Forts of the French Foreign Legion

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Forts of the French Foreign Legion"

Transcription

1 Forts of the French Foreign Legion below Approaching the main entrance of the fort at Tazzougerte in Morocco. In search of Beau Geste Tales of the French Foreign Legion in the deserts of North Africa have fired the imagination of many an adventurous school boy. Richard Jeynes was one. Now, as a (grown-up) archaeologist, his investigation of an abandoned fort of the French colonial empire, is bringing those stories to life. The remote desert outpost of Fort Zinderneuf, from P C Wren s 1925 novel Beau Geste, manned by rugged, desperate legionnaires and surrounded by camel mounted tribesmen has inspired numerous Hollywood films as well as a range of books of a similar genre. While Wren s claims to have served in the French Foreign Legion are largely unsubstantiated, the small details of life in the Legion are reasonably accurate. The French Foreign Legion was used in campaigns across North Africa. They built isolated forts that became the focus of military actions way beyond the imagination of novel writers and outposts were frequently defended to the last man during the early part of the 20th century. Our investigations took us to two such sites, in southeast Morocco close to the Algerian border: a large fort at Tazzougerte and a blockhouse at Boudenib. The blockhouse The remains of the blockhouse are still clearly visible from the town of Boudenib.A later fort was built where the town stands today, but it is now lost beneath the modern buildings. Holding a key position covering the southern approaches to Boudenib, the blockhouse came under ferocious attack on the night of 1/2 September The 40 defenders held off some 400 attackers for almost two days before finally managing to drive them away. But it was a desperate struggle so nearly the Legion s equivalent ofrorke s Drift. Little now remains of the blockhouse. But what of the archaeological evidence? Contemporary photographs and detailed drawings provide a clear picture of what the structure looked like in The design was limited by the space available on the summit of the gara. The two storey building was flanked to the 36 CurrentWorldArchaeology

2 below The west side of the blockhouse at Boudenib. morocco The 40 defenders held off some 400 attackers for almost two days... it was a desperate struggle. east and west by walled enclosures that provided space for artillery positions two to the west and one to the east thereby increasing the available firepower. Sections of the western wall are clearly defined but stand at a much reduced height. A small room with loopholes survives intact at the southern end of the west wall these loopholes can be seen on the old photographs; and what appears to be a chimney stack survives at the northern end, also visible in the contemporary photographs. To the east of the surviving walls, traces of the low walls of the outer enclosures can just be made out in places, but it is clear much of the building has been dismantled. The sites of the gun emplacements were located, and we intend to continue our survey of these in a future season. Interestingly, a room in the southwest corner of the building is not shown on the 1909 plan for the blockhouse, suggesting that those building the fort deviated from the original design during construction. Battle scars We know from documentary evidence that the fort was attacked from the south and for good reason: the sides of the hill to the north and east are very steep, with a clear view of the main redoubt at Boudenib, whereas to the south there is a small plateau about 100m from the summit of the hill directly below the southwest corner of the blockhouse. Shrapnel was found here in significant quantities, confirming the use of defensive artillery, and the use of the plateau as a possible assembly and firing position for the Moroccans assaulting the summit. Contemporary pictures show barbed wire strung on metal stakes to screen the site, a standard defensive practice, and our survey located a metal stake on the south side of the blockhouse. Cliffs of the north and east sides formed a natural defence, so barbed wire was unnecessary here. The steep approaches from all directions provided little cover for the attackers, either to hide, or to secure effective firing positions. However, it was also tricky for the defenders to shoot at targets downhill continues on page 40 below The 1909 plan of the blockhouse. Interestingly, a small room, located in the survey, was not originally intended as it does not appear on the original plan. CurrentWorldArchaeology 37

3 French Morocco, Colonial expansion by the major European powers had left Morocco largely untouched throughout the 19th century, although Great Britain, France, Germany, and Spain all had financial interests in the country. However, the French, seeking to match British colonial influence in other parts of Africa, had begun to establish themselves in North Africa, and moving west into Morocco as a natural extension of this programme. In 1907, under the pretext of protecting its citizens after riots and local unrest, France sent in forces to Oujda and Casablanca. Following further uprisings, France and the Moroccan Sultan Abdel Hafid signed the Treaty of Fez in 1912, which established Morocco as French protectorate. As such, the Sultan remained in place but did not rule, effectively placing Morocco under French control. It did not regain independence until The French conquest and pacification of Morocco in the 1920s was largely made possible by the earlier efforts and activities of the French Foreign Legion. Under the command of Marshal Lyautey, the role of the Legion was to build and garrison forts linking strategic areas, and to quell rebellion wherever it broke out. It was a formidable task: Morocco is a country of challenging terrain with high mountain ranges, sun baked plains, deserts, and thick forests populated by fiercely independent tribes who engaged the French in some of the most demanding combat they had ever encountered. After independence, the forts and outposts of the Legion seen as symbols of colonial conquest were mostly abandoned. Many were destroyed by the French when they left. A few continued in use as Moroccan police and army stations, some became used as farm buildings, and many were used as quarries by the builders of expanding villages and towns. A few, those in the most inaccessible areas, have simply been forgotten. The situation was predicted with uncanny accuracy by the famous Legion officer Major Zinovi Pechkoff who wrote: After a few years we shall go farther. But these outposts will remain in the rear. They will be dismantled. They will serve as shelter for passing caravans. Around them market places will be established, and people will forget there was a time when the towers carried guns. Why were the forts built built? The problems facing the French during their occupation of Morocco were huge: climate, terrain, and a fiercely independent population were all against them. High mountains, heavily wooded in the north, were difficult to penetrate other than through narrow, steep sided mountain passes that became death traps for many ambushed French columns passing through them. Precious water was scarce, and oases much fought over. The French, therefore, established a network of large, garrison bases at locations such as Fes, Meknes, and Marrakech from which units were deployed to dominate the surrounding terrain and enable safe movement for military forces and supply columns. Their secondary role was to show the flag, reinforcing the concept of French control over the local population. Major Pechkoff described it in this way: The mountain tribes believed in the right and might of the strongest, and a display of arms had to be shown to them. A Legionnaire s Life Without effective artillery or methods of forcing entry into the forts, the garrisons would have felt relatively secure from attack, their greatest danger being protracted siege and the gradual diminishing of water supplies. Yet, literary evidence suggests direct attacks on, and infiltration into, the forts was a very real threat: 38 CurrentWorldArchaeology

4 morocco I heard a blood curdling yell and I knew the sentries had been shot. I leapt to my feet as I heard the sous officers crying Aux armes! Aux armes! Prenez la garde, Legionnaires Then I heard a blood curdling yell and I knew the sentries had been shot.i could see a rising wave of black faces as the Arabs scaled the wall and bastions. (Ex Legionnaire 75464, 1938) Often they [the Berber] come and lie quietly in the vicinity of the post, hoping to get something at daybreak if not at night. A sentry becomes sleepy after an hour of watching. Then the brigand, who is watching, swings a rope and there have been occasions when men were pulled from the bastion with their guns, sometimes killed, sometimes not, but always robbed of everything they had. (Major Z Pechkoff, 1926) Legionnaires on sentry duty were required to have their rifle attached to their body with a length of chain, to prevent such thefts. As long as ammunition, food and water lasted a fort could survive for a long time and often until relief arrived. Although isolated, they did have effective communications that could be used to summon assistance, from telephone and radio to more primitive heliograph, carrier pigeon, and bugle calls. After the First World War, regular over flights by aircraft of the French Air Force provided additional cover. The aviation reconnaissance had taken photographs of this region and we could see from them that trenches had been dug by the Riffians on the mountain. (Major Z Pechkoff 1926) He also recorded the use of aircraft in assisting in the relief of a fort that was under siege: above Travel across the terrain is tricky even for modern vehicles. Under attack from hostile tribes, this territory was positively treacherous for the French Foreign Legion soldiers. They lacked food and especially water. Airplanes had been sent to furnish water by throwing down blocks of ice. The area of the outpost is small and the airplanes, flying high and rapidly, had difficulty in dropping the ice into the post. Fighting insurrection The uprising in the Rif Mountains, led by an intelligent and inspirational leader called Abd-el-Krim, saw some of the most dramatic assaults on isolated forts. In 1925, inspired by his success against the Spanish in Northern Morocco, he turned his attention towards the French. The Legion suffered a number of defeats at the hands of Abd-el- Krim s tribesmen. Those forts that were lost, were stripped of weapons and items of value, and demolished by the Legionnaires themselves to prevent them from falling into enemy hands: the commanding officer of one outpost, having held out for almost eight weeks, blew up the post rather than let it fall to enemy hands, killing himself and his remaining men. Such desperate measures reveal just how great the threat had become and why so few forts remain today. left Watch tower associated with the main fort. Two such towers were located several hundred metres away from the fort to extend observation over the river valley. CurrentWorldArchaeology 39

5 left The view from the blockhouse towards the south, the direction of attack in below A spent bullet is evidence of the fierce fighting that threatened to destroy the blockhouse. at such a sharp angle, which may account for how the attackers managed to get so close to and even breach the walls. The Legionnaires retaliated by dropping explosive charges directly onto their attackers just outside the walls. While we know from contemporary records that the assault on the blockhouse was intense, evidence of combat in the form of expended bullets, cartridges cases, musket balls, and artillery shrapnel was disappointing. The site had remained in use for many years after the assault, and much of the evidence would have been cleared away after the attack. However, we intend to carry out more extensive searches of the wider area in future, which will, we hope, reveal more evidence of that fateful night. Tazzougerte Fort Built in 1926 by the French Foreign Legion, the fort at Tazzougerte sits on a high plateau at the southern end of the Oued Guir river valley, 4 miles due south of the village of Tazzougert, and 15 miles west of Boudenib which, by that time, had become a major French military base. The Sahara Desert is a challenging environment, both for the French Foreign Legion of the early 20th century and for below left Left behind by the Legionnaires: discarded food tins. below bottom Buttons, a belt buckle, spent cartridges and remains of a grenade found during survey of the fort at Tazzougerte. below Layout of the fort. archaeologists today. However, it is thanks to the dry climate and remote location that the structure of the fort is in a relatively complete condition. Field walking and building surveys produced clear evidence of garrison life, including ration tins, tunic buttons, and belt clasps, while spent cartridge cases, spent bullets and grenade fragments were grim reminders of the fort s military activity. Most finds were located on the two sides of the fort that could easily be approached on foot. The outer walls and tower are still standing, while the remains of inner buildings are clearly visible, with only the roofs missing. To the west of the site is a small oasis on the banks of the river; to the south is the open desert of the Hammada de Guir that continues, uninterrupted, towards an undefined border with Algeria. FURTHER INFORMATION The Legion Project: The Project was set up to record and investigate the few surviving forts before they are lost forever. Of those that remain, some have been taken over by the Moroccan army, converted into hotels and cafes, or, in more rural areas, quarried for building material. For more information about The Legion Project, visit: Survey work at the Boudenib blockhouse and Tazzougerte Fort was carried out with the help of archaeology students from Worcester University: see for more images. source Richard Jeynes, Archaeologist and founder of Trailquest, 40 CurrentWorldArchaeology

TEACHER S KEY SESSION 1. THE WORLD BEFORE THE GREAT WAR. PRETASK. 3. Pre- listening.

TEACHER S KEY SESSION 1. THE WORLD BEFORE THE GREAT WAR. PRETASK. 3. Pre- listening. TEACHER S KEY SESSION 1. THE WORLD BEFORE THE GREAT WAR. PRETASK 3. Pre- listening. 1. Before 1914, the nations of Europe were involved in a race to obtain overseas colonies all over the world, mainly

More information

The Terrain and Tactics of If You Survive

The Terrain and Tactics of If You Survive The Terrain and Tactics of If You Survive Mechelle Rouchon Course: History 498 Instructor: Dr. Harry Laver Assignment: Analysis First Lieutenant George Wilson served in the U.S. Army during the last, but

More information

Zeltbahn tents and shelters

Zeltbahn tents and shelters Zeltbahn tents and shelters Zeltbahn shelter A single Zeltbahn could be used to provide protection against wind and rain by arranging the shelter quarter at an angle with the tip attached to a tree, post

More information

Second Grade The War of 1812 Assessment

Second Grade The War of 1812 Assessment Second Grade The War of 1812 Assessment 1a. Who was president during the War of 1812? a. George Washington b. James Madison 1b. Who was president during the War of 1812? a. George Washington b. James Madison

More information

FLORIDA BECOMES A U.S. TERITORY By Laura Harder and Toni Migliore

FLORIDA BECOMES A U.S. TERITORY By Laura Harder and Toni Migliore FLORIDA BECOMES A U.S. TERITORY By Laura Harder and Toni Migliore Summary: After the British returned Florida to Spain, Florida came under Spanish rule for a second time. During this second period, which

More information

Men from the British Empire in the First World War

Men from the British Empire in the First World War In 1914, Britain ruled over one quarter of the world s surface area and 434 million people. This was known as the British Empire. When war broke out, Britain was desperate for men to fight. Unlike France,

More information

I DO, WE DO, YOU DO: Siege at the Alamo. WE DO-READERS THEATRE: Enrique Esparza and the Battle of the Alamo

I DO, WE DO, YOU DO: Siege at the Alamo. WE DO-READERS THEATRE: Enrique Esparza and the Battle of the Alamo Name Date Page # I DO, WE DO, YOU DO: Siege at the Alamo WE DO-READERS THEATRE: Enrique Esparza and the Battle of the Alamo Characters: Narrator #1 Narrator #2 Enrique Esparza: an eight-year old boy living

More information

Ghana: A West African Trading Empire

Ghana: A West African Trading Empire Ghana: A West African Trading Empire The kingdom of Ghana lasted from 500 C.E. to the 11 th century C.E. The kingdom arose from the Sahel of Africa and spread to the valley between the Senegal and Niger

More information

The Causes of the French and Indian War

The Causes of the French and Indian War The Causes of the French and Indian War The End of the French Threat 1. relations between England & the colonies had been positive until the 1760s 2. England & France were the two main rivals for leadership

More information

EN AVANT! EN MASSE! Game Control Rules August 2008

EN AVANT! EN MASSE! Game Control Rules August 2008 EN AVANT! EN MASSE! Game Control Rules August 2008 A One Brain Cell Diceless Divisional Level Napoleonic Battle System Introduction Based on the En Avant! diceless battalion level game, this takes the

More information

Chapter 9: The Policies of Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson

Chapter 9: The Policies of Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson Chapter 9: The Policies of Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson Department of State, Department of Treasury, Department of War, Attorney General, Postmaster General : 5 government departments established

More information

1979 SPANISH RANCH FIRE

1979 SPANISH RANCH FIRE 1979 SPANISH RANCH FIRE The Spanish Ranch 1979 Sycamore Ridge Located on Central Coast of California off Highway 166. Known as one of the first Spanish/Mexican land grants of the 1840 s. Known for ranching,

More information

them scarf it down is gross. They eat more than we do and were rich.

them scarf it down is gross. They eat more than we do and were rich. Knights It is the time of ower lord 1066. I m Sterling the lll, and I m going to tell you a story of my great life, but very tough. It all starts out when I was a young boy running about our castle. My

More information

Using Primary Historical Resources to Discover the Location of an Archaeological Site: The Search for the French Fort sur la Rivière aux Boeufs

Using Primary Historical Resources to Discover the Location of an Archaeological Site: The Search for the French Fort sur la Rivière aux Boeufs Using Primary Historical Resources to Discover the Location of an Archaeological Site: The Search for the French Fort sur la Rivière aux Boeufs Modified From 2003 PA Archaeology Month Lesson Plan by: Renata

More information

Fry Phrases Set 1. TeacherHelpForParents.com help for all areas of your child s education

Fry Phrases Set 1. TeacherHelpForParents.com help for all areas of your child s education Set 1 The people Write it down By the water Who will make it? You and I What will they do? He called me. We had their dog. What did they say? When would you go? No way A number of people One or two How

More information

Activities. Key to icons. Motte: earth mound with steep sides

Activities. Key to icons. Motte: earth mound with steep sides Activities The Normans are famous for their castles. The first were built mainly of wood on mounds of earth and later were rebuilt out of large blocks of stone. A Norman castle was not really a single

More information

Student Lesson. Iwo Jima! Where Are You? Geography Lesson

Student Lesson. Iwo Jima! Where Are You? Geography Lesson Student Lesson Geography Lesson LESSON TITLE: Iwo Jima! Where are you? GRADE LEVEL: 7 12 EALRS: Social Studies: History 1.2 analyze the historical development of events, people, places, and patterns of

More information

The Korean War Veteran. Respect and Appreciation grows for Canada s Military

The Korean War Veteran. Respect and Appreciation grows for Canada s Military The Korean War Veteran Internet Journal - November 9, 2011 (Filed from Korea) Respect and Appreciation grows for Canada s Military By Peter Worthington grown across the country. Lieutenant Peter Worthington

More information

Remember the Alamo. The Changing Border of the Southwest

Remember the Alamo. The Changing Border of the Southwest Remember the Alamo The Changing Border of the Southwest Interact: What do you think this picture shows? In the year 1820, the new country of the United States and the newer country of Mexico had a lot

More information

Fast Play Napoleonic Wargame Rules 1.1 by Jon Linney

Fast Play Napoleonic Wargame Rules 1.1 by Jon Linney Fast Play Napoleonic Wargame Rules 1.1 by Jon Linney These rules provide a fast paced game with simple rule mechanisms that allow players to concentrate on their tactics and enjoy the 'look' of their tabletop

More information

Reasons for U.S. Involvement in War

Reasons for U.S. Involvement in War Reasons for U.S. Involvement in War The United States has waged several wars throughout its history. These wars have in some ways differed drastically. For example, during the Revolutionary War, cannons

More information

The Sudanic African Empires: Ghana / Mali / Songhay & The Swahili City States of East Africa

The Sudanic African Empires: Ghana / Mali / Songhay & The Swahili City States of East Africa The Sudanic African Empires: Ghana / Mali / Songhay & The Swahili City States of East Africa AP World History Mr. Blankenship Ghana Mali Songhay Swahili States The Kingdom of Ghana emerged c. 5 th century

More information

SQUAD MOVEMENT. 1 Organization of the Rifle Squad 2 Combat Power 3 Fire Team Formations 4 Squad Formations 5 Squad Movement Techniques.

SQUAD MOVEMENT. 1 Organization of the Rifle Squad 2 Combat Power 3 Fire Team Formations 4 Squad Formations 5 Squad Movement Techniques. Section 7 SQUAD MOVEMENT Key Points 1 Organization of the Rifle Squad 2 Combat Power 3 Fire Team Formations 4 Squad Formations 5 Squad Movement Techniques Tactics and Techniques Track e Although the battlefield

More information

Grade 4: Module 3B: Unit 3: Lesson 2 Reading Opinion Pieces, Part II: How Authors Support Their Opinions with Reasons and Evidence

Grade 4: Module 3B: Unit 3: Lesson 2 Reading Opinion Pieces, Part II: How Authors Support Their Opinions with Reasons and Evidence Grade 4: Module 3B: Unit 3: Lesson 2 How Authors Support Their Opinions with Reasons and Evidence This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

More information

CECA World History & Geography

CECA World History & Geography CECA World History & Geography 3rd Quarter Week 1, 2, 3 Date Homework Assignment Stamp Monday 1/5 Tuesday 1/6 Wednesday 1/7 Thursday 1/8 Friday 1/9 Monday 1/12 Tuesday 1/ Wednesday 1/14 Thursday 1/15 Friday

More information

2005-2006 Page 1 0f 6. amplified by the presence of aircraft. Modern aircraft can deliver anything from food and

2005-2006 Page 1 0f 6. amplified by the presence of aircraft. Modern aircraft can deliver anything from food and 2005-2006 Page 1 0f 6 Today, airplanes are a vital and natural part of any war. A major ground assault is always preceded by an aerial bombing campaign, and the effectiveness of the infantry assault is

More information

Bible for Children. presents JOSHUA TAKES CHARGE

Bible for Children. presents JOSHUA TAKES CHARGE Bible for Children presents JOSHUA TAKES CHARGE Written by: Edward Hughes Illustrated by: Janie Forest Adapted by: Ruth Klassen Produced by: Bible for Children www.m1914.org 2007 Bible for Children, Inc.

More information

NATURAL REGIONS OF KENTUCKY

NATURAL REGIONS OF KENTUCKY NATURAL WONDERS As you travel around Kentucky taking pictures, you are excited by what you see. Kentucky offers diverse and amazing sights. The Six Regions In the West, you see the Mississippi River, the

More information

Readers Theatre Gettysburg and Mr. Lincoln s Speech

Readers Theatre Gettysburg and Mr. Lincoln s Speech 245 Resource 17: Readers Theatre Gettysburg and Mr. Lincoln s Speech Gettysburg and Mr. Lincoln s Speech Script developed by Rasinski, T. (2004). Kent State University. 1304.109h/326.091 Parts (5): Narrators

More information

The Story of the Native Americans

The Story of the Native Americans The Story of the Native Americans Today there are about 2.4 million people (0.8% of the US population 1 ) who call themselves Native Americans. Most of them (about 62%) live in cities and small towns.

More information

"Americans at War in Foreign Forces: A History, 1914-1945 (Book Review)" by Chris Dickon

Americans at War in Foreign Forces: A History, 1914-1945 (Book Review) by Chris Dickon Canadian Military History Volume 25 Issue 1 Article 11 3-24-2016 "Americans at War in Foreign Forces: A History, 1914-1945 (Book Review)" by Chris Dickon Tyler Wentzell Recommended Citation Wentzell, Tyler

More information

Map reading made easy

Map reading made easy Map reading made easy What is a map? A map is simply a plan of the ground on paper. The plan is usually drawn as the land would be seen from directly above. A map will normally have the following features:

More information

Marine Corps Tank Employment MCWP 3-12 (CD) Appendix F. Scout and TOW Platoons

Marine Corps Tank Employment MCWP 3-12 (CD) Appendix F. Scout and TOW Platoons Appendix F Scout and TOW Platoons Section 1. Scout Platoon Section 2. TOW Platoon F - 1 Section 1. Scout Platoon. Mission. The battalion scout platoon performs reconnaissance, provides limited security,

More information

Gold Coast s Elmina Castle, a Dutch-Ghanaian monument Text and photographs by drs (Msc) Dirk Teeuwen

Gold Coast s Elmina Castle, a Dutch-Ghanaian monument Text and photographs by drs (Msc) Dirk Teeuwen Gold Coast s Elmina Castle, a Dutch-Ghanaian monument Text and photographs by drs (Msc) Dirk Teeuwen Photographs are not available. See text on page 6 and 10 P.1 Elmina Castle from the east; Elmina Castle

More information

Chapter 8, Section 2 The Louisiana Purchase. Pages 272-277

Chapter 8, Section 2 The Louisiana Purchase. Pages 272-277 Chapter 8, Section 2 The Louisiana Purchase Pages 272-277 American Settlers Move West By the early 1800s, thousands of Americans settle in the area between the Appalachians and the Mississippi River. Kentucky,

More information

The War of the Worlds

The War of the Worlds Reflections: A Student Response Journal for The War of the Worlds by H. G. Wells Copyright 2002 by Prestwick House, Inc., P.O. Box 658, Clayton, DE 19938. 1-800-932-4593. www.prestwickhouse.com Permission

More information

Explain the image using visual clues to develop informative explanations of images

Explain the image using visual clues to develop informative explanations of images Teacher Guide TT targeted adaptable Primary Intermediate Middle Senior 4 4 Explain the image using visual clues to develop informative explanations of images Learning outcomes understand the basic contents

More information

1. Although Atticus did not want his children in court, he defends Jem's right to know what has

1. Although Atticus did not want his children in court, he defends Jem's right to know what has Answer key for To Kill a Mockingbird Chapters 22-31 Chapter 22 1. Although Atticus did not want his children in court, he defends Jem's right to know what has happened. Explain, in your own words, Atticus's

More information

THE LOST PEOPLE OF MESA VERDE by Elsa Marston. The Anasazi lived peacefully on the mesa for 800 years. Then they disappeared.

THE LOST PEOPLE OF MESA VERDE by Elsa Marston. The Anasazi lived peacefully on the mesa for 800 years. Then they disappeared. THE LOST PEOPLE OF MESA VERDE by Elsa Marston The Anasazi lived peacefully on the mesa for 800 years. Then they disappeared. In the dry land of southwestern Colorado a beautiful plateau rises. It has so

More information

IRON STORM (WALKTHROUGH)

IRON STORM (WALKTHROUGH) IRON STORM (WALKTHROUGH) LEVEL 1 Collect as many ammunition and weapons as possible in the Headquarters including the Sniper rifle in the dormitory. Exit the Headquarters by following the 'Front lines'

More information

WHAT MAPS SHOW US Maps do 4 things:

WHAT MAPS SHOW US Maps do 4 things: WHAT MAPS SHOW US Maps show us a range of features, for example: Landforms: Settlement: Communication: Land Use: Geology: Other Info: - hills - valleys - mountains - isolated dwellings - farms - villages

More information

Examples of International terrorist attacks since 9/11

Examples of International terrorist attacks since 9/11 PAPER ONE INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM: THE THREAT Any discussion of the Government s strategy to reduce the threat from international terrorism to the UK and its citizens must begin with the nature of the

More information

Command & Colors: Ancients. Game Design by. Richard Borg. 3rd Edition. 2009 GMT Games, LLC

Command & Colors: Ancients. Game Design by. Richard Borg. 3rd Edition. 2009 GMT Games, LLC Command & Colors: Ancients RULE BOOK Game Design by Richard Borg 3rd Edition Command & Colors: Ancients 1. INTRODUCTION The Commands & Colors: Ancients game system allows players to portray important engagements

More information

Table of Contents Part One: Social Studies Curriculum Chapter I: Social Studies Essay Questions and Prewriting Activities

Table of Contents Part One: Social Studies Curriculum Chapter I: Social Studies Essay Questions and Prewriting Activities Table of Contents Part One: Social Studies Curriculum Chapter I: Social Studies Essay Questions and Prewriting Activities 1. How the United States Became a World Power 1 2. Immigration 5 3. The Role of

More information

Summarize how Portugal built a trading empire

Summarize how Portugal built a trading empire Objectives Summarize how Portugal built a trading empire in. Analyze the rise of Dutch and Spanish dominance in the region. Understand how the decline of Mughal India affected European traders in the region.

More information

Kilkenny Castle Trail Background Information

Kilkenny Castle Trail Background Information Kilkenny Castle Trail Background Information When Strongbow and the other Norman knights came to Kilkenny in 1172, the high ground beside the river was chosen as an ideal site on which to build a wooden

More information

GEORGIA AMERICAN REVOLUTION

GEORGIA AMERICAN REVOLUTION GEORGIA in the AMERICAN REVOLUTION AMERICA HEADS TOWARD INDEPENDENCE: Until 1763, independence was unthinkable!!! Great Britain was the greatest, most powerful nation on earth, and the American colonists

More information

When did you enter the military?

When did you enter the military? John Lupardi WWII When did you enter the military? In January Thirty- first, 1945. But I enlisted in June, 1944, in High School. How old were you when you entered and how long were you in the military?

More information

Firstly, I would like to thank the organizers of this symposium for

Firstly, I would like to thank the organizers of this symposium for Keynote Address by former Prime Minister of Malaysia Are We Really Civilized? Make War a Crime Mahathir bin Mohamad Firstly, I would like to thank the organizers of this symposium for this opportunity

More information

1. Which of the following is NOT an argument in support of imperialism or expansionism?

1. Which of the following is NOT an argument in support of imperialism or expansionism? U.S I Quarterly Assessment Practice Test Circle the best answer to each question. 1. Which of the following is NOT an argument in support of imperialism or expansionism? A. The United States should become

More information

There are ten mistakes in this account. Underline them and correct them. were dead. Aramis told him that his mother was alive.

There are ten mistakes in this account. Underline them and correct them. were dead. Aramis told him that his mother was alive. 1The Bastille, Paris There are ten mistakes in this account. Underline them and correct them. It was a cool autumn night in 1660. Aramis went to the Bastille prison and told the guard of the prison that

More information

Chapter 6 The Problems that England Faced after the French and Indian War

Chapter 6 The Problems that England Faced after the French and Indian War Page 23 Chapter 6 The Problems that England Faced after the French and Indian War In 1759, thirty-one-year-old General James Wolf led a small but determined band of British soldiers up the steep cliff

More information

The Name of Yahweh is a Strong Tower

The Name of Yahweh is a Strong Tower The Name of Yahweh is a Strong Tower by Rev. John Cortright The book of Proverbs offers a tremendous metaphor describing the strength and safety in the name of Yahweh. Proverbs 18:10 The name of the LORD

More information

Lesson 1: Trouble over Taxes

Lesson 1: Trouble over Taxes Lesson 1 Summary Lesson 1: Trouble over Taxes Use with pages 268 273. Vocabulary Parliament Britain s law-making assembly Stamp Act law that placed a tax on printed materials in the colonies repeal cancel

More information

West Africa: Bantu Migration and the Stainless Society

West Africa: Bantu Migration and the Stainless Society West Africa: Bantu Migration and the Stainless Society Bantu Migration Around 1500 BCE farmers of the Niger and Benue River valleys in West Africa began migrating south and east, bringing with them their

More information

ELEMENTARY-LEVEL NOVEMBER 13, 2008

ELEMENTARY-LEVEL NOVEMBER 13, 2008 5THE UNIVERSITY OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK Student Name School Name GRADE 5 ELEMENTARY-LEVEL BOOKLET 2 DOCUMENT-BASED QUESTION (DBQ) SOCIAL STUDIES TEST NOVEMBER 13, 2008 Print your name and the name of

More information

Drone Shadow Handbook

Drone Shadow Handbook Drone Shadow Handbook Introduction to the Drone Shadows The Drone Shadows are a series of installations, comprising of the outline of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), or drone: a 1:1 representation conveying

More information

YEAR 1: Kings, Queens and Leaders (6 lessons)

YEAR 1: Kings, Queens and Leaders (6 lessons) YEAR 1: Kings, Queens and Leaders (6 lessons) Contents Include: The United Kingdom and the Union Jack Kings and Queens The Magna Carta Charles I Parliament The Prime Minister Suggested Teacher Resources:

More information

Living together in the Roman Empire Conquerors and rulers of a Great Empire Roman politics - 400 BC - 200 AD

Living together in the Roman Empire Conquerors and rulers of a Great Empire Roman politics - 400 BC - 200 AD LESSON 7 Living together in the Roman Empire Conquerors and rulers of a Great Empire Roman politics - 400 BC - 200 AD Research questions 1. How did Rome become a Great Empire? 2. How did the Romans govern

More information

Theodore Roosevelt 1906

Theodore Roosevelt 1906 Theodore Roosevelt 1906 what has especially directed the attention of the friends of peace is President Roosevelt's happy role in bringing to an end the bloody war recently waged between two of the world's

More information

Military Reliability Modeling William P. Fox, Steven B. Horton

Military Reliability Modeling William P. Fox, Steven B. Horton Military Reliability Modeling William P. Fox, Steven B. Horton Introduction You are an infantry rifle platoon leader. Your platoon is occupying a battle position and has been ordered to establish an observation

More information

B1 certification. March 2016. Reading and Writing

B1 certification. March 2016. Reading and Writing B1 certification March 2016 B1 certification March 2016 Reading and Writing You have 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete both parts. Please keep your eyes on your exam only. Copying or cheating will result

More information

PUSD High Frequency Word List

PUSD High Frequency Word List PUSD High Frequency Word List For Reading and Spelling Grades K-5 High Frequency or instant words are important because: 1. You can t read a sentence or a paragraph without knowing at least the most common.

More information

Chapter 22: World War I. Four most powerful European nations in the early 1900s were Great Britain, France, Germany, Russia.

Chapter 22: World War I. Four most powerful European nations in the early 1900s were Great Britain, France, Germany, Russia. Chapter 22: World War I The Beginnings of World War I World War I was fought from 1914-1918. United States entered World War I in 1917. The Origins of Europe s Great War Nationalism Four most powerful

More information

XPULT INSTRUCTIONS BASIC VERSION

XPULT INSTRUCTIONS BASIC VERSION XPULT INSTRUCTIONS BASIC VERSION The Xpult is a device for launching table tennis balls or other light plastic balls. Most likely, you will have received the Xpult from your teacher or somebody else who

More information

September 15th TEACHER BIBLE STUDY. The Northern Kingdom Was Destroyed

September 15th TEACHER BIBLE STUDY. The Northern Kingdom Was Destroyed Big Picture Question: Why did God scatter His people? God s people sinned against Him. Bible Passage: 2 Kings 17:1-23 Christ Connection: The prophets called God s people to repentance as Christ calls people

More information

MACMILLAN READERS ELEMENTARY LEVEL JACK LONDON. White Fang. Retold by Rachel Bladon MACMILLAN

MACMILLAN READERS ELEMENTARY LEVEL JACK LONDON. White Fang. Retold by Rachel Bladon MACMILLAN MACMILLAN READERS ELEMENTARY LEVEL JACK LONDON White Fang Retold by Rachel Bladon MACMILLAN Contents A Note About the Author 4 A Note About This Story 5 The Places in This Story 6 A Picture Dictionary

More information

STANDARD 3.1 Greece & Rome. STANDARD 3.2 - Mali

STANDARD 3.1 Greece & Rome. STANDARD 3.2 - Mali 2008 Curriculum Framework Grade Three Social Studies Standards Condensed format created by SOLpass. www.solpass.org Key: red text highlights NEW (2008 revision) content; crossout indicates content cut

More information

A Hollow Shell. 10 th Grade Exemplar Essay: Response to Literature

A Hollow Shell. 10 th Grade Exemplar Essay: Response to Literature 10 th Grade Exemplar Essay: Response to Literature Introduction orients the reader. Writer provides a perceptive analysis of the text that integrates summary. Writer links credible evidence to the thesis

More information

Florida Pioneer Homes By Lance Corlew & Ron Miller

Florida Pioneer Homes By Lance Corlew & Ron Miller Florida Pioneer Homes By Lance Corlew & Ron Miller Summary Florida pioneer homes were simple, with few luxuries. Life was very difficult in the 1800s compared to today. In this lesson, students will have

More information

Rome: Rise and Fall Of An Empire: Julius Caesar (Disc 1.3)

Rome: Rise and Fall Of An Empire: Julius Caesar (Disc 1.3) 1 Name Date 1. What was the condition of Rome when Julius Caesar was born in 100 B.C.E.? 2. Why was Young Caesar kidnapped? 3. What kind of captor was Caesar? 4. How and why did Caesar enter politics in

More information

Overview. Mission Gate, ca. late 1700s Courtesy Texas Archeological Research Labs. Photo by Hunt Wellborn

Overview. Mission Gate, ca. late 1700s Courtesy Texas Archeological Research Labs. Photo by Hunt Wellborn H C H A P T E R t h r e e H immigration Overview Chapter 3: Immigration covers many groups involved in the early colonization of Texas: farmers, ranchers, soldiers, missionaries, and slaves. Exhibits in

More information

Ancient Rome: Expansion and Conquest: Teacher s Guide

Ancient Rome: Expansion and Conquest: Teacher s Guide Ancient Rome: Expansion and Conquest: Teacher s Guide Grade Level: 6-8 Curriculum Focus: Ancient History Lesson Duration: Two class periods Program Description They came, they saw, they conquered. They

More information

Why China s Rise Will Not Be Peaceful

Why China s Rise Will Not Be Peaceful Can China Rise Peacefully John Mearsheimer September 17, 2004 Why China s Rise Will Not Be Peaceful The question at hand is simple and profound: can China rise peacefully? My answer is no. If China continues

More information

World Book Online: The trusted, student-friendly online reference tool. Name: Date:

World Book Online: The trusted, student-friendly online reference tool. Name: Date: World Book Online: The trusted, student-friendly online reference tool. World Book Student Database Name: Date: American Civil War: Battles Have you ever visited a battlefield from the Civil war or any

More information

Jamestown Settlement Family Gallery Guide From Africa to Virginia

Jamestown Settlement Family Gallery Guide From Africa to Virginia Jamestown Settlement Family Gallery Guide From Africa to Virginia Not long after the English settled Jamestown in 1607, the first Africans were brought to Virginia. They arrived in 1619 from the Kongo/Angola

More information

Poster 5 - This is a primary source ; a poster ordered by the British government during the first world war. It was addressed to the English.

Poster 5 - This is a primary source ; a poster ordered by the British government during the first world war. It was addressed to the English. Poster 1 ordered by the British government during the first world war. It was addressed to English men to incite them to enlist in the British army. - A military leader, Lord Kitchener, is drawn and painted

More information

YPRES SALIENT Besieged city

YPRES SALIENT Besieged city YPRES SALIENT Besieged city Dear student, This worksheet is meant to allow you to pause for a moment longer by certain items in the museum. This doesn t mean you cannot look around at other objects, stories

More information

Article from Schweizer Soldat. LASSO: simple but ingenious

Article from Schweizer Soldat. LASSO: simple but ingenious Article from Schweizer Soldat LASSO: simple but ingenious The challenge facing all armed forces today is how to provide their armoured personnel carriers, reconnaissance vehicles and infantry fighting

More information

Essential Question: What was the impact of European imperialism in Africa and India?

Essential Question: What was the impact of European imperialism in Africa and India? Essential Question: What was the impact of European imperialism in Africa and India? Unit X Quiz 2 1. When did the Suez Canal open? 2. Why was it initially difficult for European powers to control their

More information

Level E Placement Worksheet & Student Passage. Level 1 Placement Worksheet & Student Passage. Level 2 Placement Worksheet & Student Passage

Level E Placement Worksheet & Student Passage. Level 1 Placement Worksheet & Student Passage. Level 2 Placement Worksheet & Student Passage Placement Guide This guide will help you choose the right One Minute Reader level for your child. The ideal level is neither too easy nor too difficult. It should challenge the student without being frustrating.

More information

Bernardo de Galvez - Revolutionary War

Bernardo de Galvez - Revolutionary War Bernardo de Galvez - Revolutionary War Standards: 1. History. The student understands the impact of significant national and international decisions and conflicts during the American Revolutionary War.

More information

Name. September 11, 2001: A Turning Point

Name. September 11, 2001: A Turning Point Name Directions: For the following questions(s), use this passage adapted from Mark Kishlansky s, Patrick Geary s, and Patricia O Brien s text, Civilization in the West. September 11, 2001: A Turning Point

More information

GLOBAL TOURISM - Geography Explained Fact Sheet

GLOBAL TOURISM - Geography Explained Fact Sheet Billion (US$) GLOBAL TOURISM - Geography Explained Fact Sheet Introduction With almost all the leading tourist destination countries having reported their international tourism receipts for 2006, the WTO

More information

GREEN SHEET OV-10A AIRTACTICAL PLANE CRASH SEPTEMBER 6, 2006 MOUNTAIN FIRE INCIDENT NUMBER 06-CA-TUU-010573

GREEN SHEET OV-10A AIRTACTICAL PLANE CRASH SEPTEMBER 6, 2006 MOUNTAIN FIRE INCIDENT NUMBER 06-CA-TUU-010573 GREEN SHEET CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF FORESTRY AND FIRE PROTECTION INVESTIGATION SUMMARIES OF SERIOUS CDF INJURIES, ILLNESSES, ACCIDENTS AND NEAR-MISS INCIDENTS OV-10A AIRTACTICAL PLANE CRASH SEPTEMBER

More information

1914-1918: WORLD WAR I CFE 3201V

1914-1918: WORLD WAR I CFE 3201V 1914-1918: WORLD WAR I CFE 3201V OPEN CAPTIONED NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 1992 Grade Levels: 10-13+ 25 minutes 1 Instructional Graphic Enclosed DESCRIPTION The forces of nationalism, imperialism, and

More information

The Nuclear Weapons Debate

The Nuclear Weapons Debate Scottish CND - Education Pack The Nuclear Weapons Debate Scottish CND s educational resource Nuclear Weapons: Yes or No is aimed at late primary to early secondary school pupils. It has 4 units: The Nuclear

More information

Table of Contents. Part One: Social Studies Curriculum

Table of Contents. Part One: Social Studies Curriculum Table of Contents Part One: Social Studies Curriculum Chapter I: Social Studies Essay Questions and Prewriting Activities 1. Western Political Thought 1 2. The Age of Revolution 6 3. The Age of Napoleon

More information

"Description of the urban and architectural development conceptual design of the historical city centre of Gorzow Wlkp. R3DC4T

Description of the urban and architectural development conceptual design of the historical city centre of Gorzow Wlkp. R3DC4T "Description of the urban and architectural development conceptual design of the historical city centre of Gorzow Wlkp. R3DC4T Gorzów Wielkopolski Gorzów Wielkopolski is an important regional city centre

More information

Theme: The Growing Role of Private Security Companies in Protecting the Homeland.

Theme: The Growing Role of Private Security Companies in Protecting the Homeland. Theme: The Growing Role of Private Security Companies in Protecting the Homeland. Background on terrorist organizations: A global threat, every object is a target, infinite number of targets. Terrorist

More information

Chapter 15, Section 5. Turning the tide of the War

Chapter 15, Section 5. Turning the tide of the War Chapter 15, Section 5 Turning the tide of the War Battles General Battles Result Ambrose Burnside Fredericksburg (C/S) The Union suffered 13,000 losses Joseph Hooker Chancellorsville (C/S) Union force

More information

Crossing the Red Sea

Crossing the Red Sea Unit 4: Lesson 3 Please note that these files are subject to copyright, and each Sunday School must own a copy of the Teaching Little Ones: Introducing the Bible CD-ROM in order to use these files. Please

More information

Sam Houston, 1793-1863: An Early Leader of Texas

Sam Houston, 1793-1863: An Early Leader of Texas 12 November 2011 voaspecialenglish.com Sam Houston, 1793-1863: An Early Leader of Texas Cavalry soldiers line up at Fort Sam Houston, Texas loc.gov (You can download an MP3 of this story at voaspecialenglish.com)

More information

Rebellion Against Police Violence. Towards Community Defense, Dual Power and Revolution

Rebellion Against Police Violence. Towards Community Defense, Dual Power and Revolution Rebellion Against Police Violence Towards Community Defense, Dual Power and Revolution Introduction The murder of Mike Brown at the hands of a police officer in Ferguson, MO evoked rage among the people,

More information

The Ten Best Ways. The basket for The Ten Best Ways is on one of the Old Testament shelves.

The Ten Best Ways. The basket for The Ten Best Ways is on one of the Old Testament shelves. The Ten Best Ways Background Focus: the Ten Commandments (Exodus 20:1-17, Deuteronomy 5:1-21) God was present to Moses at Sinai three times. First, God was present in the burning bush when God revealed

More information

East Haven Police Department

East Haven Police Department East Haven Police Department Type of Directive: Policies & Procedures No. 410.2 Subject/Title: Issue Date: Preliminary Criminal Investigations July 29, 2014 Effective Date: References/Attachments: N/A

More information

Reconstruction SAC Lesson Plan

Reconstruction SAC Lesson Plan SAC Lesson Plan Central Historical Question: Were African Americans free during? Materials: Copies of Timeline Copies of Documents A-E Copies of Guiding Questions Copies of SAC Graphic Organizer Plan of

More information