia is the research conducted by Francis M. Dwyer in Ariasdi ( 2013 ) as follows : " After more than three days in humans generally can remember the messages conveyed through writings by 10 %, 10 % audio message, visual 30 % and when combined with doing, it will reach 80 % ".Some multimedia elements are Text, Voice ( Audio ), Graph ( Figure ), Animation, Simulation, Video. 2.2 Evaluation of Learning Sutopo Hadi (2009 ) says that " teaching evaluations ( exams ) is required to measure student learning outcomes in a particular subject ". In general, the evaluation of learning is done manually, using paper media. Agus Santoso, et al (2010 ) says that along with the development of ICT, testing using the computer starts much done. Computers used to perform test automation activities, initially using paper and then transferred into the computer so that the security of the exam becomes more assured, 126 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th 21 th August 2015

138 look better exam, exam results counting error becomes smaller, accelerating the provision of a test result value, reduce waste paper after exam lasted so it would also reduce the cost of procurement of paper. 2.2 Paperless Office Concept Paperless Office Definition The concept of " paperless office " was first introduced by George Pake, head of Xerox Corp. 's Palo Alto, California, USA. Pake (1975 ) predicts that there will be major changes in the management office. In 1995, in the offices will be available screen monitor and keyboard for the purposes of search and display documents necessary so that the entire process was still using paper will be replaced by computers. Ragnet (2008 ) proposed the concept of the less paper office, namely how to use the paper more responsibly, reduce the amount of paper used and effectively promote the improvement of business performance from the standpoint of communication, cost and the environment. A study conducted by Coopers and Lybrand in McIndoo ( 2009) showed that :90% tugas perkantoran adalah pengelolaan dokumen kertas, a. the average office made 19 copies for each document, b. offices have lost one of the 20 documents, c. require the filing cabinet at USD 25,000 with maintenance costs of USD 2,000, and d. a working unit lost 15 % of all of the documents they handle and spend 30 % of their time trying to locate the missing documents In addition, wages are to be allocated is equal to : a. USD 20 for management of a document, b. USD 120 to search the missing documents, and c. USD 250 for a remake of the missing documents. " Paperless Office " is a work environment which greatly reduced the use of paper to a minimum and not eliminated altogether. For the purposes of internal documentation of the company / institution, may be made the concept of " Paperless Office ". But the form of paper documentation is still required for external parties companies / institutions. Therefore, the implementation of the concept of " Paperless Office " is not really 100 % eliminate the use of paper, but only reduce their use to a minimum. The concept of " Paperless Office " conducted by converting documents and other papers into digital form Steps Achieve Paperless According to Walker (2009 ) in an article entitled " AchievingThe Paperless 127 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th 21 th August 2015

139 Office " there are three steps to realize the concept of Paperless, namely : 1) Recognize your cost savings and revenue gains from eliminating paper. Without the right incentive, no organization will choose to evolve 2) Look for systems that can eliminate the paper or reduce the need for paper in the first place. 3) Partner with a company who can provide the infrastructure, technology and service to deliver on the promise of a paperless office Benefits to the Company's implementation of Paperless Office According to Bambang Supradono (2010 ) there are some benefits offered by the use of paperless among others : cost efficiency, time efficiency, reduced paper stacks, Assuring document security, document management and better working comfort, support the better decisions, monitoring document into better, improvement in the image of the company in connection with the improvement of management and service Barriers to Implementation of Paperless Office for the Company According to Bambang Supradono (2010 ) that humans as users still like the smell of analog though everywhere pampered with digital products. This may be caused by the following: 1. The use of paper as a medium of writing is still more practical than the digital product. 2. The use of small amounts of paper as a medium of writing is still considered to be more efficient when compared to digital products. 3. The digitization process requires a certain skill that not everyone is able to do so. 4. The level of public confidence in the use of paper is still larger than the digital product. 5. Most people are still not so fond of reading materials that are serious in front of the screen. They assume that for materials that are seriously better in paper form that can be read anytime and anywhere. 3. Research Objectives The purpose of this research is to reduce the use of paper in the process of selection tests in East Jakarta PPKD melaluipembuatan a draft application exam - based selection of multimedia which is no longer required a lot of paper dalampelaksanaan selection test so as to support the paperless office movement which is also one way to help preserve nature so that we can bequeath a sustainable nature green 128 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th 21 th August 2015

140 with trees that make the cool air and healthy to our children in the future. 4. Research Methodology 4.1. Methodology The methodology used in this study is simple descriptive qualitative methodology by means of observation and interviews to compare the timing and amount of paper procurement selection given exam using paper media to the test results using a selection of multimedia -based application program, as well as see the benefits resulting from the application of matter based multimedia. 4.2 Method Of Collecting Data Observation Observation is a method of data collection by way of a direct view of the work going on in the field. Observations made at the time of the prospective trainees work on the problems of selection entrance exam. In addition, the observation was also done when the participants were in the computer lab Interview The interview is one method of data collection is done through a question-andanswer directly to the interested parties, such as the selection of participants and the executive committee selection tests as well as an instructor in PPKD East Jakarta Questionnaires The questionnaire is one method of data collection is done by providing written questions with answer options that have been provided. Based on the questionnaire, the collection of the data processing is done the results are analyzed and become inputs in making the selection of the application program entrance exams based on multimedia Literature Review Literature Review is the method of data collection through literature, books, scientific journals, and the Internet. 5.1 Results Program Application a. The initial view Figure 5.1 Description: Participant Selection Trials must include the full name and click Ok b. View 3 After filling the full name and clicking Ok button then comes the display as shown 129 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th 21 th August 2015

141 below. In this view the test participants were asked to read the clue, Figure 5.4 View of exercises c. View 3 Figure 5.2 List Menu These exercises intended to make trainees familiar with the model exam. If examinees have tried the exercises then the next trainee clicking the exam so comes the display as shown below. 1. View 5 Figure 5.3 Instruction Examination As a matter of processing instructions for examinees. d. View 4 Furthermore, the test participants are encouraged to choose the exercises, so comes the display as shown below. Figure 5.5 View of the Examination Agar soal ujian tidak dapat digunakan oleh sembarang orang maka dibuatlah menu password. 130 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th 21 th August 2015

142 2. View 6 Figure 5.6 Examination questions 4. View 8 Test results can be stored and viewed as follows : After entering the password then start the process of examination, the examinee simply select the correct answer to the question by clicking, if it has been completed then the next comes the display as shown below. 3. View 7 Having completed the exam then comes the results are as follows : Figure 5.7 Examination Result Figure 5.8 List of exam results 5.2 Discussion Result 1. Trainees stated that the matter clearer view, particularly questions that accompanied the picture in the original color, in contrast with the results of photocopy paper display that is sometimes blurred and unclear. 2. The Instructors no longer need to make corrections answer because the value has been automatically stored and can be viewed at any time needed. 3. Saving the use of paper or Paperless Office can be achieved with the use of these multimedia -based application programs. 131 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th 21 th August 2015

143 5. Conclusions and Recommendations a. Conclusions Based on the trial about the use of the multimedia -based selection, the time wasted for sharing questions and answers correction no longer need to be done because the value is automatically able to dilihat.selain itupenghematan paper usage can be done so that the movement of paperless office is able to be applied in East Jakarta PPKD. b. Recommendations Multimedia -based selection exam is expected to be developed further in order to provide facilities essay questions in a simple form so that more varied forms of matter not only multiple choice questions. References Ariasdi Multimedia Dalam Dunia Pendidikan. Diperoleh dari tanggal 26 Maret Diakses tanggal 2 Desember Dastjerdi, B. N Usage and Attitude Towards ICT Facilities: a Sstudy of The Students in Higher Education in India. Gyanodaya X, Vol. 2, No. 2, Ed. Jul-Dec. Pramoto, Gatot Pemanfaatan Multimedia Pembelajaran. Jakarta: Pusat Teknologi Informasi dan Pendidikan, Departemen Pendidikan Nasional. Marsellia, Mira Thinking Before Printing. Diperoleh dari tanggal 24 Oktober Diakses tanggal 2 Desember McIndoo., T Paperless Office in Perspective: A Document management System For Today. White Paper, Speedy Solutions. Diperoleh dari Diakses tanggal 2 Desember Mustaji Pemanfaatan Multi Media untuk Meningkatkan Kualitas Pendidikan. Disajikan dalam seminar AKAL Interaktif di Toko Buku Gramedia EXSPO Surabaya tanggal 29 Januari Pake, G The Office of The Future: An in-depth Analysis of How Word Processing will Resphare The Corporate Office. Business Week June 30, Diperoleh dari Diakses tanggal 2 Desember Ragnet, F The Less Paper Office: How to Reduce Costs, Enhance Security and be a Better Global Citizen. White Paper, Xerox Global Services. Diperoleh dari Diakses tanggal 2 Desember Septanto, Henri Studi Komparasi Antara Media Evaluasi Berbasis Multimedia dengan Media Evaluasi Berbasis Kertas terhadap Hasil Ujian Pengenalan TIK pada Peserta Pelatihan Kejuruan Operator Komputer. ICT Jurnal Bina Insani, Vol. 1, No. 2, Hal Bekasi: STMIK Bina Insani. Supradono, Bambang Pengembangan Kerangka Kerja Migrasi Sistem Paperless Office. Jurnal Media Elektrika, Vol. 3. No. 2. Semarang: Universitas Muhammadiayah Semarang. Sutopo, Hadi Pengembangan Evaluasi Pembelajaran Berbasis Multimedia dengan Flash, PHP, dan MySQL. Jurnal Informatika, Vol. 10, No. 2, November 2009, Hal UNESCO Schoolnettoolkit. Bangkok: UNESCO Asia and Pacific Regional Bureau for Education. UPTIK IPDN Sosialisasi dan TOT Paperless Office oleh UPTIK IPDN. Bandung: UPTIK IPDN. Walker, Richard Achieving The Paperless Office. Diperoleh dari Diunduh tanggal 2 Desember International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th 21 th August 2015

144 LAMPIRAN 133 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th 21 th August 2015

145 OPTIMUM FEATURE FOR PALMPRINT IMAGE AUTHENTICATION Ratih Ayuninghemi 1, Dwi Putro Sarwo Setyohadi 2 Jurusan Teknologi Informasi, Politeknik Negeri Jember 12, Jalan Mastrip Po Box 164 Jember JawaTimur , 2 ABSTRACT Palm print authentications have become extensive research in recent years. Some research discussing palm print authentication emphasize on matching of two feature vectors of it. Problem faced by the research in this field is the sampling process. Different position of hand geometry results in different palm print image cause palm print to be unauthenticated. This research proposes an approach to solve the problem by first making image dimension using Multiscale Wavelet Pyramid (MWP) to produce features represent palm print image. The next stage is feature matching by using Hamming Distance Similarity. Testing in several levels combination show that integration of level 1 and level 2 yields optimum feature. The evaluation result produce that MWP has faster and better performance accuracy up to 77.93% with threshold Key Words Authentication, Palm print, Multi-scale Wavelet Pyramid, Hamming Distance 1. Introduction Palms become very attractive to be developed as biometrics, because of the characteristics that relatively new. The characteristic of a palm is more than fingerprint. Palm surface, that is wider than fingerprint, is expected to be easier to distinguish [1-5]. Biometrics feature of palm include geometry feature, line feature, point feature, texture feature, and statistics feature. In recognition of palm images, there are several difficulties, particularly in image matching. This is because of the different parameters of image acquisitions and image matching. This problem can be solved in pre-processing and feature extraction of the images. Pre-processing is input transformation of raw data to help computational and find features by reducing noise. One of the feature extraction methods is Wavelet Transformation that is used to analyze signal or data. Wavelet Transformation is a tool to sort data, function or operator in to different frequency components, and to study each component with a suitable resolution. [6] After pre-processing and feature extraction in process of palm authentication, there is a process which is very important to determine matching level of each palm image. One of methods that is proved to count the similarity level of palm image is Haming Distance [6]. Problem that faced in this research is in the process of image acquisitions. Many people, who are respondents of this research to take sample, put their palm in different way, so position of palm geometry also different. This problem will lead into authentication error. Because two pictures of same palm with different position will be considered as different palm. This research proposes to generate image dimension using Multi-scale Wavelet Pyramid Method to make several features that will result optimum features. After that continue 134 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

146 by feature matching process of similarity distance with optimum features as an input, so the threshold value calculation will be valid as the result of authentication. 1. Multi-scale Wavelet Pyramid (MWP) 1.1 Image Acquisition Problems in the image acquisition process described above can be seen as the illustration below. (a) (b) Figure 2 (a) Raw Image, (b) Image after pre-processing ROI result is very useful in feature extraction, because it is focused on the observed section which will be used in the next stage of image matching. Figure 1. Illustrations of image acquisition with different position. Figure 1 shows that image acquisition processs with different position of palm geometry bring through error authentication. It is because different position of the same palm will consider as different palm. Datasett used in this research is taken from Poly_U PalmPrint Database [9]. 1.2 Pre-processing Pre-processing begin by converting an RGB image into greyscale image, greyscale into binary, and then determine the ROI (Region of Interest). Figure 2 shows the implementation of morphology erosion and normalization of image intensity by ROI. Figure 3. Pre-processing Figure 3 describe the process of pre-processing to prepare input image by converting an RGB image, then image normalization and ROI determination to make binary image which then to be processed in feature extraction. 135 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

147 1.3 Feature Extraction Feature extraction process by Multi-scale Wavelet Pyramid does not use optimum feature to set similarity value, so it is possibly an authentication error. Feature extraction will be applied multiple times until n level when the feature can not be extracted anymore to generate F 1, F 2, F 3,.. F n. All processes above can be seen in figure 4. Figure 4 shows that feature extraction result 2 outputs, i.e. feature vector for multi-features from decomposition wavelet and optimum feature tested by n rotation. 1.4 Determination of Optimum Feature Optimum feature (F 0 ) is determined by test by assumptions as bellow : Image acquisitions with different angles to get a palm print (n kind of angles) [7-8] Feature extraction of each image by certain angles with Wavelet, so that we get n features (n dimensions). 1.5 Haming Distance In this research, similarity level is measured by Haming Distance method. In this method, Euclidean distance is measured by comparing features of two images at the same position. Figure 4. Feature extraction flowchart. Figure 5. Authentication process of hand palm 136 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

148 Authentication process of palm print in figure 5 is not much different from pre-authentication process, especially in pre-processing stage. Feature extraction of palm print creates image dimension that can be assumed as dimension of pyramid to generate the optimum feature by wavelet of the image dimension. Then to calculate the similarity level of to get threshold value, so that image can be authenticated. 2. Experiment Some of scenario processes to get authentication result of highest accuracy palm print in shortest period, there are 2 experiments, i.e. training test and testing. The experiments have different treatment in feature extraction, it is the level used in measurement of similarity level in Haming Distance. First experiment uses whole levels (8levels), second experiment uses combination of level 1 and 2, meanwhile third experiment uses level 1, 2, and 3. The all three experiments are conducted to answer the purpose of MWP to create multi-scale or multi-dimensional image where in the process of testing is shown by combinations of several levels. This experiment is conducted by calculate authentication values of an image compared by 500 images in database. All trials above use combination formulae of 1000 images of 50 samples (palm) from first acquisition (10 times) to be trained and second acquisition (10 times) to be tested. Each image will be treated similarly before calculating the Euclidean distance by image normalization, cropping the ROI, and convert into binary image. After that the converted image is extracted and then to calculate the distance. The accurate result of this tests is taken from percentage of best threshold value. While for time speed is determined by how many levels the image get through before the authentication. In training test, the result is used to determine an optimum feature, i.e. the feature assumed as best feature with highest accuracy and shortest period. Optimum feature represents image feature of palm image to solve problem of hand palm image authentication. 2.1 Training Trial In the training tests, there are 3 times tests in full level (8 levels), combination of level 1 and 2, and also combination of level 1, 2, and 3. Each test uses certain threshold value to get highest accuracy of 3 tests. Then, determination of best threshold values, the threshold with the best performance. Best threshold value will be reference in determination of optimum feature, which then used in testing. Table 1 Result of Training Test Accuracy Accuracy Period Level Threshold (%) (Level) Full Level ( Level) Level 1 and Level 1, 2 and Testing Trial In testing trial, there are not many differences from training test. Testing is conducted with the same process in full level, combination of level 1 and 2, and combination oaf level 1, 2, and 3. But, in testing trial, threshold value is the best threshold value of each trial in training process. In trial of full level using threshold value of 4950, combination trial of level 1 and 2 or multi-scale 1 using threshold value of 4700, while in combination trial of level 1, 2, and 3 or multiscale 2 using threshold value of International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

149 Table 2 Result of testing trial accuracy. Level Threshold Accuracy Period (%) (Level) Full Level Level 1 and 2 (Multiscale 1) Level 1, 2, and 3 (Multiscale ) 4. Conclusion Based on the experiments can be concluded that Multi-scale Wavelet Pyramid is able to process the authentication of hand palm well that is 77.93% of accuracy in 4700 of threshold value and shortest period, only requires 2 times of transformation, in level 1 and 2(Optimum feature). References [1] D. Zhang, Palmprint Authentication, Kluwer Academic Publishers, USA. [4] L. Zhang and D. Zhang, 2004, Characterization of palmprints by wavelet signatures via directional context modeling, IEEE Trans. on SMC-B, vol. 34, pp , June [5] Putra, Dharma, Sistem Biometric (Konsep Dasar, Teknik Analisi Citra dan tahap Membangun Aplikasi Sistem Biometrika). Andi, Yogyakarta. [6] Malik, J., Dahiya, R., Sayinarayan, G., Fast Complex Gabor Wavelet Based Palmprint Authentication. International Journal of Image Processing (IJIP), Volume (5) : Issue (3) [7] Kokare, M., Biswas, P.K., Chatterji, B.N., Texture image retrieval using rotated wavelet filters. Pattern Recognition Letter, vol. 28, pp [8] Eka, R, Suciati, N, Wijaya, A Implementing Content Based Image Retrieval For Batik Using Rotated Wavelet Transform And Canberra Distance, Bisstech. [9]The PolyU Palmprint Database: polyu.edu.hk/biometrics/ (date download : Nov ) [10] Ayuninghemi, Ratih, Zainal Arifin, A, Suciati, N Multiscale Wavelet Pyramid for Palmprint Image Aunthentication. KNSI SIKOM BALI [2] D. Zhang, W.K. Kong, J. You and M. Wong, Sept. 2003, On-line palmprint identification, IEEE Trans. on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 25, pp [3] A. Kong and D. Zhang, 2004, Competitive coding scheme for palmprint verification, Proc. of International Conference on Pattern Recognition, vol. 1, pp , Cambridge, UK. 138 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

150 GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS DESIGN OF TOURIST ATTRACTION AND NEAREST FACILITY IN BANDAR LAMPUNG CITY Devi Kathina Rani 1, Yulmaini 2 Informatics Engineering, Faculty of Computer Science 1 2 Z.A. PagarAlamStreet Number 93, LabuhanRatu, Lampung ABSTRACT Tourism is one of the selling point that Bandar Lampung City has. The information about the location of tourist attraction and the supporting facility was given in booklet and tourism map. The information distribution through those media haven t use the technology that appropriate to the current development. Some research methods were used in this research such as, data collection methods and system design methods. The data collection methods were done in several ways such as interview with the respondents, literature study and observation. The system design methods use UML (Unified Modelling Language). The output from this research is a design of geographic information system that interactive with the user and able to attract the tourist attention to visit Bandar Lampung City and the tourist attraction. With this design hopefully can bring more information about a tourist attraction in Bandar Lampung City and gain more tourist to visit Bandar Lampung City. KEY WORDS Geographic Information System, Design, Tourism 1. Introduction Geographic Information System (GIS) is one of technology development that been used by a lot of business field. The usage of geographic information system can be found in mining and petroleum section to find the spread of mining and petroleum potential point, in agricultural and plantation section to find the potential point of suitable land to plant the plants and in health section to find the spread of a disease in a location. Tourism is one of business potential that Bandar Lampung City has. According to data that obtained from DinasPariwisatadanEkonomiKreatif, there are more than 13 tourist attraction that spread across Bandar Lampung City. Information about the tourist attraction in Bandar Lampung City was given in booklet and tourism map. It considered as less effective since the technology development nowadays is able to give information in digital map or through website. Previous research was done by (ArdiDwiSaputra, 2012) that titled Geographic Information System of Tourism in Lampung Province, the research made a Geographic Information System of Tourism in Lampung Province. The geographic information system is website based, it gives information about the tourist attraction, tourism map, activities, tour and travel agents, hotels, restaurants, souvenirs shop and art gallery. 139 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 st August 2015

151 According to Riyanto and team (2009), Geographic Information System is a special information system that used to process data that has spatial information. Or a computer system that can build, save, manage and show geographic referenced information. Widodo and Herlawati (2011) explain that UML is abbreviation of Unified Modelling Language that means a standard modelling language. In iterative process, the developer do some steps repeatedly and every time it focused on different part of system. UML is applied in some intent such as : 1) Designing a software 2) Communication tools between software and process 3) Explain the detailed system for analysis and find the system needs. 4) Documenting the available system, processes and organisation. The purpose of this research is to produce a geographic information system design about tourist attraction and public facilities in Bandar Lampung city that can provide information and draw attention to prospective tourist to visit Bandar Lampung City. the menu in the system. But only the administrator has access to login to the administrator system.(figure 2) Figure 2. Use Case Diagram for Visitor Use case system for the administrator menu has 5 menus that displayed in the administrator menu, they are : tourist attraction update, facility update, district update, login data update and logout menu. (Figure 3) 2. Conclusion The method that used to design the system is UML method that consist of use case diagram, activity diagram, class diagram and sequence diagram. 2.1 Use Case Diagram There are two users that will use this system, they are visitors and administrator. Use case for visitors menu has five menu that displayed in the system, the menus are : show tourism map menu, show tourist attraction list menu, show public facility list menu, about us menu and login menu. Every visitors can access all of Figure 3. Use Case Diagram for Administrator 2.2 Class Diagram Class diagram in administrator menu explained about a group of objects from properties, characters and relations between the menu on administrator menu. Login object has relation with district, facility and tourist attraction. To access the data from the object, 140 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 st August 2015

152 administrator has to gain access from login class. District class has relation with tourist attraction class and facility class, where the district class in tourist attraction class and facility class gained from district class. (Figure 4) 2.3 Activity Diagram Activity Diagram explain about the activity flow of a system to another activity flow. Activity diagram of show tourism map explain about activity flow that happen in show tourism map menu. Visitor access the show tourism map menu. System will execute the activity and will show Bandar Lampung City tourism map. (Figure 6) Figure 4. Class Diagram for Admin Visitors Class Diagram explained about group of object from properties, characteristic and relations between every menu in visitor main menu. The main menu has relations with every menu element in the system. The tourist attraction list class and the tourism map class has relation with each other. The data that used in tourist attraction list class is the same with the tourism map class. (Figure 5) Figure 6. Activity Diagram to Show Tourism Map Activity diagram of show tourist attraction list explain the activity that happen when user execute the tourist attraction list menu. System will display the tourist attraction list in Bandar Lampung city. Visitors can search for a tourist attraction name. When the search is done, system will do a data filter and show the list of the searched data. (Figure 7) Figure 5. Class Diagram for Visitor Figure 7. Activity Diagram to Show Tourism Destination List 141 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 st August 2015

153 2.4 Sequence Diagram Sequence diagram is an image of step by step include the chronology (sequence) of interaction between the objects that arranged according to time sequence. Tourism map sequence diagram explains about interaction relationship between the visitors and tourism map menu. To access through the map, the visitors have to access the main menu and then choose the tourism map menu, from the tourism map menu, system will access the geographic information system database that stored in the server, from the previous process, system will show the data from the database that stored in the server and show the location and information to the tourism map. (Figure 8) type the name of a tourist attraction in the search text field. System will find the tourist attraction in the database that adjusted with the text that typed in the text field. System will show the list of the data if it s stored, if the data isn t stored the list will show nothing. (Figure 9) Figure 9. Sequence Diagram to Show Tourist Attraction List Figure 8. Sequence Diagram show Tourism Map Sequence diagram of tourist attraction list menu explain about the interaction between the visitors with the tourist attraction list menu. To access the tourist attraction list menu, visitors firstly should access the main menu and choose the tourist attraction list menu. System will access the database that store the tourist attraction list data in the storage. The stored database will be called and show to the tourist attraction list interface menu. If the visitors want to search one of the tourist attraction, visitors can 2.5 Interface Design Interface design is the interface view that will displayed in the system when the application is running. The interface design for the first time application executed is divided by 5 menus. The menus aretourism map menu, tourist attraction list menu, facilities menu, about us menu and login menu. Tourism map menu will show the tourism map that contains the information of tourist attraction and nearest facilities. Tourist attraction list menu contains the tourist attraction data that stored in database, the data is displayed in a list. Facilities list menu contains the facilities data that stored in database, there s seven type of facilities that stored, the types are restaurant, hotel, minimarket, station, tour and travel agent, gas station and souvenirs shop. About us menu show the information about Bandar Lampung City and the creator of the application. Login menu is to gain access to 142 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 st August 2015

154 the administrator menu, the access was given to the administrator only. (Figure 10) References [1]PrabowoPudjoWidodo, Herlawati, Menggunakan UML (Unified Modelling Language) (Bandung, Informatika, 2011) [2] Eddy Prahasta, Sistem Informasi Geografi Konsep- KonsepDasar (Bandung, Informatika, 2005) [3] ArdiDwiSaputra, Yulmaini, Perancangan Sistem Informasi Geografis (SIG) Pariwisata Di Propinsi Lampung, Jurnal Informatika Volume 12, 12, 2012, Figure 10. Interface Design for Main Menu Interface design in the show tourism map menu, this menu will show Bandar Lampung City map, tourist attraction location and nearest facilities location. The tourist attraction point in the map will show the information about the selected location. The nearest facilities point in the map will show the information about the facilities. There s no submenu in this menu. (Figure 11) Figure 11. Interface Design for Show Tourism Map 143 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 st August 2015

155 LEARNING PROCESS OF INTRODUCTION TO LAMPUNG SCRIPT THROUGH ICT (INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES) FOR KINDERGARTEN STUDENTS OF TK RASYIDUL JANNAH BANDAR LAMPUNG ACADEMIC YEAR Dharlinda Suri Jln Sukma No 21 Sukarame Bandar Lampung STKIP-PGRI Bandar Lampung 0721) / ABSTRACT Problems proposed in this study are: (1) How is the learning process of introduction to Lampung script for kindergarten students through ICT? (2) What are supporting and inhibiting factors in the learning process of introduction to Lampung script for kindergarten students through ICT? The objectives of the research are: (1) to describe the learning process of introduction to Lampung script for kindergarten students through ICT and (2) to describe supporting and inhibiting factors in the learning process of introduction to Lampung script for kindergarten students through ICT. This research was conducted at Rasyidul Jannah Kindergarten, Bandar Lampung. As the focuses of this research are the kindergarten teachers and 24 students group B aged 5-6 years. This research took place in the second semester of the academic year This study uses qualitative descriptive approach as the researcher describes all the process related to the learning process of introduction to Lampung script done by the teachers through ICT. This study used a qualitative descriptive approach, where researcher tried to describe all the events in relation to the introduction of Lampung script done by teachers through ICT. The finding of this research suggested that ICT is effective to help these kindergarten students in the learning process of introduction to Lampung script. The supporting factors in introduction to Lampung script learning are the teachers, the students and surrounding society who showed enthusiasm in the learning process. Meanwhile, the inhibiting factors are students difficulties in pronouncing the alphabets and some similar script writing shapes. In accordance with this research finding, it is recommended for the management of early childhood education to provide VCD of Lampung script learning animation and for the kindergarten teachers to carry out teaching Lampung script using the VCD as part of teacher s professional skills. Keywords: Learning, Early Childhood, Animation, Lampung script 1. Background Each region in Indonesia has various cultures that can be explored as a learning vehicle and cultivation of local cultural values in early childhood. As mentioned by Vigotsky (2007: 343) that the contribution of cultural, social and historical interaction in the children mental/behavioral development influence on child development. Learning which is based on the cultural and social interaction that refers to the socio-historicalcultural developmental aspects will greatly impact on the children s perception, memory and thinking. One of the principles in the DAP (Developmentally Appropriate Practice) concept states that early childhood learning should be in accordance with the social and cultural environment in which the child is living. Therefore, educators understanding against children s socio- 144 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

156 cultural background can be used as a reference for educators in preparing learning materials and instructional media that are relevant and meaningful to the children. In addition, educators can also prepare children earlier to be individuals who can adapt to the social and cultural environment. As a nation that has so much richness and diversity, including the richness and diversity of local cultures, it will be isolated by itself if we do not early instilling a strong determination to strengthen and preserve our local culture that is rich in noble values. Fears, either consciously or unconsciously, of the impact of global education will gradually shift the position of the local culture. This is contrary to the Lampung Provincial Regulation No. 2 of 2008 on Lampung Cultural Maintenance. In Article 7 it is stated that Lampung language and script are cultural elements of culture to be developed. Furthermore, Article 8 point E stated that the introduction of Lampung language and script starts from kindergarten, elementary and secondary school levels, which the implementation complies with the provisions of the region, conditions and needs. Based on the problem above, one of the efforts that need to be done is to strengthen the local culture through learning. In this research, the instructional media used are learning animation. Animation learning media have the ability to explain a complicated or complex thing to be explained only by pictures and words. With this ability animated media can be used to describe a real material. Through the introduction of Lampung script learning using animation more children are expected to know and love the local culture so that they can grow and develop optimally and that the local culture will be stronger. A. FORMULATION OF PROBLEMS Based on the background of the problems above, the formulation of the problem in this research are: (1) How is the learning process of introduction to Lampung script for kindergarten students through ICT? (2) What are supporting and inhibiting factors in the learning process of introduction to Lampung script for kindergarten students through ICT? B. OBJECTIVES In accordance with the above problems, the goals to be achieved in this research are: (1) to describe the learning process of introduction to Lampung script for kindergarten students through ICT and (2) to describe supporting and inhibiting factors in the learning process of introduction to Lampung script for kindergarten students through ICT. 2. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Pattern of regional language learning with the CBC is based on contextual approach, known as CTL (Contextual Teaching and Learning). Contextual learning as described in SBC (MONE, 2006) is a concept of learning that helps teachers correlate the material and the topics he teaches with the situation in real life and encourages students to make connections of the knowledge possessed by the application in their daily lives. Then, Syaiful Sagala (2007: 88) states constructivism is the cornerstone of thinking in contextual approach, knowledge is built little by little, the result expanded through limited (narrow) and not abruptly context. Knowledge is not a set of facts, concepts or rules which are prepared to take and remember. Lampung script is a form of writing that has a relationship with South India s Pallawa. Various kinds of phonetic writing syllables are the vowels as in Arabic characters by using signs as Fathah on the above line and kasrah on the bottom line. However they are not 145 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

157 using dammah on the front row but using the mark on the back; each sign has its own name. According to A. Effendi Sanusi (2013: 15) Lampung alphabets includes in syllabic writing system. The characters referred to as Kaganga. Lampung script consists of three elements: Parent Letter, Child letters, and punctuation. Figure 1 : Lampung Script (Parent Letter) Source : A. Effendi Sanusi, (2013) Tata Bahasa Bahasa Lampung,Universitas Lampung In order to make the introduction to Lampung script learning for kindergarten students more interesting, the researcher has created media animation of Lampung script learning in form of VCD containing about the types of script that is associated with the type of animals that have been known by the students. Learning animated media have the ability to be able to explain a complicated or complex thing to be explained with pictures and words alone. With this capability, the animation media can be used to describe a real material. According to Aaron and Zaidatun (2004: 5), animation, like other media, has its own role in education, especially to improve the quality of teaching and learning. In line with Wina Sanjaya (2012: 231), audiovisual learning is defined as the production and use of related materials with learning. Learning media of Lampung script learning includes in audio visual media types because there are motion pictures, floating letters, and voice. 3. METHODS The research method used is descriptive qualitative (1) Location of research was in TK Rasyidul Jannah Sukarame Bandar Lampung. (2) Time of research was on even semester of academic year (3) The focuses of research are the teachers of the Matahari Class (TK B) at TK Rasyidul Jannah Sukarame Bandar Lampung and 24 students (TK B) of TK Rasyidul Jannah Sukarame Bandar Lampung aged 5-6 years. (4) Data collection tool was CD of introduction to Lampung script for early childhood students. Analysis of the data was by describing all the events in relation to the learning process of introduction to Lampung script done by teachers through CD of learning media animation. Data were collected through: participant observation, interview and document studies. Research instruments consisted of: (1) free observation, field notes, cameras 146 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

158 video cameras, (2) free interview, tape recorder, (3) school documentation. Which became the source of information in this study are: Kindergarten students, teachers and parents 4. RESULT AND DISCUSSION A. Result Lampung script learning for Kindergarten students through Learning Animation: 1. The purpose of this study was to obtain an overview of the implementation of Lampung script learning for kindergarten students through animations. The tool used in this research is the VCD creation of introduction to Lampung script which was made by the researcher to help students recognizing 20 Lampung script parent letters. 2. Supporting and inhibiting factors in Lampung script learning for students kindergarten through Animated Learning: The supporting factors in learning are: (1) kindergarten teachers who have high spirit of dedication in teaching, (2) Students of TK Rasyidul Jannah Bandar Lampung which have high spirit in the learning process, (3) Culture of Lampung people who is still maintained, (4) The condition of the children s learning environment which is very supportive. Furthermore, the factors that become obstacles in Lampung script learning for kindergarten students through animations in TK Rasyidul Jannah Bandar Lampung include; (1) The shapes of the characters which are almost the same are hard to distinguish, this resulted in the teacher should repeat and pronounce the characters many times especially for difficult children. (2) Lack of Lampung script learning CD which resulted in children rarely see and hear the Lampung characters which are suitable with their minds. B. Discussion (1) Learning Analysis Introduction to Lampung script learning is an activity to introduce Lampung script through the stimulus and the response of people on the children s surroundings. The introduction runs through constructivism process of building concepts through stages, connecting existed experience to the new experiences so that children are able to construct their own understanding. For example, the introduction of animal names associated with the Lampung script to stimulate the cognitive processes in children learning process will occur quickly. The learning process will be successful when students are motivated to learn. In accordance with the teacher's role as a motivator "to obtain optimal learning results, teachers are required to creatively evoke students 'motivation' (Sanjaya, 2009: 29). When listening to and viewing the animation of Lampung script by using video, students are sitting on the carpet with the semi-circle position facing the television. "Some teachers prefer the children to sit on the floor, especially when they are provided the floor mat or carpet. They consider such an arrangement gives more pleasant climate and peace ". (Hidelbrand in Muslichatun, 2004: 167). Through VCD of Lampung script learning animation the teacher invites the students to listen to the rhythm and see Lampung script shapes. Goat ( kambing ) represents script Ka, Ga (gajah), Nga, (singa), Pa (paus), Ba (badak), Ma (macan), Ta (unta), Da (kuda), Na (ikan tuna), Ca (Capung), Ja (jangkrik), Nya (nyamuk), Ya (buaya), A (ayam) La (lalat) Ra (kurakura), Sa (Sapi), Wa (walet), Ha (harimau), Gha (gagak) In this animated it is seen that when the script is shown and voiced, at the same time the animals that have been known to the children appear. Further 147 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

159 animation displays all characters that are 20 characters in total followed by singing Lampung song. All students sang happily following the Lampung script. When Lampung script animation began to show, it appeared that the children were so enthusiastic, full of concentration; that happy reactions of children to Lampung script animation happy when uttering the characters in unison. Sometimes they screamed or even laughed when there were funny animal pictures. Children were very happy if they could guess the animal that had to do with the script. The student s activity movement followed the rhythm of the animation. By the end of Lampung language learning activities through Lampung child song, the teacher returned to direct interaction with the children using question and answer technique. Capability of teachers in presenting and answering questions is very important. Teachers encourage children to play by guessing the types of scripts that are shown in accordance with the animals shown. (6) Playing the role. Role playing method is a game that carried out as the child play a certain role. Teachers develop a child's imagination by following the sound of the animals mentioned in the script. (7) Motivating. Teachers give praise with smiles and words, as well as encourage children to clap together as a tribute to those who can mention Lampung script properly. Using words like: good, nice, or smart, teacher also motivates children through advices which are based on the Islam and Lampung culture. Therefore, based on the above description, Kindergarten teachers of TK Rasyidul Jannah Sukarame Bandar Lampung, in introduction to Lampung script learning process has used a variety of teaching methods that are appropriate to the characteristics of Kindergarten students. In this learning process, the teacher uses several methods: (1) Demonstration Method. Demonstration means exemplifies or demonstrate how to perform or undertake an activity or job. In this research, demonstration method was used by the teachers when they wanted to introduce the Lampung alphabets to children. For example, teachers said and showed Lampung script and the students followed and watched. (2) Assignment Method. Method of giving the task is when a task or exercise is intentionally inflicted on children who should be executed properly. This method gives children the opportunity to carry out duties under the direct guidance that has been prepared by the teacher so that children can have a real experience and can thoroughly carry out the task. (3) Direct Practice Method. Teachers provide opportunities for children to practice the pronunciation of Lampung script via VCD shown to the children. (5) Playing Method. Playing method is a way of teaching that can cause a sense of pleasure and delight to children who are involved in it. 2. Supporting and inhibiting factors in Lampung script learning for kindergarten students through Animation Supporting factors in Lampung script learning for kindergarten students through Animation which is based on the analysis results of the study found that teachers are well aware of the importance of Lampung script learning for early childhood students. Teachers are people who take full responsibility in the learning activities for children in school. All kindergarten teachers at TK Rasyidul Jannah have passed bachelor degree so that they can teach well. Persistence and genuine and sincere desire of kindergarten teachers are very influential to learn more about early childhood education. Students of TK Rasyidul Jannah Bandar Lampung are very proud to have this formal education institution. Since this kindergarten was built, children's daily activities become managed. Children are able to go alone to school without being accompanied by their parents. Children willingness in learning the language, reading, writing, and numeracy under the guidance of 148 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

160 teachers causing the majority of kindergarten result in the children being able to read fluently. Communities around this school in Sukarame Bandar Lampung is still bound by a strong local culture. Everything will be done at this school and discussed with the village officials. The parents have understood that all the children in the kindergarten are their responsibility. The school environment is also quite comfortable and healthy for the implementation of learning activities. Clean room conditions and sufficient sunlight make the atmosphere calm and happy. Children can play and explore to develop their skills in introduction to Lampung script learning. Based on the data analysis, factors inhibiting the introduction of Lampung script learning through animation for early childhood students are that the pronunciation of characters in certain scripts are camouflaged by the students, for example, the Ra and Gha script which are almost the same in the pronunciation, are very difficult to be spoken by kindergarten students who tend to pronounce vowels. It is also difficult for kindergarten students to distinguish characters who have almost the same shapes. V. CLOSING A. Conclusion Lampung script learning through animations is very favorable by the children. Learning materials which are presented through animation program are clearly for the students and can attract them well. Through animation the process becomes more interactive and helps teachers and students to perform two-way communication actively during the learning process. With animated Lampung script, the media can arouse students' curiosity and stimulate students to react both physically and emotionally. Learning media can help teachers to make learning more alive, not monotonous or boring, and efficient in time and energy. The introduction to Lampung script literacy through animation learning gives tremendous impact for the students cognitive, emotional, spiritual, and visual development. In addition, children will understand the local culture so that they can become the generation that can preserve their culture, especially the culture of Lampung. B. Suggestions Kindergarten teachers can apply introduction of Lampung script learning through VCD Animation media of Lampung script as often as possible because it can give a lot of benefits. Schools should prepare VCD of introduction Lampung script animation that can be used during school hours. Bibliography Effendi Sanusi, (2013), Tata Bahasa Bahasa Lampung, Universitas Lampung Depdiknas (2006) KTSP TK, Jakarta, Depdikbud Harun dan Zaidatun. (2004). Teknologi Multimedia dalam Pendidikan. Jakarta: Raja Grafindo Persada. Moeslichatoen, (2004) Metode Pengajaran di Taman Kanak-Kanak, Jakarta, PT Andi Mahasatya Peraturan daerah Provinsi Lampung No 20 Tahun 2008 tentang Pemeliharaan Kebudayaan Lampung Sanjaya W, (2009) Strategi Pembelajaran Berorientasi Standar Proses Pendidikan, Jakarta, Kencana Prenada Media Group Sanjaya, Wina, (2012). Media Komunikasi Pembelajaran. Jakarta: Kencana. Sagala, Syaiful. (2007). Teori Belajar dan Pembelajaran. Jogjakarta: Ar-Ruzz Media. Vigotsky, Lev. 1992, Thought and Language, Massachusset, London: The MIT Press Cambridge 149 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

161 Improving Relay Matrices for MIMO Multi-Relay Communication Using Gradient Projection Apriana Toding Dept. Electrical Engineering. Universitas Kristen Indonesia Paulus, Makassar, Sul-Sel 90245, Indonesia Abstract In this paper, we design the optimal relay matrices for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) relay communication systems with parallel relay nodes using the projected gradient (PG) approach. We show that the optimal relay amplifying matrices have a beamforming structure. Using the optimal structure, the relay power loading algorithm is developed to minimize the mean-squared error (MSE) of the signal waveform estimation at the destination node. Simulation result demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed relay amplifying matrix with multiple parallel relay nodes using the PG approach in the system bit-error-rate performance. Index Terms MIMO relay, parallel relay network, beamforming, non-regenerative relay, projected gradient. I. INTRODUCTION In order to establish a reliable wireless communication link, one needs to compensate for the effects of signal fading and shadowing. An efficient way to address this issue is to transmit signals through one or more relays [1]. This can be accomplished via a wireless network consisting of geographically separated nodes. When nodes in the relay system are installed with multiple antennas, we call such system multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) relay communication system. Recently, MIMO relay communication systems have attracted much research interest and provided significant improvement in terms of both spectral efficiency and link reliability. In [3]-[6], the authors have studied the optimal relay amplifying matrix design for the source-relay-destination channel. In [3] and [4], the optimal relay amplifying matrix maximizing the mutual information (MI) between the source and destination nodes was derived assuming that the source covariance matrix is an identity matrix. In [5] and [6], the relay amplifying matrix was designed to minimize the mean-squared error (MSE) of the signal waveform estimation at the destination. In [7], the author investigated the joint source and relay optimization for MIMO relay networks using projected gradient (PG) approach. However, in [2]-[7], the authors investigated the optimal relay amplifying matrix design for two-hop MIMO relay networks with a single relay node. In [8], some linear relaying strategies are presented for multiple relays in MIMO relay networks by making use of local CSI. In [9], the authors investigated the optimal relay amplifying matrices for two-hop MIMO relay networks with multiple parallel relay nodes with sum relay power constraints at the output of the second hop channel. In this paper, we propose the optimal relay matrices for MIMO relay communication systems with parallel relay nodes using the projected gradient (PG) approach which significantly reduces the computational complexity of the optimal design. We show that the optimal relay amplifying matrices have a beamforming structure. In addition to the PG approach, we constrain the power at each relay node which is more practical compared to the constraints in [9] as that constraint may exceed the available power budget at the relay nodes. Simulation result demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed relay amplifying matrix with multiple parallel relay nodes using the PG approach in the system bit-error-rate performance. The rest of this paper is organized as follows. In Section II, we introduce the system model of MIMO relay communication system with parallel relay nodes. The relay matrices design algorithm is developed in Section III. In Section IV, we show some numerical simulations. Conclusions are drawn in Section V. II. SYSTEM MODEL Fig. 1 illustrates a two-hop MIMO relay communication system consisting of one source node, K parallel relay nodes, and one destination node. We assume that the source and destination nodes have N s and N d antennas, respectively, and each relay node has N r antennas. The generalization to the system with different number of antennas at each node is straightforward. To efficiently exploit the system hardware, each relay node uses the same antennas to transmit and receive signals. Due to its merit of simplicity, we consider the amplifyand-forward scheme at each relay. The communication process between the source and destination nodes is completed in two time slots. In the first time slot, the N s 1 source signal vector s is transmitted to relay nodes. The received signal at the ith relay node can be written as y r,i = H sr,i s + v r,i, i = 1,, K (1) where H sr,i is the N r N s MIMO channel matrix between the source and the ith relay node, y r,i and v r,i are the received signal and the additive Gaussian noise vectors at the ith relay node, respectively. In the second time slot, the source node is silent, while each relay node transmits the amplified signal vector to the 150 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

162 destination node as x r,i = F i y r,i, i = 1,, K (2) where F i is the N r N r amplifying matrix at the ith relay node. Thus the received signal vector at the destination node can be written as K y d = H rd,i x r,i + v d (3) i=1 where H rd,i is the N d N r MIMO channel matrix between the ith relay and the destination node, y d and v d are the received signal and the additive Gaussian noise vectors at the destination node, respectively. Substituting (1)-(2) into (3), we have K y d = (H rd,i F i H sr,i s + H rd,i F i v r,i ) + v d i=1 = H rd FH sr s + H rd Fv r + v d = Hs + ṽ (4) where H sr [H T sr,1, H T sr,2,, H T sr,k ]T is a KN r N s channel matrix between the source node and all relay nodes, H rd [H rd,1, H rd,2,, H rd,k ] is an N d KN r channel matrix between all relay nodes and the destination node, F bd[f 1, F 2,, F K ] is the KN r KN r block diagonal equivalent relay matrix, v r [ ] vr,1, T vr,2, T, vr,k T T is obtained by stacking the noise vectors at all the relays, H H rd FH sr as the effective MIMO channel matrix of the source-relay-destination link, and ṽ H rd Fv r + v d as the equivalent noise vector. Here ( ) T denotes the matrix (vector) transpose, and bd[ ] stands for a block-diagonal matrix. We assume that all noises are independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) Gaussian noise with zero mean and unit variance. The transmission power consumed by each relay node (2) can be expressed as E[tr(x r,i x H r,i)] = tr ( [ F i Hsr,i H H ] ) sr,i + I Nr F H i, i = 1,, K (5) where E[ ] denotes statistical expectation, tr( ) stands for the matrix trace, and ( ) H denotes the matrix (vector) Hermitian transpose. Using a linear receiver, the estimated signal waveform vector at the destination node is given by ŝ = W H y d, where W is an N d N s weight matrix. The minimal MSE (MMSE) approach tries to find a weight matrix W that minimizes the statistical expectation of the signal waveform estimation given by ( [ (ŝ )(ŝ ) ]) H MSE = tr E s s ( (W )( ) ) H = tr H INs W H H+W H INs H CW (6) where C is the equivalent noise covariance matrix given by C = E [ ṽṽ H] = H rd FF H H H rd + I N d. The weight matrix W which minimizes (6) is the Wiener filter and can be written as W = ( H H H + C) 1 H (7) where ( ) 1 denotes the matrix inversion. Substituting (7) back into (6), it can be seen that the MSE is a function of F can be written as ( [ MSE = tr I Ns + H ] ) 1 H C 1 H (8) III. MINIMAL MSE RELAY DESIGN In this section, we address the relay amplifying matrices optimization problem for systems with a linear receiver at the destination node. In particular, we show that the optimal relay matrices has a general beamforming structure. Base on (5) and (8), the relay amplifying matrices optimization problem can be formulated as min {F i } s.t. ( [ tr I Ns + H ] ) 1 H C 1 H (9) tr ( F i [ Hsr,i H H sr,i+i Nr ] F H i ) Pr,i, i = 1,, K(10) where (10) is the power constraint at the relay node, and P r,i > 0 is the corresponding power budget availabe at the ith relay. A. Optimal Relay Design Using Projected Gradient (PG) Approach Let us introduce the following singular value decompositions (SVD) H sr,i = U s,i Λ s,i V H s,i, H rd,i = U r,i Λ r,i V H r,i (11) where Λ s,i and Λ r,i are R s R s and R r R r diagonal matrix. Here R s rank(h sr,i ), R r rank(h rd,i ), rank( ) denotes the rank of a matrix. The following theorem states the structure of the optimal F i. THEOREM 1: The optimal structure of F i as the solution to the problem (9)-(10) is given by F i = V r,1 A i U H s,1, i = 1,, K (12) where A i is an R R diagonal matrix and R min(r s, R r ).. PROOF: Without loss of generality, F i can be written as F i = [ V r,1 V r,1 ] [ A i X i Y i Z i ] [ U H s,1 (U s,1) H ] i = 1,, K (13) where Vr,1(V r,1) H =I Nr V r,1 Vr,1, H U s,1(u s,1) H =I Nr U s,1 U H s,1, such that [V r,1, Vr,1] and [U s,1, U s,1] are unitary matrices. The matrices A i, X i, Y i, Z i are arbitrary matrices with dimensions of R R, R (N r R), (N r R) R, (N r R) (N r R), respectively. Substituting (13) back into (9), we obtain that H rd,i F i H sr,i = U r,i Λ r,i A i Λ s,i Vs,i H and H rd,i F i F H i HH rd,i = K i=1 U r,iλ r,i (A i A H i +X ix H i )ΛH r,i UH r,i. Thus we can rewrite equation (9) as ([ ( K K MSE =tr I Ns + V s,i Λ H s,ia H i Λ H r,iu H r,i U r,i Λ r,i (A i A H i + i=1 i=1 ] 1 X i X H i )Λ H r,iu H r,i + I Nd ) 1 K i=1 U r,i Λ r,i A i Λ s,i V H s,i i = 1,,K. (14) 151 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

163 TABLE I PROCEDURE OF APPLYING THE PROJECTED GRADIENT ALGORITHM TO SOLVE THE PROBLEM (15) - (16) 1) Initialize the algorithm at a feasible A (0) i for i = 1,, K; Set n = 0. 2) Compute the gradient of (15) f(a (n) i ); Project Ã(n) i = A (n) i s n f(a (n) i ) to obtain Ā(n) i. Update A i with A (n+1) i = A (n) i + δ n(ā(n) i A (n) i ) 3) if max abs A (n+1) i A (n) i ε, then end. Otherwise, let n := n + 1 and go to step 2). Substituting (11) back into the left-hand-side of the transmission power constraint (10), we have tr ( A i (Λ 2 s,i + I N r )A H i + Y i(λ 2 s,i + I N r )Y i + X i X H i + Z ) iz H i. From (13), we find that X i = 0 R (Nr R), Y i = 0 (Nr R) R, and Z i =0 (Nr R) (N r R), minimize the power consumption. Thus we have F i = V r,i A i U H s,i. The remaining task is to find the optimal A i, i = 1,, K. From (14), we can write the optimization problem as ([ ( K K min tr I Ns + V s,i Λ H A i s,ia H i Λ H r,iu H r,i U r,i Λ r,i A i i=1 i=1 ] 1 A H i Λ H r,iu H r,i + I Nd ) 1 K i=1 s.t. tr ( A i (Λ 2 s,i + I Nr )A H i P r,i ), U r,i Λ r,i A i Λ s,i V H s,i (15) i = 1,, K. (16) Both the problem (9)-(10) and the problem (15)-(16) have matrix optimization variable. However, in the former problem, the optimization variable F i is an N r N r matrix. In general, the problem (15) - (16) is nonconvex and globally optimal solution is difficult to obtain with a reasonable computational complexity. Fortunately, we can resort to numerical methods, such as the projected gradient algorithm [11] to find (at least) a locally optimal solution of (15) - (16). The procedure of the projected gradient algorithm is listed in Table I, where δ n and s n denote the step size parameters at the nth iteration. max abs denote the maximum among the absolute value of all elements in a matrix, and ε is a positive ( constant close to 0. [ THEOREM 2: If f(a i ) = tr I Ns + H ] ) 1 H C 1 H is chosen as the objective function, then its gradient f(a i ) with respect to A i can be calculated by using results on derivatives of matrices in [13] as f(a i ) = 2 ( [M i R i ] T [S i C i ] T + [M i R i ] T [D i ] T [E H i G 1 i R i ] T [S i ] T ) i = 1,, K. (17) PROOF: See Appendix A. The projection of à i onto the feasible set of Ā i given by (16) is performed by solving the following optimization problem min tr ( (Āi Ãi)(Āi Ãi) H) (18) Ā i s.t. tr ( Ā i (Λ 2 ) s,i+ I )ĀH Nr i Pr,i. (19) By using the Lagrange multiplier method, the solution to the problem (18)-(19) is given by Ā i = Ãi[(λ + 1)I Nr + λλ 2 s,i] 1 where λ > 0 is the solution to the nonlinear equation tr (Ãi [(λ+ 1)I Nr + λλ 2 s,i] 1 (Λ 2 s,i+ I Nr ) ) [(λ+ 1)I Nr + λλ 2 s,i] 1 à H i =P r,i. (20) Equation (20) can be efficiently solved by the bisection method [11]. The step size parameters δ n and s n are determined by the Armijo rule [11], i.e., s n = s is a constant through all iterations, while at the nth iteration, δ n is set to be γ m n. Here m n is the terminal nonnegative integer that satisfies the following ( inequality MSE(A (n+1) i ) ) MSE(A (n) i ) αγ m n realtr ( f(a i ) (n) ) H (Ā(n) i A (n) i ), where α and γ are constants. According to [11], usually α is chosen close to 0, for example αε[10 5, 10 1 ], while a proper choice of γ is normally from 0.1 to 0.5. B. Simplified Design By introducing F H rd F. (21) The received signal vector at the destination can be equivalently written as y d = Hs + v, where H FH sr, and v Fv r + v d. Considering (2) and (21), the transmission power consumed at the output of H rd can be expressed as E[tr((H rd x r )(H rd x r ) H )] = tr ( F[ Hsr H H sr+i KNr ] FH ) tr(h rd,i H H rd,i)tr ( F i [ Hsr,i H H sr,i+i Nr ] F H i ). (22) Substituting (10) into (22) we have tr ( F[ Hsr H H sr+i KNr ] FH ) K K P r,i i=1 i=1 tr(h rd,i H H rd,i). (23) Here K i=1 P r,i P r, is the total transmission power budget available to all K relay nodes. Using (23), the relaxed relay optimization problem can be written as min F s.t. ( [INs tr + H H 1 ) C 1 H] (24) tr ( F[ Hsr H H sr+i KNr ] FH ) P r, i = 1,,K(25) where P r P r tr(h rd H H rd ). Let H sr = U s Λ s V H s denote the singular value decomposition (SVD) of H sr, where the dimensions of U s, Λ s, V s are KN r KN r, KN r N s, N s N s, respectively. We assume that the main diagonal elements of Λ s is arranged in a decreasing order. Using Theorem 1 in [10], the optimal structure of F as the solution to the problem (24)-(25) is given by F = QΛ f U H s,1 (26) 152 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

164 where Q is any N d N s semi-unitary matrix with Q H Q = I Ns, U s,1 contain the leftmost N b columns of U s, and Λ f is an N s N s diagonal matrix. The proof of (26) is similar to the proof of Theorem 1 in [10]. From (26), we see that the optimal F has a beamforming structure. In fact, the optimal F diagonalizes the source-relay-destination channel H up to a rotation matrix Q. Using (26), the relay optimization problem (24)-(25) becomes ( [ I +( ) ] ] ) Ns Λ f Λ s [Λ 2f + I Ns min Λ f tr (27) s.t. tr ( Λ 2 f [ Λ 2 s +I Ns ]) Pr. (28) Let us denote λ f,i, λ s,i, i = 1,, N s, as the main diagonal elements of Λ f, Λ s, respectively, and introduce a i λ 2 s,i, y i λ 2 f,i[ λ 2 s,i +1 ], i = 1,, N s.(29) The optimization problem (27)-(28) can be equivalently rewritten as min y s.t. N s i=1 N s a i x i + y i + 1 a i x i y i + a i x i + y i + 1 (30) y i P r y i 0, i = 1,, N s (31) i=1 where y [y 1, y 2,, y Ns ] T. The problem (30)-(31) can be solved by an iterative method developed in [10], where in iteration, y is updated alternatingly by fixing the other vector. After the optimal y is found, λ f,i can be obtained from (29) as λ f,i = yi λ 2 s,i x i + 1, i = 1,, N s. (32) Using (21) and the optimal structure of F in (26), we have H rd,i F i = QΛ f Φ i, where matrix Φ i contains the (i 1)N r + 1 to in r columns of U H s,1. Then we obtain F i = H rd,i QΛ f Φ i, i = 1,, K (33) where ( ) denotes matrix pseudo-inverse. Finally, we scale F i in (33) to satisfy the power constraint (10) at each relay node as F i = α i F i, i = 1,, K (34) where the scaling factor α i is given by α i = P r,i /tr(f i [H sr,i H H sr,i + I N r ]F H i ), i = 1,, K. IV. SIMULATIONS In this section, we study the performance of the proposed optimal relay beamforming algorithms for parallel MIMO relay systems with linear MMSE receiver. All simulations are conducted in a flat Rayleigh fading environment where the channel matrices have zero-mean entries with variance σs/n 2 s and σr/(kn 2 r ) for H sr and H rd, respectively. The BPSK constellations are used to modulate the source symbols, and all noise are i.i.d Gaussian with zero mean and unit variance. We define SNR s = σ 2 sp s KN r /N s and SNR r = σ 2 rp r N d /(KN r ) as the signal-to-noise ration (SNR) for the source-relay link and the relay-destination link, respectively. We transmit N s 1000 randomly generated bits in each channel realization, and all simulation results are averaged over 200 channel realizations. In all simulations, the MMSE linear receiver in (7) is employed at the destination for symbol detection. In our example, a parallel MIMO relay system with K = 2 relay nodes, N s = N d = 5, and N r = 4 are simulated. We compare the BER performance of the propose optimal relay matrices using Projected Gradient (ORP) algorithm in (12) with ZF algorithm in [8], MMSE algorithm in [8], and the naive amplify-and-forward (NAF) Algorithm. While Fig. 2 demonstrates BER versus SNR s for SNR r fixed at 20 db. It can be seen that the propose algorithm outperforms all competing algorithms in the whole SNR s range. V. CONCLUSIONS In this paper, we have derived the general structure of the optimal relay amplifying matrices for parallel MIMO relay communication systems using the projected gradient approach. The proposed algorithm has less computational complexity compared to the existing techniques. Simulation result shows the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. VI. APPENDIX Base on (11) and (12), we have H sr,i = U s,i Λ s,i Vs,i H, H rd,i =U r,i Λ r,i Vr,i H, F i=v r,i A i U H s,i, K i=1 H rd,if i H sr,i = K i=1 U r,iλ r,i A i Λ s,i Vs,i H, and K i=1 H rd,if i F H i HH rd,i = K i=1 U r,iλ r,i A i A H i ΛH r,i UH r,i. Thus f(a i) can be written as ([ ( K K f(a i ) = tr I Ns + V s,i Λ H s,ia H i Λ H r,iu H r,i U r,i Λ r,i A i i=1 i=1 ] A H i Λ H r,iu H ) K 1 1 r,i+i Nd U r,i Λ r,i A i Λ s,i Vs,i H i=1 Let us define Z H i K j=1,j i V s,jλ H s,j AH j ΛH r,j UH r,j, and Y i K j=1,j i U r,jλ r,j A j A H j ΛH r,j UH r,j +I N d. Then f(a i ) can be written as f(a i ) = tr ([ I Ns +(Z H i +V s,i Λ H s,ia H i Λ H r,iu H r,i)(y i +U r,i Λ r,i A i A H i Λ H r,iu H r,i) 1 (U r,i Λ r,i A i Λ s,i Vs,i+Z H i ) ] ) 1 Applying [ I Ns +A H C 1 A ] 1 = INs A H (AA H +C) 1 A. Then, (36) can be written as f(a i ) = tr [ I Ns (Z H i + V s,i Λ H s,ia H i Λ H r,iu H r,i)((u r,i Λ r,i A i Λ s,i Vs,i H + Z i )(Z H i + V s,i Λ H s,ia H i Λ H r,iu H r,i) +(Y i + U r,i Λ r,i A i A H i Λ H r,iu H r,i)) 1 (35) (36) (U r,i Λ r,i A i Λ s,i V H s,i + Z i ) ]. (37) 153 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

165 Let us now define E i U r,i Λ r,i A i Λ s,i Vs,i H + Z i, K i Y i + U r,i Λ r,i A i A H i ΛH r,i UH r,i, and G i E i E H i + K i. We can rewrite (37) as f(a i )= tr [ I Ns E H i G 1 ] [ i E i =tr INs E i E H i G 1 ] i.(38) Then the derivative of f(a i ) with respect to A i is given by f(a i ) = tr [ E i E H i G 1 ] i A i A i = tr [ G 1 i E i E H i G 1 ] i G i A i tr[e H i G 1 i U r,i Λ r,i A i Λ s,i V A s,i] H i = tr [ G 1 i E i E H i G 1 i ((U r,i Λ r,i A i Λ s,i A i Vs,i H + Z i )(Z H i + V s,i Λ H s,ia H i Λ H r,iu H r,i) +(Y i + U r,i Λ r,i A i Ai H Λ H r,iu H r,i) )] [E H i G 1 i U r,i Λ r,i ] T [Λ s,i V H s,i] T. (39) Defining M i G 1 i E i E H i G 1 i, C i E H i, and D i A H i ΛH r,i UH r,i, we can rewrite (39) as A i f(a i ) = A i tr [ M i (U r,i Λ r,i A i Λ s,i V H s,i + Z i )C i +M i (Y i + U r,i Λ r,i A i D i )] [E H i G 1 i U r,i Λ r,i ] T [Λ s,i V H s,i] T. (40) Here R i U r,i Λ r,i, and S i Λ s,i Vs,i H, we can rewrite (40) as A i f(a i ) = Finally, the gradient is given by f(a i ) A i tr [M i R i A i S i C i +M i R i A i D i ] [E H i G 1 i R i ] T [S i ] T. = 2 ( [M i R i ] T [S i C i ] T + [M i R i ] T [D i ] T (41) [E H i G 1 i R i ] T [S i ] T ). (42) REFERENCES [1] R. Pabst, B. H. Walke, D. C. Schultz, D. C. Herhold, H. Yanikomeroglu, S. Mukherjee, H. Viswanathan, M. Lott, W. Zirwas, M. Dohler, H. Aghvami, D. D. Falconer, and G. P. Fettweis, Relay-based deployment concepts for wireless and mobile broadband radio, IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 42, pp , Sep [2] B. Wang, J. Zhang, and A. Høst-Madsen, On the capacity of MIMO relay channels, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 51, pp , Jan [3] X. Tang and Y. Hua, Optimal design of non-regenerative MIMO wireless relays, IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 6, pp , Apr [4] O. Muñoz-Medina, J. Vidal, and A. Agustín, Linear transceiver design in nonregenerative relays with channel state information, IEEE Trans. Signal Process., vol. 55, pp , Jun [5] W. Guan and H. Luo, Joint MMSE transceiver design in nonregenerative MIMO relay systems, IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 12, pp , Jul s x 1 x 2 x Ns... Hsr vr F 1 F 2... F K Hrd... vd Source R elay D estin atio n Fig. 1. Block diagram of a parallel MIMO relay communication system. Average BER SNRs (db) y 1 y 2 y Nd W NAF Algorithm ZF Algorithm [8] MMSE Algorithm [8] Optimal Relay Algorithm Fig. 2. BER versus SNR s while fixing SNR r = 20dB. N s = N d = 5, and N r = 4. [6] G. Li, Y. Wang, T. Wu, and J. Huang, Joint linear filter design in multiuser cooperative non-regenerative MIMO relay systems, EURASIP J. Wireless Commun. Networking, vol. 2009, Article ID [7] Y. Rong, Joint source and relay optimization for two-way linear non-regenerative MIMO relay communications, IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 8, pp , Dec [8] O. Oyman and A. J. Paulraj, Design and analysis of linear distributed MIMO relaying algorithms, IEE Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng., Commun., pp , Aug [9] A. S. Behbahani, R. Merched, and A. M. Eltawil, Optimizations of a MIMO relay network, IEEE Trans. Signal Process., vol. 56, pp , Oct [10] Y. Rong, X. Tang, and Y. Hua, A unified framework for optimizing linear non-regenerative multicarrier MIMO relay communication systems, IEEE Trans. Signal Process., vol. 57, pp , Dec [11] D. P. Bertsekas, Nonlinear Programming. 2nd. Edition, Athena Scientific, Belmont, Massachusetts, [12] S. Boyd and L, Vandenberghe, Convex Optimizationh. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, [13] K. B. Petersen and M. S. Petersen, The Matrix Cookbook. [Online]. Available: ŝ 154 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

166 DETERMINATION MODEL OF INDEPENDENT BUSINESS CREDIT "GRAMEENBANK" PATTERN USING SIMPLE ADDITIVE WAIGHTING (SAW) METHOD TO ENHANCING THE RURAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT Satria Abadi, Sri Hartati STMIK Pringsewu Jl.Wismarini 9. Pringsewu Lampung-Indonesia ABSTRACT This research aims to determine the aid credit program "grameenbank" by using Simple Additive Waighting (SAW) method in rural communities as a resource empowerment of rural women towards economic development of the region. The determination of the criteria is to perfom the weight on the existing.criteria which applied to the decisions making. The software program can generate customers were selected as recipients grameenbank aid credit program. The Independent Business Credit system is a replication of the pattern ofcredit 'Grameen Bank' (Meaning Village Bank developed in Bangladesh to serve the poor people) who have adapted their implementation in Indonesia. Credit package provided through this institutional adjusted to the conditions and the ability of their poor, so that they are able to increase revenues and at the same time is able to be trusted because it can repay loans with discipline. These results indicate that the Simple Additive Waighting (SAW) method can effectively help in the decision making and to determine prospective customers that receiver program in rural districts Gemahripah Pringsewu. This program enhancing empowerment of rural women towards economic development of the region. Keywords: Grameen Bank, Simple Additive Waighting (SAW) Method 1. INTRODUCTION Empowerment of rural women towards the improvement of human capital is critical and strategic in the development of rural areas (Anwar,2001), as it can contribute to growth, improving efficiency and reducing poverty (Todaro,2007). Empowerment of women in economic activities will face obstacles because basically there is gender discrimination against female roles in the family and society. This gender discrimination causes women have limited access to education facilities and access to capital resources and other constraint, causing productivity female relative lower than the man (Sulistiyani, 2002) Based on the employment people in the district of Pringsewu, agriculture is the most sector chosen by the population to make a living, that is equal to percent, the trade sector (13.11%) and industry (6, 11%) were the second the sectors largest and third most widely chosen by Pesawaran people to work, data source from Sakernas Pringsewu in In the district Pringsewu, there is existing alternative financial institution that is a replication of the pattern of Credit "Grameen Bank" that prioritize credit for women. One of these institutions is a Independent Business Credit' or KUM which has been implemented in the district, especially in rural Gemahripah Pringsewu, is one of the products of BMT (Baitul Maal Wat Tamwil) NINE SEVEN. Below is the development of customer BMT Nine Seven (Year ): 155 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

167 Table 1 Data Development Customer Numbers and Total Financing Year Year Number Customer Customer Kab. Pringsewu Total financing million million million Source: BMT 97 million Percentage (%) 10.8% 12.3% 15.6% 16.4% KUM credit system is a replication of the pattern of credit 'Grameen Bank' (Meaning Village Bank developed in Bangladesh to serve the poor) which has been adapted implementation in Indonesia. Credit package provided through this institutional adjusted to the conditions and the ability of the poor, so that they are able to increase revenues and at the same time is able to be trusted because it can repay loans with discipline (Anwar, 2000) Package loans granted by credit institutions is preferred for women, because based on experience of the implementation of Grameen Bank both in his native Bangladesh and replication in Malaysia, it turns out women are more able to customers in terms of discipline to restore credit and real and can increase family income greater than with men (Suharto, 2007). Jatiningrum and Herlina (2013) proves that the customer returns KUM dominated by female customers have a smoothness level of the highest loan repayment compared with other rural credit bank customers. This shows that the community empowerment program especially women very feasible to be developed to improve the well-being of families, especially in the poor society. 2.GRAMEEN BANK (Village Bank) Grameen Bank (Village Bank) was established in Bangladesh by Professor Muhammad Yunus, Chittagon University economics professor. The Bank founder discouraged by existing banking kenyataaan Bangadesh not serve women, the blind and the poor, because of reasons: 1) Poor people do not have the goods or assets that can be used as collateral, 2) So the poor illiterate can not fill out the forms complicated, 3) Bank prefer large loans in small numbers than small loans in large numbers because make dificulties or Bank and contains a high risk, 4)Banking worried lending received can not cover the cost of Bank servicing. (Rahasan and Mat Thanksgiving, (2007), Suharto (2007)).This fact makes a lot of poor people who fall and depend on moneylenders which sets high interest. This bothered Professor Muhammad Yunus to set up a bank that can reach the poor. Granting credit assistance is very important so that they can increase their income.and it turns out they also were able to repay the loan (Suharto and Hafid, 2007). In Indonesia, the pattern of Grameen Bank credit has been replicated in the form of program Usaha Karya Mandiri (KUM) which has been implemented in several subdistricts Pesawaran, Lampung province. Three Principles KUM is (1) does not require collateral and guarantors; (2) the borrower subject to administrative costs, and (3) if the borrower dies, the heirs are not required to pay the remaining credit 3.Multiple Attribute Decision Making (MADM) Multiple Attribute Decision Making (MADM) is a method used to find the optimal alternative of a number of alternatives to certain criteria. The essence of MADM is determining weights for each attribute value, then proceed with the ranking process that will select the alternative that has been given. Basically, there are three approaches to find the value weights of attributes, namely subjective approach, objective approach and an integrated approach between subjectively and objectively. (Wibowo, 2009). Each approach has its advantages and disadvantages. In the subjective approach, the weight value is determined based on the subjectivity of the decision makers, so that some of the factors in the ranking process can be determined freely alternative. While the objective approach, the weight value is calculated mathematically so that ignores the subjectivity of decision- 156 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

168 International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN makers. (Kusumadewi, 2007). This research purposes are: 1) Determine criteria and weights of KUM with "Grameenbank" Pattern Using the SAW Method For Empowerment of Rural Women Resource Toward Regional Economic Development. 2) Create a program to assist decision making to determination of customers Banking with "Grameenbank" pattern using SAW Method. 4. Simple Method Additive Waighting (SAW ) Method Simple method Additive Waighting often also known term weighted summation method. The basic concept is to find a method of SAW weighted summation of rating the performance of each alternative on all attributes. SAW method requires the decision matrix normalizationn process (X) to a scale which can be compared with all existing alternative rating. and customers are includedd in the category is not problematic. Output Analysis needs The output expected from this research to get the model to determine the relief work of independent businesses in rural communities Gemahripah district of Pringsewu. Criteria required Value and weight taken from criteria to determine KUM program that variables used by researchers, are :C1= Age, C2 = Status of land ownership, C3= Number of family members, C4= Rate Income/Family earnings C5= Number of dependents Family C6= Nearness of business facilities C7= Conditions of Housing C8= Level of Education C9= Type of Work, C10= Benefit of Operations. And the existing of criteria then weighted and then created software with a range of assessment as follows:1) No Good (NG) = Value 20, 2) Less of Good (LB) = Value 40; 3) Good Enough (GE) = Value 60; 4) Good (G) = Value 80; ;5)Very Good (VG) = Value 100; where rij is the normalized performance rating of alternatives on attribute Ai Cj; i = 1,2,..., m and j = 1,,2,..., n. Preference value for each alternative (Vi) is given as: Vi larger value indicates that the alternative Ai is selected. In the study authors took a sample using random judgment sampling method, ie random sampling based on the consideration, the respondents in this study were female customers KUM program village of Gemahripah with some considerations such as: Customer woman, residents who live in Pringsewu Gemahripah village Lampung, long been a customer of more than 2 years, After the selection process criteria through a questionnaire of customers eligible to give answers to the selected criteria. Based on results of the questionnaire answers after calculating the percentage of respondents. Criteria for determining KUM program are: C1= Age, C2 = Status of Land Ownership, C3= Number of family members, C4= Rate Income / Family earnings, C5 = Number of dependents Family, C6= Type of Work To obtain these variables was made in a graph so more clearly in the picture. TB KB CB Baik SB International Conferences on Information Technology and Businesss (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

169 Table 2 Determining of Customers Criteria CUSTOMERS Customer 1(A1) Customer 2 (A2) Customer 3 (A3) Age C Land ownership C2 650 m m 2 900m 2 status Number of Family Members C Income level 2.5 million 2.7 million/ 3.6 million / Family C4 / month month / month Earnings Total Dependent C Family Type Of Work C6 farmer entrepreneurship farmer Based on the data above can be formed applicants a decision matrix X that has been converted with fuzzy numbers (Khoirudin,2008), as follows: Table 3 Determining of Customers Criteria Alternative C1 C2 C3 C4 C 5 C 6 A A A Provides decision-making weight, based on the level of importance of each criterion as follows: Vector Weight: W = [0.4, 0.8, 0.6, 1,00]. The criteria of customers who receive assistance KUM above by the following intervals: = Less Good; = Good; = Very Good. The matrix multiplication W * R then get the results as: V 1 = , V 2 = 2.382, V 3 = 1.75, the largest value of the sum of the above matrix is V 2, thus alternative A 2 (Client 2) is eligible banking customers to receive KUM program. 5.CONCLUSION These results indicate that the Simple Additive Waighting (SAW) method effectively to determine prospective customers that the receiver KUM program in rural Gemahripah districts of Pringsewu. This program enhancing empowerment of rural women towards economic development of the region..references Amborowati, Amardyah Employee Selection Decision Support System Based on Performance Achievement. National Symposium on Technology Information Department of Informatics, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Islamic University of Indonesiahttp://puslit.petra.ac.id/jurnals/industrial. Anwar.A,, Labor Women's Empowerment toward Human Capital Improvements in Regional Economic Development (Lecture Materials Research Methodology) Bogor. Unpublished Anwar.A, Spatial Development Perspective (Spatial) Regional Rural Regional Development in order. Bogor. Not published. Anwar.A, Role of Microcredit for Alleviation of Poor People in Rural Areas (The Role of Microcredit Scheme for Provety Alleviation in Rural Areas). Not published. BPS of Pesawaran District Pesawaran district in the numbers. BPS. Pesawaran BPS of Lampung Province Lampung province in the numbers. BPS. Lampung. Fauzi, A Principles of Social Research Department of Socio-economic brief Economy Bogor Agricultural University. Jatiningrum, Citrawati. and Herlina The Rural Women's Empowerment Resources to improvement of human capital In Regional Economic Development. Grand of Research Kopertis Region II. 158 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

170 Khoirudin, Akhmad Arwan Determination of Eligibility Decision Support System Prospective International School Fuzzy Associative Memory Method Department of Informatics, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Islamic University of Indonesia Kusumadewi, Sri Fuzzy Quantification Theory for Analysis of Relationship between Performance Assessment by Student Lecturer, Lecturer Attendance and Graduation value. Media Informatics. Department of Informatics, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Islamic University of Indonesia. Kusumadewi, Sri Search Attributes Weight- In Multiple Attribute Decision Making with Objective Approach Using Genetic Algorithm.Accessed on 17 April 2009 from kusumadewi-jurnal-genetika.pdf Kusumadewi, Sri., Hartati, S., Harjoko, A., and Ward, R Fuzzy Multi-Attribute Decision Making (FUZZY MADM). Yogyakarta: Graha Science Publishers. Munasinge, M The Economic's Approach to Sustainable Development. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank Washington DCUSA. Raharjo, Jani Application of Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process in Selection Employee, Department of Industrial Technology. Faculty of Industrial Technology Retra Christian University. Rasahan, CA and Mat Thanksgiving. Usaha Karya Mandiri New Directions in Rural Reaching the Poorest Group, Institute of Bankers Indonesia. Jakarta. Saefulhakim, S Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and Factors Analysis (FA). Modeling of Land Resources Development Planning, Land Juruan. Bogor Agricultural Institute. Serangadin, I and Andrew Steer Epilogue: Expanding The Capital Stock. Making Sustainable Development: From Concept to Action.The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank. Washington.C. USA. Sinha, BRK Measuring methodological Concept of Human Resource Development. Regional Planning and Sustainable Development.Kaniskha Publisher. New Dehli. India. Suharto, P and Hafid A. Implementation Patterns Grameen Bank in Bangladesh and Malaysia. Monetasi Rural. Anthology Finance Indonesian Bankers Institute. Jakarta. Sulistiyani, Esti Rural Women's Empowerment Resources Toward Human Capital in Regional Economic Development Thesis Bogor Agricultural University. Sumodiningrat, G Regional Development and Community Development, Second Edition. PT. Bina Rena Prawara. Jakarta. Todaro, MP. 2009, Economic Development in the Third World, Sixth Edition (Translation). Jakarta. PT. Erland. Wibowo, Hary., Amalia, Riska., Fadlum, Andi., Arivianty, Kurnia The decision to Define Scholarship BRI Using FMADM. SNATI Department of Informatics, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Islamic University of Indonesia Winoto, J Study Materials Regional Economic Planning of Rural. Jakarta. World Bank. 2001, Engendering Development: Though Gender Equality in Rights, Resources and Voice (World Bank Research Report) A Copublication of the World Bank and Oxford University Press. 159 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

171 COMPOSITE STOCK PRICE INDEX (IHSG) MACRO FACTOR IN INVESTMENT IN STOCK (EQUITY FUNDS) Andi Desfiandi, Abshor Marantika Informatics and Business Institute Darmajaya Lampung Province, Indonesia ABSTRACT Investors often find it difficult to valuate and purchase stocks with good performance that provide optimum yields. Inadequate information regarding how to make good investments is one of the main reasons why people lose interest to invest in capital market. The purpose of this research is to find a stock performance measurement model by using accounting and financial management system that is made by using the information from stocks turnover ratio and risk level of stocks. This performance measurement model can be an important tool for investors to identify the stock performance factor. Therefore, investors can valuate and purchase stocks with optimum performance and yields. US Dollar (USD)/ Indonesian Rupiah (IDR) rate has significantly negative influence on Indonesian Composite Price Index (IHSG) movement since a depreciation of IDR discourages investors to invest in Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX). Therefore, the investors divert their investments from stock market to foreign exchange market to arbitrage. Straits Times Index (STI) has significantly positive influence on IHSG since Singapore and Indonesia share common investors that causes the movement of STI is followed by the movement of IHSG. KEYWORDS: Performance, Mutual Funds, Risk Stock. 1. INTRODUCTION The movement of stock price index can be influenced by several external factors, either from within country or from foreign countries (Ilham, 2014). The factors come from within country can be formed as macroeconomic factors such as, the change of exchange rate, level of interest rate, inflation, and gross domestic product (GDP). Whereas, the factors come from foreign countries are either globally integrated capital market or the economic situation in a country. Exchange rate is one of macroeconomic variables which influences the stock price index. When IDR is depreciated against USD, the price of imported goods is more expensive which affects domestic companies that use imported goods as their production factors. The price level also has an impact on the movement of stock price because inflation reduces the value of money. According to Tandelilin (2010), inflation, relatively, is a negative signal for investors in capital market. If the investors are discouraged to invest in a company, it will decrease the stock price of that company. Regional stock price index in Asia which is used as a reference for investors to make investment in IDX is STI. Singapore is one of the most developed countries in Southeast Asia and located near Indonesia. Therefore, the economic situation in Singapore could affect the economic situation in Indonesia. 160 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

172 2. LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Random Walk Theory Random walk theory states that the change of a stock price (equity) or the whole market which has been incurred cannot be used to predict the stock price movement in future. The change of one stock price has no influence on other stock prices and has similar probable distribution (Mills, 1999). According to him, if the market is efficient, it means that the current marketable security price cannot be reflected from the price in the past. Therefore, he concludes that the marketable security price is random or disordered (Sunariyah book, 2011:186). 2.2 Domino Theory (Contagion Effect Theory) Indonesia, as one of the developing countries in Asia, still depends on the economic condition of foreign countries in terms of investments. As a consequence, the condition of capital market in Indonesia is influenced by foreign conditions, particularly the condition of capital market in developed countries (Wandobio, 2006). The Domino Effect is the chain reaction which is happened when there is a change, either small or big, that causes a similar change nearby in which will cause another similar changes too. The Domino Effect can be used to describe the chain reaction for a certain activity. 2.3 Investment Tandelilin (2010:2) states that investment is a commitment of funds or other resources which is made at present time to obtain yield in the future. An investor purchases equity at present time purposely to gain profit from a difference in equity price or to gain dividends, as a reward from the time spent and risk taken related to the investment, in the future. According to Tandelilin (2010:12), the decision process of investment consists of five decision levels that run until the best decision for the investment is made. 2.4 Mutual Funds The first mutual fund in the world was Massachusetts Investors Trust, which was established on 21 March 1924, had two hundreds investors in the first year with total assets worth of USD 392,000. In 1929, when the capital market crashed, the growth of mutual funds industry was slowed. Pozen (1998) states that A mutual funds is an investment company that pools money from shareholders and invest in a diversified of securities. Investing through mutual funds attracts investors because they do not have to analyze and monitor the market condition continuously and do not require huge capital to invest. The investment is made and monitored by intermediary, that is, investment manager. 3. STATEMENT OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS H 1 : Rate to Composite Stock Price Index (IHSG) H 2 : Inflation to Composite Stock Price Index (IHSG) H 3 : Dow Jones Index to Composite Stock Price Index (IHSG) H 4 : Straits Times Index to Composite Stock Price Index (IHSG) 161 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

173 4. RESEARCH METHOD The purpose of data analysis is to classify the data based on variable and respondents, and to make data tabulation based on variable of all respondents, providing data of each controlled variables and making calculation to test the hypothesis. 4.1 Data Collection The data which is used for this research is secondary data since the author observes not directly from the investors but from IDX data and literature reviews that are related to this research. The data can be obtained from IDX, Bapepam-LK, and Bank of Indonesia websites. 4.2 Methodology In this research, there is one dependent variable and four independent variables. The independent variables or variables (X) are USD/ IDR rate, inflation, Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA), and STI. The dependent variable or variable (Y) is Composite Stock Price Index (IHSG). Partial regression test model in this research as follows: 1) The effect of exchange rate to IHSG model IHSG = α + β 1 R + µ... (4.2.1) This linear model is used to answer the Hypotheses 1 which state that there is a negative correlation between USD/ IDR rate and IHSG movement. 2) The effect of inflation to IHSG model IHSG = β 0 + β 2 I + µ... (4.2.2) This linear model is used to answer the Hypotheses 2 which state that there is a negative correlation between inflation and IHSG movement. 3) The effect of DJIA to IHSG model IHSG = β 0 + β 2 DJIA + µ... This linear model is used to answer the Hypotheses 3 which state that there is a positive correlation between DJIA movement and IHSG movement. 4) The effect of STI to IHSG model IHSG = β 0 + β 2 STI + µ... This linear model is used to answer the Hypotheses 4 which state that there is a positive correlation between STI movement and IHSG movement. The model used in this research uses estimation model which is applied to form multiple linear regression with ordinary least square (OLS) method. Table 4.1 OLS (Ordinary Least Square) Estimated Result Source : Data Processed year 2015 From the result of estimated data by using OLS method from Table 4.1, the linear model as follow: IHSG = RATE INFLATION DJIA STI 5. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5.1 Conclusion 1) The influence of USD/ IDR rate to IHSG movement Current depreciation of IDR towards USD shows that the prospect of economic in Indonesia will be gloomy. The 162 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

174 depreciation presents when Indonesia s economic fundamental is weak. Therefore, USD grows stronger and reduces the level of IHSG. When IDR depreciates, it increases the price of imported raw materials. The increasing production costs will dissipate domestic companies profit. The USD/ IDR rate has negative correlation and significant to IHSG Movement for It means if USD/ IDR rate (in this case, IDR is depreciated) by 1, IHSG will declined for 0, bps. The increase of USD/ IDR rate gives a negative signal to the capital market, which leads the investors to divert their investments from equity market to foreign exchange market as it allows them to gain more return. 3) The influence of Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) to IHSG movement DJIA has no significant correlation to the IHSG movement. It shows that there is no integration between American capital market and IDX during this research period. It might be caused by several factors, such as, the economic recovery in Indonesia which was faster compared to economic recovery in America prior global financial crisis in 2008 (Report, BI). During , the economic condition in USA was recovering. However, during the economic growth in USA still moved slower than Indonesia. In 2014, the economic condition in USA moved better than before. 2) The influence of Inflation to IHSG movement This paper shows that inflation has no significant correlation to IHSG Movement. It means that inflation has no direct impact on investors decision to invest in equity or stocks in IDX. The investors have the tendency to wait for other signals, for example, domestic interest rate and USD/ IDR rate, simultaneously before they make decision to invest in IDX. Moreover, inflation has no correlation to IHSG movement might because the inflation is still considered low (less than 10 percent per year). As long as the inflation growth has not reached 10 percent or above, IHSG will continue to grow without being affected by inflation. 4) The influence of STI to IHSG movement The Strait Times Index (STI) has positive and significant correlation to IHSG Movement with coefficient value of It means that if STI increases by 1 bps, IHSG will increase by bps. This result shows that Singapore and Indonesia share common investors. Therefore, a robust change in STI could be transmitted to IDX. The growing trend of capital inflow from Singapore causes STI movement influences IHSG movement. 5) The influence USD / IDR rate, Inflation, DJIA, and STI IHSG movement The Depreciation of IDR tends to give pressure to IHSG movement. The growth of exchange rate influences the expected inflation in society, specifically for imported goods, and the pricing decision by 163 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

175 domestic companies. The deprectiation of IDR towards USD and inflation can be considered as shocks for Indonesian economy and influence the movement of IHSG in IDX. Simultaneosly, the USD/ IDR rate, inflation, DJIA, and STI affect IHSG movement for It shows that if there is an increase in USD/ IDR rate, inflation, DJIA, and STI simultaneously by 1 bps, IHSG will increase by bps. 5.2 Recommendations 1. The government of Indonesia should establish more economic investment cooperation with other countries, specifically with USA, Singapore, and other developed countries, in order to boost capital inflows. 2. Investors should be aware of the movement of USD/ IDR rate and STI movement that influence the performance of capital market in Indonesia. It is useful for investors to determine the ideal position, whether they should buy, sell, or hold their stocks. Moreover, investors should not be worried about the inflation level as inflation has no influence to the capital market, as long as the inflation growth is less than 10 percent per year. Investors should also not be worried by the movement of DJIA as long as the economic condition in USA is stable. REFERENCES Hadi, Nor Acuan Teoritis dan Praktis Investasi di Instrumen Keuangan Pasar Modal. Graha Ilmu, Yogyakarta. Hamid, Abdul Pasar Modal Syariah. Lembaga Penelitian UIN Syarif Hidayatullah, Jakarta. Husnan, Suad Dasar-Dasar Teori Fortofolio dan Analisis Sekuritas. Edisi Ke-3. Penerbit AMP YKPN, Yogyakarta. Ilham, Andry Analisis Pengaruh Variabel Makro Ekonomi Terhadap Indeks Harga Saham Sektoral Pada Bursa Efek Indonesia. UGM, Yogyakarta. Ishomuddin Analisis Pengaruh variabel Makroekonomi Dalam dan Luar Negeri terhadap Indeks Harga Saham Gabungan (IHSG) di BEI periode (Analisis Seleksi Model OLS-ARCH/GARCH). Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang. Jogiyanto Teori Portfolio dan Analisis Investasi. Edisi Keenam BPFE, Yogyakarta. Martalena dan Maya Malinda Pengantar Pasar Modal. Penerbit Andi, Yogyakarta. Nezky, Mita, Pengaruh Krisis Ekonomi Amerika Serikat terhadap Bursa Saham dan Perdagangan Indonesia. Buletin Ekonomi Moneter dan Perbankan (Bank Indonesia), Jakarta. Nopirin Ekonomi Moneter. BPFE UGM, Yogyakarta:.Prayitno, Benedictus Budi Pengaruh Indeks Bursa Saham Global, Harga Komoditas Dan Nilai Tukar Mata Uang Asing Terhadap Indeks Harga Saham Gabungan. Universitas Atma Jaya, Yogyakarta. Sidiq, Ahmad Pengaruh Indeks Saham Sti, Taiex, Kospi, Hangseng Terhadap Pergerakan Indeks Saham Gabungan Pada BEI. STIE Atma Bhakti, Surakarta. Sunariyah Pengantar Pengetahuan Pasar Modal. Edisi keenam. Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Manajemen YKPN, Yogyakarta. Sukirno, Sadono Makro Ekonomi Teori Pengantar. Edisi ketiga. PT Raja Grafindo Persada, Jakarta. Sugiyono Metode Penelitian Bisnis, Pendekatan Kuantitatif, Kualitatif, dan R&D. Cetakan Kedua belas. CV Alfabeta, Bandung. Tandelilin, Eduardus Analisis Investasi dan Manajemen Portofolio. BPFE UGM, Yogyakarta. Wijayanti, Anis Pengaruh Beberapa Variabel Makroekonomi Dan Indeks Pasar Modal Dunia Terhadap Pergerakan Indeks Harga Saham Gabungan (IHSG) Di BEI. Universitas Brawijaya, Malang. Winarno, Wing Wahyu, Analisis Ekonometrika dan Statistik dengan Eviews, UPP STIM YKPN, Yogyakarta 164 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

176 THE ANALYSIS OF PRODUCTIVE ASSETS QUALITY ON BANK HEALTH RATING OF COMMERCIAL BANKS IN INDONESIA Angrita Denziana 1, Haninun,Erwin Octavianto 2 Bandar Lampung University ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of the quality level of the productive assets of the bank. In daily activities functioning bank intermediation institution that is as an institution that gathers and distributes funds from surplus unit to deficit unit. Channeling funds into bank unit deficit is done through a wide range of credit products offered both to credit used to personally or company. The owned credit bank it s assets productive or assets generate but not just credit as the only productive asset owned by the bank there are other productive assets owned by the bank that the bank funds placement with other banks, securities owned, investment capital, acceptance speeches are bills, bills and derivatives, as well as administrative account transactions. KEYWORDS: Productive Assets Quality, Bank Health Level 1. Background The Case of Century Bank at the end of 2008is pretty much public attention in Indonesia. Until now the case is still rolling. On 20 November 2008 Century Bank as a merged bank was declared by Bank Indonesia as a failed bank. It was based on data held by Bank Indonesia as of October 31, 2008 stating that the Capital Adequacy Ratio(CAR) of Century Bank was minus up to 3.52%. In the case of Century Bank, bank s health is viewed from capital adequacy ratio, but whether these aspects can be considered sufficient to measure the health of banks or are there other aspects that may also play a role in influencing the health of banks, according to Bank of Indonesia regulations, scoring system for determining the condition of a bank is stipulated by Bank of Indonesia through the rule of Bank of Indonesia No. 6/23/DPNP/Date May 31, 2004 which was renewed through the rule of Bank of Indonesia No. 13/24 /DPNP Date October 25, 2011 on the Procedures for Assessment for Commercial Banks, where in the attachment of Bank Indonesia the determination of the financial health of banks is seen in six aspects known as analysis of CAMELS(Capital, Asset Quality, Management, Earnings Liquidity, Sensitivity to Market Risk). In day-to-day activities a bank functions as an intermediary institution that raises and channel funds from surplus units to deficit units. Distribution of funds to the bank of deficit units is done through a variety of loan products offered forced it that is used both for personal or company. Credit owned by a bank is productive assets or assets that generate, but credit is not the only productive assets owned by banks. There are other productive assets owned by banks: placement of funds in other banks, securities owned, equity, bill acceptances, derivative receivables, as well as balance sheet transactions. 2. Literature Study and Hypotheses Development 2.1 Theory of Productive Assets Quality Siamat(2004: 135) argues that, the productive assets quality is a state of principal payment or principal installment and loan interest by the customer as well as the level possibility of acceptance of the re-invested in securities or often called as the collectability. Kuncoro 165 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

177 and Suhardjono(2002) suggests that, the quality of earning assets shows asset quality with respect to the credit risk faced by the bank due to credit and investment funds in different portfolios in which each bank fund investment in productive assets is quality assessed by determining whether the level of collectability runs smoothly, substandard, doubtful or even loss. According to Bank of Indonesia regulation number: 14/15/PBI/2012, productive asset is the provision of funds from a bank to earn income in the form of loans, securities, inter bank placements, bill acceptances, bills of securities that is repurchased under agreements to resell (reverse re purchase agreements), derivative receivables, investments, administrative accounts transactions and other forms of funding that can be equated with that." Siamat (2004: 134) suggest that the productive assets is all the investment of funds in rupiah and foreign exchange intended to earn income in accordance with its function. According to Bank of Indonesia regulation number: 14/15/PBI/2012,the types of productive assets are: 1. Credit is the provision of cash or equivalent based on agreements between bank lending and other parties who require the borrower to pay off debts after a certain period of time with interest, including: a. Overdraft, the negative balance on current account customers which cannot be paid in full at the end of the specified time. b. Expropriation bill in order for factoring activities and c. Take over or credits purchase from other parties 2. Securities are debt instruments, notes, bonds, credit securities, or any derivative thereof, or other interests or an obligation of the issuer, in the form of commonly traded in the capital market and money market. 3. Placement is a bank investment in other banks in the form of demand deposits, interbank call money, time deposits, certificates of deposit, credit, and other similar funds investment. 4. Equity is a bank investment in the form of shares in banks and companies in other financial sectors as stipulated in the laws and regulations in force, such as leasing companies, venture capital, securities companies, insurance, clearing institutions of settlement and storage, including investment in the form of mandatory convertible bonds with stock options(equity options)or certain types of transactions that result in the bank has or will have as take in the bank or finance company engaged in other financial sectors. 5. Acceptances are claims a rising as a result of acceptances made to the futures draft. 6. Derivative Claims are claims for the potential benefit of an agreement/contract of derivative transactions(positive difference between the contract value and fair value of derivative transactions on the date of the report), including mark to market profit potential of spot transactions that are still running. 7. Administrative Accounts Transactions are commitments and contingencies include the issuance of guarantees, letters of credit, standby letters of credit, undrawn credit facilities or commitments liabilities and other contingents. 8. Certificates of Bank of Indonesia, here in after referred to as SBI, are securities denominated in rupiah issued by Bank of Indonesia in recognition of short-term debt. 9. Government Securities are here in after referred to as SUN are securities in the form of debt instruments denominated in rupiah and foreign currencies issued and guaranteed in payment of interest and principal by the Republic of Indonesia according to the validity period. In assessing the productive assets, referring to the Bank of Indonesia regulation number: 14/15/PBI/2012,namely: 1. Credit quality assessment is assigned based on the factors of business prospects rating, the debtor's 166 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

178 performance, and the ability to pay that is determined to be: a. Current b. In special attention c. Substandard d. Doubtful e. Loss 2. Assessment of the quality of securities 3. Assessment of quality placement 4. Bill assessment on securities purchased under agreement to resell with the underlying asset such as SBI, SUN(government securities), and or other placements in Bank of Indonesia and the government set to have a current quality. 5. Equity Assessment is assessed by: a. Cost method: 1) Current, if the investee makes a profit and is not on the cumulative loss based on the last fiscal year's financial statements audited. 2) Less current, if the investee suffered cumulative losses of up to 25% (twenty five percent) of the capital of the investee based on last fiscal year's financial statements audited. 3) Doubtful, if the investee had cumulative losses of more than 25% (twenty five percent) up to 50% (fifty percent) of the capital of the investee based on last fiscal year's financial statements audited. 4) Loss, if the investee experienced accumulative loss of more than50% (fifty percent) of the capital of the investee based on last fiscal year's financial statements audited. b. Quality of capital investment assessed under the equity methodor is measured at fair value is determined current. 6. Assessment of quality of temporary capital Prasetia(2010) stated that the quality productive asset of a bank is assessed based on its collectability. Determination of the level of collectability of productive assets in principle is based on: 1. To loans based on the accuracy of the repayment of principal and interest and the borrower's ability in terms of the relevant circumstances. 2. For other productive assets based on the level of likelihood of returned receipt of funds invested in other productive assets and income level. Therefore, in terms of collectability assessment, productive assets are classified of four components, namely: current, substandard, doubtful, and loss. This is done after the bank makes a judgment on collectability of productive assets in order to obtain uniformity in reporting. According to Denda wijaya(2009:153) assessment of the quality of productive assets can be measured with the formula: KAP = PPAPYD x 100% PPAPWD 2.2 Theory of Healthy Bank Rating There are some definitions of healthy bank suggested by experts. They are as follows: 1. According to Riyadi(2006) definition of healthy bank is an assessment of a condition of banks financial statements at the period of time specified in accordance with the standards of Bank of Indonesia. The decree Board of Directors on Bank of Indonesia's dated 30 April 1997regarding the procedure of health rating assessment of commercial banks, enhanced with SK Board of Directors of Bank of Indonesia 30/277/KEP/DIR dated March 19, 1998onchanges to the Decree of Board of Directors of Bank of Indonesia no. 30/11/KEP/DIR dated 30 April 1997 regarding the assessment procedure of commercial bank health rating which includes factors of capital, management, earnings, productive asset quality and liquidity. 2. According to Bank of Indonesia Regulation Number: 13/1/PBI/2011,the health of banks is the 167 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

179 result of the assessment on the condition of bank conducted to the risk and bank performance. Bank health rating is the bank condition assessment result on various aspects affecting the condition or performance of a bank through the assessment of capital, asset quality, management, earnings, liquidity, and sensitivity to market risk in accordance with the applicable bank in gregulations. Assessment on bank health rating factors is conducted through quantitative and qualitative assessment after the account of judgment based on the materiality and significance of assessment factors and the influence of other factors. Quantitative assessment is an assessment of the position, development, and projection of financial ratios of banks. Element of judgment is based on materiality and significance of each component assessed while the qualitative assessment is an assessment of the factors that support the results of the quantitative assessment, implementation, risk management,and compliance of banks consisting of adherence to the Lending Limit, net open position, and know your customer principle. Based on Bank of Indonesia Letter no. 13/24/DPNP dated October 25, 2011on the Procedures for Assessment for Commercial Banks health rating, it can be explained that the factors of bank health rating includes six main factors called CAMELS, which consist of: a. Capital Assessment of capital factor is done considering that the adequacy of capital is in dispensable to the survival of the daily operations of the bank where the capital is used as a buffer when it is in a loss. Assessment of quantitative and qualitative approaches to capital factors, among others, is done through an assessment of the following components: 1. Adequacy fulfillment of capital adequacy requirements (CAR) of the applicable provisions 2. Composition of capital 3. Forward trend/capital adequacy requirements projection 4. Productive assets as classified are compared to bank capital 5. The ability of banks to maintain capital requirements derived from profits(retained earnings) 6. Plan of bank capital to support business growth 7. Access to sources of capital 8. Share holders financial performance to increase bank capital b. Asset quality Assessment of this factor is done because the quality of assets is one of the most important aspects that influence market interest income. Good asset management includes procedures of reliable credit provision and credit control. Assessment of quantitative and qualitative approaches of asset quality factor is done through an assessment of the following components: 1. Assets as classified are compared to total earning assets 2. Debtor of credits core beyond related parties is compared with the total credit 3. Development of earning assets/non-performing assets compared to productive assets 4. The level of adequacy of allowance for uncollectible accounts(ppap) 5. Adequacy of policies and procedures of productive assets 6. The review system internally to productive assets 7. Documentation of productive assets 8. Handling performance of earning assets c. Management Assessment of these factors is done to see the role of directors and commissioners in establishing risk management policies, over see implementation, the quality of management information systems, internal control systems, short term strategy, medium and long, leadership issues including efforts to provide a cadre of leaders. Assessment of 168 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

180 management factors, among others, is done through an assessment of the following components: 1. General management 2. Implementation of a risk management system 3. Bank compliance with applicable provisions bank and commitment to Bank of Indonesia and or other parties d. Profitability(Earnings) Assessment of the earnings factor is carried out to measure the ability of banks to set a price that is able to cover the entire cost. Profit allows banks to grow, in addition to a large profit generated, the quality and source of profit is also the object of research. Income generated stable and tum 1. Return on asset (ROA) 2. Return on equity (ROE) 3. Net interest margin (NIM) 4. operational costs compared to operating income 5. development of operating profit 6. Composition of portfolio of productive assets and income diversification 7. The application of accounting principles in the recognition of income and expenses 8. Prospects of profit e. Liquidity Assessment of the liquidity factors is done considering the bank assets is mostly not liquid with source of funds with shorter durations. Therefore, liquidity is used to measure the capability of the bank to meet its obligations especially short-term and long-term. Assessment of quantitative and qualitative approach of liquidity factors, among others, is done through an assessment of the following components: 1. Liquid assets of less than one month is compared with the liquid liabilities of less than one month month maturity mismatch ratio 3. Loan to deposit ratio (LDR) 4. Cash flow projection in the next three months 5. dependence on funds between banks and core depositors 6. policy and liquidity management ( assets and liabilities management / ALMA ) 7. The ability of banks to gain access to the money markets, capital markets, or other sources of funding 8. Stability of third-party funds f. Sensitivity to market risk Assessment of quantitative and qualitative approaches to market risk sensitivity factors, among others, is done through an assessment of the following components: 1. Capital or reserves are established to cover fluctuations in interest rates compared with potential losses as a result of fluctuations (adverse movements) in interest rates; 2. capital or reserves established to cover exchange rate fluctuations compared to the potential losses as a result of fluctuations (adverse movements) of exchange rate; and 3. Adequacy of market risk management system implementation. According to Bank of Indonesia Regulation Number: 13/1/PBI/2011, banks health ranking is divided into 5 (five) assessment in accordance with the composite assessment, the final ranking results of the bank health rating which are as follows: 1. a very healthy level of health is equivalent to composite rank 1 (PK-1) It reflects that the bank is in excellent condition and is able to overcome the negative effect of economic conditions and the financial industry. 2. equivalent health level is equivalent to composite rank 2 (PK-2) It reflects that the bank is in good condition and able to overcome the negative effect of economic conditions and the financial industry, but the bank still has weaknesses that can be addressed by routine actions. 3. a fairly healthy level of health is equivalent to composite rank 3 (PK-3) It reflects that the bank is in fairly good condition but has weaknesses that can 169 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

181 lead to deteriorated composite ratings if the bank does not take immediate corrective action. 4. an unhealthy level of health is equivalent to composite rank 4 (PK-4) Banks are classified as less well and are very sensitive to the negative effect of economic conditions and the financial industry or the banks have serious financial weakness or combination of several unsatisfactory factors that if there is no effective corrective action taken, it could potentially have difficulty endangering its survival. 5. An unhealthy level of health is equivalent to the composite rank 5 (PK-5) Banks are not well classified and very sensitive to the negative effect of the economy and the financial industry as well as experiencing difficulties. Table 1. Levels of Bank Health Rating Credit Value Levels Healthy 66 < 81 Healthy Enough 51 <66 Less Healthy 0 < 51 Unhealthy Source: SK DIR BI No:30/12/KEP/DIR 3. Action Plan Action Plan is corrective measures with the target over a period of time which must be implemented by the bank if the bank health rating result indicates that one or more factors of rank assessment has4(four) and or rating of 5(five) andorrank3(three),but there are significant issues that need to be addressed so as not to interfere the survival of a bank. Action plan referred to includes: a. The additional capital(fresh money) from the bank share holders and or other parties if the bank has problems in capital factors such as the tendency of the decreasing of capital adequacy availability that would be under applicable provisions. b. Handling of problem loans intensively and effectively if the bank is having problems of asset quality factors such as the increasing number of nonperforming loans that are expected to significantly influence other factors. c. Improvement of internal audit function, improvement of separation of duties and the effectiveness increase of corrective actions based on audit findings when the bank experienced management problem such as weak implementation of internal control. d. Improvement of bank efficiency if the bank is having problems of profitability, so that the profitability is decreasing and affecting other factors significantly. e. Improvement of access to the money markets, capital markets, or other sources of funding if the bank is experienced liquidity problems such as declining adequate liquidity(liquidity shortage) that is expected to affect the short-term cash flow. f. The additional capital(fresh money) of bank shareholders and or other parties or realignment of the bank's portfolio if the bank is having problems of sensitivity to market risks such as the increase of exposure to interest rate risk on the banking book portfolio(interest rate risk in the banking book) and the ability of capital to absorb potential loss is likely to decline. Reference used as the foundation and guidance in preparation of this research requires a theoretical framework, arguments, and opinions of some experts. Definition of bank health rating according to Bank of Indonesia regulation Number: 13/1/PBI/2011 is the result of an assessment of the various aspects affecting the condition or performance of a bank through quantitative and qualitative assessment of the factors of capital, quality assets, management, earnings, liquidity, and sensitivity to market risk. 170 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

182 Productive Asset Quality (X) 1. Current 2. In special attention 3. Less Current 4. Doubtful 5. Loss Bank Health Rating (Y) Figure 1. Scheme of Variable Relationship 3.1Research Methods Research method is a step and procedures to be taken in the collection of data or empirical information in order to solve the problem Types of Research This study is an associative type of research that is study design prepared to examine the possibility of a causal relationship between variables. market risk) through Bank of Indonesia Letter13/24/DPNP dated on October 25, 2011 about the Procedure for Assessment of Commercial Banks health rating. 3.2Analysis Technique In this study, data analysis was conducted by using statistical method of program SPSS Types and Sources of Data The type of data collected and used and processed in order of this research is secondary data. The secondary data are obtained through the web in the form of Financial Statements publication Data Collection Techniques Data collection method used in this study is a method of documentation and library research Operational Definition of Variables This study contained the following variables: 1. X 1 is the quality of productive assets which according to Siamat(2004: 135) is a state loan interest or principal payments by the customer as well as the level of acceptance possibility, which is invested in securities or often called as collectability. 2. Y is the health rating as the result of the qualitative assessment seen in six aspects known as CAMELS analysis calculation(capital, Asset Quality, Management, Earnings, Liquidity, Sensitivity to Classic Assumptions Test Normality test in regression model used to test whether the residual value resulting from the regression are normally distribute do not in the study is conducted by the graphical method that is to look at the spread of the data on diagonal source on the normal graph of P-P Plot Of Regression Standardized residuals as a basis for decision-making. If the points spread around the line and follow the diagonal line, the residual value has been normal Multicollinearity test The aims to test whether there is a correlation between the independent variables in the regression model. According to Ghozali(2001: 63) multi collinearity canals obe seen from the value of tolerance and Variance Inflation Factor(VIF). Both show which of each independent variable is explained by the other independent variables. Tolerance measures the variability of the selected independent variables that cannot be explained by other independent variables. So 171 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

183 a low tolerance value equal to the value of high VIF(as VIF=1/tolerance) and indicates the presence of high collinearity. Cuttof value commonly used is the tolerance value of above 0.10orequal to VIF value below Simple regression analysis It is used to determine causality or causal relationship between one dependent variable with independent variable. The shape of simple linear regression equation is as follows: Y = a + bx 1 + e where Y : Banks Health Rating X 1 a b : Quality of Productive Assets : Constants : Regression coefficient 2. Assessing the goodness of fit model a. A variety of regression test or regression of F- test The F-test shows whether all the independent variables in the model affect the dependent variables. This situation is shown by the following notation: HA: b1 b2... bn 0 1) Comparing the F value with the F table. If the F value is greater than F table then Ho is rejected and Ha is accepted. 2) Comparing the P-value (observed significance levels) is the chance variables compared to different sample significantly in the degree of trust that has been established (actual significance level) F-test is read by means of: H o : β = 0 : There is no significant relationship between productive asset quality with the level of health. H a : β = 0 : There is a significant relationship between productive asset quality with the level of health. Testing criteria : Ho is accepted if F count is < F table Ho is rejected when F count is > F table b. Coefficients regression test with t-test T-test or Significant test of Individual parameter indicates how much influence independent variable individually on the dependent variable is. This situation is shown by the following notation:ha: b1 0 T-test is read by means of: 1) Comparing the t count with the t table. When t count is bigger than t table then Ho is rejected and Ha is accepted. 2) Comparing the P-value (observed significance levels) is the chance variables compared to different sample significantly in the degree of trust that has been established (actual significance level) If : P < a reject H 0 and If : P >a do not reject H 0 Testing criteria: H o : β = 0, H 0 is accepted (t count < t table ) It means that the independent variables partially have no significant effect on the dependent variables. H a : β 0, Ha is accepted (t count > t table ) It means that independent variables partially have a significant effect on the dependent variables. c. Regression R line Test ( R 2 ) R - square, also known as the coefficient of determination, is commonly used to evaluate fit model. R-square value is an indicator of how well the model fits the data (for example, one that is close between R - square to 1.0 indicates 172 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

184 that we have accounted for almost all of the variability with the variables specified in the model). 4. Results And Discussion 4.1 Descriptive Analysis The object of this study is the commercial banks operating in Indonesia and listed in Bank of Indonesia in 2012.The sample used in this study is the sample of banking companies in The sample distribution used is as follows: Table 2.Sample Distribution Information Amount Number of Banking Companies 108 Companies affected by outliers 3 Number of Companies are becoming samples 105 Based on calculations using SPSS program descriptive statistics result is obtained as follows: Table 3.Descriptive Statistics Information N Minimum Maximum Mean Health Rating ,81 KAP Ratio ,42 From table 3 above it can be seen that: 1. The average of the bank health rating amounted to 85 companies. One that scores the lowest health level is PT Prima Master Bank with a value of 55, while the company that scores the highest health level is Citibank NA 2. The mean ratio of productive asset quality of credit in 2012 was 62.42, and then the average value of the ratio of allowance for losses on productive assets of banks is included in the criteria of less healthy. 4.2 Classic Assumptions Test Prior to hypothesis testing using linear regression analysis, there are several assumptions that must be fulfilled in order that the conclusion of the regression is not bias. Among them is the normality test and multicollinearity test Normality test Normality test is used because it is a very important requirement to test the meaningfulness (significance) of regression coefficients. If the regression model is not distributed normally, then the conclusion of the F-test and t-test is still in doubt due to statistical F-test and t- test on regression analysis derived from a normal distribution. In this study, the statistical method test to normal graph method of P-P Plot of regression is used. 173 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

185 Graphic 1. P-P Plot Of Regression Multicollinearity assumptions test is used to Based on the normal graphic image of P-P Plot of Regression Standardized Residualabove it can be seen that if the points spread around the line and follow the diagonal line, it explains that the proficiency level of the residual value has a normal distribution. determine the presence or absence of irregularities of classical assumptions. Multicollinearity means that there is a strong connection between some or more independent variables in the regression model. In this study we used the Variance Inflation Factors (VIF) as an indicator of the presence or absence of multicollinearity among the independent variables Multicollinearity Test Table 4. The Result of Multicollinearity Test Coefficients a Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig. Collinearity Statistics B Std. Error Beta Tolerance VIF 1 (Constant) 81,219 1,557 52,151,000 KAP,073,020,321 3,591,001 1,000 1,000 a. Dependent Variable: health rating Based on the analysis above the value of VIF obtained by the independent variables is less than 10 and the value of tolerance is above Thus, it can be concluded that in the regression models there is no multicollinearity problem 174 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

186 4.3 Hypothesis Testing Simple Linear Regression Analysis It is used to determine causality or causal relationship between the dependent variable with the independent variable Table 5. The Result of Regression Analysis Coefficients a Standardized Unstandardized Coefficients Model Coefficients T Sig. B Std. Error Beta 1 (Constant) 81,219 1,557 52,151,000 KAP,073,020,321 3,591,001 a. Dependent Variable: health rating Based on the results of the regression analysis above, it can be obtained the following regression equation: Y = 81, ,073X 1 From the analysis result it can be seen that the independent variable of productive assets quality with coefficient of 0.073and from the equation it can be seen that the variable of productive assets quality has positive influence on the health of banks, which means the higher the ratio of productive asset quality, the better the health level F-test F-test is intended to determine the effect of productive asset quality variable simultaneously against the health rating in 2012 Table 6. Regression Result of F-test ANOVA b Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. 1 Regression 1532, ,420 10,402,000 a Residual 7736, ,677 Total 9268, a. Predictors: (Constant), kap b. b. Dependent Variable: health rating From the calculation results it is obtained the F value is 10,402and the F table is with a P value of This means that the P value is less than 0.05, which shows that the result of this test rejects H o and accepts H 1. From the result of the F test it can be concluded that the variable quality of productive assets has significant impact on the level of health T-test 175 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

187 T-test is intended to determine the effect of independent variables partially (quality of productive assets) on the dependent variable(health level). Table 7. Regression Result of T-test Coefficients a Standardized Unstandardized Coefficients Model Coefficients t Sig. B Std. Error Beta 1 (Constant) 81,219 1,557 52,151,000 kap,073,020,321 3,591,001 a. Dependent Variable: health rating Analysis of the coefficient of determination (R 2 ) Fromtable7above it can be seen that t value of 3.591is greater than t table of with a significance level of This means that the P value is lessthan0.05, which shows that the result of this test accepts H 1 and rejectsh 0, and from the t test result, it is concluded that there is productive assets quality R-Square, also known as the coefficient of determination, is commonly used to evaluate model fit. R-square is 1 minus the ratio of the residual variability. When the variability of the residual values around the regression line relative to the overall variability is small, the prediction of both regression equations is good. variables influence partially on the level of health. Table 8. Determination Analysis Result Model Summary Model Adjusted R Std. Error of the R R Square Square Estimate dimension01,678 a,460,433 7,130 a. Predictors: (Constant), KAP Based ontable8 above it shows the value of R square is This means that46percent of the level of health is affected by the independent variable of quality of productive assets while the remaining 54 percent is influenced by other factors outside the model. 5 Conclusions And Recommendations 5.1 Conclusion Based on the results of research and discussion on the analysis of the influence of Productive Assets Quality(KAP) on the health of banks to commercial banks in Indonesia with multiple hypotheses testing that are done as well as from the regression equation, it can be seen that the coefficient is positive so that it can be interpreted that the influence exerted by the variable quality of the productive assets of the bank health is strong and the quality of productive assets has real effect and significant on the health of banks. The influence on the quality of productive assets of the bank is not so dependent on the quality of productive assets because there are other factors that have larger influence on the factors of capital, management, earnings, and liquidity. 5.2 Suggestions 176 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

188 Based on the analysis and the research that is done, then some suggestions that can be given are: 1. Given the potential if losses over the placement of funds in productive assets and seen the results of the study on the contribution of the productive asset quality to the bank health, it would have required integrated attention and supervision so that potential losses can be prevented through the analysis of the quality of productive assets through collectability level. 2. Application of the principle of prudence(prudential banking principle) It is necessary, especially in the credit sector. It is because the credit sector is a productive asset that is most vulnerable to risk of loss. It requires attention and good supervision and a thorough review of the management system for granting credit through proper and effective procedures. 3. Treatment of problem loans intensively through proper and effective procedures. References Advensia, Ayu, Murniati, Sihombing, Purnamasari, dan Warastuti Tools of Hypothesis Testing. Unika soegijapranata. Semarang-Indonesia. Amalia, Suhaida Analysis of The Financial Performance Using The CAMEL, case study on PT. Bank Bukopin Tbk University of Hasanudin. Makasar-Indonesia. Dendawijaya, Lukman Banking Management. 3th edition. Publisher Ghalia Indonesia. Jakarta. Ikatan Akuntansi Indonesia Financial Accounting Standards. Salemba Empat. Jakarta-Indonesia. Imam, Ghozali Application of Multivariate Analysis with SPSS Program, 3th edition. Publisher University of Diponegoro. Semarang-Indonesia. Kuncoro and Suhardjono Banking Management (Theory and Application). 1 st Edition. Publisher BPFE. Yogyakarta-Indonesia. Luthfiani, Chindy Anggraeni. The Influeance of Productive Assets and Nonperforming Loans to Profitability on PT.Bank Negara Indonesia (Persero) Tbk. University of Computer Indonesia. Peraturan Bank Indonesia No:14/15/PBI/2012 on Commercial Bank Assets Quality Assessment. Peraturan Bank Indonesia No:11/2/PBI/2009 of The Third Amendment to PBI No: 7/2/PBI/2005 on Commercial Bank Asset Quality Assessment. Ponttie, Prasnanugraha. Analysis of The Influence of Financial Ratios on The Performance of Commercial Banks in Indonesia, Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang-Indonesia. Prasetia, Handrias Analysis of The Influence of The Quality of Productive Assets to The Level of Bank Health on Rural banks in North Sumatera. University of North Sumatera. Santoso, Singgih The Professional of Statistical Data Processing. PT Alex Media Komputindo. Jakarta-Indonesia. Sari, Lili Nur Indah. The Analysis of Bank Health Rating on PT.Bank Tabungan Negara (Persero) Tbk. University of Mulawarman - Indonesia. Siamat, Dahlan Management of Financial Institutions. Jakarta: Fakullty of Economicin Indonesia University. Sugiyono Administrative Research Methods. Edition 20. Alfabeta. Bandung-Indonesia. Sugiyono Quantitative Research Methods, Qualitative Research and Development. Alfabeta Publisher. Bandung-Indonesia. Taswan, Banking Management, Concepts, Techniques And Applications Of Banking Risk Assessment. 1 st edition. UPP STIM YKPN. Yogyakarta-Indonesia. 177 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

189 The Circular Bank of Indonesia No.30/2/UPPB 30 April 1997 about Procedures of General Bank Rating. The Circular Bank of Indonesia No.6/23/DPNP/2004 about Procedures of the General Bank Health Rating. The Circular Bank of Indonesia No.13/24/DPNP, 25 Oktober 2011 about The General Bank Health Rating Website on Publication of Financial Reporting (in Indonesia). Website International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

190 THE EFFECTIVE OF IMAGE RETRIEVAL IN JPEG COMPRESSED DOMAIN Suhendro Y. Irianto Department of informatics. Darmajaya Informatics and Business Institute Jalan Z.A. Pagar Alam, Lampung, Indonesia ABSTRACT We propose a new method of feature extraction in order to improve the effective of image retrieving by using a partial Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) compressed images algorithm. Prior to that, we prune the images database by pre-query step based on colour similarity, in order to eliminate image candidates. Our feature extraction can be carried out directly to JPEG compressed images. We extract two features of DCT coefficients, DC feature and AC feature, from a JPEG compressed image. Then we compute the Euclidean distances between the query image and the images in a database in terms of these two features. The image query system will give each retrieved image a rank to define its similarity to the query image. Moreover, instead of fully decompressing JPEG images, our system only needs to do partial entropy decoding. Therefore, our proposed scheme can accelerate the effectiveness of retrieving images. According to our experimental results, our system is not only highly effective but is also capable of performing satisfactoril. KEY WORDS JPEG, DC coefficient, image retrieval, compressed domain. 1. INTRODUCTION The world of digital image databases has grown tremendously in both size and number over the years. Images are very often compressed before being saved due to storage space when they are saved. In other words, we can save storage space and decrease processing time of massive images. Unfortunately, compressed images cannot be conveniently processed for image retrieval since they need to be decompressed beforehand, that means increasing in both complexity and searching time. For that reasons, it is important to develop an efficient and effective image retrieval technique to retrieve desired images from the compressed domain. Image retrieval techniques can be classified into two types: spatial domain image retrieval [1, 2, 3] and frequency domain image retrieval [4, 5]. The colour histogram technique is an approach often used in the spatial domain. Conversely, discrete cosine transformation (DCT) and discrete wavelet transformation are often used in the frequency domain. In spite of the image type they belong to, image retrieval systems are methods used to extract image features and to provide rules which are used to compare two images. These rules usually involve a threshold and a measurement of the distance between the two images. A user will provide a query image to start the search procedure to find similar images. Then the system automatically computes the distance between the query image and every image in an image database. Finally, the system will rank each image retrieved in relation to its minimum distance from the query image, the rank indicating the degree of similarity. The Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) is the image compression standard [6] and is extensively used on the World Wide Web as its good compression rate and 179 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

191 image quality. The conventional approaches used for JPEG compressed images decode each JPEG compressed image in the compressed domain to the pixel domain before they extract features from the images. These approaches consume time and require high cost in computation. Some researches [4, 7, and 8] have recently resulted in improvements in that image features can be directly extracted from the compressed domain without fully decompressing these images. Method purposed by Clymer and Bhatia [9] that organizes the DCT coefficients of an image into a quad tree structure. This way, the system can use these coefficients on the nodes of the quad tree as image features. However, although such a retrieval system can effectively extract features from DCT coefficients, the main weakness of this method is that the computation of the distances between images will grow undesirably fast when the number of relevant images is immense or the threshold value is big. In addition, Fang and Kiang proposed a statistical parameter- based method [4] that uses the mean and variance of the pixels in each block as image features. The mean and variance can be directly computed on DCT coefficients. The drawback of this method is system has to calculate the mean and variance of each block in each image, including the query image and the images in the database. This paper is to propose a novel JPEG compressed image retrieval method that can improve the retrieval accuracy. Our proposed method is based on JPEG coefficients through pre-query process of colour similarity by means of adobe photo album. The rest of this paper is ordered as follows. In Section 2, we will present our method in retrieving and matching between query and image. Then, in section 3 we show experimental results and analyses, followed by conclusion and future work in section 4 and METHODS Before to applying a partial JPEG streamlines, our purposed method uses pre-query step to prune irrelevant images from the database. The pre-query step is carried out by utilizing adobe photo album 2.0 based on colour similarity, in order to eliminate irrelevant images. An image of every collection was used in the pre-query image. The five best image retrieved of each collection then used as query images for the next step in JPEG stream line for calculating the precision and recall. To search and match between query image and images in the database, the minimum distance of two images calculated to determine the least minimm distance among images. Images retrieved out according to the minimum distances in ascending order and ranked of rank 1 to rank 9 in every query ended. In the progressive DCT-based mode, the process of block partitioning and Forward DCT transform is the same as in the sequential DCT-based mode. An image is first partitioned into blocks of 8x8 pixels. Then, the blocks are processed from left to right and top to bottom. The 8x8 two-dimensional Forward DCT is applied to each block and the 8x8 DCT coefficients. The quantized DCT coefficients are first stored in a buffer before the encoding is performed. After the forward DCT, quantization of the transformed DCT coefficients is performed. Each of the 64 DCT coefficients is quantized by a uniform quantizer: Sq ij = round (S ij /Q ij ) where the Sqij is the quantized value of the DCT coefficient, Sij, and Qij is the quantization step obtained from the quantization table. We use Luminance quantization table in our algorithm. The DCT coefficients in the buffer are then encoded by a multiple scanning process. In each scan, the quantized DCT coefficients are coefficients are divided into multiple 180 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

192 bands according to a zigzag order. Theoretically, the magnitude values of the DCT coefficients correspond to the signal energy in a particular block, which also reflect the texture feature of those pixel values inside that block. For DC coefficient, only the difference between its previous DC and itself is encoded. Both AC and DC coefficients are grouped into a number of categories according their magnitude values. The DCT coefficient values can be regarded as the relative amount of the 2D spatial frequencies contained in the 64-point input signal. Coefficient with zero frequency both dimensions called the DC coefficient and the remaining 63 coefficients are called AC coefficient. Thus, on each image, we obtain DCT coefficients of an 8x8 block pixels, DC coefficient and AC coefficients. In 8x8 pixels we have a DC coefficient and 63 AC coefficients, which make an N-blocks image enhanced withdc 1,DC 2,DC3,..,DCN and AC 1,AC 2,AC 3,.,AC63 in each block. By giving in N- blocks of an image, we can construct indexing key of every image in database using this equation: N h i = i= 1 DCi / N N=number of block d( H ) = ( N q Hk hiq hik)/64, k [0,5000], i= 1 Where, d(hq,hi) is the distance between image query and image in the database, based on the equation we retrieved 12 images according the minimum distance calculated in ascending order. To retrieved images from database we adopted a partial JPEG streamline to calculate the first twelve minimum Euclidean distances of images. In a simple way, the algorithm of the system we purposed can be described as follow: (i). get image query, (ii).generate image database,(ii).image portioning 8x8 DCT coefficients, (iv). Calculate the indexing keys of query image and images in the database,(v). compute the absolute differences of Euclidean distance using equation (4), and finally (vi). rank the images. 3. EXPERIMENTS RESULT To evaluate the effectiveness of image retrieval system, experiments were performed by using Visual.C# and Matlab. In our experiments, 5000 images were collected, consisting of 10 collections including motorbikes, buildings, cars, flowers, girls, mountains, sky, sun set, and textures. Where, hi is an indexing key in database, Himage = [h 1, h 2, h 3,.,h N ]. Similar to the equation above we calculate query image indexing key as: N q i DCi / N i= 1 =, N= number of block qi is an indexing key of image query, Qimage = [q 1,q 2,q 3,..,q N ] In order to search image from database, we calculate the minimum distance between image query and image in the database by using the equation: 3.1. Ranking scheme To make queries into image database, initially we do prequery step which is eliminated irrelevant images using colour similarity retrieval algorithm for each collection. Subsequently step, we chose one of the images retrieved which is used as the candidate of image query. Of all the collections we make 10 queries, and 9 images retrieved out of every query. According to the Euclidean minimum distances, the retrieved images are arranged as ranks in ascending order, where the first image corresponds to the minimum distance derived between the retrieved image and the query image. Hence, in every 181 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

193 query we have 10 images retrieved, where rank 0 is excluded as it was the image itself. Rank 1 to rank 9 was formulated in table 1, as the query step is able to retrieved 1 relevant image on every collection query made rank 1 and rank 6 as 100% image retrieved of the time. Table-2 shows more detail the percentage of Rank 2, 3 and the rest which is none of the rank lower than 70% Queries effectiveness In our experiments we used 5,000 images database consist of ten collections, and five queries are carried out on every collection. We have no duplicate images in our 5000 images database as we utilize Picasa [12] in constructing the database. As the images retrieved, we calculates the precision and recall of the method, where bike flowers, sun set are very high nearly 90%, and even the texture collection performs 100 % in precision through all of 5 queries, whilst recall, cars have highest among others, 82% Table 1. The effectivness of image retrieval Collections Precision Recall Motorbikes (BIKE) 66.66% 23.40% Buildings (BLDG) 85.18% 15.00% Cars (CARS) 85.18% 82.20% Cats (CATS) 66.66% 16.60% Flowers (FLOW) 88.89% 22.40% Girls (GEWE) 70.37% 54.20% Mountains(MTNS) 85.18% 16.20% Sky(SKY) 96.29% 31.80% Sun Set (SSET) 85.52% 52.80% Texture (TEXT) % 23.40% 4. CONCLUSION Although the mature of JPEG researches have provided the efficient and effective algorithm of image retrieval, many researches have been carried out to perfect the image retrieved as we wanted, but still yet as it is. This paper purposed an option method if not a new method of image retrieval by utilizing pixel domain technique jointly with compress domain technique on compress domain for image retrieval. The experiments showed that by pruning the database through the pre-query step retrieved nearly 85% in every rank of all collection, and obtained an average precision 90% and recall 35%. The average precision of texture and sky which are 100 % and 90% respectively showed that pre-query step has significantly increased the effectiveness of image retrieval in compress domain. 5. FUTURE WORK For the immediate future, we are working automatic prequery step based on colour similarity and image captions and image keywords. We are also looking to investigate more distance methods in creating indexing key. In the long-term, we would like to extend our system on ontology-based image on compress domain for larger database. REFERENCES [1]. S.Hao, T. Svoboda, V. Ferrari, T. Tuytelaars and L. Van Gool. Fast indexing for image retrieval based on local appearance with Re-ranking. Computer Vision Lab, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich, Switzerland. [2]. M.K. Mandal, F. Idris, S. Panchanatha, A critical evaluation of image and video indexing techniques in the compressed domain, Image and Vision Computing 17 (7) (1999) [3]. T. Ojala, M. Pietikainen, D. Harwood, A comparative study of texture measures with classification based on feature distribution, Pattern Recognition 29 (1) (1996) ]. G. Feng, J. Jiang, JPEG compressed image retrieval via statistical features, Pattern Recognition 36 (4) (2012) [5]. M. Schneier, M. Abdel-Mottaleb, Exploiting the JPEG compression scheme for image retrieval, IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence 18 (8) (2010) ]. G.K. Wallace. The JPEG still picture compression standard, ACM Communications 34 (4) (1991) International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

194 [7]. J. Jiang, A. Armstrong, G. Feng, Direct content access and extraction from JPEG compressed images, Pattern Recognition 35 (11) (2012) [8]. G. Schaefer, JPEG image retrieval by simple operators, Proceedings of Second International Workshop on Content Based Multimedia and Indexing, Brescia, Italy (2011) [9]. S. Climer, S.K. Bhatia, Image database indexing using JPEG coefficients, Pattern Recognition 35 (11) (2002) [10]. Shi.Q, Yun., Sun, H. Image and Video Compression formultimedia Engineering. Fundamentals, Algorithms, and Standards. CRC Press.2000.Chap7.. [11] International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

195 THE INFLUENCE OF SERVICE QUALITY ON STUDENTS SATISFACTION AT PRIVATE UNIVERSITIES IN BANDAR LAMPUNG Rina Milyati Yuniastuti 1, Vitratin 2, Novita Sari 3 STIE Prasetiya Mandiri Lampung 1,2,3 1, 2, 3 ABSTRACT The research is aimed at giving contribution to long-term researches for private universities in Bandar Lampung in developing human resources to be empowered either nationally or internationally by prioritizing the sustainable service and academic system. It can be reached by using survey method through questionnaire to respondents, consisting of a list of questions on current problems faced by the researcher and asking respondents for responding the questions. This method is used to know how far the service provided by universities in developing their students in Bandar Lampung. 1. Introduction The development success of a nation is obviously determined by the quality of the human resource, it requires an active role of a university as an educational service provider which is expected to be able to bear qualified human resources. In fact, universities are often criticized by the people The development success of a nation is obviously determined by the quality of the human resource, it requires an active role of a university as an educational service provider which is expected to be able to bear qualified human resources. In fact, universities are often criticized by the people The development success of a nation is obviously determined by the quality of the human resource, it requires an active role of a university as an educational service provider which is expected to be able to bear qualified human resources. In fact, universities are often criticized by the people, either graduates or students. It acquires every university to be responsible for giving the best service to promote positive image of the people on its work performance. The job performance of university is determined by the human resources at the institution; especially those who directly serve the students need capability and attitude relevant to the job. For private universities considered as the second class universities, it is necessary to pay attention to job performance by increasing the service quality to their students. The service quality is a multi-dimensional satisfaction booster. The service quality cannot be valued based on a company s, but valued based on customers point of view instead. Satisfaction from consumers side is considered good if it can meet what they expect. On the contrary, the service will be taken poor if it does not meet the expectation (Kotler, 2008). The customers satisfaction as a perception to products and services has met the expectation. 2. Research Method Location also taken as the object of the Reseach is private universities in Bandar Lampung. The variables of the research are: 1. Service quality as independent Variable 2. Students satisfaction as dependent variable 184 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

196 Measured Variables In this research there are two population elements, i.e. private colleges particularly private colleges of economics (STIE) in Bandar Lampung using Slovin formula (Sevilla, Consuelo G. et.al, 2007) as presented below: where: n : number of sample N : number of population D : estimated deviation 0,1 Data Collecting Technique In this research, the method used is survey method using questionnaire distributed to respondents, consisting of questions on problems being studied and asking them to answer the list of questions. The method used to collect the primary data which is based on direct communication between researcher and respondents. The distribution of questionnaire is done by using one questionnaire distribution phase to respondents based on slovin. Data Analysis Technique 1. Qualitative Analysis Qualitative analysis is used to analyze data of information and details of theories or research results in order to get obvious sights on the problems to discuss. 2. Quantitative Analysis Quantitative analysis is used to analyze secondary data. The measure is obtained from the scores of answers gained through distributed questionnaire. Statistical analysis used in the research is double linear regressions analysis using SPSS20 program. The analysis of double linear regression is used to measure the influence quantitatively from a change (variable X) towards the other occurrence (variable Y), using the formula according to C. Trihendradi (2012) below: where: Y = customers satisfaction X1 = reliability X2 = tangible X3 = responsiveness X4 = assurance X5 = empathy a = Constanta b1, b2, b3, b4,b5 = regression coefficient e = error References [1] Ali Hasan Marketing. Cetakan pertama. Yogyakarta: MedPress. [2] Ahmad Subagyo Marketing In Business. Edisi pertama. Cetakan pertama. Jakarta: Mitra Wacana Media [3] Fandy Tjiptono Strategi Pemasaran. Edisi kedua. Cetakan ketujuh. Yogyakarta: Andi [4] Handi Irawan Prinsip Kepuasan Pelanggan. Cetakan kesembilan. Jakarta: Elex Media Komputindo. [5] C. Trihendradi Step By step Spss 20 Analisis Data Statistik. Penerbit Andi Offset Kotler, Dkk Manajemen Pemasaran Edisi 13 Jilid 2. Jakarta: Erlangga. [6] Kotler, Philip dan Kevin Lane Keller, Manajemen Pemasaran. Edisi ke-12. Jakarta: Indeks. [7] Pasolong, Kepemimpinan Birokrasi. Jakarta : Erlangga [8] Ratih Hurriyati Bauran Pemasaran dan Loyalitas Konsumen. Cetakan ketiga. Bandung: Alfabeta [9] Singgih Santoso Statistik Parametik: Konsep dan Aplikasi dengan SPSS. Jakarta: Elex Media Komputindo [10] Sevilla, Consuelo G. et. al Research Methods. Rex Printing Company. Quezon City. [11] Jerry J.Weygande, Donald E.Kieso, Paul D.Kirumet Research Methods For Business, 4th Edition 4 2. Penerbit Salemba. 185 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

197 THE EFFECT OF PROMOTION MIX ON BUYING DECISION ON SAMSUNG HAND-PHONES (A CASE STUDY AT SAMSUNG PLAZA IN BANDAR LAMPUNG) Ratih Amelia 1, Vitratin 2 STIE PrasetiyaMandiri Lampung 1,2 1, 2 ABSTRACT The objective to be obtained in the research is having a long-term contribution to marketing system of hand-phone product. It can be gained by using a survey method through questionnaire. It is a research in which the data collecting method uses questionnaire distributed to respondents, which consists of a set of questions on the problems being observed and asks the respondents to answer the questions. The method is used to know how far the effect of promotion mix on buying decision on Samsung hand-phones ( a case study at Samsung plaza in Bandar Lampung). The location of research object is on jalandiponegoro No.74, TelukBatung, Bandar Lampung. The analytical method used in the research is double linear regression method. KEY WORDS : Promotion Mix, buying decision, marketing 1. Introduction Samsung Plaza in giving hand-phone sale service especially on Samsung brand is done in great sales or in retail. The Samsung plaza also cooperates with outlets which want to sell Samsung hand-phonein Lampung by giving facilities and discount. One of strategies made by Samsung Plaza in doing marketing activities and making customers loyal to buy is by using a promotion mix strategy which consists of advertising, sales promotion and individual sales. According to Swastha and Irawan (2011: 238) the objective and function of promotion are to inform and persuade people to buy the products. The amount of cost spent by Samsung Plaza can be seen in the table below Table1. Promotion Cost to Lampung Marketing Area in 2013 Source : Samsung Plaza, Based on the above table, it can be seen that the promotion cost every month gets fluctuated. The highest advertising cost is in December as Rp and the lowest is in January as Rp The highest sales promotion cost is in October as Rp and the lowest is in February asrp , then the highest individual sales is in October as Rp and the lowest is in June as Rp the use of promotion mix can be a benchmark for sales value, where the development of product sales value, in general the development of increasing or decreasing promotion cost followed by the increase or decrease of sales value. Promotion policy has been prioritized by the company to the marketing area of Bandar Lampung, that is to optimize the sales, which means that the promotion policy should be able to affect 186 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

198 the sales.the description on Samsung product sales at Samsung Plaza distributed in Table 2 below: Table 2. Target dan Realization of Samsung Handphone Sales in Bandar Lampung in Data Collecting Method Library Research Field Research which includes: observation, interview, documentation and questionnaire. 3. Result and Discussion 3.1 Validity Test and Reliability Instrument The data validity test in the research using SPSS program indicated with Corrected-Item Total Correlation. The category of the test is ifr count >r table, so the question items are considered valid, and vice-versa. Based on the result of the data processing it can be shown in the following table: Table 7. Result of Validity Test of Advertising Source : Samsung Plaza, Based on the above table, it can be known that the sales realization fluctuates, but generally it can be said that all targets are not reached with average target achievement only as 88.42%,while the number of entrepreneurs gets increased, meant to optimize the product sales of Samsung. This condition indicates that the product sales of Samsung is not optimal along with the increase of promotion cost, so there is a gap between the expected promotion effects and executed promotion. 2. Research Method Research Object The object to be used as the location of the research is Samsung Plaza on JalanDiponegoro No. 74, TelukBetung, Bandar Lampung. Samsung Plaza is an authorized Samsung brand shop specifically selling varied products of Samsung such as television, refrigerator, AC, and handphone. Instrument (X 1 ) Source: Processed Data, Analysis of Double Linier Regression The inferential analysis is meant to know how much the effect of independent variable on dependent variable by using double linear regression. From the result of data processing using computer program SPSS 17 it is obtained as follows: 2.2 Populationand Sample The population of the research is customers who buy Samsung Hand-phoneat Samsung Plaza in Bandar Lampung in 2014 as 638 customers. 187 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

199 Tabel 15. Output Regresi Linier Berganda decision), while the rest 21,7% is affected by other factors not examined. 3. ValueAdjusted R Squareas 0,772means that independent variables (advertising, sales promotion, and individual sales) gives a moderate effect on the dependent variable (buying decision). 4. Standar Error Value of the Estimate as 2,554 means the error in predicting buying decision as 2,554%. Source: Data processed using SPSS, From the above result, then it is inputted into the double linear regression, so it becomes the equation below: Y = a + b 1 X 1 + b 2 X 2 + b 3 X 3 + e t Y = 0, ,468X 1 + 0,567X 2 + 0,347X 3 + et a (Constanta) = 0,298 when there is no change in advertising value, sales promotion and individual sales, so the buying decision is as 0,298. b 1 = 0,468 Every change in advertising valueas 1, so it will affect the buying decision as 0,468 b 2 = 0,567 Every change in sales promotion value as 1, so it will affect the buying decision as 0,567. b 3 = 0,347 When there is a change in individual sales value as 1, so it will affect the buying decision as 0,347. Based on the output result of double linear regression it is obtained: 1. The product momen correlation value (R) = 0,885, meaning that the independent variables (advertising, sales promotion, and individual sales) has a strong correlationwith dependent variable (buying decision). 2. ValueR Square/R Determination (R 2 ) = 0,783 changed to 78,3% means that the independent variables (advertising, sales promotion, and individual sales) has an effect as 78,3% on dependent variable (buying 3.3 Heteroskedastisitas Test Heteroskedastisitas test is aimed at examining whether there is no equation of variants from an observation residual to another in the regression model. If the variant from the residual from an observation to another,there is Homoskesdatisitasor no Heteroskedastisitas. Figure 2.Result of Heteroskedastisitas Test 4. Conclusion Based on the result of discussion and analysis of each varial\ble of the research, it can be concluded: 1. The form of double linear regression of independent variables (advertising, sales promotion, and individual sales)and dependent variable (buying decision) yaitu : Y = a + b 1 X 1 + b 2 X 2 + b 3 X 3 + e t Y = 0, ,468X 1 + 0,567X 2 + 0,347X 3 + et 2. The product momen correlation value (R) = 0,885 means advertising, sales promotion, and individual sales variables have a very strong correlation with 188 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

200 dependent variable (buying decision). The independent variables (advertising, sales promotion, and individual sales) have an effect as 78,3% on the dependentvariable (buying variable), while the rest 21,7% is affected by other factors not examined. 3. The partial hypothetical test using t test, with the following hypothesis: a. Hypothesis variablefor Advertising (X 1 ) Results in a conclusion that t count (7,983) > t table (2,000), so H 0 is rejected, or in other words, the advertising affects the buying decision on Samsung hand-phone. b. Hypothesis variablefor Sale Promotion (X 2 ) results in a conclusion that t count (3,359) > t table (2,000), so H 0 is rejected, or in other words, the sales promotion affects the buying decision on Samsung hand-phone. c. Hypothesis variablefor Individual Sales (X 2 ) results in a conclusion that t count (2,190) > t table (2,000), so H 0 is rejected, in other words, the individual sales affect the buying decision on Samsung Hand-phone. 4. The result of the comprehensive influential tests through F test, it is concluded that F count (72,091) > F table (2,76), so H 0 is rejected. In other words, advertising, sales promotion, and individual sales affect the buying decision on Samsung hand-phone. References [1]Alma, Buchari Manajemen Pemasaran dan Pemasaran Jasa. Penerbit Alfabeta. Bandung. [2]Angipora Dasar-dasar Pemasaran. Raja Grafindo Persada. Jakarta. [3]Arikunto, Suharsimi Prosedur Penelitian. Edisi Kelima. Penerbit Bineka Cipta. Jakarta. [3]Ghozali, Imam Aplikasi Analisis Multivariate dengan Program SPSS. Edisi 4. Badan Penerbit Universitas Diponegoro. Semarang. [4]Hartono, Christian Pengaruh Bauran Promosi Terhadap Keputusan Pembelian. Jurnal Manajemen Pemasaran. Vol. 1. No. 3. Hlm November [5]Kasali, Rhenald Manajemen Periklanan Konsep dan Aplikasinya di Indonesia. Pustaka Utama Grafiti. Jakarta. [6]Kotler dan Amstong Prinsip-prinsip Pemasaran. Jilid I. Erlangga. Jakarta. [7]Lamb, Hair, Mc-Daniel Pemasaran. Edisi Pertama. Salemba Empat. Jakarta. [8]Noegroho, Agoeng Dasar-dasar Pemasaran. PT. Raja Grafindo Persada. Jakarta. [9]Salihin, Mustar Pengaruh Penerapan Promosi Terhadap Keputusan Pembelian Wafer Tango Pada PT Orang Tua (OT) Indonesia (Studi Kasus di Outlet Wilayah Pemasaran Kota Bandar Lampung). Jurnal Penelitian Unila. Vol. 2. No. 1. Hlm Juni [10]Setiadi, Nugroho J Perilaku Konsumen. Prenada Media. Bandung. [11]Simamora, Bilson Memenangkan Pasar Dengan Pemasaran Efektif dan Profitabel. Gramedia Pustaka Utama. Jakarta. [12]Sindoro, Alexander Dasar-dasar Pemasaran. Prenhallindo. Jakarta. [13]Stanton, William J Dasar-dasar Manajemen Pemasaran. Mandar Maju. Jakarta. [14]Sugiyono Metode Penelitian Bisnis. Cetakan Pertama. Penerbit CV. Alpha Beta. Bandung. [15]Suliyanto Ekonometrika Terapan : Teori & Aplikasi dengan SPSS. Andi Publisher. Yogyakarta. [16]Swastha, Basu DH dan Irawan Manajemen Pemasaran Modern. Liberty. Yogyakarta. [17]Teguh, Hendra Periklanan, Manajemen, Kiat dan Strategi. Penerbit Nuansa. Bandung. [18]Tjiptono, Fandy Strategi Pemasaran. Edisi 2. Andi. Yogyakarta. 189 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

201 IMPLEMENTATION OF RFID (RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION) FOR STUDENT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM Nurfiana 1, Putri 2 Computer System, Informatics and Business Institute (IBI) Darmajaya 1,2 1 ABSTRACT IBI Darmajaya is one of private university that located on Bandar lampung which still use manual attendance.that is use attendance book every time student come or leave the class. This final report has a purpose to build an attendance system prototype that use a RFID technology which is integrated with arduino to increase the discipline attitude program of student s honesty IBI Darmajaya. The prototype of RFID attendance system consist of several main components such as tags and card that will be used in KTM (Kartu Tanda Mahasiswa) and reader that will be used to read the information related to the student attendance. The result of this final project is a prototype of RFID for student attendance which has a function to store student s attendace data, with a maximum range 5cm and a minimum read 0,7 second to do an optimal functionability. KEY WORDS : Student Attendance System, RFID. I. INTRODUCTION Recording for student attendance is an obligation for the university during the class. The information that has been gotten from the student attendance can determine the student follows the class or not and can be one of factors to determine the student scoring. Darmajaya is one of private university in Lampung which still use manual student attendance. The recording of this attendance needs many employeers and student s honesty to fill the attendance during the class. In this case there is a manipulation to filling the attendance by the student. RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) is one of modern technology that can help human to identifying in some cases. RFID consists of tag that has an information special code and a reader that has a function to read the code of the tag. II. LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 RFID Radio frequency identification (RFID) is a rapidly growing technology that has the potential to make great economic impacts on many industries. While RFID is a relatively old technology, more recent advancements in chip manufacturing technology are making RFID practical for new applications and settings, particularly consumer item level tagging. These advancements have the potential to revolutionize supply-chain management, inventory control, and logistics. At its most basic, RFID systems consist of small transponders, or tags, attached to physicalobjects. RFID tags may soon become the most pervasive microchip in history. When wirelessly interrogated by RFID transceivers, or readers, tags respond with some identifying information that may be associated with arbitrary data records. Thus, RFID systems are one type of automatic identification system, similar to optical bar codes. There are many kinds of RFID systems used in different applications and settings. These systems have different power sources, operating frequencies, and functionalities. The properties and regulatory restrictions 190 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

202 of a particular RFID system will determine its manufacturing costs, physical specifications, and performance. Some of the most familiar RFID applications are item-level tagging with electronic product codes, proximity cards for physical access control, and contact-less payment systems. Many more applications will become economical in the coming years MFRC 522 RFID The MFRC522 is a highly integrated reader/writer IC for contactless communication at MHz. The MFRC522 reader supports ISO/IEC A/MIFARE mode. The MFRC522 s internal transmitter is able to drive a reader/writer antenna designed to communicate with ISO/IEC A/MIFARE cards and transponders without additional active circuitry. The receiver module provides a robust and efficient implementation for demodulatingand decoding signals from ISO/IEC A/MIFARE compatible cards and transponders. The digital module manages the complete ISO/IEC A framing and error detection (parity and CRC) functionality.the MFRC522 supports MF1xxS20, MF1xxS70 and MF1xxS50 products. The MFRC522 supports contactless communication and uses MIFARE higher transfer speeds up to 848 kbd in both directions. The following host interfaces are provided: 1. Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) 2. Serial UART (similar to RS232 with voltage levels dependant on pin voltage supply) 3. I2C-bus interface Features and Benefits Highly integrated analog circuitry to demodulate and decode responses1. Buffered output drivers for connecting an antenna with the minimum number of external components 2. Supports ISO/IEC A/MIFARE 3. Typical operating distance in Read/Write mode up to 50 mm depending on the antenna size and tuning 4. Supports MF1xxS20, MF1xxS70 and MF1xxS50 encryption in Read/Write mode 5. Supports ISO/IEC A higher transfer speed communication up to 848 kbd 6. Supports MFIN/MFOUT 7.Additional internal power supply to the smart card IC connected via MFIN/MFOUT 8.Supported host interfaces 9.SPI up to 10 Mbit/s 10.I2C-bus interface up to 400 kbd in Fast mode, up to 3400 kbd in High-speed mode 11.RS232 Serial UART up to kbd, with voltage levels dependant on pinvoltage supply 12.FIFO buffer handles 64 byte send and receive 13.Flexible interrupt modes 14.Hard reset with low power function 15.Power-down by software mode 16.Programmable timer 17.Internal oscillator for connection to MHz quartz crystal V to 3.3 V power supply 19.CRC coprocessor 20.Programmable I/O pins 21.Internal Picture 2.1 MFRC International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

203 2.2 ARDUINO Arduino is an open-source prototyping platform based on easy-to-use hardware and software. Arduino boards are able to read inputs - light on a sensor, a finger on a button, or a Twitter message - and turn it into an output - activating a motor, turning on an LED, publishing something online. All this is defined by a set of instructions programmed through the Arduino Software (IDE). software. The system that will be designed will form a control system in the student attendance by using RFID. In the below is Diagram block of attendance system by using RFID. Over the years Arduino has been the brain of thousands of projects, from everyday objects to complex scientific instruments. A worldwide community of makers - students, hobbyists, artists, programmers, and professionals - has gathered around this open-source platform, their contributions have added up to an incredible amount of accessible knowledge that can be of great help to novices and experts alike. Arduino was born at the Ivrea Interaction Design Institute as an easy tool for fast prototyping, aimed at students without a background in electronics and programming. As soon as it reached a wider community, the Arduino board started changing to adapt to new needs and challenges, differentiating its offer from simple 8-bit boards to products for IoT applications, wearable, 3D printing, and embedded environments. All Arduino boards are completely open-source, empowering users to build them independently and eventually adapt them to their particular needs. The software, too, is open-source, and it is growing through the contributions of users worldwide. III. RESEARCH METHODE 3.1 DESIGN SYSTEM How the attendance system works by using RFID is RFID reader will get the input from ID Tag. The inputan data will be processed by arduino and will be run by lazarus to see if Tag ID already registered in the list of database then if the ID already registered, so the output will be showed by buzzer. Design system of student attendance using RFID in the student card cover of design hardware and design 192 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

204 3.2 FLOWCHART 4. Known : If ID is already known, so automatically ID will can be found easily by the system. 5. Check Database: If ID is already found, so the next step, the system will check the student s identity from the owner of ID KTM in database. 6. There is : If there is the student s identity in database, it means the system will be end. But if there is no, the students should do the re-scan. IV. RESULT AND DISCUSSION The purpose of making this tool is to do the measurement in the range of read the ID card to the RFID reader and fill the data of the student in the student attendace. V. CONCLUSION According to the designing, testing and analysis that has been done, so we can take the conclusion of this research. There are : Program flowchart explanation 1. System ready : System is ready to running 2. Scan card : Card ID which is had by the student is a must to affixed in the RFID reader. 3. Registration : If ID which has not registered in the database. It is a must to registered first in the registration form. 1. It has been designed the control system of student attendace by using MFRC 522 RFID. 2. After doing the trials in the RFID card to the RFID reader and the system is able to run the program well. 3.ID card can be read with the maximum range 5 cm and Tag ID can be read with the maximum range 1 cm. REFERENCES Finkenzeller, K., RFID Handbook: Fundamentals and Application in Contactless Smart Cards and Identifications. Semiconductors, N.X.P., MFRC522 Standard 3V MIFARE reader solution., (September). 193 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

205 NO Date and Time Range of read to the RFID Reader ID Card and TAG RFID Read (1) Not Read (0) 1 14 : 49 12/06/ cm ID Card 4298F : 52 12/06/ cm Tag B326A : 58 12/06/ cm ID Card 4298F : 02 12/06/ : 04 12/06/ : 07 12/06/ : 09 12/06/ : 10 12/06/ : 12 12/06/ : 14 12/06/ : 15 12/06/ cm Tag B326A cm ID Card 4298F cm Tag B326A cm ID Card 4298F cm Tag B326A cm ID Card 4298F cm Tag B326A cm ID Card 4298F International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

206 THE DESIGN OF OBJECT-ORIENTED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR TEACHERS IN ISLAMIC BOARDING SCHOOL OF ROUDLATUL QURAN METRO CITY Sulistiyanto 1, Sri Karnila 2 Information System Study Program Informatics and Bussiness Institute (IBI) Darmajaya ABSTRACT Knowledge is contextual, relevant and actionable information. Knowledge is different from data and information, because it is inside a person s mind. To make knowledge become intangible asset that can be managed and used by many people requires a knowledge management. Islamic Boarding School of Roudlatul Quran Metro city is a educational foundation with resourceful teaching staffs, but they are not well-organized, so their teaching skill is considered static because they are not accustomed to having a share of teaching knowledge and materials with others. With the implementation of knowledge management, it is expected that the teachers teaching and subject knowledge will become intangible assets that can used optimally. The development of Knowledge Management System (KMS) uses Knowledge Management Roadmap (KMR). Knowledge Management Roadmap helps the development of KMS development implementation, from making Business-Driven knowledge, analysis and design, system development and implementation. The system development method done in the making of KMS uses Object Oriented System. The result of the research is a portal of web-based Knowledge Management System used as media to document and share subject knowledge extensively. KEY WORDS: Knowledge Management System (KMS) Knowledge Management Roadmap (KMR), Object Oriented 1. INTRODUCTION Along with the advancement of science and technology in the globalization era, it is obviously found the shift of science about potential resource management has inspired enterprises to be smarter and more innovative. Along with the growth of business doers awareness of knowledge assets more important than other business resources. Consequently, it demands enterprises to have strategies to become one step ahead of other business competitiors. Knowledge asset exploration as intangible assets is done through knowledge management by making use of information technology. Islamic Boarding School of Roudlatul Qur an (PPRQ) is an educational foundation as pondok pesantern. Variety of subject knowledge, subjects and teachers competence is valuable to improve the excellence and educational quality. At Islamic Boarding School of Roudlatul Qur an (PPRQ), the varieties of subject knowledge are not synergistic from one teacher to another. The culture to share subject knowledge among teachers does not occur, so their teaching competence seems static. As an example, when one teacher is absent for a class, another teacher is not able to substitute the absent teacher to teach for certain reasons. It happens because the subject knowledge sharing 195 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

207 culture does not exist and there is no media as a portal or data base for keeping teaching materials. 2. THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK Knowledge is information or announcement consciously known by a person. It cannot be restricted with description, hypothesis, concepts, theories, principles and procedures probably correct and advantageous. [1] Overall, there are two types of knowledge: tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge. 1. Tacit knowledge Tacit knowledge is knowledge generally existing in organizations. It is something we recognize and experience, but it is difficult to say clearly and completely. It is very hard to be transferred to another person because it is saved in everyone s mind in an organization according to his/her competence. 2. Explicit knowledge Explicit knowledge is knowledge and experiences that can be uttered and described clearly and systematically in the form of data, patterns, specification, products, manuals, common principles and others. Based on the definition, Knowledge Management is a system constructed to document, classify, and share knowledge in an organization. In addition, another opinion says, knowledge is the systematic process of finding, selecting, organizing, distilling, and presenting information in a way that improves an employee s comprehension in a specific area of interest. 3. Result and Discussion 3.1 Knowlede Management Roadmap In developing Knowledge Management System (KMS) for teachers at Islamic Boarding School of Roudlatul Quran (PPRQ), the analysis and design of the systems use Knowledge Management Roadmap method [5]. It helps develop KMS development, starting from making a Business-Driven Knowledge Management, analysis and design, development and implementation of KMS. In general, there are 4 phases in Knowledge Management : Infrastructure evaluation, Analysis, Design and KMS development, System development and Implementation. Those four phases are elaborated into Knowledge Management Roadmap, as presented in the table below: Table 3.1 Knowledge Management Roadmap 3.1: Infrastructure evaluation Existing infrastructure analysis Conformity of Business strategies and knowledge management 3.2 : Analysis, Design and KMS development Design and KM architecture KMS blue print 3.3: System development System development phases 3.4 : Implementation Conformity of Business Strategies and Knowledge Management Conformity of business strategies and knowledge management applied at PPRQ is done using business analysis. Business analysis is done by using Strength, Weakness, Opportunities and Threat (SWOT) analysis. Table of SWOT analysis can be seen in the following table. Table 3.2 SWOT Internal Analysis at PPRQ Strength Weakness Qualified Many experienced teachers teachers resign or leave the jobs Reputation Facilities and infrastructure known out of are incomplete. cities 196 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

208 Table 3.3 SWOT External Analysis at PPRQ Opportunities High public trust to PPRQ Threats Learning and teaching process in trouble Increasing number Decline of Public trust of prospective students (santri) to register. Figure 3.1 System Development Phases[4] 3.2 Analysis, Design, and KMS Blue Print The result of the research is a system of knowledge management in a web portal. The blue print is made to document the subject knowledge of the teachers. Overall, there are 3 components of KMS: 1. Repositories as media to save /store knowledge, 2. Knowledge as teaching knowledge, Business Modeling At Business Modeling, the modeling of an organizational business system at PPRQ is done by including current business use case diagram, and business entities that interact with the organization. The current learning process at the pesantren can be seen in the figure below: 3. Network as communication supports i.e. internet network, 4. Culture makes teachers share knowledge with others System Development Membuat jadwal Meyiapkan bahan ajar Ketua Pondok Pengajar In the development of KMS system, an objectoriented analysis and design is used. Object orientation is a Admin Membuat laporan guru Figure 3.2 Use Case of Current Learning Process technique for solving existing problems in the design or software development. The tool used is Unified Modeling Ketua Pondok Start Pengajar Bag.Admin Language (UML). Membuat Jadwal Memberikan Menerima kepada pengajar jadwal System Development Phases Mengajar At the system development process, there are Memberikan laporan mengajar Membuat Laporan several steps done repeatedly and every time focused on End different parts of the system. The KMS system development phases done in the research can be seen Figure 3.3 Activity Diagram of Current Learning Process below: Use Case Modeling At this phase, the modeling of proposed subject knowledge management system is done. The model made is a proposed learning use case diagram. The proposed 197 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

209 learning process at the pesantren can be seen in the following table: Class Schedule Management Activity An administrator manages class schedules to be seen by teachers. The class schedule management activities can be seen in the following table: Admin System start Membuka Portal KMS Tampil f orm login memasukkan user & psw N autentif ikasi Memilih menu buat jadwal Y mengisi data guru N cek ada data pendukung Y mengisi data pelajaran Buat jadwal Menampilkan f orm buat jadwal Mengisi f orm buat jadwal Logout Figure 3.4. Use Case Diagram of A Proposed Learning Process End Figure 3.6. Diagram of Class Schedule Management Activity Teaching Material Management Activity At this activity, a teacher or an administration staff can do activities such as uploading teaching materials, discussing and seeing the class schedule. The teaching material management activity can be seen in the following table: After several models of KMS system are made at the object design phase, they are then translated into a programming language, data base, and hardware implementation fitted to a good use of software. Pengajar System start 4. CONCLUSION Membuka Portal KMS PPRQ Tampil f orm login Based on the result of the research and the discussion, it memasukkan user & psw can be concluded that : N autentif ikasi 1. Teaching material management plays an important Memilih menu menampilkan halama index role in supporting vison and mission of Islamic Forum Upload Bahan Ajar Lihat Jadwal Tampil Halaman Jadwal Boarding School of Roudlatul Quran (PPRQ). 2. With the subject knowledge share culture, the Tampil f orm upload bahan ajar absence of teacher does not make any sense since Tampil Halaman Forum another teacher is able and ready to substitute the Mengisi f orm main teacher. logout 3. The teacher can teach more than one subject because End they have known teaching material knowledge shared Figure 3.5. Diagram of Teaching Material Management by the main teacher. Activity 198 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

210 5. SUGGESTION The writer gives suggestion to Islamic Boarding School of Roudlatul Quran as follows: 1. There should be a teaching material knowledge management to promote/ reach Vision and Mission of Islamic Boarding School of Roudlatul Quran. 2. There should be a knowledge sharing culture to promote the teaching-learning process in accordance with vision and mission of Islamic Boarding School of Roudlatul Quran. 3. There should be an administrator or a portal staff to manage teaching material knowledge management to be used by the teachers. REFERENCES [1] Tobing, Paul,L, 2007, knowldedge Management Konsep, Arsitektur dan Implementasi, Graha Ilmu [2]Widayana, Lendy, 2005, Knowledge Management: Meningkatkan Daya Saing Bisnis, Bayu Media Publising. [3] Yu, Regina, 2002, Knowledge Management Introduction. [4] Nugroho, Adi Rational Rose untuk Pemodelan Berorientasi Objek. Informatika, Yogyakarta. [5] Tiwana, A. (1999). The Knowledge Management Toolkit: practical techniques for building a knowledge management system. London: Prentice- Hall, Inc. 199 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

211 AN ANALYSIS OF OBSTACLES OF QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM APPLICATION ISO 9001:2008 AT SMK SMTI BANDAR LAMPUNG Fitriah Wulandari 1 Science of Human Resource Management, IBI Darmajaya, Indonesia ABSTRACT The focus of the research is SMK SMTI Bandar Lampung has applied SMM ISO 9001:2008. The objectives of the research are 1) to have description on a commitment in decision making and executive personnel in implementing SMM ISO 9001:2008, 2) to have description on school management efforts especially quality vice management in handling existing obstacles, and 3) to have description of effects of SMM ISO 9001:2008 implementation at SMK SMTI Bandar Lampung. The method used in the research uses a qualitative approach of case study. The data collecting techniques used are interview, observation, and document analysis based on theme. To gain the data validity the triangulation is used. The research sample is taken by using purposive sampling technique i.e. headmaster section, vice quality management, curriculum and student affairs. The result of the research indicates that the first commitment of the decision maker and executive personnel in the implementation of SMM ISO 9001:2008 is not optimal, so (a) the achievement of vision is not made; (b) the quality target is not recapitulated based on the schedule, it is caused by lack of executive personnel s knowledge on SMM ISO 9001:2008 and the lack of TUPOKSI of the executive personnel which causes overloaded works to particular executive personnel; (c) several quality targets are not reached especially at internal student customer satisfaction on the teacher s job 1. INTRODUCTION performance and extracurricular activities, it is caused by weak monitoring and being infirm of the leader toward law/rule-breaking; (d) the internal audit finding and external audit finding working on similar problems and the awareness to follow up the finding forced. Both efforts of vice quality management are (a) monitoring is included into the element of quality target counting, (b) revising Vision, Mission and Target of Quality of the school, (c) doing coaching over sections completely on responsibility taker and executive personnel, adding information on SMM ISO by sticking banners, making proposals on training activity or workshop as refreshment of SMM ISO. (d) Updating TUPOKSI and decreasing teaching time for functional teachers who are also in charge of administrative works. Third, (a) boosting public trust to send their children to school at SMK SMTI Bandar Lampung, (b) increase the school quality image which gives impacts on the trust of business world and industrial world, (c) increasing the graduate quality (d) documenting policy, Procedure and IK connected with the high quality documentation, (e) having a target or well planned working program, (f) increasing human resources quality through education and resources of facility and infrastructure getting better every year. KEY WORDS : SMM ISO 9001:2008, Analysis of SMM obstacles 200 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

212 SMK SMTI Bandar Lampung fundamentally intends to make itself a quality school in making high quality human resources who can meet the needs of business world and industrial world in Lampung province or out of Lampung province, particularly in the Southern part of Sumatra and Java Island. It is stated in the Vision of SMTI Bandar Lampung to become the best school at analytical chemistry and industry in Indonesia in To reach the vision, it is formulated as follows: 1) business world and industry-based curriculum implementation at national level and international level, 2) the increase of quality and quantity of human resources, and facility and infrastructure, 3) the increase of cooperative relationship between business world and industry at national level and international level, 4) the implementation of simultaneous quality management system, 5) the increase of quality and competitive traits of graduates. Vision and Mission are reached by implementing Quality Management System (SMM) ISO 9001:2008 at educational activities and training at SMK SMTI Bandar Lampung to produce graduates that meet the demand of business and industrial worlds. The implementation of SMM ISO 9001:2008 for the time being is ongoing; it is indicated by the gain of ISO 9001:2008 certificate with certificate no.qec from SAI GLOBAL foundations. By winning the certificate, the SMM activity does not stop here, to keep the existence of SMM implementation at SMK SMTI Bandar Lampung is by doing supervision of quality document, quality standard revision, POS.IK and forms. The development and implementation of a good quality management system is ideally done systematically and simultaneously. However, SMM ISO 9001:2008 at SMTI Bandar Lampung is still poor and weak, it is caused by many factors, such as the substitution of headmaster, substitution of old teachers to new teachers, addition of new teachers, not all human resources at the school know and understand SMM ISO 9001:2008. It was experienced by the writer as a member of vice SMM for 4 years, weak commitment and knowledge on SMM was considered as the main factor that causes the problem. The commitments to do SMM ISO 9001:2008 are 1) communication problems such as only one or two quality target recapitulation reports sections consistently report to the vice SMM, for the rest the writer herself asked for them and they were submitted to one day before the external audit, 2) the management review often is obstacle with time, it is difficult to find top management time, so the RTM does not match the existing schedule at the working program of vice time management, 3) the knowledge of personnel on SMM ISO 9001:2008 has attracted the writer s attention to find out the causes of the problems within 7 years. The achievement of the target was often not reached, so there were some revisions on it, and vision and mission of the school which was almost over have not indicated their achievement yet. 2. THEORETICAL BASES 2.1 System Ludwig Von Bertalanfy in Winardi in his book Pengantar Tentang Teori Sistem (1999:129) says, systems are complexes of elements in interaction which contain laws can be applied. In addition, Geofrey Vickers says that system is a regarded set of relationship. 2.2 Management James A.F. Stoner and Charles Wankel (1986: 4) state management is a process of planning, organizing, leadership, and controlling efforts of organizational members and making use of other organizational resources to reach the organizational goal. 2.3 Quality Characteristics define a condition, while level indicates position in a scale. Quality is defined as a suitability to be used (Juran JM, 1956:16). In addition, Dorotheaaa Wahyu Ariani (2003: 8) states that a quality product is a product that fits customers needs. Quality demands total commitment from all organizational levels (Joan B. Haberer & Mary Lou W. Webb, 2010:3) 201 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

213 2.4 ISO 9001:2008 SMM ISO 9001: 2008 determines the requirements and recommendation for design of SMM which includes 8 clausal as follows: 1. Scope 2. Normative Reference 3. Terminology and definition 4. Quality Management System (SMM) 5. Management responsibility 6. Resource Management 7. Product Realization 8. Improvement Analysis Measurement The success of an organization in developing and implementing SMM ISO is determined by 3 factors, i.e. leadership and responsibility, the existence of SMM, and availability of resources such as human resources, infrastructure and fund as illustrated by PPPG team of Bandung Technology (2004: 18) in the following figure: SMM Quality Policy, quality target, Procedure 3. RESEARCH METHOD Leadership and responsibility Interface, organization with customers Resources, infra-structure, personnel This research uses a qualitative\approach that is a research procedure aimed at understanding phenomena experienced by the research subject, for example: behavior, perception, motivation, and action holistically and descriptively described with words and a language (Moleong, 2005). The sampling technique used is purposive sampling technique at Vice Headmaster section, Vice Quality Management, Student Affairs and Curriculum. In purposive sampling, it determines qualification and selection of informants assumed to know the problems comprehensively and to be a credible data source. The writer made interviews with 1) 1 headmaster and 1 headmaster secretary, 2) 1 vice quality management, 3) 1 vice headmaster of students affairs, 4) 1 vice headmaster of curriculum with 1 student affairs staff, 5) 1 head of subadministration section, 6) 6 students, 7) 3 auditors, and 8) 10 teachers. The data collection is done through interview, observation, and documentation. To measure the data validity is using source triangulation, triangulation method, and review. The writer used an interactive analysis to do data analysis. The activities in an interactive analysis are data collection, data presentation, and conclusion. 4. RESULT AND DISCUSSION Based on the observation, record/ document analysis, and interview, it can be concluded that: First, the decision maker and the executive personnel were not committed in implementing SMM ISO 9001: 2008, so (a) the vision was not gained; (b) the quality target was not recorded according to the schedule because of the absence of knowledge of the personnel on SMM ISO 9001: 2008 and the unclearity of TUPOKSI of executive personnel which resulted in overloaded works towards specific executive personnel, (c) several quality targets were not reached particularly the student internal customer satisfaction on teacher job performance and extracurricular activities. It was caused by weak monitoring and being infirm of the leader toward the customers; (d) internal audit and external audit findings were on the same problems and being forced to follow up every finding. 202 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

214 Second, the school management efforts, specifically vice quality management in solving the existing problems: (a) monitoring or supervising are placed into the school quality target element point 4 that is the customer satisfaction in accepting service up to 80% in X3 service satisfaction of teachers job performance was added with supervision, so overcoming the problems in which the supervision was not established for 3 years and opinion from most of the teachers with job performance 80% said the questionnaire was not objective, for being not firm of the vice quality management in taking alternatives, that would be rewards and punishment. The rewards would be in the form of certificate to be used in the next questionnaire, while the punishment would be returned to the policy of the headmaster. The vice quality management only called through a letter of warn to be faced to the headmaster: (b) the commitment in the Vision and Mission, quality policy, and quality target was revised on June 29, The follow-up of the internal quality audit and Surveillance Audit become the responsibility of WMM for ensuring the closing finding status, for scheduling for a review meeting, the management would coordinate with the headmaster secretary; (c) lack of knowledge and awareness of the executive personnel of SMM ISO 9001: 2008, WM has done coaching on audit sections toward the head or responsibility takers of the section and executive personnel, the installation of frames and banners on SMM ISO 9001: 2008 information at SMK SMTI Bandar Lampung such as quality target for respective section. The proposal for training or workshop on SMM ISO 9001:2008 was made by each WMM section that has representatives; (d) unclearity of TUPOKSI and overloaded works, the head of subadministration section helped by the employee affairs has updated job description and competency matrix that has been 90% finished and the reduction of teaching time has been seen in the distribution of teaching tasks especially for functional teachers that get additional tasks as administrators. Third, the effects of the implementation of SMM ISO 9001: 2008 on SMK SMTI Bandar Lampung (a) boosting public trust in sending their children to SMK SMTI Bandar Lampung, (b) increasing the image of school quality which gives impacts on the trust of business world and industrial world, (c) increasing the quality of graduates, (d) documenting Procedure Policy and IK connected with the quality of the document well, (e) having the target or well directed work programs and (f) increasing the quality of existing resources such as human resources through education, and ever-better facility and infra-structure every year. REFERENCES [1] Aprianto, Efektifitas Implementasi SMM ISO 9001:2008 pada Pendidikan Kejuruan (2011) [2] Basrowi& Suwandi, Memahami Penelitian Kualitatif (Rineka Cipta, 2013) [3] Bill Creech, Lima Pilar (Manajemen Mutu Terpadu) (Jakarta, Penerbit Binarupa Aksara Jakarta, 1996) [4] Bujang Rahman, Manajemen Mutu Lembaga Pendidikan Tenaga Pendidikan. (Graha Ilmu, 2013). [5] Dimyati, H M. Paradima dan Pringsip-pringsip Penelitian Kualitatif untuk Perbaikan Kinerja (Malang, UM Malang, 2004) [6] H. E. Sobana, Tips Memahami Sistem Manajemen Mutu ISO 9001(Bandung, Alfabeta,2011) [7] Maya Rizkya Amalia, Analisis Pelaksanaan Sistem Manajemen Mutu ISO 9001:2008 di SMK Negeri 3 Surakarta tahun diklat 2009/2010 [8] Nusa Putra, Metode Penelitian Kualitatif Manajemen, (Jakarta, PT RajaGrafindo Persada Jakarta, 2013) [9] Nurul Huda, Implementasi Sistem Manajemen Mutu ISO 9001:2008 pada Pendidikan Vokasional (2013) [10] Sallis Edward, Manajemen Mutu Terpadu Pendidikan. (Jogjakarta, IRCiSoD, 2011) [11] Siswanto, Pengantar Manajemen (Bandung, Bumi Aksara 2005) [12] SMTI Tanjungkarang, Dokumen; 1. POS Pengendalian Dokumen, 2. POS Pengendalian rekaman, 3. POS Audit Mutu Internal, 4. POS Pengendalian Produk Tidak sesuai, 5. POS Tindakan Koreksi, 6. POS tindakan Pencegahan Penjelasan ISO 9001:2008 (SAI Global, 2008) [13] SMTI Tanjungkarang, Pedoman Mutu Sistem Manajemen Mutu ISO 9001:2008 (Bandar Lampung, 2008) [14] Susilawati,Sukirman dan Sri Sumaryati, Implementasi Sistem Manajemen Mutu ISO 9001:2008 di SMA Batik 1 Surakarta (Surakarta, 2013) 203 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

215 [15] Suyitno, Tanzeh, Dasar-Dasar Penelitian. (Surabaya, Elkhaf, 2006) [16] Sondang P.Siagoan, Fungsi-Fungsi Manajerial. (Jakarta, Penerbit Bumi Aksara Jakarta, 2002) [17] Tim WMM SMK SMTI Bandar Lampung, Laporan Akhir Kegiatan Sistem Manajemen Mutu ISO 9001:2008 (Bandar Lampung, 2014) 204 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

216 THE USAGE OF WARD AND PEPPARD METHOD IN IS/IT STRATEGIC PLAN COMPILATON IN DISHUBKOMINFO EAST LAMPUNG Abdul Lathif Sampurna 1, Abdi Darmawan 2, Handoyo Widi Nugroho 3 1,2,3 Magister Teknik Informatika, Institut Informatika dan Bisnis Damajaya ABSTRACT Dishubkominfo in running the coordination task in Nexus, Communication and Informatics field must charged to work fast. Therefore, the support from the reliable information technology (IS/IT) is really needed. To make sure the usage of IS/IT actually support the purpose of government administering, with noticing the efficiency the usage of resources and the management of risk that related to it, it required strategic planning related to IS/IT, in this document called Strategic Planning IT/IS. The methodology that used in preparation of document using reference that developed by Ward and Peppard. Analysis method that used includes SWOT analysis, CSF, Value Chain, McFarlan Strategic Grid, Balanced Scorecard. The result that achieved in this thesis is strategic plan framework that include system information strategy, information technology and IT/IS management integrated and portfolio and roadmap from 2015 until KEYWORDS : Strategic Plan IT/IS, Planning, Ward and Peppard, Dishubkominfo 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background The role of information technology in supporting operational system and managerial in governmental agencies nowadays is increasingly important. Technology progress is placing information as one of the most important resource and need to be managed well and properly (BPPT, 2009). Remembering the importance management data function and information, especially to support activities in the governmental agencies then it s reasonable if government attempted to place management data and information in the same place and as important as another management resources, such as human resources, financial resources, time resources and another resources. Without good planning, sometimes information technology implementation will stuck into unoptimal completion with not appropriate result investation. IS strategy emphasize in determination of system information application that needed by organization. Essension of IS strategy is to answer question what?, while IT strategy emphasize in technology election, infrastructure, and special skill that related to answer question How? (Earl, 1997) Noticing every potential with future challenge that will faced by Dishubkominfo Communication field, Informatic and Public Information, the plan above is very relevant. This step also optimalisation of IS/IT that been developed and used all this time. In another side, the developed system also need to be developed in macro, such as implementation of good governance technology. Moreover, that will help to anticipate the developing of information technology in the future. With the progress of information technology and every demand to support governance work, it must be a must for 205 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

217 Dishubkominfo Communication, Informatic and Public Information Field to apply and use it to support the performance to be better. Strategic planning concept directed to the maximal usage of information resource as the main capital in IS/IT strategic planning. IS/IT planning in Dishubkominfo Communication, Informatic and Public Information field, beside to increase the usage of owned information system, also excepted to increase public service and operational of governance management to be more effective and efficience. To answer the condition and problems in information technology field above, Communication, Informatic and Public Information Field need IS/IT Strategic planning as planning reference in developing e-government and as follow-up of procedure and workspace developing in Dishubkominfo Communication, Informatic and Public Information field environment 1.2 Problems The main problem that will discussed in this research is how to define and make information system strategic planning in Dishubkominfo Communication, Informatic and Public Information field. 1.3 Purpose and Benefit The purpose of Strategic Planning IS/IT Dishubkominfo Communication, Informatic and Public Information field expected to be reference in investigation planning and IS/IT implementation so they can reach the vision, mission, purpose and target accurately and integrated The benefit of IS/IT planning in Dishubkominfo Communication, Informatic and Public Information field are : a. Aligned the IS/IT planning with the strategic planning in Communication, Informatics and Public Information field b. Allocated the IS/IT resources efficencely and effective (optimalization of IS/IT resources) c. Make IS/IT strategic plan as basic for Dishubkominfo Communication, Informatic and Public Information field planning, so they will have a better planning 2. THEORETICAL 2.1 IS/IT Strategy Ward and Peppard Model One of the model that can be used in information technology strategic planning is IS/IT strategy model by Ward and Peppard. In this methodology, consist of input stage and output stage (Ward & Peppard, 2002) The input stage consist of : 1. Internal business environment analysis, includes business strategy aspect now, target, resources, process also cultural business organization values. 2. External business environment analysis, includes economy aspects, industry, and company climate competition. 3. Internal IS/IT environment analysis that includes the condition of IS/IT organization from business perspective, how s the maturity, how s the contribution to business, human resources skill, resources and technology infrastructure, also includes how IS/IT portofolio right now. 4. External IS/IT environment analysis that include technology trend and chance to take benefit from it, also the usage of IS/IT by competitior, consumer and suppliers. 2.2 SWOT Analysis According to Rangkuti (2006), SWOT analysis is an identification of some factor systematically to formulate organization strategy. This analysis basicly from logic that can maximize Strengths and Opportunity, but in the same time can minimize the weakness and thread. According to Rangkuti (2006), in doing SWOT analysis there re five steps, consist of : 1. Preparing SWOT Session 206 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

218 2. Identificate the strength and weakness 3. Identificate the opportunity and thread 4. Rank the strength and weakness. 5. Analyze the strength and weakness. comprehensive control that can give explanation to a manager about business performance. Kaplan and Norton already introduced Balanced Scorecard in enterprise organization stage. 2.3 Critical Success Factor (CSF) Critical Success Factor (CSF) analysis is a provision from organization and the environment that can affect the success or the failure. CSF can be determined if the organization objective is identificate. Purpose of CSF is to interpreted objective clearly to decide the activity that should be done and what information is needed. CSF role in strategic planning is as a connector between business strategy. Figure 1 Critical Success Factors 2.4 Mc Farlan Strategic Grid Mc Farlan strategic grid used for mapping IS application according to the contribution for organization. Mapping is done in four quadran (strategic, high potential, key operation and support.) From the mapping result, contribution description was given to IS application to the organization and for future development (Ward and Griffith 1996) Balanced Scorecard Balanced Scorecard was published for the first time by Robert S. Kaplan and David P. Norton on 1992 in an article titled Balance Scorecard Measures That Drive Performance. Balance Scorecard when first introduced is a scoring management system and fast, right and 3. DATA COLLECTING METHOD A research always use kinds of data that used in analysis. To get the right data, a method to collecting the data need to be applied. Business process, information flow, information type, input process and output, external entity influence, information system, infrastructure, organization structure of IT managers and IT management system. The collecting data process, the user can collect the secondary data, to add more accuracy and data completion, they can add primary data that collected from quisioner and interview. The collected data contains internal business condition data and internal IS/IT that gained from secondary and primary data at Dishubkominfo Communication, Informatic and Public Information. In other side, external business condition and external IS/IT data obtained from benchmark from other institution. Methodology to prepare IS/IT strategic plan in Dishubkominfo Communication, Informatic and Public Information use the reference that developed by Ward and Peppard. In preparation of strategic plan information system Dishubkominfo Communication, Informatic and Public Information use strategic plan analysis theory, information system, literature review, data collecting, IS/IT identification solution, information architecture plan and future system, IS/IT developing strategy Dishubkominfo Communication, Informatic and Public Information and the aspect. 3.1 RESEARCH RESULT AND DISCUSSION Strength Analysis Understand the environment strategic condition. 207 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

219 Dishubkominfo Communication, Informatic and Public Information achievement in network development fiber optic based as base capital to give opportunity to next development. Organizational structure, that organizational structure and task function already includes the implementation of regional autonomy Dishubkominfo Communication and Informatic Field Weaknesses Analysis Quality and quantity of human resources still inadequate Sectoral egoism in veiled in head chief level and section chief. There s no local regulation that set the development of e- government Conflict of interest Management Information system and information technology of Diskominfo East Lampung still ineffective, so the coordination, integration, synchronization and simplification aspect between implementation and instrument in City/Regency, Province and the Central could not be embodied well. Budget constrains to support the activity implementation Opportunities Analysis Nation administration system that reflect the accountability aspect and community transparancy. Jokowi President government issue that want to apply e- government and commitment about Indonesia as maritime country. Information technology development is growing rapidly so the government indicted to use technology in government activity Threats Analysis Lack of understanding the reform, impacts to development compact that will be a boomerang. The public awareness is not balanced to the pace of technological development and facilities also public infrastructure Law abiding culture of the society still in low rate Nature condition that can affect the function of information technology devices runs with their respective function. The frequent of power outages can conduce the IT devices doesn t work optimally Tabel 3.1 External Factors Strategic (EFAS) Weight External strategic factors Weight Rating Scoring (Weight x Rating) Opportunity/O Nation administration system that reflect the accountability aspect and community transparancy Jokowi President government issue that want to apply e-government and commitment about Indonesia as maritime country. Information technology development is growing rapidly so the government indicted to use technology in government activity. Total O Threat / T Lack of International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

220 understanding the reform, impacts to development compact that will be a boomerang. The public awareness is not balanced to the pace of technological development and facilities also public infrastructure Nature condition that can affect the function of information technology devices runs with their respective function. Total T Total Table 3.2 Internal Factor Strategic (IFAS) Weight Internal Strategic Factor Weight Rating Scoring (Weight x Rating) Strength /S Understand the environment strategic , condition. Organizational structure, that organizational structure and task function already includes the implementation of regional autonomy Dishubkominfo Communication and Informatic Field Dishubkominfo Communication, Informatic and Public Information achievement in network development fiber optic based as base capital to give opportunity to next development. Total S Weakness/W Sectoral egoism in veiled in head chief level and section chief. There s no local regulation that set the development of e-government Management Information system and information technology of Diskominfo East Lampung still ineffective, so the coordination, integration, synchronization and simplification aspect between implementation and instrument in City/Regency, Province and the Central could not be embodied well. Total W Total International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

221 SWOT analysis result against strategic external and strategic internal factor show the position of by Dishubkominfo Communication field, Informatic and Public Information position is in quadran 2 that is external factor giving point from 4 scale and internal factor giving 0.56 point from 4 scale. Position in quandran 2, eventhough facing much threats, by Dishubkominfo Communication field, Informatic and Public Information still has strength from internal section. The mapping of SWOT analysis can be seen in the figure 1 Table 3.3 Dishubkominfo IS Strategy Figure 1. Dishubkominfo SWOT Analysis Result Information and Technology System Strategy IS strategy is one of result/output from the IS/IT strategy plan, this strategy will explain how system and information technologycan be used in supporting every business organization activity that related to achieving the organization vision and mission, also adjusted to the business strategy that owned by the organization. 4. CONCLUSION The conclusion from the making of IS/IT strategic plan in Dishubkominfo Communication, Informatic and Public Information field are : 1. SWOT analysis result against the external strategic factor and internal strategic factor displayed that Dishubkominfo Communication, Informatic and Public Information field position is in quadran 2, external factor giving point from 4 scale and internal factor giving 0.56 point from 4 scale. Position in quandran 2, eventhough facing much threats, by Dishubkominfo Communication field, Informatic and Public Information still has strength from internal section. The strategy that should be applied is using the strength to use the long term chance with diversification strategy. 2. Dishubkominfo Communication, Informatic and Public Information field orientated in service for public as one 210 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

222 of Critical Success Factors. The indicator that can be detailed such as, human resources, security quality, the speed of security facility provision. According to the indicators, the organization can get the operational picture and the implementation so it can be used as reference to increase the quality and performance. 3. Dishubkominfo Communication, Informatic and Public Information field value chain is already appropriate with organization function, those are : licence recommendation, material of assessment policy, the implementation of material of assessment policy, coordination, facilitation, distribution, documentation, report evaluation, control, supervision and examination, counseling, cooperation, standard preparation, process, procedure and rules, software and hardware developing, monitoring, electronic data and press processing, bandwith management and implementation of public consultation. 4. In quadrant I, application support that already there and used in supporting daily activity in Dishubkominfo Communication and Informatic field are SIPKD, SIPPDA, SI Electronic Letter, Dishubkominfo Website, Office Automation and LPSE. In the other side Knowledge Management System (KMS), e- klipping, and e-learning is not available and hope it will be new information system proposal in IT strategic plan. 5. For quadrant II Key Operation that already there and used for the operational is SMS Gateway. The required information system in the future is public complaints information system and inventory information system. 6. Quadrant III High Potential, there s no information system that been used. In hope it will create Telecommunication tower data information system, recommendation of post and communication business licencing IS, recommendation of fixed network licensing IS, special telecommunication licensing IS, the neat and orari licensing IS, celuller stall and telecommunication licensing IS, IMB of telecommunication tower licensing recommendation IS, Excavation of the cable communications licensing recommendation IS, recommendation and Entrusting control services IS, recommendation of telecommunication implementation licensing IS, recommendation of licensing disorder to install the lightning conductor and genset IS, recommendation of house/building cable installation licensing IS and recommendation of trading business of selling telecommunication device IS. 7. For quadrant IV until now, strategic doesn t have the application, because the position is strategic quadrant, in hope can be filled by Executive Information System and Monitoring Online Analytical Processing (OLAP). 8. Seeing from the referrals, strategic plan and operation needs the development and construction of IT in Dishubkominfo leads to the quadrant IV (strategic). 9. According to the balance scorecard analysis result, stakeholder perspective have 94.25% performance, customer 96,67%, internal business process 96,00% and learning & growth 94.67% from the targeted performance. The result still under the expected performance. It because there are egosectoral that hamper the coordination of Dishubkominfo. IT soulution to increase the coordination performance is in developing Executive Information System (EIS) and Monitoring OLAP. 10. Applying the implementation strategy and roadmap to fulfill the referalls need and strategic plan also to complete the lack in another quadrans 5. SUGGESTION Some suggestion can be submitted in writing the IS/IT strategic plan at Dishubkominfo Communication, Informatic and Public Information field in preparing, implementing and developing the information technology are : 211 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

223 1. The research is done in communication, information and public information field. For the next research, it suggested to expand the field and explain another field. This research explain the network infrastructure until SKPD network. For the next research, it suggested to explain about network infrastructure until the district. 2. IT human resource should have the skill update, so they can always follow the newest development in IT world and always do the benchmark to the best practice. They should have human resource that has skill to implemented and develop the information technology. This thing can be overcome by organizing trainings and socialization before the newest information technology are implemented. 3. Investation readiness should be watched rightly, because the investation for Information Technology result won t be affect directly for organization. 4. IS/IT strategic plan can be control tools and effective parameter to review the performance and the successful implementation of Information Technology in Dishubkominfo Communication, Informatic and Public Information field. 5. IS/IT strategic plan can be reference in investation planning and information technology implementation to reach the vision, mission, purpose and target for Dishubkominfo. For that, it need an adaptation to strategic plan continuously. Or continue improvement. This thing can be implemented in knowledge update and IT developer human resource competention, updating the tools and technology that used to support IT, hardware update according to the condition and technology trend. 6. IS/IT strategic plan can allocated the IS/IT resource efficiently and effectively (IT resource optimalization). 7. IS/IT strategic plan can identificate the kind of information technology that needed by Dishubkominfo, that is all of technology that has direct contribution to Dishubkominfo purpose. 8. IS/IT strategic plan can descrease risk that can be found in implementing IS/IT REFERENCES [1] [BPPT] Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi. IT Master Plan Pemerintah Kota Banda Aceh (Aceh : BPPT, 2009) [2] Darwanto, Herry, Balanced Scoredcard untuk Organisasi Pemerintah. (2007) [3] [Depkominfo] Departemen Komunikasi dan Informatika.Blue Print Sistem Aplikasi E-Government. (Jakarta Departemen Komunikasi dan Informatika..2004) [4] [Depkominfo] Departemen Komunikasi dan Informatika. Panduan Umum Tata Kelola Teknologi Informasi dan Komunikasi Nasional. (Jakarta: Detiknas, 2007) [5] HM, Jogiyanto, Analisis dan Desain Sistem Informasi : Pendekatan Terstruktur Teori dan Praktek Aplikasi Bisnis. (Yogyakarta, ANDI,. 1999) [6] Indrajit, Eko Richardus, Manajemen Organisasi dan Tata Kelola Teknologi Informasi. (Yogyakarta, Graha Ilmu, 2014) [7] Inpres Nomor 3 Tahun 2003, Panduan Penyusunan Rencana Induk Pengembangan E-Government Lembaga versi 0.1. [8] Kaplan, Robert S dan David P. Norton, Balanced Scorecard : Menerapkan Strategi Menjadi Aksi, (Jakarta, Erlangga, 2000) [9] Kementerian Komunikasi dan Informasi, Panduan Umum Tata Keloa Teknologi Informasi dan Komunikasi Nasional, (Versi ) [10] Laudon, Kenneth C. and Laudon, Jane Price. Management Information Systems: Managing the Digital Firm, 8th edition. (New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2004) [11] Nilasari, Senja, Manajemen Strategi Itu Gampang Untuk Pemula & Orang Awam. (Jakarta, Dunia Cerdas, 2014) [12] O Brien. J. Pengantar Sistem Informasi Perspektif Bisnis dan Manajerial. Edisi 12. (Jakarta : Salemba Empat, 2007) [13] Porter, M. E., The Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance. (NY: Free Press, 1985) [14] Rangkuti, F., Analisis SWOT Teknik Membedah Kasus Bisnis, cetakan keduabelas, (Jakarta : PT. Gramedia Pustaka Utama, 2006) [15] Sekretariat Negara, Instruksi Presiden Nomor 3 Tahun 2009 tentang Kebijakan dan Strategi Nasional Pengembangane-Government. (2009) [16] Surendro, Kridanto, Pengembangan Rencana Induk Sistem Informasi. (Bandung : Informatika, 2009) 212 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

224 AN EVALUATION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT OF ASSEST AND LOGISTIC MANAGEMENT BUREAU USING COBIT 4.1 (A Case Study : Informatics and Business Institute Darmajaya Bandar Lampung) Yuni Puspita Sari 1 Lecturer of Computer Science Study Program of Informatics Engineering Informatics and Business Institute Darmajaya Jl. Z.A. Pagar Alam No. 93 Labuhan Ratu Bandar Lampung ABSTRACT The use of information system application at supply and inventory department of MAL of IBI Darmajaya Lampung is the most important part of business processes of an enterprise serving all units especially serving employees and lecturers, and monitoring and evaluating the performance of information technology as well as the management to reach the effective and efficient goal of the organization. Monitoring and Evaluation on a good performance can be conducted by auditing the existing system technically using COBIT 4.1 framework and utility aspects using multiple gap as the standard in analyzing how much attention of the management to the information system and how the information system can fit the management needs for information by looking at the importance and satisfaction between management and users. From the audit process phase conducted in domain monitoring and evaluation, it is necessary to get attention because users expectation and management focus more on the level of information technology performance which still needs improvement according to the specific standard in data management. KEY WORDS: Information System Application, Audit, COBIT, Multiple Gap analysis I. INTRODUCTION Background of the Problem The application of information system on supply and inventory at MAL bureau is the application used to record and organize all goods at MAL bureau. The implementation of this application is one of institution s steps in integrating information technology with the goal of the company business. To reach the goal of the institution, it is needed planning and implementation of information technology that fits the planning and organizational business strategy defined previously. The implementation of information technology in line with the institutional goal will be reached if it is supported with a proper management system. To know further about the case, the writer conducted a research about an evaluation of information technology management at Asset and Logistic Management (MAL) bureau of IBI Darmajaya Bandar Lampung using Cobit 4.1 FrameWork with focus measures for domains Monitor and Evaluate (ME) with ME1 dan ME4 processes. Limitation of the Problem In the research the problems are limited on: 1. Location of the research is supply and inventory service at Asset and Logistic Management (MAL) bureau at IBI Darmajaya. 213 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 st August 2015

225 2. This research merely discusses detailed control objectives (DCO) process, ME1(Monitoring and Evaluating performance of Information Technology) and ME4 (Providing management of Information Technology). Scope of the Problem Based on the background of the problem, the scope of the problems in the research is: 1. How to evaluate the information technology management of application of supplying and inventory information system at MAL bureau. 2. How to know the management of information technology on the application, whether or not it fits the vision and mission of MAL bureau. 3. How to overcome the occurring gaps in every information technology process as the solution for supplying and inventory information technology betterment in the future. Objectives A. The objectives of the research are : 1. To know the Current maturity level and Expected Maturity Level from each Information Technology process at ME1 and ME4. 2. To analyze the gaps in every IT process and give solutions for the improvement of supplying and inventory information technology in the future. 3. To make recommendations on management of domains, Monitor and Evaluate (ME). B. Advantages of the Research According to the problems and the objectives of the research discussed above, there are advantages of the research, they are as follows: knowing the maturity level of supplying and inventory information system service, specifically data management process, so MAL can do improvement in information technology at the bureau at IBI Darmajaya Bandar Lampung. 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Objective of Audit The objective of information system audit is to evaluate whether the control of service information system is able to give a good trust on time, Accuracy, Correctness, Asset Security, Data Integrity, Effectiveness, Efficiency, Availability, Compliance, and Reliability. 2.2 Audit Phases There are several audit process phases on information system. There are also many experts give opinions on audit process phases such as planning, fieldwork, reporting, and follow-up. COBIT designed consists of 34 control objectives which are reflected on 4 domains: Plan and Organize (PO), Acquire and Implement (AI), Deliver and Support (DS), and Monitor and Evaluate (ME). Those domains can be illustrated below. There are 34 high level objectives and 6 publications. 214 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 st August 2015

226 of service investigation at MAL is known at level 3 (Defined), meaning that the service process runs and is organized, but there is no specific standard because defined approach tends to be individual or case-per-case Result of Expected Maturity Level Evaluation Figure2.1 Framework domain COBIT 3.RESULT AND DISCUSSION 3.1 RESEARCH METHOD Method is a procedure of work used in the research. Besides, it determines an output expected from every existing input with the phases as follows: a. Planning b. fieldwork c. Reporting d. Follow up 3.1. Result of Current Maturity Level Evaluation (Performance) Table 4.1 Maturity score of Asset and Logistic Management bureau at IBI Darmajaya obtained from respondents of staff category and current management category ini (Performance) Domain Process Current Maturity Monitor and Management 2.98 Evaluate Monitor and Evaluate User 3.12 Maturity Score based on management 3.04 and user In table 4.2 it shows Maturity score of MAL bureau at IBI Darmajaya based on respondents of staff category and expected management category. Table 4.2 Domain Process Expected Maturity Management Management 4.58 and Evaluate Management and Evaluate User 4.20 Maturity score based on 4.39 management and staff From table 4.2 it can be seen that the average index of current maturity level for domains Manajemen and Evaluate is different at level 4 ( Managed and measurable). It can be said that the supplying and logistic information system process at MAL at IBI Darmajaya does not have any problems, the existing problems can be solved quickly Result of Expected Maturity Level Evaluation (Expectacy) A. Management Category Current Maturity Level is expected at with respondents of management category representing expected performance can be illustrated below: From table 4.1 it can seen that the average index of current maturity at domains Monitor and Evaluate from the result 215 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 st August 2015

227 solve every problem, and is already processed using a standardized method, and it has clearly defined the steps to be used to support the service. Figure 4.1 Radar Graph of management awareness representing expected performance B. User Category Expected Maturity Level at MAL IBI Darmajaya with respondents of user category and management category can also be illustrated below: 4.2. Suggestion The result of the research is expected comprehensively to be a reference in Information Technology. The writer suggests that IBI Darmajaya has to demands MAL bureau to make improvements as follows: 1. IBI Darmajaya has to do a comprehensive analysis on monitoring and evaluation quality of Information Technology management which has been done by MAL bureau based on framework Cobit. 2. IBI Darmajaya has to make improvements based on the highest interest priority scale which might bother the business and avoid a great loss if there are obstacles caused by the quality of supplying and inventory information technology management at MAL bureau. 3. IBI Darmajaya has to determine the time target to MAL bureau in doing the evaluation, performance improvement, and information technology management. 4. The result of the research can be used do conduct further researches by adding other domains. Figure 4.2 Radar graph of user representing expected performance 4.CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION 4.1. Conclusion From the result of the research, it can concluded that ME1 and ME4 process at domains Monitor and Evaluate provided by MAL bureau at IBI Darmajaya generally is at the maturity level of Defined process, which means that there is an evidence that the institution knows that it has to REFERENCES Bambang, Uji Publik draf Sarana dan Prasarana Pendidikan Tinggi, Rubrik Berita, Jakarta, Boyke Hidayat, (2011), Evaluasi Itegrated Toll Collection System Dengan Menggunakan FRAMEWORK COBIT, Institut Pertanian Bogor Data Perguruan Tinggi Indonesia, 23 Februari International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 st August 2015

228 Gunadarma, Prosedur Peminjaman Barang NOC, Jakarta, Desember 2009 Harni Kusniyati, Strategi Peningkatan Layanan IT di Universitas Mecu Buana, Jakarta, 2009 IT Governance Institute (2000), Executive Summary, COBIT 3 rd Edition, 14 Juli IT Governance Institute (2000), Audit Guidelines, COBIT 3 rd Edition, 14 Juli 2003 Weber, Ron (1999), Information Systems Control and Auditing, The University of Queensland, Prentice Hall. 217 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 st August 2015

229 THE EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENT HEALTH CAMPAIGN COMMUNICATOR CREDIBILITY ON HEALTHY LIFE ( A Study on the Effect of AYO BERSIH Campaign Communictor Credibility of City Health Office on Healthy Life Attitude of Housewives as Posyandu Members in Bandar Lampung) Hasan Basri 1 Faculty of Social and Politics Sciences Tulang Bawang University, Bandar Lampung ABSTRACT Basically, communication campaign is a planned, organized, persuasive activity, and conducted within a specific time to gain specific effects on the receivers. The campaign in the research is an environmental health campaign consisting of communicator credibility factors in forming healthy life attitude with governmental institution communicators, in this case, the Health service office of Bandar Lampung city, which is aimed at doing healthy life persuasion specifically to the citizen intended to Posyandu cadres as receivers. It is a quantitative research and uses qualitative data. The research is on the receivers perspective, which has a focus on the healthy life effects. The hypothesis uses path analysis counted through SPSS (Statistical Programme Servive Solution). The data gain with questionnaire to 283 respondents as the sampel, using random samping technique with population as 2,830 people. Key words : Persuasion, Campaign, Health Environment, Communicator Credibility, Healthy Life Attitude. 1. Introduction Communication campaign is a persuasive phenomenon. The communicator campaign activity can be applied in the health world to become a health campaign. In the development, the health communication is born in the frame of health issue delivery through communication science perspective. Within the condition, the government of Bandar Lampung city carries out varied programs aimed at improving public health initiated from the effort of environment health. The program is well known as Gerakan Serentak Kebersihan Bandar Lampung that was declared by the mayor of Bandar Lampung on October 9, 2006 (source: Selayang Pandang Kota Bandar Lampung). This program is a persuasive campaign activity in order that the people of Bandar Lampung care more of the environment health, changing the image in October 2005 winning the predicate as the dirtiest city in Indonesia to be afforded a clean and healthy city. To change the public awareness on the program, it has already carried out a program Jumat Bersih emphasize more on one of public sectors, by generating governmental personnel on the program Gerakan Kebersihan through the campaign called Ayo Bersih-Bersih (ABB). The public segmentation (housewives as cadres of Pos Yandu) in the campaign is an important point of the campaign (Venus,2004:142). The campaign strategy is definitely directed with the segmentation. The arising assumption is the Pos Yandu cadres will experience persuasive effects by practicing healthy life habits in their health. In this perspective, the health campaign seems to be a social political phenomenon directed to win the Adipura award. When the campaign is to hold, it is a condition to see how the persuasion can give effects on communicants. If seeing that the campaign is conducted at the public segment by the Pos Yandu officials, the curiosity arises to 218 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

230 know how far the effect of credibility of environmental health campaign communicator at the Health Service Office of Bandar Lampung on the healthy life attitude of the housewives as the members of Pos Yandu in Kota Bandar Lampung. What is the attitude of housewives as Pos yandu members toward health habituation able to be affected by communicator credibility at a campaign? From the formulation of the problem is there an effect of environment health campaign communicator credibility, the identification of the problem is made through a series of questions : is there an effect of environment health campaign while the objective of the research is to analyze the effect of environment health campaign communicator credibility on the healthy life change of the housewives, members of Posyandu. 2. Research Method The research is conducted using a qualitative approach with explanatory survey method. The research examines the research hypothesis, by giving explanation on causal relationship between environment health campaign communicator credibility as independent variable (X), while variable (Y) as dependent variable is healthy life attitude of housewives as Pos Yandu cadres. From those matters, it is expected to predict to obtain facts of existing symptoms, by doing investigation on facts of existing symptoms and searching information factually, then drawing conclusion from the research sample. From the operational variable it is arranged an instrument of the research (questionnaire/questions list) by using likert scale. The object of the research (material or observed phenomenon) is the effect of environment health campaign communicator credibility including variable X is communicator credibility, while Varible Y is healthy life attitude consisting of cognitive, affective, and conative of health life of the respondents.. The population of the research is the housewives as the members of Pos yandu in Bandar Lampung. From the tinitial observation done by the writer, it is obtained data of 608 groups of Posyandu with the number of population or members of Pos Yandu as people. If the number of subject is less than 100,it is better to take all. If the subject is more than 100, it is better to take 10-15% or 25-25% or more (Ridwan, 2009:254). Based on the data of Pos Yandu in Bandar Lampung as people, so 10% of the population is 283 people. As the research guidance, the data quantity is done on the research hypothesis Attitude factors (cognitive, affective, and conative) in communicator credibility at environment health campaign on the healthy life attitude of housewives the members of Pos Yandu. To answer the hypothesis uses data analysis obtained from the questionnaire. The analysis describes each variable (descriptive analytical technique) using frequency analysis. Whereas, for the inferential analytical technique it uses path analysis using the model in the following figure. 219 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

231 1 x.1 Y 1 y1.0 X Y 2 2 x.2 Path Coefficient decomposition is as follows: X = environment health campaign Y 1 = Healthy life attitude Y 2 = Healthy life behavior x 1 = Path coefficient effect X on Y 1 x 2 = Path coefficient effect X on Y 2 y 1 = Path coefficient direct effect Y 1 on Y 2 1 = Resting Coefficient effect X on Y 1 2 = Resting Coefficient effect X on Y 2 through Y 1 3. Result of the Research and Result of the Discussion Based on the hypothetical test counted statistically as the research guidance, the quantification of data is done on the hypothesis, using data analysis with software of Microsoft Excel-based Program SPSS (Statistical Programme Servive Solution). Based on the proposed hypothesis, it is obtained the result that H 0 is rejected, which means there is an effect between campaign communicator credibility on healthy life of the respondents. The result generally has answered the objective of the research to know factors of attitude (cognitive, affective, and conative) in communicator credibility at the environment health campaign on the healthy life attitude of the housewives as the members of Pos Yanduin Bandar Lampung. The attitude change happens influenced by communicator credibility factors by seeing the closeness condition of the campaign communicators in doing the opinion share and visit to respondents houses. At present, the credibility built from the frequency of a meeting to intimacy, finally forming truthworthiness. On this condition the persuasive is very effective in changing public attitude. According to the assumption of planned attitude theories, other factors can be subjective norm or perceived behavioral control, which becomes factors of the doers intention together with attitude toward behavior. The subjective norm is our belief on what other people want to do (Azwar, 2010:11). In addition, according to Venus (2004): subjective norm is related to behavior. It is connected with individual belief and people s thought which means it is important for the behavior. It is tightly related to how far the individual motivated to be able to fulfill the people s expectation (Venus,2004: 35). Whereas, perceived behavioral control is stated by Azwar (2010:12), is a behavioral control comprehended, while Venus says : it is perception to behavioral control. It is mentioned the individual perception on external factor strength to be influenced by level of easiness or difficulty that the attitude and behavior appear (Venus, 2004:35). Based on those varied assumptions tersebut, the environmental attitude and behavior arise which are determined by external aspects from each housewife the member of Pos yandu. Personally, the effect of attitude and behavior appear in individual will be different by the same emerging attitude and behavior in the environment. 220 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

232 The finding shows that there is a relationship between attitude and behavior, which becomes an important construction in theory of planned behavior. The behavior is mostly determined by the doer s intention formed from the attitude toward the behavior, and the subjective norm factor (subjective norm) and perceived bahavioral control. Baldwin (2004:144) states that the planned behavioral theory (theory of reasonned behavior, then developing into theory of planned behavior, is the most successful psychological theory disclosing the relationship between attitude and behavior. The result of analysis in the research can be seen in the following table: Table 3.1. Result of Hypothetical Analysis on attitude and behavioral factors in communicator credibility No Hypothesis Variable Pair Effect Result hypothesis 1. X 1 on Y 1.1. direct Significant 2. X 1 on Y 1.2. direct Significant 3. X 1 on Y 1.3. direct Significant The hypothesis of the research is attitude factors (cognitive, affective, and conative) in communicator credibility on environment health campaign toward healthy life attitude of housewives the members of Posyandu Table: The result of path analysis affects the communicator credibility (subvarble X 1 ) on cognitive aspects of healthy life attitude (subvariable Y 1.1 ) that can be seen below: Effect Varaible R Fhit Sig thit Sig. Indirect Noncausal pair direct Total X 1 - Y ,162 0,000 7,626 0, X -Y ,007 0, ,918 0, Y Y ,064 0, R 2 Note: X 1 : communicator credibility; Y 1.1 : cognitive aspect of healthy life attitude cognitive; Y 2 : healthy life behavior Based on table 3.2. it is obtained F count affects communicator credibility on cognitive aspects of healthy life attitude as 58,162 (signcificant) the path coefficient = 0,424 (significant), therefore it can be concluded there is an effect of communicator credibility on cognitive aspects of life attitude on healthy life behavior. Then, from the table it is obtained that F count affects communicator credibility and cognitive aspects of healthy life aspects on healthy life behavior as 918 (significant) which means wholly the communicator credibility and cognitive aspects of healthy life behavior. Next, based on the result of t partial (t test ) is obtained t count for the communicator credibility variable as 8,007 (significant) and t count of cognitive aspect variable of healthy life attitude as (significant). Besides, it is also gained path coefficient of both variables as (significant) and (significant) each. In table 3.2.can be seen value path coefficient is, so it can be described as follows: communicator credibility in fact has an effect on cognitive aspects of healthy life attitude. It is based on the result of path coefficient as higher than 0.05, so it is said that it affects because the coefficient is significant. The result shows the cognitive component gets the effect from the communicator credibility strengthening the opinion that in changing the attitude of desired source of credibilty, as mentioned in Carl Hovland and Yale s Study (1953) disclosing that the credible sources able to change a attitude better than incredible communicator. In the result of the research, the communicator credibility is able to affect 221 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

233 cognitive aspects of the respondents, the implication is the Table For the result of path analysis of communicator persuasive process that happens more easy to be identified, credibility (subvariable X 1 ) toward affective aspect perceived, and understood by the respondents. The initial condition will support the persuasive process at the next phase in this case to change the public attitude. (subvariable Y 1.1 ) presented in the below table: effect Variable R Fhit Sig thit Sig. Noncausal pair Direct indirect Total X 1 - Y ,072 0,000 7,555 0, R 2 X 1 -Y ,193 0, ,038 0,000 Y 1.1 Y ,514 0, note: X :communicator credibility; Y 1.2 : affective aspects of healthy life attitude; Y 2 : healthy life behavior Based on table It is obtained F count affects the communicator credibility on affective attitude of healthy life attitude as (significant) and the path coefficient as (significant), therefore it can be concluded that there is an effect of communicator credibility on affective attitude of healthy life behavior..the above table shows F count affects the communicator credibility and affective aspects of healthy life attitude on healthy life behavior. Then, based on the result of partial test (t test ) is obtained the value of t count for environment health campaign as as (significant) and t count, the affective attitude variable of healthy life attitude as (significant). Besides, it is also obtained value path coefficient of both variables for each as (significant) and (significant). In table 3.3. can also be seen the result of value path coefficient as illustrated below. Besides affecting the affective attitude of healthy life attitude, in fact the communicator credibility also affects the affective aspects of healthy life attitude. It is based on the result of path analysis is obtained the value of path coefficient as the value of path coefficient is bigger than it means that communicator credibility gives an effect on respondents emotion, feeling, and evaluation. The significant value shows there is a quite big effect on respondents affective aspects. The communicator evaluated credible by the respondents is able to give an effect on their affection. The communicator delivers a persuasive message where he/she (his /her intuition) has credibility in the respondents sight and this condition is a potential aspect in changing attitude affective components positively. The affective component can be taken as an important thing of an attitude. Affective component is someone s feeling related to the attitude consisting of emotion and feeling of a person on a stimulus, especially in positive negative evaluation (Taylor, 2009:166). It is further said that the attitude tends to be cognitively complex, but relatively simple and evaluative. The evaluative components involve emotion, feeling, and evaluation. Some experts state that attitude is an affective structure, which means an emotional aspect and evaluation is the main aspect of attitude. The effect of affective aspects is an important finding when examining the effect of persuasion on the respondents attitude, because the affective components are considered the most important aspect of attitude. komponen terpenting dari sikap. In addition, Rakhmat in his book tend to merely see the attitude of the affective components (Rakhmat, 1989:40). Regardless other attitude components, the research 222 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

234 proves there is a significant effect of communicator credibility in the campaign on affective aspects of attitude. This finding can be used a proof that the health campaign can persuade and affect the respondents healthy life attitude. Table The direct effect of communicator credibility in environment health campaign on the conative aspect of respondents attitude as presented below: Variable pair r Fhit Sig thit Sig. Direct In-direct Effect Totalon-causal X 1 - Y ,218 0,000 5,764 0, X 1 -Y ,404 0,000 9,108 0, Y Y ,375 0, R 2 Ket: X 1 : communicator credibility ; Y 1.3 : conative aspects of healthy life attitude ; Y 2 : healthy life behavior Based on table 3.4. it is obtained F hitung affects the communicator credibility on conative aspects of healthy life attitude as (signicant) and path coefficient as (significant). It can be concluded that there is an effect of communicator credibility through conative aspects of healthy life behavior. Moreover, from the table above, it is obtained F hitung affects communicator credibility and conative aspects of healthy life attitude on healthy life behavior as (significant). It indicates that the communicator credibility and conative aspects of healthy life attitude affects healthy life behavior. Then, based on the partial test it is obtained the value t hitung for communicator credibility variable as (significant) and t hitung, the conative aspect variable of healthy life attitude as.375 (significant). Besides, it is alos obtained the values of path coefficient for both variables as (significant) and (significant). in table 3.4. it can also be seen the result of the value of path coefficient, so it can be described as follows: from the analysis it is gained the value of path coefficient directly affects communicator credibility on the conative aspects of healthy life attitude as which means that if it is bigger than 0.05, it significantly affects the communicator credibility on the conative aspects of healthy life attitude. In psychological perspective, conative components is a tendency to behave which is a shaped attitude component or a structured attitude with affective evaluation and aspect. Walgito (1991) mentions conative component connected with tendency to react to an attitude object. This component indicates attitude intensity showing the quantity of behavioral tendency of a person toward an attitude object (Walgito,1991:110). The result of the above analysis indicates that conative aspect as attitude attitude component has a similar consistency to the change of attitude. It is in line with attitude schematic concept from Hovland and Rosenberg (1960 in Azwar (2010:7). It is said that a person s attitude toward an object plays a role as mediator between respondents and the object. The response is classified into 3 types, they are cognitive response (perceptual response dan statement on what is believed), affective response (sympathetic neural response or affective statement), as well as behavioral response (responses such as action and statement about behavior). Each classification of responses is related to the three attitude components (Azwar, 2010:7). In the further research, Rosenberg dan Hovland mentions the relevance of attitude and behavior. Based on the response conception on an attitude object, Rosenberg dan Hovland states that inference or conclusion about 223 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

235 attitude must be based on a phenomenon that can be observed or measured. This phenomenon states that inference is a response toward an attitude object in different shapes. This conception can be seen in the below table: Table Response used to Attitude conclusion (adapted from Rosenberg & Hovland, 1960) Type of Respons Verbal Non-Verbal (source: Azwar,2010:21) Response category Cognitive Affective Conative Statement of belief on attitude object Perceptual reaction toward attitude From the conception in table 3.5.it is seen that the conative component of an attitude can be said to have characteristics to look more obvious tampak than the other attitude components as comprehension or perception and evaluation and emotion) conative response is behavior or a relative intention that can be observed compared to the cognitive and affective responses which are deeper.. From the result of the analysis at subhypothsis, there are several aspects to say:communicator credibility factor plays a quite important role in a persuasive campaign to change or affect public attitude. The campaign communicators in a group of communication (preach and discussion) and visit to cadre s house (sharing) proves that it can affect the healthy life attituce of the huousewives the members of Posyandu. 4. Conclusion There are some conclusions of the research: Based on the three results of analysis toward the three components it can concluded that the three components have indirect effects on attitude and healthy life behavior of the respondents. If categorized orderly, it can be said that communicator credibility affects healthy life attitude of the housewives which is shown by significant numbers of the three components. If reviewed from every aspect, it is found that communicator credibility tends more to affect the cognitive aspects of healthy life attitude of the housewives Statement of feeling toward attitude object Physiological reaction toward attitude object Statement of behavioral intention Visible behavior connected with attitude object the members of Pos Yandu, than the affective and conative aspects of healthy life attitude. it is indicated by the number of path coefficient value where the communicator credibility in the health campaign from the Health service office Badar Lampung toward the cognitive aspects of healthy life ( =0,424), while toward affective aspects of healthy life attitude at the second number ( =0,414), and conative aspects of healthy life attitude at the lowest ( = 0,325) Therefore, it can be recommended that: a. It is required more complete printed references or books on campaign and persuasion. So far, there are limited references especially discussing campaign communicator credibility in Indonesia. b. It is recommended to carry out further researches on campaign communicator credibility in Bandar Lampung. It is also recommended to do a research on the communicator credibility of health campaign in Bandar Lampung through theoretical perspectives, construction, or other models. REFERENCES Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Prentice-Hall., Englewood Cliffs, NJ. Azwar, Saifuddin Sikap Manusia : Teori dan Pengukurannya. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar. 224 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

236 Baldwin, John R., Stephen D. Perry, Mary Anne Moffitt Communication Theories, For Everyday Life. Pearson Education, Inc. Boston. Rakhmat, Jalaluddin , Psikologi Komuni, kasi, Remaja Karya, Bandung. Riduwan dan Akdon, Rumus dan Data dalam Analisis Statistika. Alfabeta. Bandung. Taylor, Shelley E., Peplau, Letitia Anne., Sears, David O., 2009, Psikologi Sosial, Edisi keduabelas, terjemahan dari buku soscial psychology, 12 nd editon, Pearson Education-Prentice hall., dialihbahasakan oleh Tri Wibowo B.S., Kencana Prenada Media Group, Jakarta. Venus, Antar Modul: Strategi Komunikasi & Negosiasi., Program Pascasarjana. Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung Manajemen Kampanye. Simbiosa Rekatama Media, Bandung. Walgito, Bimo., Psikologi Sosial, Suatu Pengantar, Andi Offset, Yogyakarta..Sumber lainnya : Selayang Pandang Kota Bandar Lampung tahun Ditebitkan oleh Sekretaris Kota Bandar Lampung, Pemerintahan Kota Bandar Lampung International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

237 MODEL ANALYSIS OF LEADERSHIP AND WORK DISCIPLINE AGAINST REVENUE SERVICE PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT A.K Yohanson 1 Magister of Management, IBI Darmajaya 1 ZA Pagar Alam Street Number 93, Labuhan Ratu Bandar Lampung 1 1 ABSTRACT In serving employees are expected to carry out all the tasks that have been given with full responsibility, and is also expected to have a high loyalty and dedication in practice no exception for apparatus or employees who serve in the community. The dynamics of a very diverse community today demanded that the apparatus / employee in order to work optimally in providing services to the public. Implementation of a breakthrough in efforts to expand the authority to explore sources of revenue should be directed as much as possible for the benefit of the region and the efforts that led to improved quality of human resources should be based on the proportionality of the capabilities and acceptability continue. Not only that, the efforts of others to do as directing employees to the professionalism in terms of appropriate staffing agency needs gradually and surely must be based on objectivity and proportionality of the capabilities and acceptability authorities concerned to accelerate the achievement of organizational goals. 1. Introduction In serving employees are expected to carry out all the tasks that have been given with full responsibility, and is also expected to have a high loyalty and dedication in practice no exception for apparatus or employees who serve in the community. The dynamics of a very diverse community today demanded that the apparatus / employee in order to work optimally in providing services to the public. Implementation of a breakthrough in efforts to expand the authority to explore sources of revenue should be directed as much as possible for the benefit of the region and the efforts that led to improved quality of human resources should be based on the proportionality of the capabilities and acceptability continue. Not only that, the efforts of others to do as directing employees to the professionalism in terms of appropriate staffing agency needs gradually and surely must be based on objectivity and proportionality of the capabilities and acceptability authorities concerned to accelerate the achievement of organizational goals. Performance or in the English language is performance, which is produced can be achieved by a person or group in accordance with the authority and responsibilities of each in order to attempt to achieve organizational goals in question must be done legally, do not violate the law and in accordance with moral and ethical. Realization of organizational objectives depends on the human element that task as well as the activity itself. To ensure that the process of achieving goals can be achieved with good, it would require a model or style of good leadership and good discipline application to improve service performance. A leader who can succeed only by applying a style all situations, leaders tend to be successful in carrying out his leadership when applying different leadership styles for different situations. Leadership model is closely related to the style of leadership in 226 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

238 influencing the behavior of others. Of this style can be taken advantage to be used as a guide for leaders in. lead subordinates or followers or style of leadership is the norm of behavior used by a person when the person is trying to influence the behavior of others. Bandar Lampung expected to further increase responsibility in carrying out its duties and functions so that jobs can be run effectively and efficiently in the work and in the end no longer just the completion of a job done by one employee only. Activities in influencing people to want to work together to achieve the desired goal is one determinant of success in carrying out the task, it is important to implement and at any time under the guidance of a leader. Leadership someone depends on many factors, and every leader can constantly improve and enhance its ability in the field of leadership in applying the underlying principles of good leadership. As quoted in the thesis conducted by AK YOHANSON graduate student (master management) IBI Darmajaya 2015 entitled Analysis Model of Leadership and Work Discipline Against Employee Performance At the Regional Revenue Office Bandar Lampung in research appeared a big problem in an organization that became the object of much research as the work of employees on Regional Revenue Office in Bandar Lampung achieved in the execution of its duties and functions still need to be improved such as task completion and achievement of job targets are still low. Not only is it still a low sense of responsibility in carrying out and completing the work which has been assigned to be a record it can be seen from the work and achievement of performance targets that are sometimes not optimal. Under conditions like these and support the role of a leader is indispensable in carrying out their duties, decisive action to carry out punitive measures against employees who do not maximize work time and employees are always delay the work to be done objectively. Not only that optimize the role of leadership in the attention of the employees, especially in terms of enforcement of discipline against the employees still need to be improved because the Revenue Service employee in The pattern of behavior of a leader to lead subordinates, organize and formulate, implement a job and the tasks performed by each subordinate so employees can be motivated well to complete tasks and obligations. Leader in Regional Revenue Office in Bandar Lampung should be closely in leading subordinates in order to know and adjust to the character and level of ability in each subordinate tasks so as to encourage the performance of the Regional Revenue Office Bandar Lampung. In an organization of course has the objective to be achieved, where each employee was given a specific role in a working system and the division of labor which is broken down into tasks, all of which play a role, from which formed a pattern of lifestyle, behavior patterns, and ethics all of which work will characterize the condition of an organization. Each individual / employee in an organization can not be separated from the essence of the cultural values espoused that can synergize with the organization, technology, systems, strategies and life style of leadership. Patterns of interaction of human resources within the organization must be balanced and harmonized in organization order may still exist in achieving its objectives. To support the improvement of employee performance in accordance with the mandate of Law No. 32 Year 2004 on Regional Government wants the creation of efficiency, effectiveness and productivity of the system of government in the implementation of development through good coordination system and planned human resource demanding roles in order to apply the discipline of work in accordance with Government Regulation No. 227 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

239 53 Year 2010 concerning the discipline of work in legislation, In the legislation that has been set on the obligations therein should be obeyed and the prohibition that should not be or forbidden, because without the support of a good working discipline, the work activities will be disrupted so that ultimately have an impact on achievement of the performance of the organization itself. Discipline is a condition of self-control employees and orderly behavior that shows the level of real teamwork in an organization. One aspect of the employment relationship that is important internally but often difficult to implement is the application of disciplinary measures. In order to carry out the order and the smoothness of the employee's duties required of a regulation and discipline. Discipline must be enforced in an organization objectively, because without the support of a good employee discipline it is difficult for the company to realize its objectives, so discipline is key to the success of a company in achieving its objectives. With the discipline of work means a person is required to carry out any rules and regulations that already exist in a company. This is necessary because it will affect the task assigned to the person. One of the indicators in the assessment of the performance of employees in the research work that the level of compliance with Government Regulation No. 53 Year 2010 on Employee Discipline. Success in achieving the objectives of government organizations, depending on the human element that task as well as the activity itself. To ensure that the process of achieving goals can be achieved with good, good leadership is needed to run the organization, as well as the implementation andenforcement of existing discipline employee in an organization will have much effect on the achievement of good working conditions so as to produce the performance of employees and organization performance that optimal, therefore some of the problems that sometimes arise in an organization such as: The result of the work of employees who have not achieved optimal line with expectations, and in the execution of its duties and functions such as task completion and achievement of job targets are still low so it needs to be improved, Still lack of a sense of responsibility in carrying out and completing the work which has been assigned as seen from the work and achievement of performance targets that are sometimes not optimal, is not yet optimal leadership in carrying out its duties, this can be seen on decisive action in conducting punitive measures for employees who are not maximize uptime and always delay the work. As well as the leadership is still not optimal in caring for its employees, especially in terms of enforcement of discipline against the employees and employee responsibilities in carrying out its duties and functions less effectively and efficiently it can be seen still much work to be done only by one employee. This is sometimes an issue in the course of an organization. In writing this article aims to provide input for the models influence related policies and disciplines related work performance of employees. 2. Literature Review Leadership Model Some models of leadership is expressed here is a model of leadership Fielder in Handoko, T. Hani. (2012: 123), the leadership model of three dimensions namely 1) Model contingency leadership Fielder Fielder is well known with the contingency model of leadership theory in the literature referred to as Fielder's Contingency Model. In this model of leadership will be effective when using a leadership style appropriate for various situations. According to this approach, there are three variables that determine the effectiveness of leadership, namely: first the relationship between the 228 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

240 leader-led, both third-degree structure assignment position of power leader. 2) a three-dimensional model of leadership This leadership approach or model proposed by William J. Reddin in Handoko, T. Hani. (2012; 125). This model is called three-dimensional-model because the three groups closurelinking leadership style, which mentioned basic style, the style is effective, and effective force into a single unit. 3) Model Continuum based on the number of subordinate participation in decision-making The development of this leadership model is Vroom and Yetton, two of them argues that there are two main kinds of conditions that can be the basis for leaders to include or not to include subordinates in decision-making Work Discipline Labor discipline is an attitude of respect, appreciate, submissive and obedient to the rules that apply both written and unwritten, work discipline needs to be improved, because without the support of labor discipline, the work activities will be disrupted, which in turn would interfere with the achievement of corporate goals itself. (B. Siswanto Sastrohadiwiryo (2003: 29). Relating to the discipline of work, then as a clerk in a government agency associated with government regulations on employee discipline, namely Government Regulation No. 53 Year 2010, it has been arranged on the obligations that must be adhered to and that the prohibition should not be prohibited Employee Performance Every individual who works and organizations that operate definitely oriented vision, objectives and specific targets. The organization must know what is faced with customer or client during a certain time, as reflected in the organization's vision, and people know what it shall also be the target of a job for a certain period. Prawirisentono, 2009: 193), suggests that the performance in carrying out its duties do not stand alone, he was associated with the level of satisfaction and reward or expectation. Good performance is influenced by the ability (knowledge and skills) and motivation (attitude and situation) someone. According Wirawan (2009: 67) "Standards of performance are targets, goals, objectives employee efforts within a certain time. In carrying out its work, the employee must direct all the energy, thoughts, skills, knowledge, and their work time to accomplish what is determined by the performance standards ". Conclusions of several theories above are: leadership model is the norm of behavior that a person uses when the person is trying to influence others as he saw (Thoha, 2009: 58). Most people assume leadership style is the type of leadership. This is partly expressed by Siagian (2003) that the person's leadership style synonymous with the type of leadership that regard. Discipline in accordance with Government Regulation No. 53 of 2010, related to obligations and prohibitions employees and leadership that can drive the wheels of quality and professional organizations. Suryadi Prawiro Sentono (2008: 45) explains that the discipline of a person in work can be seen from several indicators, namely: attendance rate, compliance, implementation of the tasks, sanctions, authority and responsibility. Performance is the result of work achieved by a person or group of people within an organization, in accordance with the authority and responsibilities of each, in an effort to achieve the goals of the organization in question legally, do not violate the law and in accordance with moral or ethical (Prawirosentono, 2009: 2 ). Medium according Sedarmayanti (2009: 22). Performance 229 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

241 "performance, which translates into performance, also means performance, execution of work, job attainment, work / actions, performance" Descriptive characteristics of employees may be influenced by gender, age group, education level, years of service. the provision of a good experience is expected of the employee in order to work optimally in order to support the achievement of organizational performance in the Regional Revenue Office Bandar Lampung. Quantitative correlations between variables the model of leadership and discipline to employee performance occurred a positive relationship with a very strong relationship criteria quoted research A. Yehansa IBI Darmajaya 2015 on the Effect of variable models of leadership and discipline on the performance of employees at the Department of Revenue in Bandar Lampung. From these studies conclude level of the relationship of work discipline variable to variable employee performance is stronger than the variable leadership model. From these results led the organization in order to pay attention to two factors that can help achieve optimal organizational performance. While the results obtained coefficient of determination R2 determination coefficient R2 of 0.729, results of testing that has been done is give good results. These results can be interpreted that as many as 72.9% of the variation of employee performance can be explained by the model / style of leadership and discipline. While the remaining 27.1% is explained by other variables outside of the variables examined in this study. Multiple linear regression value generated in this study is Y = X X2 + et. This can be interpreted constants for (a = 2.305) can be interpreted that if there is no change in the factors of independent variables which include models of leadership and discipline d then the performance of employees amounted to 2,305 points. The regression coefficient (b1 = 0.251) can be interpreted working leadership model variables added 1 (one) point, it will affect the increase in the performance of employees at the Regional Revenue Office Bandar Lampung at points and the regression coefficient (b2 = 0.681) variables can be interpreted labor discipline up 1 (one) point, it will affect the performance of employees rise to the Regional Revenue Office in Bandar Lampung amounted to points. To further strengthen the results of research conducted testing of the hypothesis, and the results support the theory of the theories have previously with the result that the partial and simultaneous models of leadership and discipline affect the performance of employees at the Department of Revenue in Bandar Lampung. 3. Conclusion From the above discussion, the model of leadership and discipline partially and simultaneously influence the performance of employees at the Department of Revenue in Bandar Lampung. given the role of these two variables is so great in influencing employee performance then: 1. In leading a leader should be able to apply the appropriate leadership model with the employees and working environment conditions or combining of four types of leadership styles that instruction, consultation, participation, Delegation to improve employee performance. 2. In carrying out and enforcing the discipline of leadership should be able to consistently increase the discipline of employees working in particularly the level of attendance and at the time of execution of official duties. To employees who lack discipline given sanctions firmly and objectively in accordance with existing regulations. 3. By applying a model of leadership and discipline employees who work well will produce optimal 230 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

242 performance of employees therefore this factor becomes the focus of policy makers in implementing the strategy in an organization. As well as improving employee performance should still consider supporting indicators in improving employee performance such as job performance of employees, implementation of employee, job attainment, work / actions and performance of employees in order to support the achievement of the target achievement. 231 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

243 EMPLOYEE S PERFORMANCE THORUGH EDUCATION AND TRAINING AS WELL AS RENUMERATION (A Case Study at SMK-SMTI Bandar Lampung) Aditya Irawan 1 SMK-SMTI Bandar Lampung Jl. Jend. Sudirman No. 43 Tanjungkarang, Bandar Lampung ABSTRACT Civil Servants as human resources have a very important role because the performance of the employee as a human resource would affect the agency's success in achieving its objectives. Realizing that the man is a very important determinant and the center of attention on every operational activity, each institution is required to manage the human resources that exist for the purpose that can be achieved by always being oriented to the use of human resources more effectively and efficiently. This research is descriptive quantitative because the method used in this study is a survey method using questionnaire technique. This research will be carried out at SMK-SMTI Bandar Lampung which is a vertical institution under Industrial Education and Training Center, the Ministry of Industry of the Republic of Indonesia by using a population of 70 respondents. There are three variables in this study; they are: 2 (two) independent variables Education and Training (X1) and Performance Benefits (X2)) and 1 (one) dependent variable. By the data processing it is found the hypothesis can be answered that there is an influence of Education and Training (X1) on Employee s Performance (Y), with the total influence (R-square) as 48,4 %, it shows that the Education and Training gives an effect as 48,4% on the Employee s Performance. There is an influence of Performance Benefits (X2) on Employee s Performance (Y), with the total influence as 41,6 %, and it shows that the Performance Benefits gives an effect as 41,6% on the Employee s Performance. There is an influence of Education and Training (X1), Performance Benefits (X2) on Employee s Performance (Y), with the total influence as 56,1 %, it shows that the Education and Training and Employee s Performance gives an effect as 56,1% on the Employee s Performance. KEY WORDS: Education and Training, Employees Benefits, Employee s Performance 1. Introduction Some of the components in an organization are money, materials, methods, and market. According to Notoatmodjo (2003), an institution must be supported by capable human resources because human resource is important to run the business or activities inside the institution. Therefore, an organization needs human resource, in this case, employees with high job performance where those with high or good job performance can be taken as a basic factor used as a benchmark for the success of an enterprise in reaching the goal. At present, job performances of civil servants in Indonesia are overall considered not good, yet. It happens because lack of job performance of the employees in conducting the main duties and functions as government 232 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

244 personnel. Basically, the bad job performance of civil servants are caused by several factors, i.e. lack of time discipline, low work ethics, work responsibility, job, salary problem, and educational level where 75% of civil servants are senior high school (SMA) graduates as 4 million employees, 53% of them need to be trained to reach the expected job performance. From the statement above, it can be concluded that bad job performance occurs because of low increase of human resource capacity of the employees through education and training programs which are not well organized. Besides educational and training programs, another determining factor is the amount of salary received does not fit work burden given to the employees. They will feel to have their welfare if all of their needs can be fulfilled, including economic needs (financial), in this case, realized by remuneration system. Therefore, there should be a change in remuneration system which is only based on job position and education, without considering job performance that has been done by the employees to the organization. As Mulyadi (2001) says that remuneration system or payment system is system of payment and wages over services given to the employees. The payment is usually done monthly, not depending on the number of hours or work days or the number of products produced. As an organic work unit Sebagai under Industrial Education and Training Center, the Ministry of Industry of the Republic of Indonesia SMK-SMTI Bandar Lampung has main duty and function to give training and education to candidates of industrial human resource that supports the main duty and function from the Ministry of Industry. To support the main duty and function, SMK SMTI Bandar Lampung has 70 government employees, 47 teaching staffs/teachers and 23 staffs or educational staffs coming from different backgrounds of education. The number of staffs who come from senior high school level (SMA) as 10 staffs; from Dipoma three as 6 personnel; S1 degree as 32 personnel and from Magister degree as 22 personnel. Based on the explanation above, it can be seen that the majority of educational level background of the employees at SMK-SMTI Bandar Lampung is S1 that is as 46%, and then followed by Magister (S2) as 31%, so 87% of the employees at SMK-SMTI Bandar Lampung have a high educational background. As a part of the Ministry of Industry of the Republic of Indonesia, the civil servants at SMK-SMTI Bandar Lampung have the rights to get remuneration which is distributed according to the suitable position that should fit the work burden owned by each employee with the lowest position level at grade 6 and the highest at grade 12. It is determined that employees with structural position, teachers, get the lowest grade 8 and the highest gets grade 12 where the average of remuneration received is the lowest as Rp per month. However, the level of higher education and big job performance remuneration, in fact, is not able to increase the discipline of the employees. Many employees are not consistent obey the regulation for attendance hour, since 75% of the total number of the employees at SMK-SMTI Bandar Lampung are teaching staffs or teachers. Thus, the teachers or teaching staffs who come late to the class will bother the teaching learning process in the class. Empirical Data in the field in 2012 showed that the average of employees attendance before as 40% 45 %, while the students attend the class more. Based on the above explanation, the writer conducts the research entitle, the employee s performance at SMK-SMTI Bandar Lampung through Education and training as well as remuneration giving. 233 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

245 2. Literature Review 2.1 Employee s Performance Performance is a job achievement or work result or output of a process. According to Dharma (2008: 65) performance is something that is done or product or service produced or given to a group of people. Therefore, based on the definition it can be concluded that the performance of human resource as work result that can be reached by human resource in an government bureaucratic organization in line with respective responsibility authority. In general, performance is often meant as competence to produce a result/ product. The standard for determining how much and how high the performance level of every organization or distinctive institutions which rely on kinds of activities, output which is produced or who does it. 2.2 Education and Training According to Dessler (2004:217) training is a learning process and studies that reveal common things to increase the learning process. In addition, Rulianto and Nurtjahjani (1996:16) defines training as an enterprise activity intended to be able to improve and develop the attitude, behavior, skills, and knowledge of the employees suitable with the willingness of the enterprise. According to Purnomo (1982:76) education is coaching in the process of human development where the man learns to think himself and support the development of his basic competencies. Education and training is conducted by the enterprise which is benefited by the enterprise, employees, customers, or society that consume goods and service that is given by the enterprise. The aim of education and training becomes a guide in arranging educational program and training in the implementation and monitoring. 2.3 Remuneration According to Simamora (1997) perforamnce remuneration is payments and services that protect and complete basic income/salary, and organization/ institution pay all or part of the remuneration. The main effect of performance remuneration type is to maintain the employees in an organization for long-term base. In Indonesian Dictionary, remuneration is additional income out of the salary as support. From several opinions above, it can be concluded that performance remuneration is indirect compensation given to employees to increase their welfare. 3. Research Method It is a descriptive quantitative research because the method used in the research is survey method using questionnaire technique. The research is conducted at a senior vocational school SMTI Bandar Lampung as a vertical institution under Industrial Education and Training Center, the Ministry of Industry of the Republic of Indonesia with the total number of populasi as 70 respondents. In the research there are two independent variables, Education and Training(X1) and Numeration (X2), and one dependent variable, Employee s Performance (Y). The data analysis used is product moment correlation statistics and double linear partial regression, determination coefficient, partial test (t-test), and F-test. 4. Result of the Research 1. Calculation on the Effects of Education and Training (X 1 ) on Employee s Performance (Y) Based on the calculation, the correlation levels between variables through SPSS 22 Program is obtained the amount of the correlation variable between Education and Training (X 1 ) and Employee s Performance variable (Y) at SMK- SMTI Bandar Lampung as 0,696. If consulted with the Interpretation table of correlation coefficient, the correlation level Education and 234 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

246 Training (X1) and Employee s Performance variable (Y) at SMK-SMTI Bandar Lampung is included into strong correlation category, at 0,600-0,799. correlation coefficient, the correlation level of Remuneration (X 2 ) and Employee s Performance (Y) is included in strong correlation category positioned at 0,600-0,799. Determination coefficient (KD) is R 2 = 0,696 2 = 0,484 = 0,484 x 100% = 48,4%. It can be concluded that Education and Training variable (X 1 ) indicates that the change variable of Employee s Performance variable (Y) at SMK- SMTI Bandar Lampung as 48,4%, while the rest is explained by other factors which are not examined in the research. Based on t-test it is obtained the value of t count = 7,994. If compared to t table at a significant level that is 0,05, so t count = 7,994 > t table = 1,667. Therefore, it can be concluded that Ha is accepted because there is an effect between Education and Training variable (X 1 ) on Employee s Performance (Y). In short, Education and Training variable (X 1 ) affects Employee s Performance variable Kinerja Pegawai (Y). The regression equation between Education and Training variable (X 1 ) and Employee s Performance variable (Y) is Y = 5, ,789X 1, which means that every increase as one point to X1 will be followed by the increase of X1 as 0,789 point. 2. Calculation of Effects of Remuneration (X2) on Employee s Performance (Y) Based on the result of calculation of the correlation level between variables using SPSS 22 program, it is obtained that the amount of correlation level between X2 and Y as 0,645. If it is consulted to the interpretation table of Determination coefficient (KD) is R 2 = 0,645 2 = 0,416 = 0,416 x 100% = 41,6%. It can be concluded that Remuneration (X 2 ) shows the change variation of Y as 41,6%, while the rest is explained by another factor which is not examined in the research. Based on t-test it can be obtained the value of t count as 6,954. If compared to t table at the significant level that is 0,05, so t coun = 6,954 > t table = 1,667. Therefore, it can be concluded that hypothesis that states there is an effect of Remuneration (X 2 ) on Employee s Performance (Y) or Ha is accepted. The regression equation between X 2 and Y is that Y = 10, ,588X 2, which means that every increase one point to working motivation will be followed by Employee s Performance variable as 0,588 point. 3. Calculation of Effects of Education and Training (X 1 ) and Remuneration (X 2 ) on Employee s Performance (Y) The correlation between Education and Training and Remuneration and Employee s Performance is as 0,749, it means that the three variables have a tight and positive effect. In other words, the better Education and Training and Remuneration, the higher Employee s Performance. KD = R = 0,749 2 = 0,561 = 0,561 x 100% is 56,1%. It can be concluded that the amount of the effect of Education and Training and 235 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

247 Remuneration on Employee s Performance is as 56,1%, and the rest is explained by another factor which is not examined in the research.. Based on t-test, it is obtained t count for Education and Training variable (X 1 ) as 4,721 and t count for Remuneration variable (X 2 ) as 3,430. If compared to t tabel at the significant level as 1,667, so t count is bigger than t tabel (t count > t tabel ). Therefore, it can be concluded that Education and Training and Remuneration affects the Employee s Performance. Based on the above table, then it is obtained as follows: Y = 3, ,546X 1 + 0,319X Every increase of the value on Education and Training variable as one point, the value of Employee s Performance variable will increase 0,546 point. 2. Every increase of the value on Working Motivation as one point, the value of Employee s Performance variable will increase 0,319 point. Based on the above explanation, it can be concluded that the value of regression coefficient X 1 as 0,546 is bigger than regression coefficient X 2 as 0,319. It indicates that the effect of Education and Training variable is higher and more dominant compared to Remuneration in improving Employee s Performance at SMK- SMTI Bandar Lampung. 4. Simultaneous Hypothesis Test From ANOVA s test or F-test it is obtained F- count is 42,892 with the significant level as 0,00. Because the probability is much less than 0,05, education and training (X 1 ) and remuneration (X 2 ) simultaneously affect Employee s Performance (Y). Therefore, the hypothesis proposed states that there is Education and Training (X 1 ) and Remuneration (X 2 ) simultaneously affects Employee s Performance (Y), it is proved that Ha is accepted. 5. Conclusion Based on the data analysis and discussion previously, it can be concluded: 1. There is an effect of Education and Training on Employee s Performance at SMK-SMTI Bandar Lampung, it is proved by the amount of Determination Coefficient between Education and Training and Employee s Performance is 48,4%. Hypothesis test using t-test (partial test) it is obtained the value of t count between Remuneration and Employee s Performance as 7,994, and the result of t count =7,994> t table = 1,667. This result indicates that there is an effect of Education and Training on Employee s Performance at SMK-SMTI Bandar Lampung. 2. There is an effect between Remuneration variable on Employee s Performance at SMK-SMTI Bandar Lampung, it is proved that the amount of Determination Coefficient between Remuneration (X 2 ) and Employee s Performance (Y) is 41,6%. Hypothesis Test using t-test is obtained that the value of t count between Remuneration and Employee s Performance is 6,954 and tcount > t table is 1,667. The result indicates that there is an effect of Remuneration on Employee s Performance. 3. The result of simultaneous hypothesis test and working motivation toward Employee s Performance is proved by the calculation result of F count as 42,892 which bigger than F table as 3,130 at the significant level 5% with Dk = 70. So, F count is bigger than F table as 3,130. The amount of Determination Coefficient between X 1 and X 2 on Y is 56,1%. The result indicates that there is an effect of Education and 236 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

248 Training and Remuneration on Employee s Performance at SMK-SMTI Bandar Lampung. REFERENCES [1] Depdikbud, Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia. (Jakarta, Balai Pustaka, 1992) [2] Dharma, Surya, Manajemen Kinerja : Falsafah Teori dan Penerapannya. (Jakarta, Pustaka Pelajar, 2005) 3] Notoatmodjo, Soekidjo, Perkembangan Sumber Daya Manusia. (Jakarta, Rineka Cipta, 2003) [4] Simamora, Henry. Manajemen Sumber Daya Manusia (Yogyakarta, STIE YKPN, 1997) 237 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

249 COMPETITIVE BUSINESS INDONESIA M. Apun Syaripudin 1 Lecturers The State Islamic Raden Intan Lampung Indonesia ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was generally is to answer the problem formulation grains, namely: 1) To analyze how the Balanced Scorecard through financial and nonfinancial perspectives (customer, internal business process and learning and growth) is used to assess the performance of the Human Resources companies as part of the company's business strategy; 2) To analyze how the influence of Non-Financial perspectives (customer, internal business process and learning and growth) affect the performance of the company's corporate Human Resources. From the perspective of learning and growth of compensation indicator indicates that the compensation received by employees in the form of salaries and allowances and a maximum deemed not to be scaled back so that employees can be more motivated to work. Meanwhile, indicators of skills and employability (competency) of employees as well as the involvement and active participation of employees and career development within the company has been considered relatively. KEY WORDS: Business Performance, Competition And Balance Scorecard 1. Background The development environment of the industrial age to the information age has changed the outlook on the success of a company. To increase the success of their business, enterprise performance measurement based on the fulfillment of customer satisfaction. However, in practice the current financial information has strong dominance as a benchmark to assess the success of the company, for example by using the Return on Investment (ROI), Return on Equity (ROE), and Economic Value Added (EVA). The system mentioned above is able to give satisfactory results. But assessing the company's performance is not solely from the financial aspect alone. Good financial performance is now created for the long-term interests of the company. Besides measuring the financial performance has drawbacks, namely the inability to measure the performance of intangible assets (intangible assets) and intellectual treasures (human resources)companies.measurement of the company's financial performance can not describe the condition of the company and does not reflect to lead the company towards the better. In anticipation of such limitations that are above, Robert S. Kaplan and David P. Norton proposed Balanced Scorecard concept to develop a benchmark of financial and non-financial. The advantages of the Balanced Scorecard is the approach that seeks to translate the mission and strategy into operational objectives. With the Balanced Scorecard, business unit performance measurement is not only expressed in financial measures but towards further elaborated into measures to encourage business units to create value for the company that is now and in the future. In addition to improving internal capabilities such as the effectiveness of investment in human resources, systems and procedures are needed to obtain better performance in the future. Thus it can be said that the concept of the Balanced Scorecard approach-can be used to measure the performance of companies from the aspect of its human 238 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

250 resources as one of the company's assets. At this globalization era where every company is required to be able to take quick decisions and precise in order to compete with other companies, especially foreign companies that already have the latest methods definitely better than traditional methods. Aspect which has been used only a financial perspective. Other third perspective is not used because the company had not yet realized that the three perspectives also have an impact on the performance and accuracy are also implications for the company's existence in the long term so that it will make the results of performance measurement for the better. Especially in this case, the company's overall performance is very important to be evaluated to be able to be seen any weakness in its management in order to be considered for future corrective measures. Especially in terms of the company's HR performance measurement are very rarely used by Balanced Scorecard approach to it in the discussion of this research Balance Scorecard concept will be focused on three other aspects linked to the company's HR management strategy which includes the financial aspects, internal business and customers. B. Problem Formulation According to Kaplan and Norton (2001) said that the concept of the Balanced Scorecard approach used in perspective financial perspective and non-financial perspective in measuring the performance of companies, including assessing the performance of one of the company's assets, namely human resources in the company. Therefore in this study although the discussion will explore all four perspectives in the Balanced Scorecard, but will be more emphasis or focus on the discussion of the performance appraisal of human resources in the companies reviewed by non-financial perspective. From the description above, it can be formulated grain existing problems in this research: 1. How Balanced Scorecard through financial and non-financial perspectives (customer, internal business process and learning and growth) is used to assess the company's business performance? 2. How does the influence of Non-Financial perspective affect the company's business performance company? 2. Theoretical Basis A. Human Resource Management in Companies According to Milkovich and Boudreau (1997) Human Resources Management is an integrated series of decisions that shape the employment relationship in which their quality directly contributes to the organization and its employees to achieve their goals. While Werther and Davis (1996) says that the purpose of the Human Resource Management is to increase the productivity of the employees of the organization in terms of strategic, ethical and social responsibility. Of the opinions above, the writer can draw a conclusion that Human Resource Management is to generate contributions from employees of the company or organization where she worked. Human Resources Management can vary from one organization to another organization, but in general they have a similarity in the process of Human Resources Management. According to Milkovich and Boudreau (1997) activities in Human Resources Management is as follows: Staffing. These activities include the recruitment and selection of employees. Development. These activities include an increase in employee skills. Compensation. This activity is payment to employees in the form of salary, bonuses, incentives and others. 239 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

251 Employee / Union Relations. This activity aims to establish a good relationship between employees and management. B. Measuring Business Performance in the Information Age 3. Internal Business Process Perspective: what processes should be favored to achieve the company's success? 4. Learning and Growth perspective: how are we going to sustain the ability to change and improvement? During the industrial era success is determined by how well companies exploit the benefits of scale and scope of economic (economies of scale and scope). In the industrial era of the financial control system was developed to facilitate and monitor the allocation of financial and physical capital efficiently. With gauges of financial, internal capital companies may be directed to use the most effective and efficient use of financial and physical capital by the various operating divisions can be monitored in order to create additional value for shareholders. C. Balance Scorecard Balance Scorecard broaden perspectives covered in the strategic planning, of which previously confined to the financial perspective, expanded to three other perspectives: Customer, Business Process / Internal, and Learning and Growth. Expansion perspective strategic plan to non-financial perspective resulted in the following benefits: a. Promising financial performance and long-term doubled b. Enable the company to enter the complex business environment According to Kaplan and Norron (1992) in Vincent (2005) argued that in the measurement of organizational performance through the Balanced Scorecard approach can be done through four perspectives, include: 1. The Financial Perspective: how do we satisfy shareholders? 2. Customer Perspective: how do we satisfy the customer? E. Consep Mindset With underlies the development of increasingly rapid globalization era with an increasingly globalized competition, requires every company must prepare its performance with optimal in order to win the competition, or at least able to survive in this competitive era. As disclosed by Vincent Gasperz (2005) under the concept of the Balanced Scorecard as one instrument more often used today to assess the performance of a company comprehensively visits of 4 (four) perspectives that are tailored to the vision and mission and strategy of the company, respectively financial perspective, customer perspective and internal business process perspective and learning and growth perspective. Briefly, the concept of frame of mind in this research is to look at the Balanced Scorecard concept as a Performance Management System, but due to limitations of existing problems, then performance will be focused only on Human Resources in the company's performance. 3. Research Methodology A. Methods Library Research and Field Research B. Population and Sample The number of population in the PT Suryaikady Jaya Mandiri employees as many as 1,125 employees were then sampled as respondents using sampling formula proposed by Slovin. n = N_ = 1, International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

252 n = N _ = ne (0,05) 2 = 295,08 The calculation above, obtained sample was of 295 employees. Of the 295 samples of employees are then distributed by simple random sampling. C. Data Analysis Techniques The analysis technique used is using the Balanced Scorecard approach, which focuses on aspects of Human Resources that the Learning and Growth perspective, but it also discusses other perspectives, although not too deep. The three (3) important aspects of learning and growth perspective by Vincent Gasperz (2002) are: 1. Competence Employees 2. Infrastructure Technology 3. Company Culture 4. Analysis Of Results And Discussion A. Balance Scorecard In Measuring Business Performance Company from the Perspective of Financial and Non-Financial Balance Scorecard method emphasizes that all financial and non-financial measures should be part of the information system for workers at all levels of the company. Process management is built around the Balanced Scorecard is the basis for good corporate governance in today's information age. However, in the discussion of the object of analysis more stress to the analysis of non-financial perspective refers to the performance of human resources, namely learning and growth perspective. The following description of each perspective in the method of Balance Scorecard on performance Suryaikady Jaya Mandiri PT. Financial Perspective In the financial perspective, balance scorecard enables executives to establish the size that evaluate the long-term success of the companies in this study are SuryaikadyJaya MandiriPT and various variables that are considered most important to create and encourage the achievement of long term goals. Various themes used financial objectives so as to enable the achievement of the linkages among the four balanced scorecard perspectives is increased revenue, cost savings and increased productivity, increase asset utilization and risk reduction. In this discussion, used the assumption that the company has implemented a Balanced Scorecard well. So the results of the implementation of the Balanced Scorecard is expected to give some indication of the importance, among others: - The revenue increases - Assets and equity increased - Financial ratio improved Analysis of Revenue Growth In analyzing the financial perspective, the first benchmark is the revenue generated. So as to know how the company's ability to earn income begins with: - Analysis of the level of sales, because success in achieving increased revenue depends heavily on the success of generating revenue. From the analysis of sales is expected to be known causes of the rise and fall of income, whether due to internal factors such as the inability of the company to enter the market or because the market was not conducive. Analysis of the costs, such as cost of sales, cost of sales and general administrative costs. Because although the greater sales generated but will not give any influence if the company can not control or reduce the cost incurred to get the sale. As we all know is the difference between 241 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

253 sales revenues with costs, ie, the greater the difference, the greater the revenue to be received. Reason determination that all income should give a positive result increases and the entire load must give a negative result is merepresetansikan purpose companies that want to achieve shareholder wealth maximization. With this concept, a public company that has been selling shares on the stock exchange, must pay attention to the value of the company's shares, while the value of the company's shares slag to rely on the company's performance. Where good performance can be achieved if the above factors can be achieved. From the application of the Balanced Scorecard obtained on the financial perspective Suryaikady Jaya Mandiri, then it can be reinforced with the following data: For operating profit / sales: 7% obtained realization of 7% For net income / sales: 3% obtained the realization of 4% For operating income / equity: 13% obtained the realization of 12% For net profit / equity: 6% obtained realization by 7% For net profit / assets: 0.04% 0.06% obtained realization In the Year 2013 For gross profit / sales: 16% obtained by the realization of 17% For operating profit / sales: 9% obtained the realization of 8% For net income / sales: 6% earned by 7% realization For operating income / equity: 16% obtained the realization by 14% For net profit / equity: 9% obtained the realization of 8% For net profit / assets: 7% obtained realization of 7% Table Assessment Financial Perspective (In percentage) OPERATING Plans Realization Plans Realization Gross Profit/ Sales Gross Profit/ Sales Net Income/ Sales Gross Profit/ Equity Net Income/ Equity Net Income/ Total Assets ROI 0,04 0,07 0,1 0,9 Source: Financial Statements From the results of the assessment of company performance through the Financial Perspective can be seen that through the implementation of the Balanced Scorecard can be seen from the planning side of the business ratios: In the Year 2012 For gross profit / sales: 13% obtained by the realization of 14% Broadly speaking, from a financial perspective can be obtained a description that financial performance Suryaikady Jaya Mandiri in the period 2012 and 2013 had improved. B. Analysis of How Non-Financial Perspective (Growth and Learning) Can Improve Company Performance As a measurement system, the Balanced Scorecard is applied in order to provide motivation to all employees to implement corporate strategy well. Companies that can translate the strategy into a measurement system will have ease in carrying out its strategy. This is due to the company has communicated the goals and targets to its employees. So their focus to triggers vital performance and allow companies to balance investments initiatives and actions in line with the achievement of strategic objectives. So that there are linkages between performance measurement system with a strategy that has established 242 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

254 the company as expected, the following principles should be used as guidelines in designing the measurement of the Balanced Scorecard. a. Performance Effects That the performance of an activity is the result of the previous activity and performance as motivation for the next activity. b. Performance Triggers Used benchmarks that can assess the results to be achieved along with the driver of performance in accordance with the strategies that run the company. c. Financial Relations Benchmark performance in the Balanced Scorecard must be connected with the company's financial objectives for the estuary of all the strategies that run the company is none other than to improve the welfare of owners as stipulated in the financial objectives. Thus the analysis of the specific nonfinancial perspective of human resources through learning and growth should still be connected also with the financial perspective. It is closely linked with the use of the budget in the process of growth and learning in corporate HR. The strategy is a set of hypotheses regarding the causal relationship. Measurement system should make the relationships that exist in various companies so that it can be managed. The chain of causation must include four perspectives Balanced Scorecard. Factors driving this size can be repeated purchases and sales to customers wider than they are today, as a result that occurs because of the high loyalty of the customers. Customer loyalty is therefore included in the Balanced Scorecard. Work done by the company to improve the timeliness of delivery of goods is expected to increase the company's performance higher than before. Thus, customer loyalty and timely delivery of goods incorporated into the customer's perspective Balanced Scorecard. This process then by questioning whether the internal processes that must be controlled companies in order to produce a special performance of the delivery of goods on time. To achieve this goal, the company may need to pursue the achievement of short cycle times in various operating processes and high quality internal processes, factors that can be the size of the Scorecard in an internal perspective. By train and improve the skills of workers operating a goal that can see how the whole chain of causal a can be created as a vertical vector through four perspective Balanced Scorecard. Before discussing in more distantly connected with the Learning and Growth perspective of the Balanced Scorecard method in PT Suryaikady Jaya Mandiri, it will be discussed first link between assessment performance through growth and learning with the vision and mission of PT Suryaikady Jaya Mandiri. In achieving the vision of a predetermined clear that the management of PT Jaya MandiriSuryaikady required to continuously improve performance possessed by each item defined missions that defined vision can be achieved. Balanced scorecard shows every employee what companies do to achieve what the wishes of the shareholders and consumers for that purpose is required by the good performance of employees.to that end, a balanced scorecard showing a comprehensive strategy that consists of three activities - Comunicating and educating - Setting Goals - Linking Rewards to Performance Measures Balanced scorecard Through the Balanced Scorecard management of PT Suryaikady Jaya Mandiri can perform strategic action towards achieving the company's vision through the implementation of the mission of each item. With the improvement of employee performance as a corporate human resources would be able to improve production 243 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

255 processes impact on the failure rate of production and improving the quality of products that affect the cost efficiency and timeliness of delivery of orders from customers that will be achieved in customer satisfaction. Thus it can be said to be learning and growth perspective becomes very important in this regard. Balance Scorecad should be able to explain the business unit's strategy well. Balance Scorecard should be able to identify the stages of the states with explicit hypotheses about the causal relationship between the various outcome measures and the driving factor. Each size is chosen to be included in the Balanced Scorecard should be an element in a chain of causality that communicates the meaning of the strategy to all managers and employees see the facts on the company studied, it can be stated that the variables Nonfinancial of the company PT Suryaikady Jaya Mandiri activities include learning and growth process which illustrates that the company did a lot of hiring new employees where in 2012 the number of employees at the management level as many as 121 employees increased to 183 employees. In addition, the employees in the operator increase of the number of 1,100 employees in 2012 to 1,150 employees in Therefore the impact on the increase in salary and benefits, it also shows the company is pursuing a strategy of expansion given the magnitude of the market share of processed food exports marine materials. Customer retention is supported by adequate product quality and delivery ofproducts that are always cultivated on time. The entire costs incurred by variables Nonfinancial include aspects of Growth and Learning, Customer, Internal Business Processes directly affect the income of the company so that ROI ratios and other companies, too affected. Supposedly Nonfinancial factors can minimize losses than expected, but the dependence on imported raw materials purchases using the US dollar and foreign currency debt structure is quite dominant cause Nonfinancial factors are not effectively saved the company from losses. From the foregoing description it can be seen that Suryaikady Jaya Mandiri PT in the number of its human resources by recruiting back and relocate and train new employees, especially in the production and production support such as the master and crew substitute for several subsidiaries. Qualification experience and skills in the production process of processed foods from the basic material is emphasized marine products company. Despite all the efforts to achieve a high level of efficiency has begun to show results but Suryaikady Jaya Mandiri PT remains realistic that the operational efficiency still feels rudimentary until conflict in internal company subside and labor composition bias back to normal. Operationally, the burden of the cost of products decreased, due to the high quality of human resources also affects the percentage reduction in product damage and decreasing levels of damaged goods. It is inevitable that the cost of quality testing will determine the quality of internal processes, but from year to year costs for promotion, advertisement, communication senantiasas cultivated decreased. It contributes customer retention as well as the high samakin exported products in 2012 and However can be expressed indirectly the company make efforts in line with the concept of efficiency Balanced Scorecard as assumed by the authors, although not as expected. Analysis Indicators that exist in the Learning and Growth Perspective To Improve Performance Corporate Human Resources at PT Suryaikady Jaya Mandiri in line with the statement of Vincent (2005) can be seen in the following description: 1. Effective Compensation In line with the answers of 295 respondents were asked relating to the compensation system in the company 244 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

256 include the salaries and allowances can be concluded that there is an increase in the amount of salaries and benefits paid to employees. But nevertheless need clarity of the opinion of the employees relating to compensation in the company. From the results of respondents' answers indicate that the majority of employees as the respondents have the perception that the compensation received by employees in the form of salaries and allowances and a maximum deemed not to be scaled back so that employees can be more motivated to work. From result of respondents still found indications that the compensation they received was deemed less where 40% of respondents answered less and 60% answered sufficiently. It needs to be a major concern for company management to continue to improve the system of compensation which has been executed at this time in order to have an impact on increasing employee motivation, which in turn will have an impact on improving the performance of human resources in the company as a whole due to the creation of job satisfaction on the employee PT Suryaikady JayaMandiri independent, in particular the production employees.employee motivation in the work would need to be maintained so that the level of employee satisfaction in work well-preserved. Thus it can be said that through the provision of a good compensation and meet the expectations of employees include salaries and employee benefits can certainly improve the performance of employees in the work. If visits to the scope of work Suryaikady Jaya Mandiri PT turns in 2013 and although there is an increasing amount of salary and benefits that simply because an increasing number of employees are working. However, if observed in detail the company does not give rise to significant salary and benefits. It is not independent of the company's financial condition is also not fully recovered as a result of the economic crisis and prolonged monetary situation coupled with the strong economy of the world is uncertain at this time. Participation and active involvement of employees in the company From the results of respondents' answers with regard to indicators of participation and active involvement of employees in the company showed that the majority of respondents from the 295 employees who work in production shows that when compared to 2012, then in 2013 there was an increase in the company's efforts to further involve the participation of employees actively in the company. As many as 40% of employees responded that they have been involved with sufficient by the management company at work. While as many as 25.5% of employees said they lack the involvement and active participation of employees in the company. So that any changes in policy or standard of work in the company is not too they understand. While the remaining 34.5% of respondents answered relatively good. In another sense that generally employees as respondents gave a statement that indeed there is an increased effort and involvement and participation of employees in the company in 2013 when compared to With paritisipasi employee involvement and actively in the company would assist management in delegating any authority of the work so that the implementation can work feels lighter without reducing oversight led to his subordinates. With these results in general will have an impact on improving the performance of Human Resources in the company. Employee Skills (HR competencies) Especially for employees' skills, periodically the PT Suryaikady Jaya Mandiri continues to increase the frequency of training for its employees. Particularly for production employees, relating to the adaptation of the use of advanced technology based tools required high 245 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

257 capacity and skills to use these tools. So far indeed employees feel their skills and employability needs to be developed at any time given the ever-growing demands of the job at any time. From the results of 295 respondents' answers also show that the efforts provided by the PT Suryaikady Jaya Mandiri was considered sufficient where as much as 55% of respondents answered enough that the company's management efforts to improve the skills and abilities of employees are always carried out to meet the challenges of competition is so competitive that is required to has the human resources that have a high work competence. While as many as 30% of respondents answered either and only 15% of respondents who answered less. In general, it is known that every year the management of PT Suryaikady Jaya Mandiri always improve skills and employability of its employees as management realizes that the employees as one of the company's assets, namely human resources (HR) must continue to be improved to be able to answer the challenge of work that continues to increase every year, With the improvement of skills and employability (competency SDM) is good and increasing it will improve the performance of companies in general. This is in line with the Balanced Scorecard assessment of learning and growth perspective in which employees in the company will continue to grow and expand and continue to be studied to improve its ability to meet the challenges of increasing work requirements at any time. Career Development Employees in Company Related to human resource development program (SDM) certainly can not be denied that one of the factors that motivate employees to work in addition to a good compensation would open broad opportunities for every employee to develop his career. The effectiveness of human resources through career management though difficult to do, but it is very important to be implemented. Career management is essential to improve and develop employees in particular and the company in general. Although there are still many traditional working relationship, the implementation of a career management program will improve the effectiveness of employees. In addition, the relationship between employees, managerial, and organizational support the success of career management. Career development within the company is very closely related to policy management. Career development program in the company PT Jaya MandiriSuryaikady consists of several elements or systems, when it has been able to identify the function of each element of the relationship between these elements can be imaged more clearly and can walk with nature. The elements of the career development program are: 1. Program Orientation: This program is intended for employees who are newly recruited by the company or companies. The objective of this program is to give an overview about the philosophy and objectives of the company, gave an overview of how the structure of the workforce earned set by the company, and introduces the possibility of a career path that is run by employees. This orientation program is expected to broaden new employees so as to realize the career development opportunities that exist in the company, to understand how the objectives of the company, corporate culture and performance of individuals into penitng factor in developing a career. 2. Assessment System Works: Work appraisal system aims to pour all the opportunities in the company into a procedure and performance demands for each job. Assessment system can work if the system is running ekfektif able to describe the expected performance company for a job 246 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

258 are clearly good for the employees as the holder of the job as well as other parties concerned, the system was able to provide an assessment of the performance generated an incumbent compared to what expected the company. The system was able to provide feedback to the various efforts undertaken an incumbent in the realization of the expected performance, and ultimately the assessment system works can recommend a variety of actions necessary to improve the current performance and development potential. Implementation of the scoring system works requires time and participation of all line managers, but the system is very important for the career development program. 3. Career Path Patterns: Pattern career path aims to provide a clear picture of the sequence of work that must be passed employees to achieve a certain position. Clarity of the pattern of career paths within the company is very influential on the success of the career development program for directing the development pattern of employee career paths and become the basis of career planning is made every employee. 4. Professional Development (Skills): To carry out individual development plans, employees need assistance and professional development system which consists of the provision of information, training and assignment. a. Provision of information, aimed at informing employees about a new knowledge and shows the relationship between the knowledge that the performance of the work and performance of the company b. Pemberintraining, is something that is deeper when compared with the provision of information. The training aims to integrate the development of the knowledge and ability to perform the application of such knowledge. Usually the techniques used in the training is the provision of knowledge, discussion, and application. c. Giving Assignment, usually given to employees who have undergone training with the aim of improving the ability of employees by providing an opportunity to recognize the complexity of a task completion. 5. Succession Planning: Many companies are found career success is promotion to the employees to a higher job responsibilities and authority, even to some of those promotions come too fast and occur more frequently than others. For those who occupy strategic positions should be prepared from the beginning, because they must have the ability and skills to handle changes in the future. The ability and the skills can only be prepared if the company doing succession planning. Activities and what system is used in succession planning depends on the size and type of companies that do. Basically the expected results of the process of succession planning is the anticipation of the needs of managerial personnel and efforts to develop highly skilled employees. From the results of answers 295 employees were included as survey respondents indicate that each of as many as 60% of employees said enough and 30% of employees responded that career development within the company has been carried out properly. As for the remaining 10% of employees answer is still lacking. Thus it can be said that in general the career development of employees in the company PT Jaya MandiriSuryaikady felt already relatively sufficient and good. It can make a good effort in growthemployee motivation in the work well. Will thus influenced the improvement of employee performance as the Human Resources in the company. 247 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

259 5. Conclusion Balance Scorecard provides a comprehensive framework to translate vision and strategy into a comprehensive set of integrated performance measures, which are arranged into four perspectives of financial, customer, internal business process and learning and growth. Financial perspective to see how the financial performance achieved by the company. Perspective customers see how the company's efforts in seeking and retaining targeted customers. Based on the data obtained, as the implementation of business retain customers, sales from repeat customers of all sales (export and domestic sales). Internal business perspective to see how the process of innovation, operation and after-sales service.for the production activities of production failure an average of 3% each year from 2012 and While the learning and growth perspective seeing how labor productivity and satisfaction improve company performance. In the operating companies face a variety of risks that affect performance include: government policy, business climate, market production, raw materials, changes in currency exchange rates. Based on the facts in the studied company described in the analysis and discussion, it can be stated that the variables Nonfinancial of the company that includes the learning and growth process by looking at several indicators include effective compensation, employee involvement and active participation in company, increase employee job skills (competencies), as well as the career development of employees in the company. Meanwhile, from the perspective of Internal Business company, it can be seen that operationally expenses decreased product, it is influenced by the high quality of human resources that influence the percentage reduction in product damage and decreasing levels of damaged goods. It is inevitable that the cost of quality testing will determine the quality of Internal Business Processes. Customer retention is supported by adequate product quality and delivery of products that are always cultivated on time, it can be seen in the decline in the cost to delay penalties. Can be implied that the company PT Suryaikady Jaya Mandiri make efforts efficiency in line with the concept of the Balanced Scorecard as assumed by the authors, although not as expected. From the perspective of learning and growth of compensation indicator indicates that the compensation received by employees in the form of salaries and allowances and a maximum deemed not to be scaled back so that employees can be more motivated to work. Meanwhile, indicators of skills and employability (competency) of employees as well as the involvement and active participation of employees and career development within the company has been considered relatively. 6. Suggestions Necessary to improve on the achievements that have been achieved so far by the company, especially in the performance of non keuangna perspective of growth and learning are closely linked to the performance of HR companies. Improved performance, including non-financial perspective learning growth and create more loyal consumers, production costs will be lower and productive employees as a factor that could affect the company's performance improvement can generally be used optimally in order to elevate company in generating financial performance. 248 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

260 The need for further research on the Balanced Scorecard as a management system, as a means to help interpret and implement the strategy at the corporate level or enterprise. References [1]. Ahmad Fauzi&Saleh, MohdYasin Human Resource Management for the Company. Jakarta: King GrafindoPersada. [2]. C. Merle Johnson. William K. Redmon. Thomas C. Mawhinney Analysis Behavior & Management (translation). Jakarta: RajaGrafindoPersada [3]. Garry Dessler, 1991 Personnel / Human Resources Management, Prentice Hall International Editions [4]. Gaspersz, Vincent Integrated Performance Management System Balance Score Card With Six Sigma, Scholastic Press, Jakarta [5]. Henry Maintzberg and James Brian Quinn, The Strategy Process, Prentice Hall International Edition [6]. Robert S Kaplan and David P Norton.1996 The Balanced Scorecard: Translating Strategy Into Action, Boston: Harvard Business School Press [7]. Mulyadi Integrated Systems Based Personnel Performance Management Balanced Scorecard, UPP STIM YKPN, Yogyakarta [8]. Oswald D Bowlin, John D martin David F Scott, Guide to Financial Analysis McGraw Hill Publishing Company, Second Edition [9]. Pareek, U Organizational Behavior (translation). Jakarta: L.P.P.M. PearceII, JohnAandRoinson Richard B JR Strategic Management Published by Richard D Irvin Inc. [10]. Philip Kotler, Marketing Mangement, Analysis, Planning, Implementation and Control. Prentice Hall International Editions, 8th Edition [11]. Philip Kotler and Gary Armstrong, 1994.Principles of Marketing, Sixth Edition, Prentice Hall [12]. Rachmat, Jalaluddin Psychology of Communication. Bandung: Youth Work. [13]. Siagian, Sondra P, 1995 Analysis and Policy and Strategy Formulation Organization, TokoGunungAgung, Jakarta [14]. Siagian, Sondra P, Human Resource Management, Earth Literacy, Jakarta [15]. Simamora, Henry, Human Resource Management Edition 1, Matter to-1, College of Economics YKPN, Yogyakarta [16]. Sudarwo, H IndriyoGito Production Planning and Control Systems Second Edition, BPFE Yogyakarta [17]. Sugiarto, Sampling Techniques, PT GramediaPustakaUtama, Jakarta [18]. Umar, H Research Human Resources in Organizations. Jakarta: GramediaPustakaUtama [19]. Ward, Keith Strategic Management. Published by Heinemann Ltd. Butter Worth Jordan Hill Oxford [20]. Financial Statements Suryaikady Jaya Mandiri PT 2012 and International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

261 AN ANALYSIS OF SECURITY AND SERVICE QUALITY TOWARD PURCHASE DECISION ON E-COMMERCE AND ITS IMPLICATIONS OF CONSUMER LOYALTY Ardiansyah 1 Master of Management, Informatics & Business Institute Darmajaya ABSTRACT In the marketing world, especially through internet marketing or what is known as e-commerce, an e-marketer cannot ignore the role of the online shop as a medium for their marketing communications, where marketing activities via e-commerce is currently being favorable by the people in Indonesia. However transaction through e- commerce has the fairly high riskpotential. Therefore the factor of security and service quality become a benchmark on purchasing decisions through e-commerce. The purpose of this study is to analyzewhether security factordirectly influences purchasing decisions through e-commerce, service quality factor directly influences purchasing decisions through e-commerce, security and service quality factor directly influences purchasing decisions through e- commerce, as well as security and service qualityfactor gives significant effect on e-commerce consumer loyalty. This research was conducted by taking samples of e- commerce users in Indonesiawhich were most active to purchase online products or services in KEYWORDS: E-commerce, Security, Service Quality, Purchasing Decisions, Loyalty 1. Introduction According to market research agency, e-marketer.com, the population of Internet users (netter) in the country reached 83.7 million at the end of The figure applies to every person who accesses the internet at least once a month. It makes Indonesia is ranked 6 th after Japan in terms of the largest number of Internet usersin the world. But the majority of the total number of Internet users in Indonesia who are using the facility to send and receive electronic mail and who are interested in doing online transactions and purchases are only about 6%, that is, of total Internet users there. This was due to the absence of security guarantees from the government of Indonesia in the activities of buying and selling via the Internet or e- commerce for businesses and internet users. Things whichare considered by consumer in conducting transactions through e-commerce are the lack ofpayment guarantee through money transfer system and the confidentiality guarantee of data and consumer information (Security). Aside from the security factor, qualified Service Qualityhas not been developed by some e-commerce businesses because businesses have not providedtimeliness guarantee in receiving product or service booked by the consumers and certainty that goods will be accepted by consumers, so that consumers are reluctant to make transactions through e-commerce. Many consumers prefer to purchase offline to online purchase transactionbecausein e-commerce transaction itis often happened that the product received is not aswhat has been described on the online store sites In addition to the above information,it is explained also that to conduct trading transactions and purchases through the Internet, or e-commerce, has the high riskpotential. In this regard, it turns out that a consumer s purchase 250 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

262 decision in e-commerce transaction related directly to security and service quality which can create loyal customers in e-commerce. Consumer s loyalty cannot be built within one day or a few days, yet should be cultivated gradually. Smooth first transaction will determine a consumer to make online purchases in the future or not. If this transaction runs as expected by consumer, it is not impossible that he will become a loyal customer at a particular shop online 2. THEORETICAL BASIS 2.1. E-commerce According to Abdul Kadir (2014: 315), e-commerce is the activity of purchasing, selling, and marketing products or services with the provision of information via the internet. In line with CitaYulisia (2013: 9) e-commerce or electronic commerce is the buying and selling goods or services over the Internet or other electronic media which include communication, transaction and settlement of a payment mechanism in accordance with the basic principles that apply to the trading, where the buyer and seller exchange goods or services to the media in form of cash payments. In electronic purchasing or e-commerce there are 8 major characteristics, namely: (1) Using the internet as the main media in the trading process, (2) Most use of electronic transactions as a means of transaction, (3) There is the exchange of products (goods or services) and electronic information, (4) Sellers and buyers do not need to meet in person, (5) Payments are made online (transfer account, payment by credit card, payment by using internet banking, etc.), (6) Delivery of products can be made online (non physical / digital tangible products) or via freight (tangible products), (7) Products sold can be either physical or non-physical, (8) the target consumers are mostly teenagers and adults who are literate to technology Security Raman Arasu and Viswanathan (2011), through a study conducted on online consumers in Malaysia, found that the safety factor has a positive and significant influence to the purchasing decisions of consumers on a product or service that is done online, which we are familiar with as e- commerce. Security policy is a set of rules established in all the security activities in every segments, such as domain security (security of online shop website address) which aims to provide security to the absence of spurious or similar domain, the data security of each customer spersonal information in an online shop which is aimed to give a sense of security to the consumer so that the confidentiality of personal data information is not leaked and misused by irresponsible parties, and security made aiming to give consumers confidence to make purchases via e-commerce. The indicators of security or safety in an online shop on e-commerce consist of the confidentiality/privacy, personal data management, and confidence/security guarantee. Indicators of security above can be explained that: 1. Confidentiality / Privacy Confidentiality / Privacy means that e-commerce actors act in a manner guaranteeing whether the information sent by a consumer on the personal data cannot be opened or known by others who do not have the authority to know. 2. Management of Personal Data There is guarantee of the data consistency which is still intact in accordance with the original or not, so the efforts of people who are not responsible to duplicate and destruct the data can be avoided. 3. Providing Security Guarantee Providing security on e-commerce transaction process, from the confidentiality of each customer spersonal data, ensures only the relevant consumers that can change and access their personal data, giving security guarantees in the process of payment transfer, mastercard, internet banking or other transaction system. 251 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

263 2.3. Service Quality Service quality is very important to business sales of products and services either done directly through online system since the quality of service is directly related to customer satisfaction and loyalty. Lovelock in Abdurrahman AdiSukma (2012) suggested that service quality is the level of good or bad servings provided by the seller in order to satisfy consumer to give or convey or express a desire or consumer demand higher than what consumers expect. Raja Arcana and Vandana in their research (2012) state that the current price and promotion are no longer able to determine the purchase decision for consumers. According to them, this time consumers also make an assessment on the quality of service when making online purchases of products or services. Raje Arcana and Vandana (2012) mention that the quality of online services can be assessed by the three indicators, namely: reliability, responsiveness and empathy. Indicators of service quality can be conducted online, consisting of three main indicators, namely, reliability, responsiveness, and empathy. Indicators of service quality above can be explained as the following: 1. Reliability Reliability refers to how businesses conduct their good and right services to consumers so that they can be trusted and relied upon by consumers. It is very important to note because by giving a true service impression it can give you the confidence of consumers in making purchasing decisions of the products or services. In e-commerce the form of reliability can be implemented by seeing quest and answer feature on the features provided by each online shop. 2. Responsiveness Responsiveness refers to the speed of the company in giving response to problems experienced by consumers by providing clear and complete information on products and services. In e-commerce consumers can choosechat us or call us to interact directly as the consumer and the online shop. 3. Empathy Empathy here refers to how the companies concern and give attention to each consumer to make consumers feel extra appreciated and how online businesses apply empathy by providing services such as chat or customer service to help individual consumers who have difficulties in making online purchases of products or services can usually be accessed by consumers during 24/ Buying Decision According to Kolter (2009) it is the act of consumers purchasing decisions to buy or not to buy the product or the service. Based on the definition presented by Kolter it can be concluded that the purchase decision is an act done for the consumer to purchase a product or service. Therefore, the customer purchase decision is a process of selecting one of several alternatives of problemsolvings with the real follow-up. The indicators used for this variable are: Introduction: customer perception that e-commerce vendor that the search for information on products or services through e-commerce is available Search: customer perception that e-commerce vendor that conducts transactions through e-commerce is easy to do. Evaluation of purchase: customer perception that e- commerce vendor that provides good security and quality of service Consumer Loyalty In e-commerce creating a close and strong relationship between the company and its customers is the key to invite the consumers who are willing to purchase products or services in a long term. According to Oliver in Etta MamangSangadji and Sopiah (2013: 104) customer loyalty is the last in-depth commitment to re-subscribe or repurchase of products or services which are consistently 252 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

264 selected in the future, although the influence of the situation and marketing efforts have the potential to cause changes in behavior.grifin in Etta MamangSangadji and Sopiah (2013: 104) states "loyalty is defined as non random purchase expressed over time by some decision making unit" which means that loyalty rather refers to a form of behavior of decision-making units to perform continuous purchase of goods or services of a company that is chosen. The indicators used for this variable are: Loyalty (Y4): customer perception that he has a preference taste to purchase products or services through e-commerce compared to conventional purchases. Resilience (Y5): customer perception that he cannot be affected by the supply of products or goods in conventional trade. Recommendation (Y6): customer perception that he willingly promote to make purchases through the medium of e-commerce Framework Figure 1 Conceptual Framework Research HYPOTHESIS H1: Security factor influences on purchasing decisions through e-commerce. H2: Service quality factor influences the purchase decision through e-commerce. H3: Security factor affects on customer loyalty. H4: Service quality factor affects customer loyalty. H5: the purchase decision through e-commerce affects on customer loyalty. 3. Methodology According Sugiyono (2009: 01), research method is basically a scientific way to get data with a specific purpose and usefulness, which means a scientific manner research activities are based on the characteristics of science which are rational, empirical, and systematic. Meanwhile, according to WiratnaSujarweni (2014: 05) the research methodology is a scientific way (rational, empirical and systematic) used by the perpetrators of a discipline to do research. The research method is closely related to the research procedures, techniques, tools, and design used. In the design it is described that the research methods include procedures or steps that must be taken, time studies, data sources, and in what way the data are obtained and processed or analyzed. So far there has been no accurate data that can put the number of users of e-commerce in Indonesia. Therefore, the size of the population in this study is unknown, so the sampling technique used is the category of non-probability sampling. In this study, the sample size was adjusted to the analysis model used, that is Structural Equation Model (SEM). In connection with this sample size for SEM using model of maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) is in the range of samples. As for the types of variables used in this study are as follows: a. Exogenous variables (Free)is a variable that affects or causes the change or the emergence of the dependent variables. The independent variable is given the symbol (X). The independent variables in this study are: Security Variable Service Quality Variable b. Endogenous variables (Bound) are variables that influence or effect, because of the existence of independent variables. The dependent variable is given symbol (Y). The dependent variables in this study are: Variable ofcustomer sdecision in making transactions by using e- 253 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

265 commerce and loyalty variable of customer that makes transactions using e-commerce (Y). Table 1 Operational Definition and Research Variables Variables Indicators Code Source Confidentiality X1 The management Raman X2 Security of personal data ArasuandViswanathan Security (2012) X3 guarantees Service Quality Purchase decision Loyalty Reliability X4 Responsiveness X5 Empathy X6 Introduction Y1 Search Y2 Purchase Y3 evaluation RajeArchana and Vandana (2012) Kolterandkeller (2009) Loyalty Y4 Kolter and keller (2009) and Resilience Y5 Etta Recommendation Y6 MamangSangadiandSopiah (2013) Measurement modelis a model that connects the latent variables with manifest variables. In this study, there are four latent variables with 12manifest variables. Analysis of the measurement models is used to test the validity and reliability of each indicator that form latent variables. AccordingtoHaryadiSarjono in his book Structural Equation Model (SEM) variable it is mentioned that good validity of the constructs or latent variables is if the value of t loading factor is greater than the critical value of t or t count and loading factor default value has construct reliability (CR) which is greater than 0.07 and the value of variance extracted (VE) is greater than Results and Discussion Normality test aims to determine whetherdata distribution of is normal or not. To that end, done by using Liliefors test, normalitytesting of each variable was done with a view to determine whether the distribution of the data of each variable does not deviate from the characteristics of the data that are normally distributed. Normality Tests conducted on the estimated regression errors on X1 Y2, Y2 on X2, Y1 on X1, X2 and Y2 Y1 on top of Y1, which can be shown by the following table. Table 2 Summary of Estimated YX Normality Test Errors No Estimation Lo Ltabel(0.05) Decision Notes 1 Y2 on X1 0,036 0,047 Accept H0 Normal 2 Y2 on X2 0,044 0,047 Accept H0 Normal 3 Y1 on X1 0,038 0,047 Accept H0 Normal 4 Y1 on X2 0,046 0,047 Accept H0 Normal 5 Y2 on Y1 0,028 0,047 Accept H0 Normal Figure 2 Structural Model T -Value Re Estimation Table 3 Loading factor value per indicator after reestimation Constructs Indicators Cod e Loading Factor Security Confidentiality X1 1,39 The management of personal data X2 2,79 Security guarantees X3 1,02 Service Quality Reliability X4 3,71 Responsiveness X5 8,95 Empathy X6 3,56 Purchase Introduction decision Y1 1,91 Search Y2 0,96 Purchase evaluation Y3 0,83 Loyalty Loyalty Y4 1,09 Resilience Y5 2,93 Recommendation Y6 1, International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

266 Based on the re-estimation result as shown in table 4.30, theloading factorof every indicator is not less than 0,50. Thus, all indicators are considered valid and model evaluation process can be continued. Based on estimation method of satorra-bentler robust maximum likelihoodwhich has been previously explained,linear structural relational (LISREL) produces output indexto be the basis in doing fit test of goodness of fit-gfti as a whole. This test was done to find out whether the model is already appropriate in portraying the relation ofeach variable being studiedso it can be categorized as having good fit. Table 4 Goodness of fitindex Calculation Result Criteria Model result Critical Value Conclusion Chi-Square 217,23 high Good Probability ,05 Good RMSEA 0,13 0,08 Good GFI 0,95 0,90 Good AGFI 0,93 0,90 Good CMIN/DF 1,48 2,00 Good TLI 0,98 0,95 Good CFI 0,96 0,95 Good In line with the table above, it can be seen that all testing criteria show good result, where the chi-square model shows low critical value, probability model result, GFI, AGFI, TLI and CFI show higher result than the critical value, and the model result of RMSEA and CMIN/DF show lower result than the critical value. Model testing done produces good confirmation on every factor dimension and causal relation between the factors. Thus, the model can be accepted Hypothesis testing In order to prove whethersecurity and Service Quality variables give direct and positive impacts on customer s purchase decision and loyalty, hypothesis testing should be done. Figure 3 Re-estimation of structural Model of T-Value The image above shows TValue Purchase Decision ( KP ) on Security ( SC ) is 2.52, Purchase Decision ( KP ) on Service Quality ( SQ ) is 1.71, Loyalty ( LS ) on Security ( SC ) is 1.71, Loyalty ( LS ) on Service Quality is 2.51 and Loyalty ( LS ) on Purchase Decision ( KP ) is Table 6 Hypothesis Testing Result Hypothe sis Variable 1 Variable 2 Tval ue PV Notes H1 Security Purchase decision 2,52 0,00 0 Signific ant H2 Service Quality Purchase decision 1,71 0,00 0 Signific ant H3 Security Loyalty 1,71 0,00 0 Signific ant H4 Service Quality Loyalty 2,51 0,00 0 Signific ant H5 Purchase decision Loyalty 2,62 0,00 0 Signific ant 4.2. Security Influence on Purchasing Decisions The results showed that there is partially a direct effect between security factors on purchase decisions through e- commerce.this happens because every vendor of e- commerce has been aware that the security of its online shop becomes a determiner ofe-commerce customer who will make the purchase decision. This is in line with the articles written by Muhammad Firmanand Muhammad Chandrataruna (2009) revealing that an online shop security from hacker attacks and data stealing that converts each of its customer have enormous influence to give a sense of trust and security in transactions through e- 255 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

267 commerce. Other than that the transfer payment system is also a benchmark in determining customer purchases through e-commerce. It is necessary for the confidentiality of data for each e-commerce customer not to be known by others on behalf of the vendor who later transfers amount of money into the wrong account. From the description it can be concluded that the safety factor is an important consideration for customers when making decisions in the purchase of products or services through e-commerce. It supports the research done by Raman Arasuand Viswanathan (2011) who found that the security has a direct influence on consumer decisions in purchasing through e-commerce Influence of Service Quality on Buying Decision The results showed that partially there is a direct influence of service quality factor on e-commerce customer purchasing decisions. The magnitude of the effect caused by service quality shows that currently the majority of the people in Indonesia begin to reveal the charges against the prime ministry, where they no longer require a qualified product at an affordable price, but also happy to enjoy the services provided. Besides good service quality will give a strong boost to e-commerce customers to make decisions in purchasing. It supports the research conducted by RajeArchana and Vandana (2012) about the influence of e- service quality towards online shopping behavior, where the research states that the customer of e-commerce is no longer just considers the price and promotion when deciding on a purchase over the internet, but more importantly is considering the quality of services provided Security Influences Loyalty The results showed that partially there is a direct influence between the customer loyalty and security of e-commerce. This happens because every vendor of e-commerce has been aware that the security of its online shop can increase the loyalty of e-commerce customer. When e-commerce customers feel secure in the confidentiality of their personal data from people who do not have the rights to know and payment transactions through transfer system (not by direct system), it is most likely that he will make transactions back. It supports the research by Raman Arasuand Viswanathan (2011) who found that the security has a direct influence on customer loyalty in purchasing through e-commerce Loyalty Effect on Service Quality The results showed that partially there is a direct influence between service quality and customer loyalty in e- commerce. As we know that the purpose of a business selling products or services is to satisfy the needs of its customers, but today the community in Indonesia prefer not the quality of products or services alone but rather want the quality of services provided, since it is the quality of services excellence which becomes the key to induce customer loyalty attitude. It supports the research conducted by RajeArchana and Vandana (2012) that the customer of e-commerce is no longer just consider the price and promotion when deciding to purchase via the Internet, but the more important consideration is the quality of services provided Influence Purchase Decision Consumer Loyalty The results showed that partially there is direct influence between the purchase decision and the customer loyalty in e-commerce. As we know the attitude of customer loyalty would arise when he has never made a purchase products or services, when a customer makes a purchase the product or service and get a positive impression then it is not impossible that he will make a purchase products or services on other days, as well as vice versa, when a customer who is in the purchase of products or services gets bad impression, then it is most likely that the next time he will not make purchases of products or services in the same place. From this analysis it is proven that purchasing decisions will determine the level of customer loyalty. The results of this study are consistent 256 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

268 withtjiptonotheory(2011) that there is relation between the first impressions experienced by customers with a level of loyalty. 5. Conclusions and Recommendations Conclusion about the research problem refers to the statements of research and hypotheses proposed. In this study it can be drawn the following conclusions: 1. Security in a transaction through e-commerce has a direct influence on the purchasing decisions of e- commerce customers in Indonesia. 2. Service quality in a transaction through e-commerce has a direct influence on the purchasing decisions of e- commerce customers in Indonesia. 3. Security in a transaction through e-commerce has a direct influence on customer loyalty of e-commerce in Indonesia. 4. service quality in a transaction through e-commerce has a direct influence on customer loyalty of e-commerce in Indonesia. 5. Decision purchases made by customers through e- commerce has a direct influence on customer loyalty of e- commerce in Indonesia. SuggestionsFor Business World 1. Security in e-commerce gives direct positive influence on the purchasing decisions made by prospective buyers of a product or service e-commerce, which means that if any e-commerce vendor provide security in its online shop it will have an impact on the increase in purchase and customer s loyalty and vice versa. If any e-commerce vendor ignores security in its e-commerce it will have an impact on the attitude of trust and decreasing purchases of products or services and e-commerce customer loyalty. 2. Service quality provided in e-commerce gives direct positive influence on purchasing decisions made by prospective buyers of a product or service in e-commerce, which means that if any e-commerce vendor provides the best quality services in its online shop it will have an impact on the increase in purchases and the emergence of customer loyalty and vice versa. If any e-commerce vendor ignores it, it will have an impact on the decrease in customer loyalty. In this regard it is recommended to every e-commerce vendor increase the customer s loyalty through increasing reliability, responsiveness and empathy. BIBLIOGRAPHY [1] The Word, Muhammad, and Muhammad Chandrataruna., 2009, "South Korea, China, and Singapore is a country that Most Online Payment Believe", Viva News, accessible keamanan_picu_maraknya_belanja_online. [2] Kim, DJ, Ferrin, DL, and Rao, HR,.The antecedents of Consumer Trust in B to C Electronic Commerce, AMCIS Paper 21, 2003, p [3] Park, Chung-Hoon., And Young-GulKim., "The Effect of Information Satisfaction and Relational Benefit on Consumers Online Site Commitmennts", Journal of Electronic Commerce in Organizations, 4 (1), 2006,p [4] Raje, Archana., And Vandana, TandonKhanna. Impact of E-Service on cunsumerxxxxxpurchase Behavior in an Online Shopping, IJCSMS International Journal of Computer Science and Management Studies, Paper 12 (02), [5] Raman, Arasu, and Viswanathan, A,.Web Services and E-Shopping Decisions: A Study on the Malaysian E- Consumer, IJCA Special Issue on: Wireless Information Networks & Business Information System p , [6] Dachlan, Usman,Complete Guide -level essentially Structural Equation Modeling(Semarang,Lantern Sciences,2014). [7] Daryanto, Tutorial Mode of Conscience Sejahtera (Bandung,Sari Marketing Management Lecture,2013) [8] Kotler, Philip, and Keller KL, The 13th edition of Marketing Management Volume 1 (Jakarta, the publisher, 2009) [9] Kotler, Philip, and Keller KL,The 13th edition of Marketing Management Volume 2, (Jakarta, the publisher, 2009) [10] Kadir, Abdul, Introduction to Information Systems Revised Edition(Yogyakarta,Publisher Andi,2014) [11] Dizzy, ES, and Sopiah, Consumer Behavior,(Yogyakarta,Publisher Andi, 2013) [12] Sarjono, Haryadi and WindaJulianita, Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) (Jakarta, Salemba Four, 2015) 257 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

269 [13] Serfiani, CY, Serfianto DP, and ISWI, Hariyani.,.Business Online & Electronic Transaction(Jakarta,GramediaPustakaUtama,2013) [14] Sujarweni, VW. Methodology Research(Yogyakarta,New Library, 2014) [15] Sugiyono, Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods R & D (Bandung, Alfabeta, 2009) [16] Tjiptono, Fandy and Gregory Chandra, Service Quality &statisfaction 3rd Edition (Yogyakarta,Publisher Andi, 2011) [17] Wulandari, Agustina,Wealthy Become the King of Online Business (Jakarta,FlashBooks, 2014) 258 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

270 AN ANALYSIS OF MOTIVATION AND COMPENSATION ON LECTURERS JOB PERFORMANCE AT INFORMATICS AND BUSINESS ISTITUTE (IBI) DARMAJAYA Besti Lilyana 1 Lecturer in Computer Science Study program of Management Department Informatics and Business InstituteDarmajaya Jl. Z.A. PagarAlam No. 93 LabuhanRatu Bandar Lampung ABSTRACT The research is aimed at knowing the influence of motivation and compensation on lecturers job performance at Informatics and Business Institute (IBI) Darmajaya Bandar Lampung. The problems of the research are 1) Do motivation and compensation received by the lecturers of IBI Darmajaya have an effect on their job performance? 2) How far is the relationship between motivation and compensation and job performance? 3) Which factor is more dominant between motivation and compensation that affects the job performance? This research uses double linear regression analysis method. The variables of the research are motivation and compensation as independent variables and job performance as dependent variable. To know the influence of independent variable on dependent variable is partially used t test and to know the influence of independent variable on dependent variable used F test. This research is a population research or a census study where 51 respondents taken out of the whole number of active fulltimelecturers at IBI Darmajaya. The result of the research indicates that motivation and compensation variable affects lecturers job performance, both simultaneously and partially. In addition, in the result of the research it is found that motivation variable is more dominant that compensation variable in affecting lecturers job performance. KEY WORDS :Motivation, Compensation, and Job Performance 1. Introduction 1.1. Background of the Problem The suitability between responsibility quantity and compensation quantity for lecturers is a base of consideration to decide whether or not to accept duties. Fulltime lecturers can work well if the compensation given to them is able to support their lives. It has been done by IBI Darmajaya to determine the amount of compensation for fulltime lecturers. It is hoped that by determining the amount of compensation and responsibility it can improve the job performance. According to Hanafi (Widodo, 2007:8) compensation is aimed at improving the job performance of the lecturers, improper compensation can make a trouble to job performance and cause loss to the institution. At informatices and Business Institute Darmajaya, there is a lecturers monitoring activity where they are evaluated by their students to be used a standard for the lecturers in teaching. Besides, there will be a reward as an appreciation to the best lecturer on his/her achievement in performing his/ her job. The lecturers will also receive salary as a compensation. The compensation is usually 259 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

271 determined by IIBI Darmajaya, all is oranized in accordance with the regulation ot the institution based on basic salary, and other allowances. From some concitions it shows the importance of effort to be done to gain the hgihest quality job performance by knowing factors that influence the lecturers job performance. Therefore, the writer aims to know further the factors of compensation that influence the job performance at IBI Darmajaya Limitation of the Problem In this research the writer tries to analyze motivation and compensation given to the active fulltime lecturers at IBI Darmajaya Objective The objectives of the research are as follows:: 1.to know whether there is an effect of motivation and compensation on the job performance of the lecturers at IBI Darmajaya. 2. to know how much motivation and compensation affectfulltime lecturers at IBI Darmajaya. 3. to know whichof motivation or compensation is a more dominant factor in affecting the job performance of lecturers at IBI Darmajaya. 2.Literature Review 2.1 Definition of Motivation Malayu S.P Hasibuan (2003:143) says that motivation is a gifted drive which create one s desire to work, so he/she can cooperate, work effectively and integratedly with the efforts to gain satisfaction. Motivation will give a meaning of one s effort. Striving and working hard to reach the goal and to meet the needs. On the contrary, someone who has low motivation will not ever reach his/her goal or gain something better than the strength of his/her motivation. 2.2 Definition of Compensation According to Henry Simomoran (1995 : 411) compensation has a distinctive meaning to every individual. It depends on one s perspective. As lecturers, they probably think compensation is a return to efforts or a wage for a satisfacotory work. It may indicate the nearest value the institution entitles to skills and competence of the lecturers. 2.3 Definition of Job Perfomance Simanjuntak (2005 says that job performance is a level of work achievement for the duties given to a person or a group of people in an organization which fits their responsibility to obtain the goal of the organization legally, or it meets the morality and etiquette. 3. Research Method 3.1 Variables of the Research The variables of the research are: 1. Dependent Variable The dependent variable(y) in the research is job performance. 2. Independent Variable The independent variables in the research are motivation (X1) and compensation (X2). To measure the dependent variable is done by scoring technique based on liker tscale. It is used to measure attitude, and perception of a person or a group of people about social phenomena (Arikunto, 2002 : 214). 3.2 Data Analysis Technique The research uses questionnaire as instrument in collecting data, but sometimes Measurement erroroccurs, so the questionnaire needs to be examined by using validity and reliability teststo have an internal consistency. It can be said that if the questions in the 260 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

272 questionnaire measure the aspects, it can describe the problem to be measured. where nis the total number of respondents and k is the number of variables (Sugiyono, 2013). 3.3 Hypothetical Test Determination Coefficient Test (R2) Determination coefficient (R 2 ) basically measurs how far the model competence in describing the variety of dependent variable. The determination coefficient value is from 0 to 1. The small value of R 2 means competence. Model Feasibility Test (F test ) F test basically indicated whether independent variable included in the model has an effect on dependent variable (Ghazali, 2011). F test is done by comparing F count with F table. To determine F table is determined by significance level 5% with degree of numerator freedomdk = k-1 and degree of denominator freedomdf = n-k-1, where nis the number of respondents, and k is the number of variables (Sugiyono, 2013). According to Ghazali (2011), the test is done using F test with decision taking criteria as follows: 1. By looking at the significance value (sig) at the trust level 95% or as 5%. If the significance value (sig) < 0,05, so Ha is accepted and Ho is refused which means the model is proper to be used in the research.on contrast, significance value (sig) > 0,05, so Ho is accepted and Ha is refused which means the model is not proper to be used. 2. Comparing the result of value F according to the table if F count is >F table, so Ho is refused andha is accepted Partial Test (T test ) 4. Result and Discussion 4.1 Effects of Motivation and Compensation on Job Performance Motivation hypothesis above says that the sig<0,05 (0,000<0,005), so it can be concluded that motivation can affect the lecturers job performance. The job performance predicted will increase probability as 0,000 and other variables are constant. Whereas, the compensation hypothesis says that sig< 0,05 (0,034 < 0,05). It can be concluded that compensation can affect the lecturers job performance. Compensation is given by the institution to the lecturers to improve the job performance in this case to increase the job performance in carrying out the Tri Dharma Perguruan Tinggi. 4.2 Collaborative Effects of Motivation and Compensation Based on the result of the analysis above, it can be concluded that F count >F table (13,783 > 4,50). It means that motivation and compensation affect the lecturers job performance at IBI Darmajaya. Based on the research it can be seen that motivation and compensation collaboratively affect the lecturers job performance. As a result, if the fulltime lecturers have high motivation and good compensation, they will work well or they will conduct a better job performance. Based on the result of t test it is obtained the motivation variable significance (0,000) >compensation (0,034) at the level of 0,05, which means motivation is a more dominant variable than compensation variable in affecting the job performance. T test is done by comparing t count with t table. to determine t table.to determine the value of t table is determined by the significance level 5% with the freedom leveldf = (n-k), 261 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

273 5. Conclusion and Suggestion 5.1 Conclusion Based on the result of the research and explanation, it can be concluded that: 1. Motivation affects the job performance of the fulltime lecturers at IBI Darmajaya where it sometimes means aperson s inner drive to behave and work better. 2. Compensation affects the job performance of the fulltime lecturers at IBI Darmajaya, 3. Motivation and compensation affect the job performance of the lecturers at IBI Darmajaya. 4. Even though motivation is more dominant than compensation but both are the factors that can collaboratively affect the job performance of the lecturers at IBI Darmajaya. 5.2 Suggestion Based on the result of the research, it is suggested that: 1. From the research result motivation and compensation simultaneously affect the job performance of the lecturers. 2. The writer suggest IBI Darmajaya should give more efforts to increase motivation and compensation variable factors of the lecturers. References [1] Hasibuan, Malayu, Manajemen Sumber Daya Manusia. Dasar dan Kunci Keberhasilan (Jakarta, PT.Gunung Agung) [2] Mariati, Erny,Analisis Pengaruh Motivasi Dan Kompetensi Terhadap Kinerja Pegawai Inspektorat Provinsi Lampung, Tesis, Fakultas Ekonomi, Universitas Lampung, Lampung, [3] Rosari Menetapkan Rencana Kompensasi. Skripsi. UGM. Yogyakarta. 262 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

274 THE EMPLEMENTATION OF ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE PLANNING (EAP) MODEL FOR INFORMATION SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT AT HUMAN RESOURCE DEPARTMENT Halimah Yunus 1 Lecturer at Computer Science Study Program of Information System Informatics and Business Institute Darmajaya Jl. Z.A. PagarAlam No. 93 LabuhanRatu Bandar Lampung ABSTRACT Investment failure in the field of information technology to improve the company performance mostly happens because the planning is maximal. One method to overcome this investment failure is by developing a planning process of information system development, consisting of data architecture, application architecture, and architecture. The method used in constructing the enterprise architecture model is Enterprise Architecture Planning (EAP). EAP explains about data, application, and technology which will be required to support the business process at the Human Resource (SDM) bureau where it will be able to produce a blueprint for data architecture, application and technology as well as the plan implementation aimed at providing the needs with sustainable detail level in applying the idea of the system built. In architecture EAP explains about data, application and technology to be used to support the business process at Human Resource bureau where it will produce a blueprint for data architecture, application and technology as well as implementation plans aimed at providing the needs with the sustainable detail level in applying the idea to build the system. The construction of the enterprise architecture model of SDM bureau at IBI Darmajaya is limited on employee affairs and not focused on the application or technical design. KEY WORDS : EAP, Enterprise Architecture 1. INTRODUCTION Background of the ProblemHuman Resources bureau in an institution is a vital organizational asset; its existence therefore cannot be replaced by another resource. Indeed, how little information in an enterprise is valuable in a decision making process by the leader. Realizing the importance of information system role in an organization, prior to applying it, it is necessary to do the enterprise architecture development based on vision an mission as well as a base in the development of information system, so it finally can measure the process and the result of the implementation. IBI Darmajaya, one of educational institutions, should have a design of information system development at SDM bureau that supports the service activities for either employees or stakeholders to reach vision and mission of the organization and the organizational goal. Based on the explanation above, it is important to construct an enterprise architecture model from existing business components at IBI Darmajaya to promote an integrated information system. 263 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

275 1.1. Limitation of theproblem In the research the problems are limited as follows: 1. It will only discuss the construction design of blueprint, instead of implementation phases. 2. Model to be constructed is enterprise architecture model using enterprise architecture planning methods as follows: a. Data Architecture Model b. Application Architecture Model c. Technology Architecture Model 1.3. Objectives The main objective expected in the research is to construct a conceptual model of enterprise information architecture to support an integrated information system specifically in SDM bureau so that it can be used a standard in determining planning and development at SDM bureau at IBI Darmajaya. a way to support the business cycle and to reach the vision of information system and organization. Basically, EAPdoes not design business and architecture. In EAP, the architecture explains about data, application, and technology required to support the organizational business. Related to the explanation above, Steven H Spewak states that the term architecture consists of data architecture, application architecture, and technology architecture. In this case, architecture means blueprint, description, or model The components of EAP methods, according to Spewak, use a base of two layers from John Zachman framework i.e. Ballpark and Owner s review phases. The EAP result is the highest level blueprint for data, application, and technology for overall enterprises to be used at the design process and the next application. 3. RESEARCH METHOD 2.LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Enterprise Architecture Enterprise architecture is a description of stakeholder mission in which it includes information, functions /uses, location, Organization and performance parameter. Enterprise architecture describes a plan to develop a system or a collection of systems (Osvalds, 2001). 2.2 Enterprise Architecture Planning (EAP) Enterprise Architecture Planning(EAP), is a method used to construct an inforamtion architecture. According to Steven H. Spewak, Enterprise Architecture Planning is a method of data quality planning approach oriented to business needs and also how the implementation of architecture is done such The approach used to analyze enterprise is Enterprise Architecture Planning (EAP) approach at the level of data architecture, application architecture, and technology architecture as integrated application supports as well as an application plan of enterprise architecture. The enterprise analysis done is an initial application to use EAP components, i.e. a design initiation as an initial phase in the development of architecture model. This phase is very important, because in this phase the scope and design of activities or work plans are defined. The approach method used in planning a information system architecture and information technology at SDM bureau of IBI Darmajaya is in accordance with the explanation previously mentioned on aa approach method, 264 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

276 i.e. Architecture Planning Methodology, consisting of four phases as follows: 1. Planning Initiation 2. Business Modelling and Current Technology 3. Data Architecture, Application Architecture and Technology Architecture 4. Implementation 4. RESULT AND DISCUSSION 4.1 Data Architecture Data architecture defined, in this case, a definition of data usage to be used in the application architecture that will be delivered at this phase suitable with EAP phases in data architecture, they are as follows: 1. A list of entity candidates 2. Entity definition, attribute and relation List of Entity Candidates Entity candidates are entities that will be parts of enterprise architecture planning, so the determination can be based on the condition of main business function at value chain that has been previously defined. Therefore, the entities to be defined are business entities that will be defined as data entities. According to the condition of value chain, the list of business entities can be identified as follows: 1. Employee Recruitment Entity 2. Employee Affairs Operational Entity 3. Employee Dismissal Entity 4. PLPP Entity 5. Finance Entity 6. ICT-Center Entity To describe relationship between entities, the description of conceptual relation will use E-R diagram. E-R diagram for Human Resources is a logic data conceptual model indicating relationship among entities in SDM bureau of IBI Darmajaya. 4.2 Application Architecture Application architecture to be identified is used to help the main business function of the organization. It will be done to define application needed by the organization, they are as follows: 1. Determining candidate application 2. Connecting the application with the business function that has been defined. 3. Connecting the application with the organizational units at IBI Darmajaya Determining Application Candidates To define application candidates, it will use Four Stage Life Cycle as a tool for predicting needs for this application. From stewardship decomposition it can be seen what applications have to be constructed to help the main business process to meet the organizational needs at IBI Darmajayain fulfilling Human Resources Information. Based on what is obtained from four stage life cycle at stewardshippart with the reference in table 3.1 about four stage life cyclefor supporting business function of Teaching Report Center Management (PLPP) danfinancial management that will be an object of this research, so from the decomposition it can be seen what application to be constructed to help the main business process to fulfill the organizational needs of SDM bureau of IBI Darmajayain fulfilling the needs of employee affairs information Definition of Entity, Attribute and Relation 265 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

277 5. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION 5.1 Conclusion After finishing a series of research phases, the writer can conclude that: 1. The main business modeling described in value chain, has a main activity i.e. employee recruitmen, employee operational and employee dismissal. 2. Enterprise architecture Model using Enterprise Architecture Planning (EAP) can be used as a reference to determine planniing and development of information system at SDM bureau of IBI Darmajaya Bandar Lampung. References [1] Boar, Bernard H., Constructing Blueprints for Enterprise IT Architectures, (Canada, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 2009) [2] IBM, Business System Planning : Information System Planning Guide (IBM, 1981) [3] Osvald, Gundars Definition of Enterprise Architecture-centric Models for the Systems Engineer (TASC, Inc., 2001) [4] Spewak, Steven. H., Enterprise Architecture Planning (Developing a Blueprint for Data, Application and Technology), (John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 1992) 3. Based on the result of definition to enterprisearchitecture at SDM bureau and suited to the limitation of the problem, there are 17 data entities and 14 application supplements. 5.2 Suggestion Based on the result of research discussion, there are some suggestions, they are as follows: 1. For the integrated development needs of the system at employee affairs of SDM bureau of IBI Darmajaya, it should involve relevant departments related to IT so that the system development will be better planned and accomplished. 2. There should be efforts for documenting all information systems, either the existing ones or to-be constructed ones in order that the human resource information will be well organized. 266 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

278 THE EFFECTS OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AND INDIVIDUAL CAPACITY ON BUDGETARY SLACK USING PARTICIPATIVE BUDGETING AS MODERATING VARIABLE AT IBI DARMAJAYA LAMPUNG Pebrina Swissia 1 Informatics and Business Institute Darmajaya Jl. Z.A. PagarAlam No. 93 LabuhanRatu Bandar Lampung ABSTRACT This research discusses the effects of organizational culture and individual capacity on budgetary slack using participative budgeting as moderating variables that are organizational commitment, organizational culture and individual capacity. The respondents chosen were based on structural position in IB Darmajaya as 53 respondents. The data collected through survey method in the form of questionnaire also measuring the reliability test on all variables and correlation analysis. The result of the research based on correlation analysis indicates the correlation level where the correlation analysis of all variables indicates the strong level of correlation. In addition, the participative budgeting positively affects budgetary slack. On the contrary, organizational commitment and organizational culture weakened the correlation between participative budgeting and budgetary slack. Besides, high or low individual capacity is not able to moderate the correlation. KEY WORDS : Budgetary Slack, Organizational Culture, Participative Budgeting 1. Introduction Background of the Problem Budget is an accountability instrument in public financial organizing system and a basic public service. Public service is a process of bureaucratic organizational performance, so budgeting is an important activity in public sector organization to increase the bureaucratic organizational performance and the success relies on the cooperation within the system (Maksun, dkk., 2007). Budgeting plays an important role in planning, controlling, and making decisions. Budget is also used to increase coordination and communication. The use of budgetingfor the company to show the management about: a. Profit rate expected by the company. b. the expected resources can be produced or used during the period of future budgeting. c. Budget also informs the management about consequences of an alternative action series which give bases to make the best decision. The correlation between the customers and the management is that budgeting is a management tool to help running the functions. Because budgeting is merely a tool of management, the existence of management is absolutely needed even though budgeting has been perfectly made. A good and perfect budgeting cannotguarantee that the implementation and realization will be good and perfect, too without being organized by skillful management. In the conduct of educational activities, IBI Darmajaya mostly uses the income derived from students tuition fee and external earnings, while in allocating the expenses it is done per unit. Financial mechanism done at IBI 267 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

279 Darmajaya is based on Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) that has been determined. Financial management is a whole activity in gaining fund, asset management, then using the fund and allocating it to finance investment activity or purchases done by the company effectively to gain high earnings with a minimum risk level possibly to give prosperity to the owner of the company and the shareholders. Organizational culture and individual capacity factors really determine a good budget determination in an organization. An ideal budgeting is the final goal to be achieved by the company because by the ideal budgeting the company can manage the profit effectively and efficiently. However, there is often a deviation in the budget making process in an organization or company, calledbudgetary slack, so the budget made does not reflect needs of a company or an organization.one of determining factors of budgetary slack is an information asymmetry, an information difference owned by an agent a principal, so the principal is not really able to monitor the competence of the agent. According to Dunk (1989), if the agent s performance is evaluated based on whether or not the budgeting target is reached, the agent will be motivated not to give all information he owns at the budgeting planning. Based on the above explanation, the writer is interested to examine whether organizational culture and individual capacity affect budgetary slack using participative budgeting as moderating variable at IBI Darmajaya Lampung Definition of Budget According to Mulyadi(2001:488) in his book AkuntansiManajemen budget is a work plan which is communicatively stated, measured in a monetary standard and another unit of measurement, including a one-year period of time Budgetary Slack The concept of budgetary slack in the agency theory can lead to misallocated organizational resources.budgetary slack tend to be done by agents who participate in budgeting by doing underestimate revenue or overestimate expenditure. Budgetary slack is defined as an action by the agent to lower the productive capability because it has the opportunity in determining the working standard (Young, 1985). 2. Research Method According to Sugiyono (2006:01) research method is a scientific method to gain data with specific aim and use. This research used an associative method, a research which uses at least 4 correlated variables. The associative method in the research used is to find out how much effect of participative budgeting on budgetary slack with organizational culture and individual capacity as strengthening and weakening factors. The type of research target used was Causal research. It is used to examine hypothesis on cause-effect correlation. 3. Result And Discussion 1. Based on the result of hypothesis test 1, it is found that there is a significant effect between X1 and X2 or between organizational culture and participative budgeting as 70.5%. the result of the test, if X3 quality or participative budgeting wants to be increased, X1 quality or organizational culture should be first improved. In other words, the increasing the participative budgeting dynamics is affected mostly by the increase of organizational culture. The efforts to improve organizational culture (X!) is by bettering the elements of the indicators of X1 as follows: A. Mission B. Consistency C. Adaptability 268 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

280 D. involvement and the elements connected with X3 revision or participative budgeting through X3 indicator: A. The participation of central responsibility manager in making budgeting and the involvement in giving opinions. B. The frequency of the top manager in asking for opinions of central responsibility manager in the process of budgeting making. 2. Based on the result of hypothesis test, it is found there is a significant effect of individual capacity (X2)onparticipative budgeting (X3). The amount of the effect is as % (based on ßcoefficient). 3. Based on the result of hypothesis test, it is found that there is no significant effect of organizational culture (X1) on budgetary slack (Y) through participative budgeting (X3). The amount of the effect is as % (based on ß coefficient). 4. Based on the result of hypothesis test, it is found that there is no significant effect of individual capacity (X2) on budgetary slack(y) throughparticipative budgeting (X3). The amount of the effect is as 1.47 % (based on ß coefficient). 5. Based on the result of hypothesis test, it is found that there is a significant effect of participative budgeting (X3) on budgetary slack(y). The amount of the effect is as 56.7 % (based on ß coefficient). The results of tests show that if budgetary slack (Y) wants to be minimized; participative budgeting (X3) should be first improved. In other words, the decrease of budgetary slack is affected by the increase of participative budgeting. The effort to decrease budgetary slack (Y) is by improving the indicator elements of participative budgeting (X3) as follows: A. Participation of central responsibility manager in making budgeting and his involvement in giving opinions. B. Frequency of the top manager in asking for opinions of the central responsibility in making the budgeting. Therefore, by the increase of participative budgeting, it is expected that the ideal budgeting will be reached. 5. Conclusion And Suggestion 5.1 Conclusion Based on the result of the discussion in chapter IV, it can be concluded that: Based on the data processing, the writer tries to do an analysis and make some conclusions as follows: 1. it is about the amount of the effect of organizational culture and individual capacity on participative budgeting that can be described in the following explanation: a. That organizational culture has a partial and significant effect on participative budgeting as 0,705 or70,5 % b. that individual capacity has a partial but not significant effect on participative budgeting as 0,026or 2,6 % 2. It is about the amount of the effect of participative budgeting on budgetary slack indicating that participative budgeting has a partial and significant effect on budgetary slack as 32,1 % Therefore, based on the above explanation, it can be gained the indirect effect as follows: 269 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

281 a) The effect of organizational culture variable on participative budgeting through budgetary slackis 0,705 x 0,567 0,3997or39,97 % b) The effect of individual capacity variable on participative budgeting through budgetary slackis 0,026 x 0,567 0,0147or1,47 % 3. The individual capacity variable does not significantly affect participative budgeting at IBI Darmajaya, it is because the implementation of budgeting planning process uses a centralized method. 5. For the advancement of science, it is suggested to do researches using the research variables such as information asymmetry information and organizational commitment. References [1]. Maksun, 2007, AkuntansiSektorPublik, 2007, BPFE Yogyakarta [2]. Mulyadi, 2001, AkuntansiManajemen :Konsep, ManfaatdanRekayasa, EdisiKetiga, SalembaEmpat. Jakarta [3]. Young, S.M. (1985). Participative Budgeting : The Effects of Risk Aversion and 5.2 Suggestion Based on the discussion, it can be suggested: 1. To keep increasing a positive organizational culture at IBI Darmajaya, by implanting vision of the organization, and work consistency of every work unit at IBI Darmajaya. 2. For individual capacity to give a positive effect on a better budgeting planning and to minimize budgetary slack. The head of IBI Darmajaya should be able to accommodate suggestions in budgeting planning in every work unit in IBI Darmajaya, so the heads of work units have sense of belonging related to the operational at their work unit. 3. To avoid ineffectivebudgetary slackin the budgeting planning, it is better to involve work units because based on the previous research by the writer, individual capacity does not have a significant effect. 4. As indirect effect through participative budgeting variable that organizational has a significant effect on budgetary slack. In this regard, IBI Darmajaya has to give effects more and look for such an effort on how to optimize individual capacity of respective work unit in IBI Darmajaya. 270 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

282 QUALITY AUDIT IN BANKING INDUSTRY Tulus Suryanto 1 Faculty Of Islamic Economic and Business The State Islamic Institute of RadenIntan Lampung, Indonesia ABSTRACT This study examines the relationship of professional ethics audittoward auditors' opinion: auditorprofessionalismand dysfunctional behavior as intervening Variable. This research was conducted at the bankingindustryfirm in Bandar Lampung and auditors as the sample. The data was collected by using a questionnaire. This research represents the empirical test which used censuc sampling. Data analysis uses SEM Amos programs. Result of hypothesis examination indicate that from three hypothesis raised, all of it accepted. Accepted hypothesis 1, there is a positive relation between professional ethics audittoward auditors opinion:, hypothesis 2, auditorsprofessionalismis as moderated variable professional ethics audittoward auditors' opinion:. hypothesis 3, disfunctional behavior is as negative moderated variable professional ethics audittoward auditors' opinion. KEYWORDS: Qoality Audit, Ethics Audit,and SEM Amos Program 1. Introduction The risk of fraud committed by management or employees of the company can reduce the good name / reputation in the business world, or may reduce the ability of the company to maintain its viability. The existence of these risks requires the auditor to perform the prevention and detection of fraud committed by the company (Amrizal, 2002). In the detection of fraud, the auditor is required to obey the code of professional ethics and professional manner in order to determine the risk audit. existence of opinion fraud committed by management or employees of the company can reduce the reputation in the business world, or may reduce the ability of the company to maintain its viability. The existence of these risks requires the auditor to perform the prevention and detection of fraud committed by the company (Amrizal, 2002). In the detection of fraud, the auditor is required to obey the code of professional ethics and professional manner in order to determine the audit opinion. Given the role of the auditor is required by the business world, it is encouraging auditors to understand the implementation of ethics in their profession. Professional ethics is an organizational factors that will affect the performance of an auditor. There are several important elements that must be owned by the auditor, namely: (1) expertise and understanding of accounting standards or standards of financial reporting, (2) the standard inspection / auditing, (3) professional ethics, (4) an understanding of the business environment that is audited. So the main requirements that must be owned by an auditor is required to adhere to the applicable rules of professional ethics. Therefore, professional ethics is a means of self-regulation which is crucial for the implementation of the profession of an auditor. The success of the auditor in performing the audit process and provide an opinion of course not separated from the auditor behavior as implementing the audit. Research conducted by Wiyantoro (2009) showed that in the implementation of activity often occurs a deviant behavior or intentional violations outside of the rules and procedures are usually done by implementing the socalled dysfunctional behavior. Application audit 271 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

283 professionalism demanded a complete understanding of an auditor in performing their duties. With the dysfunctional behavior of course will negatively affect the audit process. 2. Theory and Hypothesis 2.1. Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) This study aimed to describe the relationship between attitudes and behavior of individuals, especially the auditors in carrying out the audit process. In the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) proposed by Fishbein and Ajzen (1975) is a theory that relates to the attitude and behavior of individuals in carrying out the activities / actions are grounded (reasoned action). An auditor is required to be profesional and comply with audit ethics in carrying out the audit process for which this theory would explain the attitude of auditors in the process of its activities whether auditors do their job with professionalism and whether there is an element of dysfunctional behavior in the working process Relations Professional Ethics Audit of the Audit Opinion One way to realize the public accounting profession professional conduct one of which is the effect of the implementation of professional ethics established by the IAI talahie Accountants Code of Indonesia. Ethics can be defined as a set of moral principles or values (Elder et al., 2011), in terms of ethics, a profession should have a high moral commitment as outlined in the form of a special rule. This rule is a rule execute or carry out the profession, which is commonly referred to as code ethics. Code of Conduct created with the aim to establish standards of conduct for accountants, especially CPAs. Code of professional conduct large is due to the following reasons: 1. The need for public confidence in the quality of services rendered. 2. People can not be expected to assess the quality of services provided by the profession 3. Increased competition among members of the profession Indonesian Accountants Code of Conduct is a code of behavior that consists of: 1. The general provisions in the code of ethics of public accountants have the power in terms of the emphasis on positive activities to produce high quality work. The disadvantage is difficult to impose an ideal general behavior in the absence of minimum standard of conduct. 2. Special rules have pejabaran excellence in detail, so as to imposition of minimum standards of conduct and performance. The disadvantage is likely to provide interpretation on the practitioners as a minimum standard maskimum instead. Audit opinion is given by the auditors opinion on the fairness of the presentation of the financial statements of the company where the auditor to audit. Audit opinion delivered in the opinion paragraph that was included in the audit report section. Therefore, the audit opinion is an integral part of the audit report. The audit report informs users about what information the auditor and the conclusions obtained. "Statement of the auditor's opinion must be based on the audit carried out by auditing standards and on its findings." (SA Section 508, IAPI, 2011). There are five types of statement of opinion may be provided by a public accountant who audited the financial statements. As for the statement described in section 508, SPAP (2011), that an unqualified opinion, unqualified opinion with an explanatory language, qualified opinion, the opinion is not fair, and the statement did not give an opinion. 272 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

284 Basic things that must be considered by the auditor is ethics in the profession. Implementation of professional work can not be separated from ethics for professional conduct required of all professions that profession lived won the trust of the community. The American Heritage Directory in Gusti and Ali (2008) stated ethics as a rule or standard that determines the behavior of members of a profession. With high ethical awareness, then an auditor tend professional duties and carry out their duties in accordance with the professional code of ethics and auditing standards, so that the results of the audit would be more indicative of the actual situation in the provision of audit opinion. Suraida research results (2005) show empirically that the ethical factor giving a positive effect on the accuracy of the auditor's opinion. Results were a reference to the author that ethics also affect the accuracy of opinion by the auditor's provision. Based on these descriptions, the proposed hypothesis is as follows: H1: There is a relationship between ethics with precision giving opinions 1.3. Relationsprofessional ethics audit, professional auditors and audit opinion Simply put, professionalism means that the auditor shall perform his duties with sincerity and accuracy. As a professional, the auditor should avoid negligence and dishonesty. Arens et al. (2003) in Noveria (2006) defines professionalism as an individual responsibility to behave better than compliance with laws and regulations existing society. Professionalism is also an element of motivation that contribute to a person that has a high task performance (Guntur et al, 2002 in Ifada and M. Jafar, 2005). In determining the level of the opinion the financial statements required considerations are not easy. Many factors affect the auditor's judgment in determining opnininya, among others: Professionalism Auditor, the more professional an auditor then consideration will be better and the ethics of the profession, with the implementation of Professional Ethics at each execution of the task, then the auditor will not commit fraud in determining the level of materiality. Research Herawaty and Susanto (2008) investigated Professionalism, Knowledge Public Accountant in Detecting Errors, Professional Ethics and Materiality level considerations. The results showed that the regression coefficient Professionalism has a positive value (0.231) and significant. With the professional ethics referred to by impersonating the auditor is expected to increase the level of professionalism of the auditors in the audit pass to produce reasonable opinion without cheating and manipulation to improve their professional level. In this case the hypothesis developed as follows: H2: The effect of the professional ethics of the audit opinion is mediated by the professionalism of the audit 1.4. Relations professional ethics audit, dysfunctional behavior and audit opinion Auditors work processes in generating opinion will not be successful if it is not accompanied by the behavior of the individual (auditors) that support the audit process. According to Jaworski and Young (1992) dysfunctional behavior can be defined as "an act done less than the maximum effort to manipulate the elements of the control system with the desired destination. Her logic is not professional ethics will help produce a reasonable audit opinion if influenced by factors dysfuntional behavior by an auditor. Referring to research Soobaroyen (2006) which proves that the behavior dysfuntional direct negative effect on the performance and results of the 273 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

285 output of a process, then the hypothesis is formulated as follows: H3: The influence of the professional ethics of the audit opinion negatively mediated by dysfuntional behavior. The research model that describes a conceptual framework as well as guide grooves thinking can be seen in Figure Research Methodology 3.1. Population and Sample The population in this study is the banking industry in the city of Bandar Lampung. As for the sample is internal auditors 3.2. Data Collection Technique Data collection techniques or patterns of sampling in the study is to use the census sampling method, namely by taking all the existing samples for examination Data quality test Data quality test conducted on the test reliability and validity test with SPSS version 18.0 Solfware (Statistical Product and Service Solutions). Reliability test intended to measure a questionnaire which is an indicator of variables or constructs. Reliability measurements performed with Cronbach Alpha test. A construct said to be reliable if the Cronbach Alpha value 0.60 (Nunnaly, 1967 Ghozali 2004). Validity test used to measure whether a valid or invalid questionnaires. A questionnaire as valid if the questionnaire is able to reveal something that will be measured by the questionnaire. Validity test is done by bivariate correlation between each score total indicator constructs. If the total correlation constructs showed significant results, then each indicator is a valid question Test the hypothesis using multivariate techniques Structur Equation Model (SEM). SEM modeling consists of a measurement model (measurement model) and the structural model (structural model). Structural model is intended to examine the relationship between exogenous and endogenous constructs. While the measurement model is intended to examine the relationship between indicators of the constructs / latent variable Ballen (1989) in Imam Ghozali (2005). The software used in this study is Amos ver Results and Discussion 4.1.StatistikDesriptif Delivery and Returns Questionnaire The data collection of this study using a questionnaire as an instrument collector, primary data. Primary data is the answer of the respondent. The questionnaire used in this study is delivered directly to the respondent by visiting the respondent. Questionnaires distributed a total of 66 questionnaires. Of the 66 questionnaires distributed, a total of 7 pieces not be returned because of busy at work and 2 incomplete. Thus, at the end of the study the number of questionnaires collected was 57 questionnaire. 274 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

286 characteristics of Respondents Characteristics of respondents obtained based on data derived from the questionnaire. In summary it can be seen in the following table 4.1: Validity test is done by bivariate correlation (Pearson correlation) between the respective indicator scores with a total score of the construct. An indicator of the question as valid if the correlation between each of the indicators showed significant results. Results of test validity can be seen in table Hypothesis Testing 4.2. Quality Test Data Test data quality include the reliability and validity of the test. Reliabitas test conducted with Cronbach alpha test using SPSS. A construct said to be reliable if it gives Cronbach alpha values> 0.60 (Nunnaly, 1967 Ghozali, 2004). Reliability test results are presented in table 4.2. Having tested for normality and outliers using Amos ver 5.0, the data can be submitted for filing hypothesis. Summary comparison of models built with the cut of the goodness of fit indices are defined, appears in the following table 4.4: 275 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

287 Index criteria showed a good level of acceptance that all show the value of the corresponding fit. To test the hypothesis, it can be seen the magnitude and probability of Critical Ratio and the output of the following regression weight in table 4.5 regression weight) between Professional ethics audit (PEA) of the Audit Opinion (AO) showed positive effect 1.231, with the value of the critical ratio (CR) of and p-value of 0. The CR value is far above the critical value of ± 1.96 with a significance level of 0 (ie significant) that p is under significant value 0:05. Thus the first hypothesis can be accepted. Which is PEA AP DB AO 4.6. Discussion Hypothesis 1 = Professional Ethics Audit = AuditorProfesionalism = Dysfunctional Behavior = Audit Opinion These results are consistent with research Kusuma (2012) where his research concluded that the professional ethics positive and significant effect on the level of materiality considerations of public accountants in providing an opinion. In addition, these results also reinforce the research done Sukmawati (2014) that professional ethics related to the audit opinion. Every public accountant is also expected to uphold the Professional Ethics which has been established by the Indonesian Institute of Certified Public Accountants, so that the situation of unfair competition can be avoided. Without ethics, the accounting profession would not exist as a function of accounting is a provider of information for business decision-making process by the business. By upholding the Professional Ethics is not expected to occur cheating among public accountants, so it can provide the auditor's opinion that really fit with the financial statements presented by the client. Hypothesis 2 Hypothesis two stated Effect of the Professional ethics audit (PEA)of the audit opinion (AO) is mediated by the auditor professionalism (AP). For two hypotheses in this study developed a model that connects directly influence the construct Professional ethics audit (PEA)) through intermediate variables auditor professionalism (AP) to the audit opinion (AO) The first hypothesis (H1) stated that there is a relationship between ethics with precision giving opinions. The test results of the estimation parameters (standardized 276 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

288 The direct effect is the loading factor or lambda value of each indicator that form the latent variables are analyzed (Agusty, 2001). To determine the influence of Professional ethics audit (PEA)) through intermediate variables auditor professionalism (AP) to the audit opinion (AO). Without ethics, the accounting profession would not exist as a function of accounting is a provider of information for business decision-making process by the business. By upholding the Professional Ethics Audit, the level of auditor professionalism will be higher, because the professional audit will prevent fraud among public accountants, so as to give an audited opinion that really fit with the financial statements presented by the company. The results of this study are consistent with the results of research Herath and Susanto (2009), which gives evidence that the positive effect of Professional Ethics Audit for consideration Materiality level. This study also supports the results of research conducted Wahyudi et al. (2014) which proves that the audit professionals is one of the decisive factors in the provision of audit opinion. Hypothesis 3 Hypothesis three stated Effect of the professional ethics audit of the audit opinion negatively mediated by dysfunctional behavior. For three hypotheses in this study developed a model that connects directly influence the construct Professional Ethics Audit (EA) through intermediate variables dysfunctional behavior (DB) to the Audit Opinion (OA). The magnitude of the indirect effect of ethics audit of the audit opinion by the auditor professionalism for Positive sign tesebut give meaning that audit professionals proved to mediate between ethical audit and audit opinion. Hypothesis two stated Effect of the professional ethics of the audit opinion is mediated by the audit professionalism accepted Public accountants are expected to uphold the Professional Ethics audit which has been established by the Indonesian Institute of Certified Public Accountants, so that the situation of unfair competition can be avoided. The magnitude of the indirect effect of ethics audit of the audit opinion by Dysfunctional behavior of 1,370. Positive sign ofgive meaning that dysfunctional behavior 277 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

289 proved negative mediate between ethical audit and audit opinion. Hypothesis three states influence the professional ethics of the audit opinion negatively mediated by dysfunctional behavior be accepted. Process audit activities will not succeed in generating opinion if it is not accompanied by the behavior of the individual (auditors) that support the process. According to Jaworski and Young (1992) dysfunctional behavior can be defined as "an act done less than the maximum effort to manipulate the elements of the control system with the desired destination. Ethics auditor if accompanied dysfuntional attitude will certainly have a negative impact on the process of the audit work. Dysfunctional attitudes will lead to a breaking ethical and professional attitude shows that the results of their audit opinion had become incompatible with the real situation occurs in the companies they audit. In summary ethical auditors to audit opinion will not be effective when it is influenced by factors dysfuntional behavior. This is consistent with research that has been done by Soobaroyen (2004) and Wiyantoro (2006) which proves that the behavior dysfuntional direct negative effect on the performance or the outcome of the process. 5. Conclusions and Recommendations 5.1. Conclusion The results of this study prove that: 1. There is a positive relationship between ethics with precision giving opinions. These results are consistent with research Kusuma (2012) and also strengthen the research done Sukmawati (2014) that professional ethics related to the audit opinion. Without ethics, the accounting profession would not exist as a function of accounting is a provider of information for business decision-making process by the business. By upholding the Professional Ethics Audit is not expected to occur cheating among public accountants, so it can provide the auditor's opinion that really fit with the financial statements presented by the client. 2. Professional ethics audit proved to mediate between the audit and the audit opinion. The results of this study are consistent with the results of research Herath and Susanto (2009), and supports research conducted Wahyudi et al. (2014) which proves that the audit professionals is one of the decisive factors in the provision of audit opinion. By upholding the Professional Ethics Audit, the level of professionalism the audit will be higher, because the professional audit will prevent fraud among public accountants, so as to give an audited opinion that really fit with the financial statements presented by the company 3. Dysfunctional behavior proved negative mediate between ethical audit and audit opinion. Dysfunctional attitudes will lead to a breaking ethical and professional attitude shows that the results of their audit opinion had become incompatible with the real situation occurs in the companies they audit. In summary ethical auditors to audit opinion will not be effective when it is influenced by factors dysfuntional behavior. This is consistent with research that has been done by Soobaroyen (2004) and Wiyantoro (2006) which proves that the behavior dysfuntional direct negative effect on the performance or the outcome of the process Suggestion 1. For auditors, need to increase the additional knowledge that can support the auditor's 278 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

290 judgment in determining an opinion on the financial statements. 2. Relations with colleagues need to be improved to establish good communication, so there is no difference between the auditor's perception of the other auditors and prevent dysfunctional behavior behavior that will affect the outcome of the opinion the financial statements. 3. In performing its duties, the auditor must comply with the Professional Ethics Audit which has been established by professional organizations, so do not act according to personal preference. 4. It should be the development of research instruments, ie adapted to the conditions and environment of the object to be studied. 5. For further research on the same topic should use Refferences statistical tools based SEM (Structural Equation Modeling) as LISREL. [1]. Arrens.,Loebbecke Auditing.Terjemahan. EdisiKedua. SalembaEmpat. Jakarta [2]. Elder, Randal J., et al Jasa Audit dan Assurance: PendekatanTerpadu (Adaptasi Indonesia), Buku 1. Jakarta: PenerbitSalembaEmpat. [3]. Ghozali, Imam AplikasiAnalisis Multivariate dengan program SPSS. Cetakan IV. BadanPenerbitUniversitasDiponegoro. Semarang [4]. Ghozali, Imam Model persamaanstructural,konsepdanaplikasidengan program AMOS Ver.5.0.BadanPenerbitUniversitasDiponegoro, Semarang. [5]. Gusti, MaghfirahdanSyahril Ali HubunganSkeptisismeProfesional Auditor dansituasietika,pengalamansertakeahlian Audit denganketepatanpemberianopini Auditor olehakuntanpublik. JurnalSimposiumNasionalAkuntansi XI. [6]. HerawatidanSusanto. (2009). PengaruhProfesionalisme, PengetahuanMendeteksiKekeliruandanEtikaProfesit erhadappertimbangan Tingkat MaterialitasAkuntanPublik. JurnalAkuntansidanKeuanganVol.11 No. 1 [7]. Ifadadan M. Ja far. (2005). PengaruhSikapProfesionalisme Internal AuditorTerhadapPeranan Internal Auditor dalampengungkapantemuan Audit.JurnalBisnis, ManajemendanEkonomi. Vol.7 No. 3 [8]. InstitutAkuntanPublik Indonesia StandarProfesionelAkuntanPublik 31 Maret Jakarta: PenerbitSalembaEmpat. [9]. Jaworski, B.J., and S.M. Young Dysfunctional Behavior and Management Control: An Empirical Study of Marketing Managers. Accounting, Organizattion and Society 17 (1): [10]. Kusuma, NovandaFriska PengaruhProfesionalisme Auditor, EtikaProfesidanPengalaman Auditor terhadappertimbangan Tingkat Materialitas,Skripsi. UniversitasNegeri Yogyakarta. [11]. Noveria. (2006). PengaruhProfesionalisme Auditor Internal terhadap WorkOutcome Audior Internal. Skripsi. TidakDipublikasikan. UNPADBandung [12]. Sukmawati, Ni. LuhGede, dkk Pengaruhetikaprofesi, kecerdasanintelektual, kecerdasanemosionaldankecerdasan spiritual terhadapopini audit (Studiempirispada Kantor AkuntanPublik Wilayah Bali. e-journals1 AkuntansiUniversitasPendidikanGaneshaJurusanAk untansi Program S1 (Vol:2 No:1 Tahun 2014) [13]. Suraida. (2005). Uji Model Etika, Kompetensi, Pengalaman Audit danresiko Audit TerhadapSkeptisismeProfesional Auditor. JurnalAkuntansi. Th IX/02/Mei [14]. SoobaroyenTeerooven Management Control System and Dysfunctional Behavior: an Empirical Investigation. Accounting Behavior. [15]. Wahyudi, Putra. Dwi, Hubunganetikaprofesi, keahlian, pengalamandenganketepatanwaktupemberianopinid alam audit laporankeuanganmelaluipertimbanganmaterialitasd anskeptismeprofesional auditor. JurnalAkuntansi Review [16]. Wijayanti, GersontanLewi PeranKecerdasanEmosional Dan Kecerdasan Spiritual DalamMeningkatkanKinerja Auditor. DalamJurnalIlmiahMahasiswaAkuntansiVol 1, No.2 [17]. Wiyantoro, Lili S Hubunganantara system pengendalianmanajemendenganperilakudysfunction al :budayanasionalsebagaivariabel moderating. SNA XII Pontianak 279 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

291 AN AUDIT ANALYSIS ON SERVICE INFORMATION SYSTEM AT ACADEMIC ADMINISTRATION BUREAU OF INFORMATICS AND BUSINESS INSTITUTE DARMAJAYA BANDAR LAMPUNG THROUGH COBIT 4.1 Amnah 1 Lecturer of Computer Science Study Program in Informatics Engineering Informatics and Business Institute Darmajaya Jl. Z.A. Pagar Alam No. 93 Labuhan Ratu Bandar Lampung ABSTRACT Academic Administration Bureau is a bureau considered as standards for giving service to all students of Informatics and Business Institute Darmajaya (IBI Darmajaya). Information system at this bureau plays an important role in providing service to the students and is expected to be able to improve job performance and service quality. For the time being the implemented service information system at Academic Administration Bureau has not been much benefited and not known whether it is in accordance with the vision and mission of the institution. To make the service offered by the academic administration bureau relevant to the business goal of the institution, it is required to know the conformity level between TI goal and Institutional goal. To obtain the conformity level between TI goal and institutional goal, it needs a measurement of conformity level between the two goals by using COBIT 4.1. The result finding of the research is the conformity level between TI goal and institutional goal is obtained and stands at Defined level because the average of TI processes has been above the international level standard as 2.5 (Guldentops, 2000). Even though the average of TI processes has been over the international level standard, there are still some TI processes below the international standard, so it requires recommendation to increase the conformity between TI goal and institutional goal to reach a higher level. KEY WORDS: Maturity level, Expected, Information System, Asset Management, COBIT 1. INTRODUCTION Background of the Problem Like other universities in Indonesia, IBI Darmajaya is responsible for carrying out education properly in which the academic service becomes the main priority. Academic service at universities includes 3 main processes; they are teaching, research, and internal or external service activities (Harniyati Kusniyati, 2009). According to management aspects, the three processes are products and services offered by the institution to the consumers. To have them more effective, it needs to analyze the previous audit processes. Based on the explanation, it is important to do an Audit Analysis on Information System at Academic Administration Bureau of IBI Darmajaya Bandar Lampung. 280 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

292 Limitation of the Problem In this research the problems includes: DS domain in DS1 process. DS DS domain in DS10 process DS DS domain in DS12 process which also has 34 high level objectives and 6 publications. Scope of the Problems This research involves the Service Information System Audit at the academic administration bureau by analyzing the gap and recommending an improvement toward the service audit that has been done. Objectives of the Research The objectives of the research to be reached ate as follows: 1. To do an analysis on service information system at academic administration bureau at IBI Darmajaya by using framework COBIT To become a reference for the improvement of service quality at the academic administration bureau. 2. LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1. Objectives of Audit The objective of information system audit is to evaluate whether the service information system control has been able to give proper assurance on time, accuracy, correctness, asset security, data integrity, effectiveness, efficiency,,availability, compliance, and reliability Audit Phases There are several phases in information system audit process. Many opinions delivered by experts on the audit process phases such as: planning, fieldwork, reporting, follow-up. COBIT designed consists of 34 control objectives reflected on 4 domains, namely: Plan and Organize (PO), Acquire and Implement (AI), Deliver and Support (DS), and Monitor and Evaluate (ME). Those four domains can be illustrated in the below figure Figure 2.2. COBIT Domain Framework 3. OBJECTIVES AND USES OF THE RESEARCH 3.1. Objectives of the Research The objective of the research is to analyze service information system at the academic administration bureau using COBIT 4.1. framework at IBI Darmajaya Bandar Lampung 3.2. Uses of the Research 1. For the management, it can be used to know the existing problems easily. 2. For the management, it can help identify what is needed by students. 3. Management and placement of assets are correct. 4. For the users or students, their needs for optimal service will be continuously filled up. 5. For the students, they will hardly get difficulties in getting services at the academic administration bureau. 281 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

293 4, RESEARCH METHOD 4.1. Research Design The research design is by doing literary study on Documents of IBI Darmajaya Bandar Lampung consistent with vision and mission, objectives and strategic plans of the institution. Scope of Information System Audit The scope of COBIT framework starts from the interview conducted by the researcher to relevant parties, and questionnaires distributed to all sections of the management. Objectives of the Research By conducting an information system audit at the academic administration bureau using COBIT 4.1. framework at IBI Darmajaya Bandar Lampung it can be taken as a reference for service improvement at the bureau.. Research Contribution The research gives positive contribution to the institution especially to the academic administration bureau. In addition, this audit done is aimed at dilakukan dengan tujuan : a. Helping the director monitor job performance of the academic administration bureau. b. Giving maximum service to the students. c. Helping all students services optimally Result of Current Maturity Level Evaluation (Performance) Current Maturity Level (Performance) and expectancy at the academic administration bureau where respondents are management category can be illustrated in the radar graph below: 5 DS1.1 DS12.5 DS1.2 DS DS1.3 DS DS1.4 1 DS DS1.5 DS12.1 DS10.4 DS10.3 Figure 5.1. Current Maturity Level (Performance) and expectancy user & management category In table 5.4 it can be seen the result of computation obtained from users and management at current maturity level and expectancy, so it is obvious that the gain of current maturity level reaches the gap resulted from users and management. DS1.6 DS10.1 DS10.2 CURRENT USER CURRENT MGT Expectacy User Expectacy MGT 5. EXPECTED RESULTS DOMAIN PROCESS Current Maturity Level Expected Maturity Level User Gap Man. Gap user Mgt user Mgt DS1 define and manage service levels DS10 Manage problems and incidents DS12 Manage Facilities Analysis of Management Gap The result of current maturity level computation for the current academic administration bureau is still below the expected maturity level Analysis of User Gap The lowest current maturity level at DS1 process is determining and managing the service levels to users at level 3.39, due to DS1.3 process i.e. service treaty, while 282 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

294 the highest current maturity level in DS12 managing facilities at level process is IT Governance Institute (2000), Executive Summary, COBIT 3 rd Edition, 14 Juli FOLLOWING PHASE PLANS The next activities to be done are socializing audit results, completing data when needed, delivering audit results to stakeholders via announcement board, and making final report(s). IT Governance Institute (2000), Audit Guidelines, COBIT 3 rd Edition, 14 Juli Weber, Ron (1999), Information Systems Control and Auditing, The University of Queensland, Prentice Hall. 7. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION 7.1. Conclusion The audit activity once done has reached satisfactory values, but it still needs developing by adding domains related to the services Suggestion The management of IBI Darmajaya has to demand the academic administration bureau to do some improvement as follows: 1. IBI Darmajaya periodically has to do analysis of audit results. 2. IBI Darmajaya has to analyze KPI and KGI to obtain better results. 3. it is important to add other domains to strengthen audit results. References Bambang, Uji Publik draf Sarana dan Prasarana Pendidikan Tinggi, Rubrik Berita, Jakarta, Boyke Hidayat, (2011), Evaluasi Itegrated Toll Collection System Dengan Menggunakan FRAMEWORK COBIT, Institut Pertanian Bogor Data Perguruan Tinggi Indonesia, 23 Februari Gunadarma, Prosedur Peminjaman Barang NOC, Jakarta, Desember 2009 Harni Kusniyati, Strategi Peningkatan Layanan IT di Universitas Mecu Buana, Jakarta, International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

295 IMPLEMENTATION OF NAÏVE BAYES CLASSIFICATION METHOD TO PREDICT GRADUATION TIME OF IBI DARMAJAYA SCHOLAR Ketut Artaye 1 Informatics Engineering IBI Darmajaya Lampung Z.A. Pagar Alam Street No.93 Bandar Lampung ABSTRACT Quality of a university can be seen in the average of how long a collage student take to graduate, how long for graduates to have a job also can be seen in study time in university. Every university study time will variate with different student in the university.every major responsible for study development of scholars.they also have a task to predict study time length of every college student to decide and anticipate student who skip class that will cause a bad result in major performance. It is important to be done, especially in Informatics and Business Institute Darmajaya to maintain quality and performance of each major. Because of that reason, writer did research with title Implementation of Naïve Bayes Classification Method to Predict Graduation Time of IBI Darmajaya Scholar to understand about average study time of each college student. Key Words: Naïve Bayes Classification, Predict, Scholar Graduation. 1. INTRODUCTION Informatics and Business Institute Darmajaya is one of leading private college institution in LAMPUNG province, founded in The credibility given by society, local government and central government (DIKTI), IBI Darmajaya has growth and developed to be a big college and have a good reputation as education institution. To receive and to maintain that predicate is not an easy task, because of that needed a strategy to maintain quality that has been achieve throughout the process. Quality of a college can be seen from graduation time and also getting a job also can be seen from study time of the scholar.every college will have variation of graduation time from different scholar. The scholar is one of important aspect in evaluation of college s major accomplishment. Monitoring the student s entry, progress of the student, student s achievement, the graduation ratio of he number of student passing, and competency of graduates should be getting a serious attention to receive trust from stakeholder in appreciate and alumnus requirement. Informatics Engineering is one of major program at IBI Darmajaya and one of favorite major choices in 2008 until 2011 with average of 250 scholars each year.however in this major program going through a degradation seen from interest quantity of scholar whom took the major program. Furthermore average level of graduation is decreasing. Major Program responsible to monitoring study progress of the scholar. They also have task to predict study time for each student to decide and anticipating student from skip class which reason of bad major perform. 2. LITERATURE STUDY 1. Data Mining Based on Kusrini (2009) Dataminingisa term used to find hidden knowledge in database.dataminingi s a semi-automatics process using statistics, math, artificial intelligence, and machinelearningto extract and identify 284 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 st August 2015

296 potential knowledge information and become a benefit in bigger database. Data mining is not an entirely new field. One of the difficulties of defining data mining is the fact that data mining inherited many aspects and techniques from the different fields of science that are already well established in advance. Data mining has long roots from the field of science such as artificial intelligence (artificial intelligent), machine learning, statistical, database and also information retrieval. 2. Naïve Bayes Classification The bayes theory is the fundamentals statistic approach in the introduction of a pattern recognition. This approach based on the quantification of trade-off between classification various decisions made by the use of probability and the charges caused in those decisions. Bayesianclassification is statistic classification that can be used to predict probability of membership of a class.bayesianclassification based on Bayes theory that has classification ability same with decisiontreeand neuralnetwork.bayesianclassification proved had accuracy and high velocity when applied in database with massive data(kusrini, 2009). Bayes T h e o r y have general form : In this research will be implemented Naïve Bayes Classifier Method to predict time of graduation which this research can determine exactness of study time in informatics engineering major. System analysis presented in this paper is a whole description of the obstacles in application in Naïve Bayes Classification algorithm in deciding study time of IBI Darmajaya scholar. As for attribute used in predicting time of graduation cover: a. Gender Variable gender only have two possibilities, which is male and female.in research by Purwanto (2007) in Lampung with 230 scholar samplewhom worn in different position andgradeon plantation show that their salary depend on gender. b. Hometown Hometown variable divide into Bandar Lampung City and Outer from Bandar Lampung City. Whom the hometown is in Bandar Lampungthen classified the data inn DALAM KOTA while the others is LUAR KOTA. c. Type of Shcool Type of Scholl variable contain all the possibility of school typebefore university entrance. Value X = Data with unknown class H= Hypothesisd a t a fromxwith specific class P(H X)=Probability of H Hypothesis based on x fact (posteriori prob.) P(H) = Probability of H Hypothesis (prior prob.) P(X H)=Probability ofxbased on current condition P(X) = Probability of X 3. RESEARCH METHOD that determined on the software depend on the classification result, which is for senior high school classified to general and the others to vocational. d. School Location School location variable classified become from inner city of Bandar Lampung or outside Bandar Lampung City. If the school location is in inner city of Bandar Lampung then classified the data in DALAM KOTA other than that classified in LUAR KOTA. e. Economic 285 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 st August 2015

297 Economicis a variable contain about family welfare. Choices in this software are divided into three parts, which is high, middle, and lower. Table 3.1 Family Welfare No Penghasilan Keterangan 1 Penghasilan <= Rp / Bulan Rendah 2 Penghasilan >Rp Sedang dan < Rp /Bulan 3 Penghasilan > Rp. Tinggi /Bulan f. Grade-Point Average GPA variable is Grade-Point Average of every semester already taken by student. The size of the GPA of every student take effect to amount of SKS in the next semester. Thereforethe amount of SKS will take big effect to student study time. GPA variable classified into 3 parts. Table 3.2 Student GPA No IPK Keterangan 1 IPK > =3 3 2 IPK >= 2 dan IPK < IPK < 2 1 g. Decision Decision variable is a data that functioning to decide the result.in data classification already fixed, so there is no mistake in calculation of the software. Decision data only have three value, fast, on time, and late. 4. RESULT AND DISCUSSION In this stages, begins with getting data samples from student whom already graduate to be used as data training. Used data already clean up and transformed into category.in this test data sample collected from generation that already graduate. From 191 student data, 50 record taken as data training.based on data processing from the sample data, it classified into fast category is 21 students, on time category 6 student, and late category 23 students. In testing process, the data divide into two parts, training and test data.in Naïve Bayes Classification algorithm, traning data used to create table of probabilities, and test data used to test the probability table. The datacan be seen as below on table 4.1. Table 4.1 Student Data Training JENIS KELAMIN KOTA LAHIR TIPE SEKOLAH KOTA SEKOLAH IPK EKONOMI WAKTU KELULUSAN L DALAM KOTA UMUM LUAR KOTA 3 SEDANG CEPAT P DALAM KOTA UMUM DALAM KOTA 3 SEDANG TEPATWAKTU L LUAR KOTA KEJURUAN LUAR KOTA 3 TINGGI CEPAT L DALAM KOTA UMUM DALAM KOTA 3 SEDANG TELAT L DALAM KOTA UMUM DALAM KOTA 3 SEDANG CEPAT L LUAR KOTA KEJURUAN LUAR KOTA 2 SEDANG TELAT L LUAR KOTA UMUM LUAR KOTA 3 SEDANG TELAT L LUAR KOTA UMUM LUAR KOTA 3 SEDANG CEPAT L DALAM KOTA UMUM DALAM KOTA 3 SEDANG CEPAT L LUAR KOTA KEJURUAN LUAR KOTA 2 SEDANG TEPATWAKTU L LUAR KOTA UMUM DALAM KOTA 3 SEDANG TELAT 286 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 st August 2015

298 L LUAR KOTA UMUM LUAR KOTA 2 SEDANG TELAT L DALAM KOTA UMUM DALAM KOTA 2 SEDANG TELAT P LUAR KOTA UMUM DALAM KOTA 3 SEDANG CEPAT L LUAR KOTA UMUM LUAR KOTA 2 SEDANG TELAT L LUAR KOTA UMUM DALAM KOTA 3 SEDANG TELAT L LUAR KOTA KEJURUAN LUAR KOTA 2 SEDANG TELAT L DALAM KOTA UMUM DALAM KOTA 3 SEDANG TELAT P LUAR KOTA UMUM LUAR KOTA 3 SEDANG CEPAT P LUAR KOTA KEJURUAN LUAR KOTA 3 SEDANG CEPAT L LUAR KOTA UMUM LUAR KOTA 3 TINGGI TEPATWAKTU L LUAR KOTA KEJURUAN LUAR KOTA 2 SEDANG TELAT L DALAM KOTA UMUM LUAR KOTA 3 SEDANG TEPATWAKTU L DALAM KOTA UMUM DALAM KOTA 3 SEDANG CEPAT L DALAM KOTA UMUM DALAM KOTA 2 SEDANG CEPAT P LUAR KOTA UMUM LUAR KOTA 3 SEDANG TEPATWAKTU L DALAM KOTA KEJURUAN DALAM KOTA 3 SEDANG TELAT L LUAR KOTA UMUM LUAR KOTA 3 SEDANG CEPAT L LUAR KOTA UMUM LUAR KOTA 2 SEDANG TELAT L LUAR KOTA KEJURUAN DALAM KOTA 3 SEDANG CEPAT L LUAR KOTA UMUM LUAR KOTA 2 SEDANG TELAT P LUAR KOTA UMUM DALAM KOTA 3 SEDANG TELAT L LUAR KOTA UMUM LUAR KOTA 2 SEDANG CEPAT L LUAR KOTA KEJURUAN LUAR KOTA 3 SEDANG TELAT L LUAR KOTA UMUM LUAR KOTA 3 SEDANG CEPAT L LUAR KOTA KEJURUAN LUAR KOTA 3 SEDANG TELAT L LUAR KOTA KEJURUAN LUAR KOTA 3 SEDANG TELAT L DALAM KOTA KEJURUAN LUAR KOTA 3 SEDANG TEPATWAKTU L LUAR KOTA UMUM LUAR KOTA 3 SEDANG CEPAT L LUAR KOTA UMUM DALAM KOTA 2 TINGGI CEPAT P LUAR KOTA UMUM DALAM KOTA 3 SEDANG CEPAT P LUAR KOTA UMUM DALAM KOTA 3 SEDANG CEPAT P LUAR KOTA UMUM LUAR KOTA 3 SEDANG TELAT L LUAR KOTA KEJURUAN DALAM KOTA 2 SEDANG CEPAT L LUAR KOTA KEJURUAN DALAM KOTA 2 SEDANG CEPAT L DALAM KOTA UMUM DALAM KOTA 2 SEDANG TELAT L LUAR KOTA UMUM LUAR KOTA 3 SEDANG TELAT L LUAR KOTA UMUM LUAR KOTA 3 SEDANG TELAT P LUAR KOTA UMUM LUAR KOTA 3 SEDANG CEPAT 5. TESTING This testing intend to understand the Naïve Bayes Classificationalgorithm in data classification into class which has been specified.on this test, training data given to create probability table.the next step will be given the test data to test the table of probability. Based on training data on table 4.1, it can be classified if the student data given input in gender, school type, School 287 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 st August 2015

299 location, economic welfare, and GPA using Naive Bayes Classification algorithm.this is the example of student data of IBI Darmajaya majoring Information Engineering that the class are unknown. Gender = Male Hometown = Inner city School type = Vocational School Location = Inner city GPA = 3 Economic = Medium Based on the test data, it can be decide by this few steps : 1. Calculating Number of class / label P (fast) = 21/50 The amount of datafastin data training divided by all amount of data. P (On Time) = 6/50 The amount of dataon Timein data training divided by all amount of data. P (Late) = 23/50 The amount of datalatein data training divided by all amount of data. 2. Calculating the amount of the same case with the same class : P (Gender = Male Y=Fast) = 15/21 P (Gender = Male Y=On Time) = 4/6 P (Gender = Male Y=Late) = 20/23 P(Hometown= Inner City Y= Fast)=5/21 P(Hometown= Inner City Y= On Time)=3/6 P(Hometown= Inner City Y= Late)=5/23 P(School Type= Vocational Y=Fast)=5/21 P(School Type= Vocational Y=On Time)=2/6 P(School Type= Vocational Y=late)=7/23 P(School Location= Inner City Y=Fast)=11/21 P(School Location= Inner City Y= On Time)=1/6 P(School Location= inner City Y= Late)=8/23 P(IPK= 3 Y=Fast)=16/21 P(IPK= 3 Y= On Time)=5/6 P(IPK= 3 Y=Late)=14/23 P(Economic= Middle Y=Fast)= 19/21 P(Economic= Middle Y=On Time)=5 /6 P(Economic= Middle Y=late)=23/23 3. Multiplied all the result of fast variable, on time variable, and late variable. P(Male\Fast) x P(Inner City\Fast) x P(vocational\Fast) x P(2.8\Fast) x P(Inner City\ Fast) x P(Middle\ Fast). = = x x x x x = P(Male \On time) x P(Inncer City\on time) x P(vocational\on time) x P(2.8\ on time) x P(inner city\ on time) x P(middle\ on time). = = x x x x x = P(Male\late) x P(inner city\late) x P(vocational\late) x P(2.8\ late) x P(Inner city\late) x P(middle\late). = = x x x x x 1 = Compare the result from fast, on time, and late. From the result above, we can see the highest probability value belongs to class (P Fast), so we can conclude that the student graduate fast. 6. RESULT According to the implementation result using 50 training data which from every class with total percentage 42% 288 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 st August 2015

300 Fast class, 12% on time class and 46 late class. From three class, late class got the highest point. Next step is doing the testing for 20 test data then obtained 20% fast class, 35% on time class and 45% late class. From every class, the subclass was taken as comparison, such as gender subclass and school city subclass. According to the testing data, the result is woman tend to graduate faster or on time rather than male that more late dominant. The same result as school city, where university student from another region/city tend to be late rather than university student that come from the city. The student university that come from the city tend to be fast or on time to graduate. 7 CONCLUSION According to the problem background and the discussion on the previous section, the conclusions are : 1. Training data percentage that used is 42% Fast class, 12% on time class and 46% late class. The determination of training data can be the rule for data testing. 2. According to testing result using 20 testing data with gender subclass obtained : male that graduate fast 1 person, on time 4 person and late 8 person. On the other side, female that graduate fast 3 person, on time 3 person and late 1 person. From that result, female has bigger opportunity to graduate fast or on time. 3. Naïve Bayes algorithm is supported by probabilistic science and statistic science, especially in using guide data to support the decision of classification. In Naïve Bayes algorithm, every attribute will give contribution in decision making with attribute integrity that equally important and every attribute independent one and another. 4. The period of study or in this case accuracy of study period every university student can be predicted according to the high school they attend before, genders and academic data and also personality in university. SUGGESTION 1. Total data that used as training data or testing data can be added until the result obtain a better algorithm function. 2. For the future developing, there s possibility to do more trials with another algorithm and the result can be compared and analyzed. 3. Predictor variable that used can be added more and the data value variation can be more and data consistency can be noted. REFERENCES [1] Han, J., Kamber, M. (2000). Data mining: Concepts and Techniques New York: Morgan- Kaufman. [2] Budi S.(2007). Data mining: Teknik Pemanfaatan data untuk keperluan bisnis. Teori & Aplikasi. Garha Ilmu: Surabaya. [3] Sri Kusumadewi (2009).CommIT, Vol. 3 No. 1 Mei 2009, hlm Klasifikasi status gizi menggunakan Naive bayesian classification. [4] Amir Hamzah (2012).SNASTPeriode III Klasifikasi Teks Dengan Naïve Bayes Classifier (NBC) untuk Pengelompokan Teks Berita dan Abstract Akademis, Yogjakarta. [5] Fithri, A.L(2013): Jurnal SIMETRIS, Vol 4 No 1 Nopember 2013 Sistem Pendeteksian Penyimpangan Tingkah Laku Anak Usia 0 sampai 3 Tahun Dengan Metode Bayesian. 289 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 st August 2015

301 [6] Bustami,(2013)TECHSI: Jurnal Penelitian Teknik Informatika Penerapan Algoritma Naive Bayes Untuk Mengklasifikasi Data Nasabah Asuransi. [7] Salim,Y. (2012): Media SainS, Volume 4 Nomor 2, Penerapan Algoritma Naive Bayes Untuk Penentuan Status Turn-Over Pegawai [8] Rosmala D, Wulandari.(2014). Konferensi Nasional Sistem Informasi 2014, No Makalah : 050 Implementasi Crisp-Dm Dan Naïve Bayes Classifier Pada Datamining Churn Prediction. [9] Kusrini, L. Taufiq Emha Algoritma Data Maining, Edisi Pertama. Andi Yogyakarta. [10] S.Yeffrianjah (2012). Media SainS, Volume 4 Nomor 2, Oktober 2012 Penerapan algoritma naive bayes Untuk penentuan status turn-over pegawai [11] Sutrisno, Widianto, Afriyudi.(2013).Jurnal Ilmiah Teknik Informatika Ilmu Komputer Vol.x No.x, 4 November 2013 : 1-11 Penerapan data mining pada penjualan menggunakan metode clustering study kasus pt. Indomarco Palembang. 290 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 st August 2015

302 USING QUALITY OF SERVICE VIRTUAL PRIVATE NETWORK (VPN) ON E-KTP BANDAR LAMPUNG Novi Herawadi Sudibyo 1,Muhammad Said Hasibuan 2 Institute Business and Informatic Darmajaya 1,2 Jln ZA Pagar Alam no 93 A Bandar Lampung 1, 2 1, 2 ABSTRACT Implementation e-ktp in Bandar Lampung, there are several obstaclesin the field, among others, are oftendelays inthe exchange of databetween theserverthatis locatedin the districtandthat is inthe centralserver. Tofind the cause ofthese obstaclesand the importance ofthe quality ofnetwork servicesit is necessary todothemeasurementthatcanbeusedtomeasuretheperforma nce of/qualityofnetworkservice VPN that isused in the implementation of E-Ktpin Bandar Lampungon each - eachin the district, the main problemin this studyis" Identification of QualityofService Virtual Private Network (vpn) on the Implementationof Electronic-Ktp" in Bandar Lampung. By using Axcent Net Toolsand methods used action research model with QoSmonitoring system. KEYWORDS: Network VPN, Quality Of Service, ActionResearch 1. Introduction Background Internet use is currently a need for all aspects of human life, ranging from the world of business, education, government and entertainment. Along with the growing needs of Internet network access it is necessary to network performance is excellent and reliable internet. In addition to the speed of the bullet the other hand is a security concern. One utilization of network security in the use of Virtual Private Network (VPN)[1]. The application of electronic-identity card (e-ktp) in Bandar Lampung has been implemented in 2011, was conducted in 13 districts in the city float, each district has two client computers and one computer server. Each server that is districts directly connected to an existing data center in jakarta. To support the connection between the server districts with data center servers require a data communications network that is fast and safe. For that in the implementation of E-Ktp used VPN network to transfer media data from the server to the server data center districts, but in. implementation are still many obstacles that arise. Some problems were encountered of which are data access and data transfer results from the data recording many people still retained in the server districts, despite the use of special lanes or VPN. Some of the factors that cause these problems include the effect of bandwidth, the device used, the number of clients and others. The purpose of this study was to determine the performance of services or Performance of VPN network used in the implementation of E-KTP associated with bandwidth, delay, and packet lost in every district in the city of Bandar Lampung in order to support the successful implementation of E-KTP card. 291 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

303 2. Literature Review Computer network The computer network is a collection of computers, printers and other equipment that is connected in one unit. Information and data moving through wires or wirelessly, allowing users of computer networks can exchange documents and data, print on the same printer and jointly use hardware / software connected to the network[2]. Each computer, printer or peripherals connected to a network is called a node. A computer network can have two, tens, thousands or even millions of nodes. ability of the network to provide better service to certain network traffic channeled through a different technology - different. QoS is a major challenge in IP-based networks and the Internet as a whole. The goal of QoSAdalahuntuk meet the needs - the needs of different services - different, which uses the same insfrastrukut. QoS offers the ability to define the attributes - attributes of the service provided, both qualitatively and quantitatively. Computer network performance may vary due to several problems, such as bandwidth, latency and jitter that can make a big enough effect for many applications. Internet is a combination of a variety of LAN and WAN computer network located throughout the world. Thus forming a network with a broader scale and global terms typically the Internet network using TCP / IP protocol to transmit Internet data packets originating from the (interconnected networks) which means that the relationship of a variety of computer networks in the world are integrated with each other to form a communications global terms. Understanding VPN IP VPN is a special type of VPN services that transmit Internet Protocol (IP) infrastructure through public private IP or Internet. Which became a key benchmark is the IP VPN IP service delivery to the end user. With IP VPN data networking possible privately and securely over public networks or private IP networks for communication users remote access, site-to site, or corporate-to-corporate. Understanding Quality of Service (QoS) Quality of Service (QoS) is defined as a measure of how well the network and is an attempt to define the characteristics and nature of a service. QoS refers to the 3.Research Methods 3.1 Research Time This study start in January 2015 until February Research Methods The method usedinthis study using Action Research (AR), the method it that theory and action may be closed prakti integrated with the learning of the results integrated with the learning of the results of the intervention planned after detailed diagnosis of the problem context. Division, Martinsons and Kock (2004, in Chandrax2008), while the phases of the Action Research in this research are: 1. perform diagnostics identifying the principal - the principal issue that is to be the basis of research by analyzing the existing VPN network system on each server - each district that became the object of research. 2. Actionplanning Understand that there are fundamental analysis and then develop a plan of action that is appropriate to analyze the testing of the performance of existing VPN networks in districts. 3. Taking action 292 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

304 Implementing an action plan that had been developed by testing the VPN network performance used in the district with a reference standardd of Quality of Service parameters. 4. Evaluation To evaluate the results of implementation, in this stage to see how the results of the performance testing standards based Quality of Service. 5. Learning In the learning stage researchers provide information and research results to the district for consideration and further basic improvement. Figure 1: The network topology E-Ktp 4. Discussion 4.1NetworkP PerformanceAnalysis Monitoring is doneasthee user interface of network applications, serves totake thetraffic data packets. As for monitoring the traffic information data packets for Quality of Service parameters were performed on each sub-district which is the objectof researchas follows: Figure 2 network monitoring axecennettolspro Monitoring Results After conducting field monitoring directly the data obtainedis expected that bandwidth, delay, and packet Lostin the VPN network used in the implementation of Electronic Identity Card(e-ID) of each eac district Bandwidth Of the monitoring process hat has been done in the districton the parameters of bandwidth, the bandwidth capacity of every point of the network services Vpn existing in the districtis not in accordance with the standards provided from the network provider or ISP (Internet Service Provider) that is equal to128kbps, the source cross-arta, Bandwidth measurement is done using an application AxcentNetToolsPro5, the measurement results asf ollows. Table3.1 Value Bandwidth Int he District Network 293 International Conferences on Information Technology and Businesss (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

305 4.2.2Throughput Throughput is the ratio between data packets successfully to the destination or can also be regarded as actual measured bandwidth during transmission of data. Throughput measurement is done by testing the delivery or burden some data packets from one sub-district point and point by using a central server AxcentNetToolsPro5 software. Table3.2.throughput Value in each district Table3.4 Value Packet Loss In the District Network 6. Conclusion From the results of measurements, observations, and analysis of QoS that has been done, it can take some conclusions as following Delay Based on the measurement results of delay that has been done in each - each subdistricts linked to the quality / vpn network performance, can delay value in the average - average dalama unit of millisecond (ms), the value of the measurement results of delay as in the following table: Table3.3ValueDelayInthe DistrictNetwork Lost Packet Results of measurement of packet losson networks that existin the district vpn in 5 districts in the city of Bandar Lampung, in the value of Packet Loss dam can count percentages(%) for each district. The measurement results foreach districtas follows: 1. From the measurement results of the comparison between the available bandwidth capacity with the actual bandwidth for each location in the sub-district results are still below the bandwidth capacity 2. Based on standardization TIPHON large packet loss for Kemiling and sukabumi districts classified in the degradation of good, for the king districts bases, cape coral reefs eastern and western promontory classified in moderate degradation. 3. Low bandwidth and throughput that exist in the district due to the shape / layout goegrafis of each - each district and pengakat supporters. 4. For existing packet loss in the districts as a whole, including in the medium category with an average of 13%, however, still needs improvements to further improve services. 294 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

306 References [1]Patton, 1980 (Dalamlexy J. Moleong 2002:103) Dan Taylor, (1975: 79) Buku analisis Data [2]Sofana. I. 2010, Cisco Ccna &Jaringan komputer, Informatika Bandung, Bandung. [3]Artikel Non-Personal,(2013), Axencenettools Pro 5.0, Diakses 8 Mei 2013, Dari( ( Paper- [9]Kamarulla, A. (2009), Penerapan metode Quality Of Service Pada jaringan trafik Yang Padat, Jurnal jaringan computer universitas sriwijaya. Diakses pada tanggal 13 Januari 2015, Dari ( [10] Dewo, S. (2010), Bandwidth dan Throughput. Diaksespadatanggal 11 Desember 2014, Dari ( Content/Uploads/2006/08/-Dewobandwidth.Zip.) [4]Binus, Teknologi informasi jaringan komputer. ( If_Bab%201.Pdf :Diakses 12 April 2013) [5]Chandra, Action Research. ( tion-researchpenelitian- Tindakan/ :Diakses 25 Desember 2014) [6]Fatoni, 2012.Analisis Kualitas layanan jaringan Intranet. Dosen Universitas Bina Darma, Palembang [11] R. Er en, Virtual Private Networks, [12] P. T. Bakardjieva, Introduction To Computer Networking, Pp [13] A. Irawan, Analisis Teknis Kualitas Layanan Jaringan Internet Berbasis Hsdpa Indosat Im2 Wilayah Maguwoharjo Depok Sleman, Pp. 1 21, [14] R. S. Lubis And M. Pinem, Analisis Quality Of Service ( Qos ) Jaringan, Vol. 7, No. 3, Pp , [7]Sesindo, Pengukuran kinerja jaringan Paper.Pdf : Diakses 10 Januari 2015) [8]Sisitirahayu, 2013.Monitoring Tools. ( ork-monitoringtools.html :Diakses 29 Desember 2014) 295 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

307 A CONCEPTUAL APPROACH OF ENTERPRENEURSHIP AND INNOVATIVE ENTERPRENEUR S ROLES TO CONTINUAL DEVELOPMENT (A Literary Study) Mieke Rahayu Informatics and Business Institute Darmajaya Bandar Lampung ABSTRACT Principally, if an enterprise is growing and keeps making innovations with a well structured pattern, the strategies to be done will be more focused and surely reduce the expenses. It means that innovation as a competitive source can give a positive response to customers and certainly to continual enterpreneurship. This framework is based on a continual enterpreneurship typology, and is included in developing a social and institutional entrpreneurship. It means that the implementation of the enterpreneusrship approach to reach the social goal and to gain changes connected to markets as well as continuing innovation. This framework gives references to managers to introduce continual innovation and to reach continual enterpreneurship in the continual development. 1. Introduction The literature review elaborates the conceptual approach of enterpreneurship and innovative enterpreneur s roles to continual development. Based on the relevant literature review, the first part of this review is describing a conceptual approach of enterpreneurship in the context to the continual development. The perspective in the implementation of continual development is the success in managing the innovation, explaining the model as well as the enterpreneur s roles in implementing the continual development and the enterpreneur s roles in the success in managing innovation. It is concluded that the concept of continual enterpreneurship should consider innovative environmental factors, so it will lead to the existence of innovative eneterpreneurship and entrpreneur s behavior, too. In the paper entitled, Firm growth and its determinants, a study at Small-Medium Businesses (Priya Dharmija Gupta et.al,2013) explains that to build an economy is to criticize Small-Medium Business for being creative, introduce innovation and implement them ( Curran and Blarkburn,1994). In the previous century, there were 60 % innovations gained from Small-Medium Businesses and most of failure is cause by professional incompetency and collaboration with another enterprise ( Rotwell 1986, Noteboom 1991;Bougrain and Haudeville,2002), while Schumpeter (1934) elaborates that entrepreneurs have to possess innovation, creativity, and risk taking attitude. Pajarinen, et.al(2006) says that entrepreneurs with high academic background use the most updated model and technique should be more innovative in running their business. 296 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

308 Furthermore, in the paper, Peran inovasi : Pengembangan Kualitas produk dan Kinerja Bisnis, Sri Hartini ( Jurnal Manajemen dan Kewirausahaan, Vol 14,No.1,Maret 2012:63-90), says that the research is aimed at explaining impacts of innovation on product quality and business performance of Small- Medium business in East Java. The result of the research indicates there is an effect of innovation on product quality and an effect of product quality on business performance. It indicated the importance of Small-Medium Business to be innovative and to produce high quality products to succeed in the global competition. By doing innovation, an enterprise expects to be able to create new or distinctive products different from the previous ones or to make make-up or modified products as the improvement of the previous products or to make products as betterment for the previous products. In consuming a product, a consument not only looks at the value or function of a product needed but he also needs to pay attention to additional value and advantages of the product compared to another similar product. In consuming a product, a consument not only looks at the value or function of the product needed, but he also pays attention to additional value or advantages compared to another similar product. Keinginan inilah yang harus dimengerti oleh produsen sebagai landasan untuk melakukan proses inovasi. The development of innovation which is successful will be the correct strategies to keep the product in the market, because most of competitor products appear static from year to year (Steve Kensinger, 1997, p.60). In addition, Hurley dan Hult (1998, p. 42) in the previous study concludes that an enterprise with a high innovation competence will be successful in responding to its environment and developing new competence which causes a competitive keunggulan and superior performance. In this conceptual review, some researchers explain innovative competence to the enterprise and gives an impact on continual development and competitive superiority. Each researcher gives different insights, but mainly every enterprise has its own characteristics, has priorities superior from vision and mission of the enterprise and at last, approaches that will be done through the products, management even strategies in the enterprise itself. 2. Literature Review Some literature reviews can be described as follows: Conceptual Approach of ecopreunership, socialprneurship and Continual Enterpreneurship. The term ecopreneurship and environmental enterpreneurship is similar to a superior role or an innovative behavior or organization in business sector which looks at the environmental aspect as the main goal and competitive superiority. Ecopreneurs proves that environmental innovation, market opppurtunity, and implementation of innovations will produce new service and products (Lober 1998, 26; Pustakia 1998,157;Petersen &Schallegger 2002 a,13) Most writers do not define ecopreneurship for the environment-oriented organization or intrapreneurenvironment in an existing organization. On the contrary, most definitions consider ecopreuneurial organization, a organizational behavior, ecopreneurs ecopreneurial. Besides, most of the writers agree that ecopreneurship is a matter of implementing those innovations. 297 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

309 According to Schaltegger & Petersen 2000; Petersen & Schaltegger 2002.a ; Petersen & Schaltegger 2002 b; Volery 2002 ; Azzone & Noci 1998; Isaak & Keck 1997 ; Isaak 1999;Lober 1998; Pastakia 1998; Farrow et.al 2000; Learson 2000; Welsch 1998),strategic problem is one of categories for ecopreneurship views. The ecopreneurial activities give a contribution to the competititive superiority. Some of the contribution in the category looks into the main characteristics of ecopreneurship and ecopreneurs by seeing the environmental issues as one of their main business goal (Azzone & Noci 1998,99; Isaak 1999, 89; Schaltegger & Petersen,2000) Schaltegger & Petersen (2000,12) proves that ecopreneurship as the actor who introduces, create, and make use of the market which appear from ecological innovation. Some approaches of this category discusses factors that support and bother ecopreneurship (Isaak 1999,pp.107;Petersen&Schaltegger 2002a,pp.15 ; Azzone&Noci1998,pp.108; Lober 1998,pp.27) The second group of writers took cognitive approaches asking how support ecological opppurtunity to support intrapreneursip (Krueger 1998; Hostager et.al.1998), or attitude. Role and ecopreneur (Keogh&Polansky 1998). Besides, Hestager et.al (1998) shows model, perception, opppurtunitys and ecological factors and innovative activities (Krueger 1998,179; Hostager et.al,1998, 14, 17) The third category was made by two writers, approaching to the topic and perspective sociohistoris (Anderson 1998,Kyro 220). Kyro (2001), supports economic environment and entrepreneurship, while Anderson (1998) analyzes environment and essence of the enterprise live environment. Both categories determine the entrepreneurship to be used as a medium to change the society. (Anderson 1998, 142; Kyro 2001,24) In table 1 ecopreneurship conceptual approach can be elaborated below: Table 1.Existing conceptual approaches of ecopreneurship Perspective Strategic Cognitive Sociohistoric Research Which features How can Which role question characterise an identifying plays ecopreneurial environmental ecopreneurs strategies are in opportunities hip use?/why and be fostered? / in society? how should they be fostered? Which role play environmental commitment or attitudes for ecopreneurshi p? Addressing innovation Environmental innovation is viewed as a competitive advantage Authors Schaltegger & Petersen 2000; Petersen & Schaltegger 2002a; Petersen & Schaltegger 2002b; Volery 2002; Azzone & Noci 1998; Isaak & Keck 1997; Isaak 1999, Lober 1998, Pastakia 1998, Farrow et al. 2000, Larson 2000, Welsh 1998 Concentrating on the first stage of innovation: opportunity recognition; innovative climate is an important factor of fostering environmental innovation Krueger 1998; Hostager et al. 1998; Keogh & Polonsky 1998 Ecoprene urship as instrumen t for social change (social innovatio n) Anderson 1998, Kyrö International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

310 The above finding describes that the social entrepreneurship means innovative behavior or organization engaged in business and social aspects as the main goal. It is true that a social entrepreneur is defined as business doer who combine social mission and business competence as innovation source, identifying and benefiting resources and also creating services. (Leadbeater 1997,8;Dees 1998,6; Thompson et al.2000;328,bent Goodley 2002,291) However, there are two obvious differences between social concept of entrepreneurship and ecopreneursip. First, the term social is used broadly with the word society, incluing environmental issues. In some approaches social entrepreneurship includes ecopreneurship as sub-category (Dees,1998a,56) Second, it is different from ecopreneursip approach which discusses business organization and environment. Most social enterpreship approaches are hangling different groups of business doers up to non-profit. The main characteristics to identify social enterpreners are that their main goal is non-profit goal ( Drucker 1989,89;Leadbeater 1997,19;Brinckerhoff 2000 pp.1) The discussion of social entrepreneurship approaches in business sector can be seen in the following table. Table 2 Existing conceptual approaches of social enterpreneurship Focus Non-profit organization Research question Addressing innovation What are the differences between businesses and non-profits and what can they learn from each other? Which are the skillsand characteristics of social entrepreneurs? How can social enterpreneurship in the voluntary sector be fostered? Innovation as means to respond to unmet social Needs Authors Dees 1998a; Drucker 1989; Dees 1998b; Fowler 2000; Amalric 1998; Thompson 2002; Thompson et al. 2000; Leadbeater 1997; Bent-Goodley Business organization How can the business social entrepreneur profile be described? Which criteria characterise business social entrepreneurs? What examples of business social enterpreneurship be fostered? Innovation as means to make profit in order to pursue social objectives; profit as tool for social change Schäfer 2003; Tenenbaum 1996, Hodgkin International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

311 2002 The first category, the man goal integrating business organization and social entrepreneurship is non-profit organizational goal (Dees 1998 a,drucker 1989,Dees 1998 b, Fowler 2000; Amalric 1998, Thomson 2002, Thompson et al.2000;leadbeater 1997,Bent Goodley 2002) causes changes gradually based on the next development. The classification of innovation includes product innovation (product and service), process innovation and social innovation (Thom 1992:8) ; the last refers to social changes in the organization (Thom 1992) or in the society (Zapf, 1989) The second catergory, there are 3 social enterprenurship contribution in business sector, that are by creating a business social entrepreneurship frame, by integrating three concepts: continual development of society, social responsibility, and socal enterpeuneurship (Hodgkin,2002,pp.35). The main goal of social entrepreneurship is not earnings, but more than the power of values (Hodgkin,2002,79) Innovation Role in Continual Development Innovation accrding to a narrow perspective is defining the meaning of innovation for commercial exploitation (Hauschildt 1997,6), while in a broad meaning it means to find out and disseminate ideas (Brockhoff 1994,28) Innovation is defined as adoption and diffusion of an ideal product, intended to reach the continual market success. Innovation success happens when an entrepreneur reaches a competitive superiority in innovation, such as level of renewal or fits the innovation goal itself. Mersch(1977,56) differentiate between fundamental and incremental. According to Merch, fundemental innovation causes a radical change such as technology or socioculture which will be different in searching the existing alternatives, while incremental innovation Figure 1. Categories and examples of innovations concerning mobility passenger cars The continual development discussion is initiated with the report WCED(World Commossion on Environment and Development,1987,8). Varied interpretations that exist are considered valid ( Hardtke&Prehn 2001,58) There are three aspects that are broadly accepted (Brand&Jochum 2000,175). Intergration aspect focuses on ecological dimention, economic and social development (Boersema&Bertels 2000,85,92,MCNeill,2000,17), demanding to consider the three inter-related dimentions. This perspective on the assumsion base is current global problems that cannot be solved separately, but it needs to be treated as inter-related elements of complex problems (Siebenhuner,2001,61;Dryzek,1997,7-8) International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

312 The keadilan aspect among generation from the continual development concept emphasizes on responsibilities to the next genetion. It demands a long-term protection over natural resources (Brand 2002,19). The aspect of intra-generational equity focuses on distribution of questions (either in a country or between countries) and is responsible for reserving natural resource access, nutrition, health and education. Strategies needed in establishing the continual development and innovation. Huber(19195) explains three main strategies to reach the continual development, i.e. : sufficiency, efficiency and consistency consumption pattern of quantitative growth procedure. In other words, consistency means compatibility or correspondence. In the continual development, consistency refers to a compatible material flow with natural resource cycle (Huber 1995,138). Efficiency Strategy is aimed at reducing the number of materials, while consistency strategy is aimed at changing the quality of material flow (Huber,1995,139). Therefore, the aim of innovation is substituting compatible material flow to material flow. It is based on fundamental innovation (Huber,1995:156). These three strategies cannot be separated. On the contrary, the success of strategic implementation is due to combining the three strategies. Strategic sufficiency is the limitation of natural resources which implicitly means limitation of economic growth (Sachs 1999,39). The question How many have been sufficient? is an sufficiency of order, either consumption or production. Then, the change of today s life style is based based on preventive principles, humble and economical, and it is the welfare key (Sachs 1999 pp 209,Huber 1995,123). It is clear that sufficiency focuses on social innovation to do the continual development (Huber 1995,125). Efficiency strategies are based on the concept of resource productivity (Sachs 1999,175). Economic principles are determined in ecological and social contexts (Huber 1995,131). The effect of continual development efficiency is criticized because of lack of resources usage in micro or macro and the increase of resource consumption caused by the effect of volume and growth increases (Huber 1995, 134, Sachs 1999,183). Consistent strategies are different from other two strategies. It concentrates more on material quality and Figure 2 The role of innovation for implementation strategies of sustainable development Innovation Process Actor Promotor Model One of continual development success factors is innovation (Huber,1995,156), and it indicates that the existence of promoter refers to promoter model proposed by Eberhard Witte ( 1973 ). The basicidea of this model is that an innovation is obstacled by obstacles that exist during the innovation process and 301 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

313 two or more promoters work together to overcome those obstacles ( Witte, 1973 ). This promoter model assumes that this finding has existed at the level of adoption innovation. Obstacles in innovation are due to lack of individual willingness and individual competence to innovate and overcome these obstacles connected with the individual himself (Witte,1973,15). Promotor adalah an actor atau doer that actively and intensively supports the process of innovation (Witte, 1973,15-16). There are two kinds of promoter, authority promoters who are hierarchically ensuring, supporting and motivating others involved in the innovation process and giving a material contribution and non-material supports and also tolerate mistakes( Witte,1973,17-18). Technological promotors support the innovation process with their specific knowledge and give arguments that support the innovation (Witte,1973,18,19). In addition, Hauschild dan Chakrabarti (1988,384) adds that process promoters are promoters that construct the relationship between promotor s competency and promotor s skill. The main responsibility of process promotor is to accomplish the process of communication, motivation and coordination. By adding these promoters, it has expanded perspectives among organizations (Gemunden & Walter 1995,972;Gemunden & Walter 1999,114). It is meant that process promoter has a relationship between organizations via social networks to provide access between the resources (Gemunden & Walter 1995,976). The process promoter helps overcome the obstacles in cooperation among the organizations. Entrepreneurs Promotors in the innovation process for a continual development The role of entrepreneurs and promoters is as innovative actors in the continual development; therefore, to apply those innovations, there are two promoter models to be considered; they are first, technological innovation promoter model prepared for explaining technology-based innovations, and the second is promotor models that explain the innovation process in an organization, so it is needed a cooperation between the organizational types. Promotor models for entrepreneurship specifically plays a role in business organization, while boadly it plays a role in considering a cooperation between organizational types including governmental organizations and non-profit organizations. From governmental perspectives, it can be seen that the fight role is authority promoters, because they have the power to determine specific regulatory framework, while the business organization tends to appoint technological promoters, because of being addicted to networks and communication. 3. Discussion Several experts elabote the relationship between entrepreneurship and continual development and also connected with continual socialpreneurship andindirectly foundational enterpreneurship. The environment-oriented continual entrepreneurship is often ecopreneurship (Blue, 1990; Bennett, 1991; Berle, 1991; Anderson dan Leal, 1997; Staber, 1997; Keogh dan Polonsky, 1998; Lober, 1998; Pastakia, 1998; Isaak, 1999; Schaltegger, 2002; Lehmann et al, 2005.; Cohen, 2006). 302 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

314 However, the existing changes in business environment have insisted enterprises being able to create new insights, new opinions, and offering innovative products. Therefore, innovation has more important meaning, it is not only a medium to maintain the existence of the enterprise life, but it is also superior in the competition. This paper is relevant to the following literature studies, first, Sustainable Enterpreneurship and Sustainability Innovations : Categories and Interactions By Stefan Schaltegger & Marcus Wagner proposing a framework of continual enter presneurship in accordance with continual innovations. This framework is based on the entrepreneurship typology by developing social entrepreneurship and institution by implementing an entrpreneurship approach to reach the social goal and its context to market changes connected with continual innovations. Besides, the second is the paper, Product innovation in Small Firms : An Empirical Assesment by John C.Palmer & Robert E.Wright (Journal of Applied Business and Economics Vol11(3). It is stated that innovations in great enterprises tend to be structured processes where adaptation to the product or the processes are based on formal mechanism such as research initiatives and development or market analysis. On the other side, innovations in small enterprises have tendency to be less formal processes and they are based on inspiration and preference of the owners and managers. Seeing the explanations stated by some experts previously, the most important thing of entrepreneurship and continual innovation is how to place the position of the enterprise, either according to size or the framework of the enterprise. Principally, if the enterprise evolves and keeps making innovations and the framework is well structured, the strategies done will be more focused and it will reduce the expenses. It means that innovation as a competititve source can give a positive response to customers and surely to continual entrepreneurship. REFERENCES [1] Almalric, F. "Sustainable Livelihoods: Enterpreneurship, political strategies and governance", (Development, 41(3), 31-39, 1998) [2] Anderson, A. R. "Cultivating the Garden ofeden: environmental entrepreneuring", (Journal of Organizational Change Management, 11(2), , 1998) [3] Azzone, G. & Noci, G, "Seeing ecology and "green" innovations as a source of change", (Journal of Organizational Change Management, 11(2), , 1998) [4] Bern, Stuttgart, Wien: Haupt. Siebenhüner, B. Homo sustinens - Auf dem Weg zu einem Menschenbild der Nachhaltigkeit. (Marburg, Metropolis, 2001) [5] Bennet, S. J. Ecopreneuring: the complete guide to small business opportunities form the environmental revolution. (New York, John Wiley & Sons, 1991) [6] Bent-Goodley, T. B. "Defining and conceptualizing social work enterpreneurship", (Journal of Social Work Education, 38(2), , 2002) [7] Boersema, J. J. & Bertels, J. "Sustainable development in the developed countries: will theory and practice meet?" (Lee, K., Holland, A.& McNeill, D. (Eds.): Global sustainable development in the 21st 303 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

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319 THE EFFECT OF SPECIAL PRICE GIVING ON THE LAMPUNG POST DAILY NEWSPAPER ON COLLEGE STUDENTS BUYING INTEREST IN BANDAR LAMPUNG (A Study Case at students of IBI Darmajaya) Zuriana Lecturer in Computer Science Study Program at Management Department Informatics and Business Institute Darmajaya Jl. Z.A. Pagar Alam No. 93 Labuhan Ratu Bandar Lampung ABSTRACT The effort of marketing strategies are meant to maintain the compnay life, so it is necessary to determine the right marketing strategies in order that the market segment of the Lampung Post daily newspaper (SKH Lampung Post) can be maintained or increased. The Lampung Post needs to determine the right marketing strategies to maintain the market segment. The formulation of the problem in the research is whether the special price on the Lampung Post has an effect on the buying interest of the students of IBI Darmajaya Bandar Lampung. The research is aimed at measuring how much the special price on the Lampung Post affect the buying interest of the students of IBI Darmajaya Bandar Lampung. The method used in the research is descriptive and the type of the research is associative. The population is all students of IBI Darmajaya as 2167 students, then the sample is taken as 96 respondents. The result of regression equation obtained is Y=0,218+1,380X which means that special price variable (X) has a positive effect on the buying interest with regression coefficient as meaning that if the special price variable increase 1, so the buying interest will increase as there is a positive and significant effect of special price on the Lampung Post (X) on buying interest of the students od IBI Darmajaya because t count > t table ((7,998)>t table (1,662) nilai sig 0,000 < 0,05. KEY WORDS : Price strategy, buying interest 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1. Background of the Problem The advancement of newspaper in Indonesia is so rapid, all people need news or information to read, even in 1999 Indonesia made a great change signed with reformation, while in this era the people demand transparency from the government. Press in this case takes an important part and gains profit, because all Indonesian people have the rights to make a press enterprise. The determination of special price gives advantages for the Lampung Post in competing with other daily newspapers. 308 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

320 The goal of special price giving to the college Students is to increase the sales. The total printing is the measure or the quantity of sold newspapers. Interest is the tendency to do something and it comes out after an attention phase. Interest is the follow-up of the attention which is the trigger for desire to arise to do certain activities (Ferdinand, 2002:129). The indicator of buying interest consists of transactional interests that are the interests which describe a person s attitude to buy a product. Referential interest is an interest which describes a person s attitude that tends to refer certain products to another. Preferential interest is an interest thst descrivbes a person s attitude which show primary preferences to the purchased products, while explorative interest is an interest which describes a person s attitude to search information on desired products and search supporting positive traits. Based om the esplanation above, this research is entitled,: The effect of special price giving on the Lampung Post daily newspaper on buying interest of the Students of IBI Darmajaya Bandar Lampung 1.2. Limitation of the Problem The problems in the research are limited on the determination of special price on the Lampung Post measured from customers attention, desire and buying interest which are known from transactional interest, referential interest, preferential interest, and explorative interest of the students of IBI Darmajaya Objectives The objective of the research is to know how much special price giving on the Lampung Post daily newspaper on the buying interest of the students of Darmajaya Bandar Lampung 2. LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Definition of Marketing According to Mowen and Minor (2002:8), marketing is a human activity intended to satisfy needs and desire through barter. From the concept above, it can be concluded that marketing is an overall system of business activities intended to plan, determine prices, promote and distribute goods and service that meet the needs, for either existing buyers or potential buyers. 2.2 Definition of Marketing Management According to Philip Kotler (2005:262), marketing management is a process of planning and selecting, determining prices, promoting and distributing ideas, goods and service to make a barter to satisfy individual goals and organizational goals. 2.3 Definition of Consument According to Mowen and Minor (2002:6), consumen is a call for someone or a group of people who use products, goods or service, produced by someone else or other people or other enterprises. In addition, Assael in Mowen and Minor (2002:8), says consumen is all people who buy or use another way toconsume products or make use of service produced by producent Definition of Buying Interest According to Effendy (2001:87), buying interest is the usage or purchase which is the follow up of attention as a trigger to make the desire arise. 3. RESEARCH METHOD 309 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

321 The method design in the research uses a descriptive method. It is a research done to a big population or a small population; however, the data is the data taken from the sample from the population, so it will be found relative event distribution and relationship among the variables (Sugiyono, 2005:7). Descriptive method is a method used to examine status of a group of people, an object, a condition, a thinking system, or a case at the present time (Sugiyono, 2005:10). This research is an associative research aimed at knowing the relationship or effects of two or more variables (Sugiyono, 2005:10). The sampling technique used is non random sampling technique, which means the sample takem fits the certain criteria, so each member of the population does not any similar oppurtunity (Sugiyono, 2005:77). The criteria are:: 1. The students have ever bought the Lampung Post. 2. The students of IBI Darmajaya in the academic year of 2008/2009 Data Collecting Technique There are some techniques used to collect the data:: 1. Documentation It is used to obtain data on promotion media, customers, products and others. 2. Questionnaire It is a primary technique used to collect data in the research. The data collecting from independent variable is done using questionnaire with likert scale, the questionnaire is used to sort brand image and costumer s request,so it provides five alternative answers with respective scores as follows: - Strongly Agree (SS) answer scored 5 - Agree (S) scored 4 - Neutral (N) scored 3 - Disagree (TS) scored 2 - Strongly Disagree (STS) scored 1 4. RESULT AND DISCUSSION Result of Validity Test and Instrument Reliability Result of Instrument Validity Test The validity test is given to 30 respondents using product moment correlation. The testing criteria for this test is if r count > r tablel, is valid and if count g < r table, so it is invalid.. Instrument Reliability Test The questionnaire reliability test uses alpha Pada pengujian realibilitas chronbach formula. If alpha chronbach score > r tabel it means it is reliable. In the research the result of the test from the first phase to the final phase indicates that all data for special price variable (X) and buying interest have met the validity and instrument reliability requirements. While the normality test result shows that both variables are normally distributed. 5. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION 5.1 Conclusion Based on the result of data analysis and hypothetical test, it can be concluded that :: 310 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

322 1. The result of normality and homogeneity tests shows that specific price variable (X) and buying interest (Y) are distributed normally with homogeneous variants. 2. The regression eqwuation dained is Y=0,218+1,380X meaning that special price variable (X) has a positive effect on buying interest with regression coefficient as 1,380 which means that if the special price variable increases one point, so the buying interest will increase as The number of special price effects on buying interest is 40,5% while the rest is 50,5% influenced by other factors which are not examined (R 2 =0,405) REFERENCES Kotler, Philip. (2000), Manajemen Pemasaran Jilid 2 Edisi Millenium. Indeks Jakarta Mowen, Jhon C dan Michael C Minor Perilaku Konsumen. Penerbit Erlangga Jakarta. Effendy, Onong Uchyana (2002). Pegantar Komunikasi Massa. Rineka Cipta Jakarta Sugiyono, (2005), Statistika Untuk Penelitian, Bandung: Alfabeta. 4. The result of t test obtains the value of t count as 7,998, maning that because t hitung > t tabel ((7,998)>t table (1,662) so it means there is a positive and significant effect of special price (X) on the Lampung Post (X) on buying interest of the students of IBI Darmajaya. 5.2 Suggestion Based on the conclusion, it can be suggested that: 1. The Lampung Post cam develop marketing strategiy especially in determining price because it is proved that the special price can attract the students aattention to buy the Lampung Post. 2. The enterprise should maximaize the promotion to support the special price giving to the students so that there wil be more students who will know about the special price giving. 311 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

323 MEASUREMENT OF SERVICE QUALITY AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION (APPLICATION MODEL ON SERVICE COMPANY) Mohammad Machrus STIE Satu Nusa Lampung Jl. Cut Mutiah No. 19 A Bandar Lampung ABSTRACT Success of a company in marketing service, is determined by service quality that must be satisfy the customers. Management should commit to maintain service quality to keep customer satisfaction, because service quality and customer service is dependant each other. So it is necessary to measure them periodically. Dimensions that have positive correlation with service quality and customer satisfaction are summarized in TERRA, i.e.: Tangible, Empathy, Reliability, Responsiveness, and Assurance. Beside that, there five gaps that caused service quality cannot fulfill the customer satisfaction, those gaps are: 1) Gap between Customer Expectation and Management Perception, 2) Gap between Management Perception and Servqual Specification, 3) Gap Between Servqual Specification and Service Delivery, 4) Gap between Service Delivery and External Communication, 5) Gap between Expected Service and Perceived Service. Service quality can be measured by Performance and Important Ratio (PIP) model. Meanwhile, customer satisfaction can be measured by model function : S = fs (E,P), where : S = Customer Satisfaction, E= Customer Expectation, and P = Perceived Performance. KEY WORDS: Servqual, Customer satisfaction, Tangible, Empaty, Reliability, Responsiveness, Assurance. 1. Introduction Success of a company in marketing services, is determined by service quality that must be satisfy the customers. Management should commit to maintain service quality to keep customer satisfaction, because service quality and customer service is dependent each other. So it is necessary to measure them periodically. Service marketing as a system, is combination of operating system and service presentation, by media in purpose to communicate the services to the customers (Lovelock: 1991). In order to do a service to satisfy the customer perfectly, so the operating system should be supported by service marketing mix, which is a service marketing tool that can be controlled by management to serve aimed market segment. According to Zaithami (1990), service marketing mix consist of 7P, i.e.: Product, Place, Price, 312 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

324 Promotion, Physical Evidence, Ppeople, Participant, and Promise. According to Zaithami (1990), service marketing mix terdiri dari 7 P, yaitu : product, place, price, promotion, physical evidence, people, participant, promise. 2. Service Marketing Dimension There are cohesiveness between process and system in service marketing that is resulted by three inputs, i.e. : a) People as customer; b) material as service marketing support; c) information as a system. Service business is a combination of operating system and service delivery system. Service marketing emphasize at service delivery system, that has to concern at 4 service characteristics, i.e.: uncorporeal, cannot be saved, cannot be separated, and changeable. In correlation with those four characteristics, service quality is relative and the success of service marketing is determined by service quality (Servqual). Service quality that customer receive, fundamentally is customer satisfaction level. So that, customer satisfaction is a dimension to measure service quality that company offer. Service quality can be divided through service quality dimension, i.e.: Tangible, Empathy, Reliability, Responsiveness, and Assurance (TERRA). 1. Tangible is the availability of physical supporting infrastructure, e.g.: building, the area, machine, office equipment, etc. 2. Empathy is an impression in offering service, e.g.: attention, clear and accessible information, adequacy of customer needs, etc. 3. Reliability is the level of trust from management to the customers in correlation of service, e.g.: service suitability, punctuality, keeping promises, etc. 4. Responsiveness is attention to respond the customer in case of giving service, e.g.: readiness, friendliness, and skilled officers. 5. Assurance is guarantee from management to customer, in correlation of giving service, e.g.: security and safety. Customer satisfaction is function and closeness of customer expectation and perceived performance. Based on that closeness, customer satisfaction can be formulated as follows. S = fs ( E, P) where: S = Customer satisfaction; E = Customer expectation; P = Perceived performance. Customer satisfaction (S) will be achieved if the service that customer experience (P) beyond the expectation (E). In short, service quality can be found by comparing the customer expectation and perceived performance. Process of gap and the correlation with servqual dimension can be seen at figure 2 (Rust T. Roland: 1996). Customer Expectation Gap 1 Management Perception Gap 2 Servqual Specification Gap 3 Service Delivery Gap 4 External Expected Service : Figure 2: Model Service Quality Service Quality Determination Tangible Empathy Reliability 313 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

325 3. Service Quality Measurement A good service quality is able to increase company s image, thus company ought to measure the service whether it can satisfy the customer or not. Service quality measurement can be done by TERRA variables or by models as follow. 1. Function model Service quality (S) = Service performance (P) Customer Expectation (E). If the result is positive, then service quality good rated and customer satisfaction is reached. In reverse, if the result is negative, the service quality bad rated. It means customer satisfaction is not reached yet. 2. Performance and Importance Ratio ( PIR ) Model This model measures the service quality by TERRA variables. Diagram below illustrates the measurement by the model. case, company pays too much servqual cost. This is not very efficient. 2. If the measurement result is in the area of optimum, service performance and customer importance are equal. It means, service quality has reached the optimality, and company has meet the customer satisfaction. 3. If the measurement result is in the area of under optimum, service performance has not meet the customer satisfaction. It means service quality is not optimum yet. 4. Measurement of Customer Satisfaction Customer satisfaction can be measure by TERRA dimension, by comparing the values of service performance (P) and customer expectation, as follows. Service Performance Figure 3: Measurement of Service Quality Based on measurement of service quality by TERRA dimensions using PIR model, three result alternatives are obtained as follow. Over Optimum Optimum Customer Importance Under Optimum 1. If the measurement result is in the area of Over Optimum, the service performance is far above the customer expectation. It means customer satisfaction is over fulfilled. In this If : 1. Measurement result < 1, it means the service performance cannot fulfill the customer satisfaction. 2. Measurement result = 1, it means the service performance fulfill the customer satisfaction. The customer expectation equals to service performance. 3. Measurement result > 1, it means the service performance beyond the customer expectation. Customer gets extremely perfect service. 5. Conclusion Based on analysis and theoretical studies, the conclusions are: 314 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

326 1. Service marketing mix has 8 P, i.e.: Product, Price, Place, Promotion, Physical Evidence, Process, People, and Promise. 2. The concern variable to measure the service quality is TERRA dimension, that are: Tangible, Empathy, Reliability, Responsiveness, and Assurance. 3. Service quality (servqual), is an important aspect to reach the success of service marketing, and service quality affects customer satisfaction and loyalty. So that management should measure the service quality periodically by several models as follow. a. Function model: S = fs ( P : E ). b. PIR scheme model, that is comparing service performance and customer importance by TERRA dimension. Zaithaml, Valerry, A Delivery Quality Service, Balancing Customer Perception and Expectation. Free Press, New York. Reference Fandi Ciptono : Manajemen Jasa. Penerbit Andi, Yogyakarta Kotler Philip Marketing Management. Eight edition. Prentice Hill International, USA. Lovelock Christhoper, H Service Marketing, Harper Collins College Publisher, USA. Fredy, Rangkuti, Riset Pemasaran, Gramedia, Jakarta. Rust T, Roland Service Marketing. Prentice Hill International, USA. Sucherly Faktor-faktor yang berpengaruh Terhadap Pemasaran Jasa. Desertasi, PPS UNPAD, Bandung. J. Supranto Pengukuran Tingkat Kepuasan Pelanggan Untuk Menaikkan Pangsa Pasar. Rineka Cipta, Jakarta. 315 International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20 th -21 th August 2015

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