A Git Development Environment

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1 A Git Development Environment Installing and using Git for Drupal and WordPress site development using Ubuntu/Mint and a Hostgator Reseller or VPS account. By: Andrew Tuline Date: February 7, 2014 Version: Page 1

2 Revisions Quick Git Introduction Conventions Let s Get Started Installing Git Basic Configuration Git Repositories Single User Gitk Simple Daily workflow in a non-bare repository File Status Setup - Cloning From Bare Repository Setup - Adding to a Bare Repository Using.gitignore Apache and Git Directory Structure in Ubuntu Prior to Downloading Projects... Error! Bookmark not defined. 15. Downloading Projects From GitHub Downloading Drupal from GitHub A Drupal.gitignore Downloading WordPress A WordPress.gitignore Installing WordPress on Ubuntu Page 2

3 3. Public Git Repositories Using bitbucket.org as your master Using github.com as your master Sites and Site Components Site Deployment and Migration Introduction to Deployment and Migration Adding a Staging Server Shell Script Tools A Simple Deployment Fix Serialization Restricting Access to Staging Server General Site Migration Tips WordPress Site Migration Drupal Site Migration Gitflow Conclusion Page 3

4 Revisions 1.04 Long standing combined Development and Git version (in serious need of significant changes) Major changes. Separated out Git workflow from original document. Re-thought some of the architecture. Page 4

5 1. Quick Git 1. Introduction Git is quickly becoming the version control backbone of team based web site development. This document covers initial configuration of Git and builds upon that in order to develop a basic distributed workflow for WordPress and Drupal. It is not, however, a comprehensive guide to using Git. To learn more about Git, 2. Conventions To view the document and server standards in use, please see my A Web Development Environment document. Page 5

6 2. Let s Get Started 3. Installing Git On your Ubuntu workstation, if you haven t already done so, Git can be installed by typing: dev$ sudo apt-get install git 4. Basic Configuration Prior to using Git, you should setup your name and address similar to: dev$ git config --global user.name "Joe Blow" dev$ git config --global user. Review your Git identity and configuration with: dev$ git config -l # lower case L 5. Git Repositories Git supports different types of repositories. These include: Page 6

7 Repository Local repository Remote repository Non-bare repository Bare repository Description It s located on your workstation. It s located elsewhere. The repository includes the files you re working on. The repository has no working files in the directory, just blobs and things you shouldn t edit. For a single user environment, you could create a local non-bare repository and just use that for web development. For an open source or distributed environment, you will be using a remote bare repository (preferably on github.com or bitbucket.org) as well as a non-bare local repository for each developer. For a single user environment, you can create a non-bare local repository by typing: dev$ cd ~ dev$ git init nonbare dev$ cd nonbare dev$ ls -al The above command creates a non-bare repository in that the working files are in the nonbare directory, while the Git repository is in a hidden.git directory beneath it. This configuration is fine for local use, however, you cannot use this as your Master repository in a distributed environment. You can create a bare/master repository by typing: dev$ cd ~ dev$ git init --bare barerepo dev$ cd barerepo Page 7

8 dev$ ls -al This is a completely different directory structure, and you will not see any of your working files here. This could even be the central repository that your team w pull from and push back to. Don t create files in this directory. Most web developers work remotely at some point and will need to access the main repository from a remote location. As a result, the master repository should be stored on on a host such as GitHub or BitBucket. DIY ers could even install their own web enabled Git Hosting with Gitlab locally or on their Hostgator VPS. 6. Single User In a single user environment, we ve created a non-bare repository. We can now add files to this directory, and once done, you need to add and commit those updates: dev$ cd ~/nonbare dev$ touch test.txt dev$ git add. dev$ git commit -m "Initial commit." #. refers to all files To check the status of the repository: dev$ git status dev# On branch master nothing to commit (working directory clean) 7. Gitk You might also want to install gitk, which is a graphical utility used to view a repository. Install it by typing: Page 8

9 dev$ sudo apt-get install gitk To run gitk, we need to cd into a repository with a repository in it. Let s look at our previous non-bare repository: dev$ cd ~/nonbare dev$ gitk or dev$ gitk & # you must exit before getting the prompt back # to get the prompt back immediately Page 9

10 8. Simple Daily workflow in a non-bare repository From the previous chapter, we created a non-bare repository. Here s a simple daily workflow for it: dev$ cd ~/nonbare dev$ git checkout -b branch-name # come up with a name, -b creates a branch DO SOME EDITS dev$ git add. dev$ git diff dev$ git commit -m "Detailed message." # to see the changes vs previously committed files # you can go back for some more edits AT THE END OF A WORK SESSION dev$ cd ~/nonbare dev$ git checkout master dev$ git merge branch-name dev$ git log dev$ git status dev$ git branch -d branch-name # merge those changes # you can then delete that temporary branch Perform adds/commits in small chunks. At the end of a session, you can then checkout the master and perform a merge. To review the various versions of the repository, type: Page 10

11 dev$ git log commit d7ec9a Author: Joe Blow Date: Mon Jan 14 14:03: Added text to a file. commit cf23669a Author: Joe Blow Date: Mon Jan 14 14:03: Initial commit. If, for any reason, you have made a mistake in your working files, you can revert back to a previous version with: dev$ git reset --hard d7ec9a # use the first several digits of a previous commit hash OR dev$ git reset --hard HEAD~ # to go back to the previous commit Note: We will be using this simple workflow a lot in our upcoming examples. 9. File Status As you develop and add files to your repository, they can have a different Git status in your working directory as follows: Page 11

12 File Status Untracked Staged/Tracked Committed/Tracked Not Staged/Tracked Description You have created a file in your non-bare working directory. That file is now tracked via the Git 'add' command. That file has now been committed to the repository with the Git 'commit' command. This is a good place to be. A previously tracked file has been further edited, but not re-added or committed. Once you have performed a successful commit to the non-bare repository, you should see: dev$ git status dev# On branch master nothing to commit # or branch-name # working directory clean 10. Setup - Cloning From Bare Repository The following section sets up your environment by first create a bare repository and then cloning it to a working/non-bare repository. dev$ cd ~ dev$ rm -rf barerepo dev$ git init --bare barerepo # delete our previous repo You can then clone this bare repository and then start developing as follows: Page 12

13 dev$ cd ~ dev$ rm -rf myproject dev$ git clone barerepo myproject Cloning into 'myproject' warning: You appear to have cloned an empty repository. done. dev$ cd myproject dev$ touch text.txt dev$ git add. dev$ git commit -m "Initial commit." dev$ git push -u origin master # 'myproject' is now a non-bare repository # can do just a 'git push' after first time At any time, you can check the status of your repository and see the results of your actions with the following commands: dev$ git status dev$ git log dev$ gitk # if you have it installed Tip: It's important that you pull from the bare repository at the start of your work session and push it back when done. Let s have a look at the modified daily workflow now that we re using a non-bare repository: dev$ cd ~/myproject dev$ git pull dev$ git checkout -b branch-name #create a branch DO SOME EDITS Page 13

14 dev$ git add. dev$ git diff dev$ git commit -m "Detailed message." # Repeat as required AT THE END OF A WORK SESSION dev$ git checkout master dev$ git merge branch-name dev$ git push origin master dev$ git log dev$ git status dev$ git branch -d branch-name # Delete the branch when done. As a reminder, perform edits/adds/commits in small chunks. At the end of a session, you can then checkout the master and perform a merge. 11. Setup - Adding to a Bare Repository Rather than clone from a bare repository to start, let s assume we already have some files and want to setup our repositories for them. dev$ cd ~ dev$ rm -rf barerepo dev$ git init --bare barerepo # delete the old one, again Let s create a project directory and add a file to it: Page 14

15 dev$ rm -rf myproject dev$ mkdir myproject dev$ cd myproject dev$ touch text.txt dev$ git init dev$ git add. dev$ git commit -m "Initial commit." dev$ git remote add origin ~/barerepo dev$ git push -u origin master # delete the old one # add our bare repository # only do this the first time Again, at any time, you can check the status of your repository: dev$ git status Reminder: Don t forget to pull from the bare repository at the start of your work session and push it back when done. Our daily workflow will be EXACTLY the same as before in that we: Pull the latest changes Create a temporary branch Edit the files Add/commit them Checkout the master Merge the changes Push the changes Delete the temporary branch Page 15

16 12. Using.gitignore Sometimes, you will want to exclude various files in your Git respository. These could be log files or files that are unique to each server, such as site configuration files. In order to do so, let s create a.gitignore file on the development workstation: dev$ cd ~myproject dev$ vi.gitignore It could contain: # Site configuration *.log.htaccess Once complete, type: dev$ git add. dev$ git commit -m "Added.gitignore" dev$ git push origin master... dev$ git status From now on, any log files as well as the.htaccess file will not be incorporated into the Git repository. Many development houses use different.gitignore files. I ll include some examples from Github later in the document, but look around the Internet to see what works for you. Page 16

17 13. Apache and Git Directory Structure in Ubuntu Let s starting to develop a basic workflow in a real development directory as shown below: Development Workstation Directory /var/www/client1.dev /var/www/client1.dev/www ~/git ~/git/client1.git Description ~ directory for client1 s development tools in Ubuntu. ~ directory for client1 s web site (Apache points here). It will be a non-bare repository. Interim home directory for our bare git repositories. We ll eventually host this elsewhere. Bare repository for client1. From the previous document, we should not have to use sudo in /var/www, as we have already set the permissions to allow the www-data group to write to the directories, and have added username to that www-data group. In addition, we have set the sticky bit so that the wwwdata group will become the owner of any files/directories created beneath /var/www. If they don t already exist, create the git and client1 directories: dev$ mkdir /var/www/client1.dev dev$ mkdir /var/www/client1.dev/www dev$ cd /var/www/client1.dev/www dev$ touch index.html dev$ git init dev$ git add. dev$ git commit -m "Initial commit." # development scripts for client1 go in here # the actual web site goes here # let s create something first # create a non-bare working repository # and commit the file(s) Page 17

18 dev$ cd ~ dev$ mkdir git dev$ git init --bare ~/git/client1.git # make the git repositories directory # create a bare repository dev$ cd /var/www/client1.dev/www dev$ git remote add origin ~/git/client1.git # add our bare repository dev$ git push -u origin master We should already have an Apache host created for client1.dev. As a reminder: dev$ sudo vi /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/client1.dev.conf Add the following: <VirtualHost *:80> DocumentRoot "/var/www/client1.dev/www" ServerName client1.dev ServerAlias </VirtualHost> Edit /etc/hosts with vi and add: client1.dev Restart apache with: Page 18

19 dev$ sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart Your client1.dev web site should now have both a non-bare repository as well as a local bare repository and you can begin development. Don t forget that you ll be working in /var/www/client1.dev/www and pushing/pulling from the bare repository located at ~username/git/client1.git. If you re downloading Drupal or WordPress, you ll need to clone it and then re-create your repositories. That s coming up next. 14. Downloading Projects From GitHub Both Drupal and WordPress can be downloaded from a popular repository called GitHub. Rather than start a project from scratch, let s download a baseline copy and develop our project from there. In the previous example, we cloned a working directory from an empty bare repository, after which we could make our changes and then push them back. In the case of Drupal or WordPress, we need to clone from GitHub, and then remove all ties from that source so we can use our own non-bare and bare repositories. For the first examples, we ll do so on our development workstation. We ll expand the scope later. 15. Downloading Drupal from GitHub The trick with downloading Drupal as well as WordPress from GitHub is that you re not just downloading the latest version as you would a.zip file. Rather, you re downloading the entire repository of versions. Let s download Drupal and then checkout the latest version. Here s a reference: dev$ rm -rf /var/www/client1.dev/www dev$ mkdir /var/www/client1.dev/www dev$ cd /var/www/client1.dev/www dev$ git clone --branch 7.x # just to be safe # don t forget the '.' # The. puts the project in the current directory rather than creating a new directory (with a long name) Page 19

20 OR dev$ git clone --branch 7.x git://github.com/drupal/drupal.git. dev$ ls... dev$ git branch -a # list the branches dev$ git checkout 7.19 # or whatever the current release is We then need to remove the links to GitHub and create our own repositories: dev$ rm -rf.git # Deletes Git along with everything else except 7.19 This leaves us with a pristine version of Drupal 7.19, and without any version control. Let s create a non-bare repository for it in this directory, and then create and push it to bare repository as follows: dev$ cd ~ dev$ rm -rf git/client1.git dev$ git init --bare git/client1.git dev$ cd /var/www/client1.dev/www dev$ git init dev$ git add. dev$ git commit -m "Drupal 7.19 initial commit." dev$ git status # remove your old bare repository # create an empty bare repository # create the non-bare repository dev$ git remote add origin ~/git/client1.git dev$ git push -u origin master dev$ git status Page 20

21 From here, you can now start on your daily workflow (see section Error! Reference source not found.). Note: You can also use drush to download Drupal with the following command: dev$ cd /var/www/client1.dev dev$ rm -rf www dev$ mkdir www dev$ cd www dev$ drush dl drupal # which downloads the latest recommended release # to a directory called drupal-7.19 $ shopt -s dotglob nullglob # so we can include any hidden files during our mv # just be careful not to move a.git directory to a non-repository $ mv drupal-7.19/*. # moves ALL files to current directory $ rmdir drupal-7.19 At this point, you can create your database and go through the Drupal installation procedures. Once complete, you can then initialize your local repository. 16. A Drupal.gitignore # Ignore configuration files that may contain sensitive information. sites/*/settings*.php # Ignore paths that contain user-generated content. sites/*/files sites/*/private.ds_store.svn Page 21

22 .cvs *.sql *.bak *.swp *.log Thumbs.db You might also want to look at Downloading WordPress As with Drupal, when downloading WordPress from GitHub, you re not just downloading the latest version as you would a.zip file. You re downloading the entire repository of versions. In order to develop for a specific version, we need to do the following: dev$ rm -rf /var/www/client1.dev/www dev$ mkdir /var/www/client1.dev/www dev$ cd /var/www/client1.dev/www dev$ git clone # don t forget the '.' dev$ ls # you should see a bunch of WordPress files Now we need to checkout the latest release of WordPress, in this case version 3.6.1: dev$ git branch -a dev$ git checkout # list branches # checkout the latest Now that we ve checked out version 3.6.1, let s get rid of all of the other stuff as follows: dev$ rm -rf.git # Deletes non-bare repository, keeps source files Page 22

23 This leaves us with a pristine version of WordPress 3.6.1, and without any version control. As with Drupal, we could initialize our Git repositories, create the database and install WordPress on the Server. 18. A WordPress.gitignore There are numerous.gitignore configurations for WordPress; some include the WordPress core files and some don t. Here s one from github: wp-config.php wp-content/uploads/ wp-content/blogs.dir/ wp-content/upgrade/ wp-content/backup-db/ wp-content/advanced-cache.php wp-content/wp-cache-config.php sitemap.xml *.log wp-content/cache/ wp-content/backups/ sitemap.xml.gz You might also want to look at WordPress will create a.htaccess file if you change the Permalinks to Post name on the wp-admin/options-permalink.php page. These.htaccess files may be slightly different between client1.dev and client1.mycompany.com, so this file has been added to the.gitignore file as well. Page 23

24 19. Installing WordPress on Ubuntu We ve downloaded WordPress, but we haven t actually ran the install scripts yet. Go ahead and create a database on the Ubuntu server with either phpmyadmin or in the terminal. Keep in mind that the database isn t under version control and will eventually have to be put on the staging server. Also, remember that your settings files will be located at: /var/www/client1.dev/www/wp-config.php This is important to keep in mind, because when you re configuring WordPress on either your staging server (client1.mycompany.com) or your development workstation (client1.dev), the URL and database settings will be different. You will need to take this into account when using Git by using the.gitignore file as discussed later on. Go ahead and run the WordPress installation by opening a browser in Ubuntu and typing (I assume you have already added an entry in the hosts table for it): Page 24

25 Here s some insecure settings: Carry on with your site installation and remember to document URL s, main directories, usernames and passwords! Page 25

26 3. Public Git Repositories Rather than host our bare master repository locally, we re going to host it on a public server so that we can access it anywhere. 1. Using bitbucket.org as your master You should consider using a host such as bitbucket.org or github.com for hosting your master repository. I m using bitbucket.org, as they provide free hosting for private repositories as long the team has 5 or fewer members. To do so, create an account on Bitbucket, add your SSH key from your development workstation and then create a bare repository called Client1. Page 26

27 On your development workstation, you should then be able to: dev$ cd /var/www/client1.dev dev$ rm -rf www dev$ mkdir www dev$ cd www dev$ git init dev$ touch index.html dev$ git add index.html dev$ git commit -m "Initial commit"... # and any other updates dev$ git remote add origin dev$ git push -u origin master dev$ git push origin master # use SSH and not HTTPS # initial push # all further pushes The advantages of using Bitbucket are that it provides a web front end to display the status of your repository. It gives you the option to provide an issue tracker and a wiki for your project. You can also share files with your clients. Note: If you haven t shared your Ubuntu SSH key, you can use HTTPS and then manually type in your username/password. 2. Using github.com as your master You can use github.com for your master repository for no charge as long as it is a public repository. Once you have created an account, add your Ubuntu SSH key to github, then create an empty repository on github called client1.git. Then go to your development workstation and: dev$ cd /var/www/client1.dev/www dev$ git remote add origin # use SSH, and not HTTPS Page 27

28 dev$ git push -u origin master dev$ git push origin master # initial push # all further pushes Page 28

29 4. Sites and Site Components Let recap the architecture we re going to be using. In my Web Development Environment document, we have several servers as follows: Git Repository client1.mycompany.com Staging Server Bare Repo DB Web Site client1.dev Devel Workstation Production Server Working Repo & Web Site DB DB Web Site The challenge is that not all of the content will be the same on each. Let s break this down into separate components and consider how we should manage and deploy them. Sites Page 29

30 A public Git server ( with a bare repository. 3 web sites, each with a database and files The development workstation has a non-bare repository. Databases The databases may contain URL s and file paths unique to each server, which are easy to edit. WordPress databases contain serialized strings, which are not easy to edit. We won t include the database in the Git repository. It s big and doesn t fit nicely in there. Files.htaccess may be unique to each server..gitignore may be unique to each server. settings.php and wp-config.php are unique to each server. Drupal and WordPress core files should NOT be edited/hacked. User uploaded content is often binary and LARGE. There will be the core application files. There will be new/modified themes which should be under version control. There will be additional/modified modules/plugins which should be under version control. Git Repositories Only your development environment should use a non-bare Git repository. Use a bare repository for the master repository. Page 30

31 5. Site Deployment and Migration 1. Introduction to Deployment and Migration As I spent more time studying Git, site deployment and migration, I thought of different ways to do it. At one point, I had almost everything contained in the Git repository, including the database, and thought of using a Git hook to move everything over, including the database, however further reading deemed that not a good idea. When I go back and think of why we re using Git in the first place, it s to track the functionality that we are modifying. Therefore, let s limit our use of the Git repository as much as possible. When we go to deploy content to a staging or production server, rather than incorporate it into Git and use a git push command to deploy content, we ll use some form of file copy. In this case, we ll use the the rsync command over SSH. 2. Adding a Staging Server The purpose of adding a staging server is to show your work in progress to your client, while still maintaining full control over it. To add our staging server client1.mycompany.com, we need to create that subdomain in CPanel. In doing so, it will the the ~mycompany/client1 subdirectory. Select Subdomains : Then: Page 31

32 From there, you should have a directory at /home/mycompany/public_html/client1 and when browsing to it with you should see: 3. Shell Script Tools The following files can be downloaded from github.com:atuline/migrate-scripts.git. Here s a number of commands/shell scripts that should come in handy to support file and database migration to the staging server. I keep these in the /var/www/client1.dev directory on the development workstation. They include: Page 32

33 copydb.sh createdb.sh createdb_stg.sh dropdb.sh dropdb_stg.sh dumpdb.sh exclude.txt fix-serialization.php fixperms.sh importdb.sh importdb_stg.sh infile.txt replace.sh syncfiles.sh Copy a previously dumped and edited.sql file from the development workstation to the staging server. Create the database on the development workstation. Create the database on the staging server. Delete the database on the development workstation. Delete the database on the staging server. Dump the database on your development workstation to a.sql file. Contains list of files to exclude from the syncfiles.sh script. Called by replace.sh to fix serialization strings for a WordPress database. Configures the file/directory permissions for Apache. Import a.sql file to the development workstation database. Import a.sql file to the staging server database. The MySQL username/password for that database must already exist. URL and directories to be modified when migrating a database from the development workstation to the staging server. It s used by replace.sh Use this to change the text strings in your development workstation.sql file to that of the staging server. The contents of the existing.sql file will be changed. Use the rsync command to synchronize/copy files from the development workstation to the staging server. copydb.sh #!/bin/sh scp -r /var/www/client1.dev/client1_dev.sql Page 33

34 createdb.sh #!/bin/sh mysql -uroot -ppassword "create database client1_dev"; mysql -uroot -ppassword "grant all on client1_dev.* to createdb_stg.sh #!/bin/sh ssh 'mysql -e "create database mycompany_client1"' ssh 'mysql -e "grant all on mycompany_client1.* to mycompany_client1"' dropdb.sh #!/bin/sh mysqladmin -uroot -ppassword drop client1_dev; dropdb_stg.sh #!/bin/sh ssh 'mysqladmin drop mycompany_client1' dumpdb.sh #!/bin/sh mysqldump -uroot -ppassword client1_dev > client1_dev.sql Page 34

35 exclude.txt.htaccess.gitignore fix-serialization.php See the github.com source for this. fixperms.sh sudo find www -type f -exec chmod 0644 {} \; sudo find www -type d -exec chmod 2755 {} \; importdb.sh #!/bin/sh mysql -uroot -psierrasys8 client1_dev < client1_dev.sql; importdb_stg.sh #!/bin/sh ssh 'mysql mycompany_client1 < /home/mycompany/mycompany_client1.sql' infile.txt client1.mycompany.com Page 35

36 /var/www/client1/www /home/mycompany/public_html/client1 replace.sh See the github.com source for this. syncfiles.sh #!/bin/sh rsync -e 'ssh' -avl --delete --stats --progress --exclude-from '/var/www/client1.dev/exclude.txt' /var/www/client1/dev/www This script copies the files from your development workstation to the staging server with the exeception of the excluded file(s). It uses less bandwidth than a regular scp command and will delete files on the remote host if they are no longer in the source. See: 4. A Simple Deployment The following section does the following: 1. Create a simple site with a non-bare repository on our development workstation at client1.dev. 2. Create a bare master repository called client1.git on bitbucket.org. 3. Create a staging site at client1.mycompany.com. 4. Copy/migrate files and database to client1.mycompany.com. Before we get started, I went through this several times myself before I developed an architecture I was happy with and procedures that worked.. Most of the issues I had were with server and directory naming confusion, so make sure you have it CLEAR in your head. Diagrams shown below: Page 36

37 Central Repository Hostname Git repository name (bare) bitbucket.org client1.git Staging Server Web hostname Web directory client1.mycompany.com /home/mycompany/public_html/client1 Development Workstation Hostname Tools directory Git repository directory (non-bare) Web directory client1.dev /var/www/client1.dev /var/www/client1.dev/www /var/www/client1.dev/www First, let s create a simple development site and create a central repository as well as a live site. dev$ cd /var/www dev$ rm -rf client1.dev dev$ mkdir client1.dev dev$ cd client1.dev # Our scripts go in here Page 37

38 dev$ mkdir www dev$ cd www dev$ git init dev$ touch index.html dev$ git add. dev$ git commit -m "Initial commit." # Actual site goes in here # Our dev site is now set up Let s now create and push to our main repository at bitbucket.org and import our Ubuntu SSH key into the Bitbucket account. Then, click on the Create button to create your client1.git repository: Page 38

39 Now, let s define and push to our master repository: dev$ cd /var/www/client1.dev/www dev$ git remote add origin dev$ git push -u origin master dev$ git push origin master # initial push # all further pushes We can pretty well duplicate these steps when creating the live server, so we won t cover that here. Just give it another name in Git, such as Live. But what about the actual staging server web site? Rather than add the complexity of a Git repository to the staging server, we ll use a combination of rsync and database scripts in order to update the staging server. Assuming the following: WordPress is configured and running on the development workstation. A database user is already configured on the staging server (via phpmyadmin). Infile.txt is already configured with source/destination text strings. I would edit for proper naming and use the following scripts (in order): 1. syncfiles.sh - to synchronize all of the files (they may require the group:file owner to be changed on the staging server). 2. dumpdb.sh - to dump the development workstation database to a.sql file. 3. replace.sh - to replace the development workstation URL s and directories in the database with that of the staging server. 4. dropdb_stg.sh - to remove the outdated database on the staging server. Page 39

40 5. createdb_stg.sh - to create a new database on the staging server 6. copydb.sh - to copy the modified.sql file to the staging server. 7. importdb_stg.sh - to import the modified.sql file on the staging server. If you get through the above section without any issues, I will be absolutely astounded. If you had some problems, the next section provides additional background information. 5. Fix Serialization Let s look at content unique to the web server in WordPress, and possibly in Drupal if any content has been added. Data Type Example String Changes Editing it URL unique to the site client1.dev will be client1.mycompany.com Easy to change Path unique to the site /var/www/client1/www will be /home/mycompany/client1 Easy to change Serialized strings s:11:"client1.dev" will be s:21:"client1.mycompany.com" Difficult to change I m going to use a modified copy of Fix-Serialization originally from as it doesn t require you to be running WordPress to perform the database conversion. Fix-Serialization is a combination shell and PHP script which takes a database dump file and: Changes source URL and directory structure strings to destination URL and directory structures. Fixes any serialized strings that have changed. Page 40

41 Files included: infile.txt (contains source and destination URL's and directory structures) replace.sh (run this shell script to swap strings and to call the PHP script) fix-serialization.txt (a descriptive file) fix-serialization.php (PHP script to perform serialization fixes) How to use: Put a dump of your WordPress database in the current directory, i.e (dumpdb.sh): mysqldump -uroot -pmypassword client1_dev > client1_dev.sql Create/modify infile.txt with your source and destination information similar to this: client1.mycompany.com /var/www/client1/www /home/mycompany/public_html/client1 Execute the script as follows: dev$ cd /var/www/client1 # put it in the client1 tools directory... # dump your database to this directory dev$ sh replace.sh # replaces current.sql file with a modified version There are also several 3 rd party migration tools such as: Page 41

42 (a standalone php script) (a WordPress module) (an awesome WordPress plugin) 6. Restricting Access to Staging Server You might want to modify the.htaccess file on your Hostgator staging server so that visitors must enter a password to view that web site. In order to do so, you ll require two files. They are:.htaccess (this may already already exist!).htpasswd In your.htaccess file, add: AuthType Basic AuthName "Restricted access" AuthUserFile /home/mycompany/client1/.htpasswd require valid-user # change as appropriate of course Place your.htpasswd file in the full path of your ~ directory at Hostgator, typically /home/mycompany. Both files should be set with permissions of 644. In your.htpasswd file, you ll need to create a username and password. The password needs to be generated, so see A username and password of test should result in a.htpasswd file containing: test:teh0wlipw0gyq Page 42

43 7. General Site Migration Tips When migrating your site between hosts, you should take into account: Keep your account information organized. This includes development, staging, Git and production host names, usernames, password, database names, directories, Drupal/Wordpress usernames and passwords and setting files. Don t forget domain registrar information, expiry and client contact information as well. There may be.htaccess,.gitignore and settings file differences between hosts. Changing URL entries in the databases (edit the database dump file). There may be references to a different directory structure, such as /home/client1 instead of /var/www/client1/www. WordPress may require you to edit serialized objects, in which case, use a 3 rd party database migration utility. URL and database configuration settings in the site configuration files. You may also need to change privileges/ownership of directories and files when you migrate files between hosts. There may be different php configurations and versions. Run phpinfo();. Put site specific files in.gitignore. Don t put a.git directory in public_html on a public server. 8. WordPress Site Migration Changing the site URL in WordPress can be challenging. Follow this URL from the WordPress Codex. Essentially, you need to edit wp-config.php and change the URL s. Then there s the database changes, which we have already covered. 9. Drupal Site Migration Modifying Drupal to support another URL seems a lot easier than with WordPress. Optionally modify the $base_url in sites/default/settings.php. Clear the drupal cache. If you have a number of links in the content, you may need to change the database as mentioned with Wordpress. Page 43

44 10. Gitflow Once you have a basic workflow and deployment in place, you ll want to think about long term use of Git. The following link provides some more in depth examples of developing a more comprehensive Git workflow: Page 44

45 6. Conclusion Between these two documents, you should have a good idea on how to: 1. setup a LAMP server 2. setup and develop in a Git environment 3. deploy to a staging (or other) server There are a lot of different methods you can use to accomplish these goals, so feel free to use these as a starting point for your own site development. Be prepared to make lots of mistakes (like I have) and to go back through your workflow in order to understand it from top to bottom. Page 45

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