DOBRUDJAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF CONTEMPORARY ARMENOLOGY

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1 DOBRUDJAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF CONTEMPORARY ARMENOLOGY STOICA LASCU In a conference held in 1929, the great Romanian historian Nicolae Iorga said that Armenians have had for centuries various homelands 1, the Romanian land, where their presence has been documented ever since the tenth century 2 being a hospitable and generous host to these old and martyred people. The Armenians have been living in Dobrudja, the land between the Black Sea and the Danube, since the Middle Ages: many historical documents, accounts of foreign travelers, archive documents, press articles, attest their contribution to the evolution of the material and spiritual civilization of this European region, with multiple linguistic, ethnic and religious interferences. While for most allogenous peoples that have settled in Dobrudja in time and have been living peacefully with the autochthonous Romanians systematic studies have been conducted 3, the Dobrudjan Armenians have been deprived of a synthetic presentation of their presence in the Romanian space. 1 N. Iorga, Scrieri istorice despre armeni. Ediţie îngrijită, traduceri şi note de Emanuel Acatarian. Prefaţă de Andrei Pippidi, Editura Ararat, Bucureşti, 1999, p Sergiu Selian, Schiţă istorică a comunităţii armene din România, Editura Ararat, Bucureşti, 1995/ 122 pp./; N. Gazdovits, Istoria armenilor din Transilvania (de la începuturi până la 1990), Editura Ararat, Bucureşti, 1996 /448 pp./; Bogdan Căuş, Figuri de armeni din România. Dicţionar, Editura Ararat, Bucureşti, 1997 /280 pp./; see also Judith Pál, Convieţuirea armeano-maghiară în târgurile din scaunele secuieşti, in Viaţa privată, mentalităţi colective şi imaginar social în Transilvania, Oradea Cluj, , pp See, in this sense, Mehmed A. Ekrem, Din istoria turcilor dobrogeni. Cuvânt înainte de Demény Lajos, Editura Kriterion, Bucureşti, 1994 /256 pp./; Tahsin Gemil (coord.), Lucrările Simpozionului Internaţional Originea tătarilor. Locul lor în România şi în lumea turcă (Constanţa, noiembrie 1994), Editura Kriterion, Bucureşti, 1997 /372 pp./; Nuredin Ibram, Comunitatea musulmană din Dobrogea. Repere de viaţă spirituală. Viaţa religioasă şi învăţământ în limba maternă, Ex Ponto, Constanţa, 1998 /226 pp./; Idem, Tradiţii şi Obiceiuri ale Turcilor din România. Romanya Türklerin Gelenekleri ve Adetleri /bilingual edition/, Ex Ponto, Constanţa, 2003 /88 pp pp pl. il./; Marian Cojoc (coord.), Tătarii în istoria românilor (Uniunea Democratică a Turco-Tătarilor Musulmani din România. Universitatea Ovidius Constanţa Facultatea de Istorie. Centrul de Studii şi Cercetări ale Istoriei şi Civilizaţiei Zonei Mării Negre secolele XIX-XXI), Editura Muntenia, Constanţa, 2004 /288 pp./; Sevastian Fenoghen, Sarichioi. Pagini de istorie. Prefaţă: Ivan Evseev, Editura Kriterion, Bucureşti, 1998 /200 pp.; bilingual text Russian and 271

2 Stoica Lascu Today, we are the beneficiaries of a well-deserved historiographical reparation. The volume The Armenians from Dobrudja in the Romanian history and civilization 4 includes the next chapters: Armenia in the history, The Armenians from the Pontus Euxin, Dobrudja back to its native land, Armenian Churches in Dobrudja, School - the core of the civic and national education, The Armenian soldiers in the two world wars, The cultural and sport Armenian movement in Dobrudja, The presence of the Armenians in the economic life of Dobrudja and it ends with a chapter dedicated to the Armenian markets in Dobrudja. The Armenians are firstly certificated in papers from the beginning of the XV century in Scitia Minor. Coming back to the land between the Danube Delta and the Black Sea, the Armenians have been actively involved in the economical, cultural and social life. Very well known are the Armenians who were in charged in the local councils, trade and industry. Among these the most famous are to be mentioned: N. Torosian, Locmanian, Zambaccian, Poladian or the great industrialists: Damadian, Horen, Manisalian, Prenchian, Boiagian, Calust and many others. Due to the Christian tradition wherever the Armenians go they founded a cultural edifice. Thus, from the beginning of the XVI century they founded various churches in Constanta, Babadag, Sulina and Tulcea, some of them were reconstructed and are dating even nowadays. In schools and especially in the educational and sport associations the Armenians run a very rich activity intended to go on the Armenian spirit. A key role in this respect was that one of the "Arax", "Erevan", "Hog" and "Ratti" organizations. Among the fellow countrymen, the most famous Armenian writers are: Dr. Salpy, Annanian, Pilibosian and Nisanian. Some of the most important Romanian personalities were Armenians, such as: the art critic Kirkor Zambaccian, member of the Romanian Academy, the university professor Garabet Avachian, Varujan Cozaghian - the violinist, and the writers Jeni Haig, Arsavir Acterian, Bogdan Caus ( Bogosian Arsag), Angela Aramian, Vartan Arachelian all of them members of the Romanian Writers Association. At the same time in the field of science the names of the academicians: Bergi Ascian and Garabet Kumbeltian, the university professors Ion 0. Balasanian, the dr. and engineer Suran Cedighian and the engineer Zaven Boiagian are to be mentioned once Romanina/; Horia Stinghe, Despre germanii din Dobrogea. Documentarist-Cornelia Toma, f.e., Constanţa, 2003 /220 pp./. 4 See S. Tavitian, Armenii dobrogeni în istoria şi civilizaţia românilor, Ex Ponto, Constanţa, 2003/ 236 pp./. 272

3 Dobrudjan contribution to the development of contemporary Armenology again. A very remarkable contribution in the field of thp Rnmnnian mpdir'inp wns brought by the university doctors and professors Kirkor Pabuccian, Ervant Seropian and Arsan Calpaccian. Many Armenians from Dobrudja who emigrated in Armenia, United States, Australia and Europe had remarkable careers in various fields, being valuable specialists, critics of art, men of culture who are a real honor for the Armenian community of Dobrudja. During very difficult periods of time, the Armenians and the rest of the population bravely defended the Romanian land. Following the example of their ancestors, the general Mihail Cerchez, whom at Plevna, Osman Pasa surrender his very own sword, or general Ion Zadic, famous for setting Bucovina free. Both were Armenians and both fought for the liberty of their own country. This was their special way to thank their adoptive country that treated them as its own citizens. Due to their glorious deeds they will certainly never be forgotten. On the national Romanian monuments their names are engraved as well. They were rewarded with the highest medals and orders of the Romanian people. Thus captains Uhanian, Onig Tocatlian and Stefan Garabet, mentioned in the volume, were awarded with two very important Romanian orders: Mihai Viteazul and The Romanian Crown. In the economical field the Armenians were remarkable too. They were very good industrialists and tradesmen. They have been involved in many charitable works and supported many people who were in need. These facts were certificated in the past papers and in various memorials. They contributed from the beginning to the enriching of the national patrimony in Dobrudja. In this respects some of the edifices founded by the Armenians are even nowadays, due to their outstanding architecture, very important tourist attractions. Unfortunately many of them were demolished, especially those in Constantza and Tulcea. From a population of almost 8000 inhabitants during the postwar period, at the national census in 2002 only few hundreds were declared as Armenians. The major cause of the emigration was registered in After 1989, with the foundation of the Armenian Union in Romania, the branch from Constantza reunited all the Armenians trying to bring back to life all the past activities. A course of teaching the Armenian language began and periodicaly there are exhibits about Armenian history and civilization. As well, all the Armenian events are celebrated and commemorated, trying to better keep the tradition this way. A very important role in the life of the community belongs to the maintain alive the flame of the Armenians in spite of the assimilation process, firstly due to the mixed marriages. 273

4 Stoica Lascu When, a three ago the work was published, we expressed our conviction that such a topic would make, very soon, a new edition 5 necessary, we could not anticipate that it would come out so soon. This is a test to the interest, which the Armenian Dobrudjans show, as well as the Armenians scattered all over the world show for their historical past. The work sold quickly and, yielding to the requests of the Armenians form the Diaspora, particularly from North America and Australia, the author now meets their demands with this second, augmented edition 6 (nota bene Last summer he offered his compatriots another gift for the soul, the volume Armenians under the Dome of the Academy 7 ). When the book was launched in the overcrowded auditorium of the Ioan N. Roman County Library in Constantza, speakers emphasized its significance from the perspective of the role the Dobrudjan Armenians played in Romanian history: I can hardly believe Professor Gheorghe Dumitraşcu said that this community was made of ordinary people, it was made of personalities only! 8 Dr. Liliana Lazia, director of Ioan N. Roman County Library called attention to the contribution of Dobrudjan Armenians and emphasized that the book is a message for future generations and for all of us; it is the massage of a way of life which one would like to imitate 9. Ion Popişteanu, director of Ovidius University Library in Constantza, concluded by saying: The book is a homage to the Dobrudjan Armenians and not only to them 10. The 2003 edition was well received by reviewers 11, who pointed out the importance of the monograph, and by the Armenian Community in Romania 5 This opinion is also expressed in the Preface: I do hope that this book will go beyond the ever narrower circle of the Armenian community in Romania, and reach the Armeninas from Europe and North America, or Australia many of whom have lived here, in Dobrudja. In it, they will regain their past, thus crowing the hard work of its merituous author Simion Tavitian, Armenii dobrogeni în istoria şi civilizaţia românilor. /Prefaţă: Stoica Lascu/, Ex Ponto, Constanţa, 2003, p This edition also contains micro-monographs devoted to Onic Cazazian, Haigui Terzian Burdea, Arşaluis Sarchizian Gurău, Sergiu Selian, Stepan Alticazalian, Gaidzag Kehiaian. 7 see Simion Tavitian, Armeni sub cupola Academiei Române. Prefaţă: conf. univ. dr. Stoica Lascu, Editura Ex Ponto, Constanţa, 2004 /242 pp./. 8 apud Eduard Antonian, Lansare: Armenii dobrogeni în istoria şi civilizaţia românilor, in Ararat /Bucharest/, XIV, nr. 13 (274), 1-15 iulie 2003, p Liliana Lazia, Expunere rostită la lansarea cărţii «Armenii dobrogeni în istoria şi civilizaţia românilor», in Agora /Constantza/, III, nr. 11, august 2003, p apud Eduard Antonian, op. cit. 11 See Anca Cristina Govor, Armenii în Dobrogea, ghid istorico-sentimental, in Jurnal de Constanţa, III, nr. 51 (463), 2 iulie 2003, p. 11; L.L., Armenii dobrogeni în istoria românilor, in Impact de 274

5 Dobrudjan contribution to the development of contemporary Armenology (according to the March 18, 2002 Census, the number of Armenians in Romania was about 1780 persons 12 ): this volume is neither a dry, neuter history textbook, nor a review of the achievements of Dobrudjan Armenians. It is a slice of life, a report, a book for the soul, as Constantza Armenians would say, in a space they have lived togetehr with many other minorities. 13 It makes a significant contribution to Romanian civilization in this region 14 ; this book is a remember not only for the Armenians from Constantza (according to the latest census, in the Constantza County there are about 422 Armenians; only Bucharest numbers more Armenians 15 ), but also for those from Bucharest 16 too, most of them originating from this zone 17. With the perseverance and tenacity, which characterize the people whose devoted offspring he is, Simion Tavitian has repeated the offence and Constanţa, I, nr. 81, 28 iunie 2003, p. 2; Filatelia /Bucharest/, LIII, nr. 9 (569), septembrie 2003, p. 2; xxx /Semnalare/, in Magazin istoric /Bucharest/, serie nouă, XXXVII, nr. 11 (440), noiembrie 2003, p. 64; V. Avramescu, /Cronică/, in Magazin de filatelie, cartofilie şi numismatică /Editor: Asociaţia Filateliştilor Tomis Constantza; redactor-şef: Simion Tavitian/, IX, nr. 5 (91), septembrie-octombrie 2003, p The population of Romania numbers about people of whom are Romanians (89.5%) (this includes Aromanians), Hungarians (6,6%), rromi (gypsy) (2,5%), Ukrainians (0,3%), Germans (0,27%), Russians (0,16%), Turks (0,16%), Tartars (0,11%), Serbian, Slovaks, Bulgarians (8.025), Greeksi (6.472), Jews (5.785), Czechs (3.941), Poles (3.559), Italians (3.288), Chinese (2.243), Armenians (1.780), Ceangas (1.266, other ethnic groups (16.850), (1.941 persons did not declare their ethnic group). The figures regarding the Armenians are as follows: Alba (3), Arad (6), Argeş (45), Bacău (55), Bihor (12), Bistriţa-Năsăud (1), Botoşani (29), Braşov (15), Brăila (20), Buzău (3), Caraş-Severin (3), Călăraşi (1), Cluj (63), Constanţa (422), Covasna (6), Dâmboviţa (4), Dolj (15), Galaţi (45), Giurgiu (6), Harghita (5), Hunedoara (9), Ialomiţa (1), Ilfov (6), Maramureş (10), Mehedinţi (1), Mureş (12), Neamţ (7), Olt (1), Prahova (25), Satu Mare (3), Sibiu (2), Suceava (36), Teleorman (1), Timiş (32)Tulcea (10), Vaslui (1), Vâlcea (3), Vrancea (22); in two counties (Gorj şi Sălaj), no Armenians have been recorded. 13 Eduard Antonian, Despre armenii dobrogeni sau noi despre noi, in Ararat, XIV, nr. 14 (275), iulie 2003, p Ion Faiter, O carte a pământului dintre Dunăre şi Mare, in Datina /Constantzta/, XII, nr. 34, martie 2004, p Most of them (93,4%) live Constantza (394 persons); the rest in Medgidia (12) and Mangalia (6), Eforie (8) şi Techirghiol (1), and (1) in the village of Cumpăna. Acording to other estimates, in Constantza there would be circa Armenins, most of them assimilated.) In the county of Tulcea 10 Armeninas have been recorded 7 in Tulcea, 2 at Sulina, 1 at Isaccea, respectively. 16 In Bucharest 821 Armenians have been recorded. 17 Arachel Musaian, Câteva gânduri la o lansare, in Ararat, XIV, nr. 13 (274), 1-15 iulie 2003, p

6 Stoica Lascu has written a new book 18. At an age when most of his colleagues retire from professional and social activity, preferring to walk their nephews and nieces he continues to delve in History to trace some human destiny, reconstruct out of seemingly insignificant pieces of life the dominant of bygone times, or sketch, with force, the place and contribution of our fellow countrymen through times. This time, those of our compatriots whose scientific creativity has been crowned with the supreme sign of recognition that our community can express membership to the Romanian Academy, are paraded in front of us. The book Armenians under the Dome of the Romanian Academy underscores the role the elites have played in the modernization and development of the country; it brings into the foreground those professionals without whom our spiritual and material progress would be either endangered, or significantly slowed down. Each nation prides in those figures whose intelligence seems expresses human creative potential at its highest value; eleven of those honored in the hemicycle of the Romanian Academy are of Armenian origin; their scientific biography, but also their social, political and cultural activity forms the substance of this new book. Why are there so few? Someone might rightfully ask. The remarkable initiative of the author leaves room not only for constructive reflection but it also constitutes a fertile provocation personally, I am convinced that a new edition, revised and augmented, will soon follow, which will include other immortals. Since 1866, 980 Romanians have been elected to the Academy. Further research by the author himself, or signals from readers, might prove that others have Armenian ancestry. Careful examination of 520 foreign members of the Romanian Academy might give us a more trustworthy image of the Armenian elite contribution to Romanian science and culture. Only eleven Romanian immortals of Armenian origin? There have been so few because errors and subjective attitudes, or the injunction of politics have affected evaluation and strictly academic judgment (even today, the Romanian Academy persists in its unpardonable error of not honoring its own criteria of recognition, omitting to recuperate, even if, post mortem, Gheorghe Asachi and Vasile Conta, two founders of our modern culture, both Armenians, not to mention many other brilliant professionals claiming Armenian ancestry Marta Tancu Rainer, the first woman surgeon in Romania (in 1889), or Professor Iacob Melcon Iacobovic ( ), the founder of the Romanian 18 S. Tavitian, Armeni sub cupola Academiei Române. Prefaţă: conf. univ. dr. Stoica Lascu, Ex Ponto, Constanţa, 2004 /242 pp./. 276

7 Dobrudjan contribution to the development of contemporary Armenology school of surgery in Transylvania, both founding members of the Romanian Academy of Medicine. Only eleven immortals who exemplarily stood not only for their profession, some of them enjoying universal acknowledgment (Ana Aslan), but who also identified with the major social, political and cultural problems of the country, to which they entirely devoted themselves (Spiru Haret, Garabet Ibraileanu, or Virgil Madgearu). All these immortals rose above their existential matrix, above their national and cultural condition, to honestly promote Romanism avant la letter without claiming the much debated multiculturalism of today. Some of them descend from crossbred families (such as Matei Socor, whose mother was Jewish), others started such families (the philosopher Dumitru Bagdasar, who married the Aromanian Florica Ciumetti ( ), the first woman-minister in Romania, herself the daughter of one of the leaders of Balkan Romanism, Sterie Ciumetti, engineer. For the time being, there have been only eleven Romanian immortals of Armenian origins have walked under the dome of the Academy the tip of the iceberg... These two works adds to the efforts of Armenians from the Diaspora to recuperate and knowing their own history. Thus, in Erevan, in September 2003, one of the four themes of the First International Congress of Armenology to which 88 guests from 25 countries participated, referred to Armenian Studies Today and Development and Perspectives 19. The Congress seriously considered the present situation and the respective of Armenology, a branch of science dating from the beginning of the 18 th century. Europe has played a major role in its development, particularly the monks-scientists of Congregazione dei Mechitaristi is San Lorenzo (Venice; here there is also the Centro di Studi e Documentazione della Cultura Armena), from the Armenian Academy of Science (founded in 1943), the prestigious Kalust Gulbekian 20 Armenology Department from Oxford University (founded in 1965) 21 ; in France, the two century long tradition in Armenology, has 19 See Madeleine Karakaşian, Primul Congres Internaţional de Armenologie, in Ararat, XIV, nr. 19 (280), 1-15 octombrie 2003, pp. 1, About this, see xxx Calouste Sarkis Gulbenkian. L homme et son œvre , Fondation Calouste Gulbenkian, Lisbonne, 1999 /64 pp./. 21 See David M. Lang, The Armenians. A People in Exile, George Allen & Unwin, London, 1982 /204 pp./. 277

8 Stoica Lascu materialized in numerous books on the history of the Armenians 22, in specialized magazines, such as the centennial Revue des etudes armeniennes (Paris) (it deals with the history of the Armenians until the 18 th century, or the younger Revue d histoire armenienne contemporaine (Marne-la-Valle). In other European countries, besides France 23, England and Italy 24, in Switzerland, Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark, Germany, Austria, the Czech Republic, and Poland, many scientists of Armenian origin make significant contribution to the development of Armenology, although scientific programs are being carried out in other areas Jerusalem, Teheran, Beirut etc. In the United States, Armenology witnessed in the latter half of the 20 th century a remarkable expansion; on the one hand, Armenian was introduced in the current programs of studies in may American universities, such as Harvard, Cambridge, Michigan-Deaborn, Los Angles, Columbia, Minnesota, New York, Cleveland etc.; then, there are many specialized institutions, such as the American Research Center University of Michigan (Deaborn), founded in 1985 by Dennis R. Papazian (at the beginning of its library had books and articles, Armenian National Institute in Washington, Armenian Library (founded in 1984, with more than titles today), and the Museum of America Watertown (Mass.), Armenian Cultural Fund of Arlington (Mass.) etc. In North America newspapers and journals disseminate knowledge about the Armenian community, such as The Armenian Reporter (has appeared in New York since 1967), The Armenian Mirror-Spectator, American Weekly, The American Observer, Journal of the Society for Armenian Studies, Armenian Forum (Princeton), Armenian International Magazine (Glendale, California) a.s.o. There is an abundance of books on Armenian history either from the Diaspora or from Armenia (also as a special theme in the pages of well-known magazines 25, most of them, dealing with the painful theme of the genocide 26, so 22 See, among others, Gérard Dédéyan (éd.), Histoire des Arménians, Éditions Privat, Toulouse, 1982; Adriano Alpago-Novello (éd.), Les Arméniens histoire, art, archéologie, L Aventurine, 1995 /284 pp./; Yves Ternon, Les Arméniens, Seuil (coll. Points Histoire), Paris, 1996; etc. 23 See Jean-Pierre Mahé, Cinquante ans de littérature arménienne, CNSR Édition, Paris, 2001/ 512 pp./. 24 See A. Arslan, Storia degli armeni, Guerini e Associati (coll. Carte arrmene), 2002 /598 pp./. 25 See the thematic file Les Arméniens, în Notre histoire /Paris/, N 94, 1991; the special tematic isue Arménie-Diaspora. Mémoire et modernité, in Les Temps Modernes, 43-année, N , Juillet-Août-Septembre 1988 /460 pp./; see also the prestigious National Geographic France entitled its thematci file (of April 2004, pp ) Les Arméniens de Marseille. La renaissance de l Arménie. 26 See pertinent Romanian commnetaries to a well-known American of Armenina origin (Peter Balakian, The Burning Tigris. The Armenian Genocide and America s Response; 2003) 278

9 Dobrudjan contribution to the development of contemporary Armenology actual 27 from the perspective of the collective memory and the teachings of history 28. Everywhere in the world (at the beginning of the third millennium it is estimated that about 1,4 million Armenians live in the USA, 130,000 in Argentina, in Canada, in Brazil, in Bulgaria, etc), Armenians have recently initiated actions 29 with a view to perpetuating their national identity 30, which monographs some local or regional communities are illustrative of. In Europe, to my knowledge, they are devoted to the communities from England and France; it is worth mentioning, in this context, the monographs on Florian F. Baiculescu, Peter Balakian: o carte-document despre Genocidul armenilor şi despre reacţiile Statelor Unite ale Americii, in Ararat, XV, nr. 1 (286), 1-15 ianuarie 2004, p. 7. For bibliography se the older work of Dickran H. Boyajian, Armenia. The Case for a Forgotten Genocide, Educational Books Crafters, Westwood (NY.) 1972 /498 pp./, and bibliographical sythesis of Israel W. Charmy, Genocide. A Critical Bibliographic Review (Facts an File Publications), New York, vol. I, 1988 /274 pp./; vol. II, 1991 /432 pp./; see also, the classical work of the British historian Arnold J. Toynbee, Les massacres des Arméniens. La meurtre d une nation ( ), Payot, Paris, 2004 /298 pp./ has been re-edited in Frech translation. For Romanian historiography see Sergiu Selian, Istoria unui genocid ignorat, Editura Silex, Bucureşti, 1994 /128 pp./; also Alexandru Mihalcea, Marian Moise, Genocid şi Holocaust, in Aldine /Supliment săptămânal al ziarului România liberă. Bucureşti/, IX, nr. 413, 23 aprilie 2004, pp In December 2003, Swisstzereland became the 15 th state that has recognized the genocideof the Armenians in the Ottoman Empire see Elveţia a recunoscut genocidul armean, in Ararat, XV, nr. 1 (286), 1-15 ianuarie 2004, pp. 1, See, in this sense, the tematic file Comment peut devenir Arménien, in Les temps Modernes /Paris/, N 353, Décembre 1975; recently a special issueal of a Jewish magazine, edited in Paris by the Center of Contemporary Jeweishdocummentatin, devoted to the genocide of the Armenians; under the title Ailleurs, hier, autrement: connaissance et reconnaissance du genocide de Arméniens, in Revue d histoire de la Shoah. Le monde juif, Vol. 53, N , janvier-août 2003; for a detailed presentation of this remarcalbe historical file see Florian F. Baiculescu, Despre genocidul armenilor, Shoah şi negaţionismul turc, in Ararat, XIV, nr. 20 (281), octombrie 2003, p For a bibliographic evaluation see Hanno B. Vassilion, The Armenians. A Colossal Bibliographic Guide to Books Published in English Language, Armenian Reference Books Co., 1993 /206 pp./. 30 A Swiss intellectual of Armenian origin, recently spoke, in an interview, of the difficulty of preserving Armenian identity in the Diaspora (he believes that the only way we can remain Armenian is to live in Armeni ); to preserve Armenian idenity, economic forces should sponsor cultural activities, because only through action we could keep it alive Vartan Martaian, Există o condiţie ca această dispariţie a Diasporei să nu se întâmple, şi anume ca în întregul ei să existe un cult al legii /Interwiev with Sarkis Şahinian/, in Ararat, XIV, nr. 18 (279), septembrie 2003, p

10 Stoica Lascu the Armenians in France 31 (from the Rhone-Alpes region 32 ), from Marseille, the Isere zone, Grenoble, Valence 33 ), also those which restored the life of Armenian merchants from Manchester or London, symbols of prosperity of the British trade and industry 34 ; also worth mentioning are the monographs about the presence of the Armenians in Russia 35 or in other zones of the word India 36 or Palestine 37. In the New World there have been published numerous syntheses, either general 38 or thematic 39, which depict the history of the North American 31 See Cyril Le Tallac, La communauté arménienne de France , L Harmattan (coll. Mémoires du XX-e siècles), Paris, 2001 /228 pp./; also, René Leonian, Les Armémiens de France sont-ils assimilés?, Begude-de-Mazenc, 1986 /206 pp./; see also Edmond Mardirossian, Sportifs arméniens. Un siècle de palmarès. Préface Youri Djorkaeff, Déciens-Charpien, 2003 /144 pp./. 32 Dikran Kekekian, La Communauté arménienne de Lyon et de la Région Rhôn-Alpes (Union Nationale de l Eglise Apostolique Arménienne de Lyon), Lyon, 1994 /bilingual/; Aida Boudjikanian-Keuroghlian, Les Arméniens dans la région Rhône-Alpes. Essai géographique sur les rapports d une minorité ethnique avec son milieu d accueil, Lyon, 1978 /214 pp./. 33 In addition to the older work of Charles-Dikran Tekeian, Marseille, la Provence et les Arméniens, L Institut historique de Provence, Marseille, 1929 /72 pp./, see Jean-Claude Duclos, D Isère et d Arménie: histoire d une communauté, Musée dauphinois, Grenoble, 1997 /100 pp./ (circa French from Isère claim Armenian ancestry); Frédéric Bourgade, Les Arméniens de Valence: une integration réussie, Les Bonnes Feuilles, 1991; xxx Annuaire Arménia des Arméniens de Drôme-Ardèche /bilingv/ (Association Culturelle Arménia), Bourg-lès-Valence, Joan George, Merchants in Exile. The Armenians of Manchester, England ( ), Gomidas Institut, London, 2002 /294 pp./; Vered Amit Talai, Armenians in London. The Manegement of Social Boundaries (Antroplogical Studies N 4), Manchester University Press, 1989 /172 pp./. 35 See Aldo Ferrarini, Alla Frontiera dell impero. Gli Armeni in Russia ( ) (Associazione Culturale Mimesis), Milano, 2000 /218 pp./. 36 See Mesrovb Yacob Seth, Armenians in India, South Asia Books, 1993 /648 pp./; Vahe Baladouni, Margaret Makepeace, Armenian Merchants of the Seventeenth and Early Eighteenth Centuries. English East India Company (American Philosophical Society), 1999; 37 John H. Melkon Rose, Armenians of Jerusalem. Memoires of Life in Palestina, Berg Publishing Ltd., 1993 /292 pp./. 38 See, among others Gary A. Kulhanjian, The historical and sociological aspects of Armenian immigration to the United States , R and E Research Associates, 1975 /84 pp./; Vladimir Wertsman, The Armenians in America A Chronology and Fact Book (Ethnic Chronology Series. N 27), Oceana Publishing, 1978 /138 pp./; Robert Mirak, Torn Between Two Lands. Armenians in America to World War I, Havard University Press (series Harvard Armenian Texts and Studies), 1984 /364 pp./; Aharon G. Aharonian, Intermarriage and the Armenian- American Community (Publisher Aharon G. Aharonian), 1984 /118 pp./; Arra S. Avakian, Armenians in America (coll. American Series), Lerner Publishing Group, 1978; David Waldstreicher, The Armenian Americans (col. Peoples of North America), Chelsea House Publishing, see Lorne Shirinian, Armenian-North American Literature. A Critical Introduction: Genocide, Diaspora and Symbol (Studies in Comparative Literature. Vol. 11), Edwin Mellen Press, 1992 /303 pp./ 280

11 Dobrudjan contribution to the development of contemporary Armenology Armenians, as well as monographs reconstituting the life of Armenian communities in the USA, which the Armenian American reader 40 knows well, like those devoted to the communities from Rhode Island 41, Fresno 42, New England 43, Worchester 44, Boston or New York 45, or the Armenians from California 46. Other works focus on North American personalities of Armenian origin 47, or on a given theme 48. The present works makes a significant contribution to the world Armenology; its tenacious and modest author, now in his eighties, well deserves the appreciation of his compatriots. At the beginning of the 21 st century, through his convictions and actions in the scientific, human and communitarian field 49, he sets up a model for the young Armenians everywhere. 40 see, the recent opinions of an American Armenian, originating from România Lanis Anton Şahazizian, Note şi amintiri din lumea liberă, Editura Ararat, Bucureşti, 2003 /80 pp./. 41 Arra Arthur Gelenian, Armenians in Rhode Island. Ancient Roots to Present Experiences (Rhode Island Ethnic Heritage. Pamphlet Series), Rhode Island Publications Society, East Providence, 1985/ 36 pp./; Varoujan Karentz, The Citadel. A History of Armenians in Rhode Island, 2004 /412 pp./. 42 Berge Bulbulian, The Fresno Americans. A History of Diaspora Community, Word Dancer Press /288 pp./. 43 Marc A. Mamuganian, Armenians of New England. Celebrating a Culture and Preserving a Heritage, Armenian Heritage Press, Pamela Apkarian-Russell, Armenians of Worcester (coll. Images of America), Arcadia Publishing, Charleston, 2000 /138 pp./. 45 Linda L. Avakian, Armenian Immigrants. Boston New-York , Picton Press, 1996 /288 pp./. 46 Aram Serkis Yeretzian, A History of Armenian immigration to America with special reference to conditions in Los Angeles, R and E Research Associates, 1978 /78 pp./; Charles Mahakian, A History of the Armenians in California, 1974 /92 pp./. 47 See Richard N. Demirjian, Armenian-American-Canadian Who s Who of Ourtanding Athletes, Coaches and Sport Personalities. Foreward by Ara Hairabedian, Ararat Heritage Publishing Company, 1990 /520 pp./. 48 See, in this sense Jonathan McCollum, Andy Nercessian, Armenian Music. A Comprehensive Bibliography and Discography. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc., 2004 /250 pp./; Zarek Hovanesian, The Philatelic History of Armenia, 2000 /358 pp./. 49 See Magdalena Vlădilă, /Interview with Simion Tavitian/ Rămân la o veche afirmaţie a mea, România este o ţară Sud-Americană în centrul Europei, in Dreptul la replică /Constantza/, III, nr. 26, 19 iulie 2003, p

12 Stoica Lascu 282

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